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# New Century Mathematics (Second Edition)

S4 Question Bank
4A Chapter 2 Equations of Straight Lines

Level 1

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) L passes through the points (0 , 6) and (–9 , 0).
The equation of L is
y6 06
= 1M
x0 90
y6 2
=
x 3
3y – 18 = 2x
2x – 3y + 18 = 0 1A

## (b) L passes through the points (0 , 5) and (10 , 0).

The equation of L is
y 5 05
= 1M
x  0 10  0
y 5 1
=
x 2
2y – 10 = –x
x + 2y – 10 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.1

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) L passes through the points (2 , 0) and (5 , 7).
The equation of L is
y0 70
= 1M
x2 52
y 7
=
x2 3
3y = 7x – 14
7x – 3y – 14 = 0 1A

## (b) L passes through the points (–8 , 3) and (0 , –4).

The equation of L is
y  (4) 3  (4)
= 1M
x0 80
y4 7
=
x 8
8y + 32 = –7x
7x + 8y + 32 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.2
Solution:
(a) L passes through the points (2 , 4) and (–3 , –4).
The equation of L is
y4 44
= 1M
x2 3 2
y4 8
=
x2 5
5y – 20 = 8x – 16
8x – 5y + 4 = 0 1A

## (b) L passes through the points (–2 , 5) and (5 , –2).

The equation of L is
y 5 25
= 1M
x  (2) 5  (2)
y 5
= –1
x2
y – 5 = –x – 2
x+y–3=0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line which passes through the points P
and Q.
(a) P(0 , 0), Q(–9 , –6)
2 
(b) P  , 0  , Q(8 , –1)
5 
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
y0 60
= 1M
x0 90
y 2
=
x 3
3y = 2x
2x – 3y = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.3

(b) The equation of the straight line is
y0 1 0
= 1M
2 2
x 8
5 5
y 5
= 
2 38
x
5
38y = –5x + 2
5x + 38y – 2 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line which passes through the points P
and Q.
(a) P(1 , 7), Q(0 , –3)
(b) P(–4 , 4), Q(6 , 2)
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
y  (3) 7  (3)
= 1M
x0 1 0
y3
= 10
x
y + 3 = 10x
10x – y – 3 = 0 1A

## (b) The equation of the straight line is

y4 24
= 1M
x  (4) 6  (4)
y4 1
= 
x4 5
5y – 20 = –x – 4
x + 5y – 16 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.4

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) L with slope 3 passes through (5 , 2).
The equation of L is
y – 2 = 3(x – 5) 1M
y – 2 = 3x – 15
3x – y – 13 = 0 1A

1
(b) L with slope  passes through (–6 , –6).
2
The equation of L is
1
y – (–6) =  [x – (–6)] 1M
2
1
y + 6 =  (x + 6)
2
2y + 12 = –x – 6
x + 2y + 18 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line passing through the point P and with
slope m.
(a) P(5 , 6), m = –4
1
(b) P(0 , –3), m =
3
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
y – 6 = –4(x – 5) 1M
y – 6 = –4x + 20
4x + y – 26 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.5

(b) The equation of the straight line is
1
y – (–3) = (x – 0) 1M
3
1
y+3= x
3
3y + 9 = x
x – 3y – 9 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of the straight line satisfying each of the following conditions.
2
(a) x-intercept = –2, slope =
3
(b) y-intercept = 5, slope = –2
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
2
y – 0 = [x – (–2)] 1M
3
2
y = (x + 2)
3
3y = 2x + 4
2x – 3y + 4 = 0 1A

## (b) The equation of the straight line is

y – 5 = –2(x – 0) 1M
y – 5 = –2x
2x + y – 5 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Find the equation of the straight line satisfying each of the following conditions.
4
(a) Passing through the origin and with slope
3
(b) x-intercept = –6, inclination = 45
(5 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.6
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
4
y – 0 = (x – 0) 1M
3
4
y= x
3
3y = 4x
4x – 3y = 0 1A

## (b) Slope of the straight line = tan 45 = 1 1A

The equation of the straight line is
y – 0 = 1[x – (–6)] 1M
y=x+6
x–y+6=0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answers.)
(a) (b)

(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L = tan 30
1
= 1A
3
The equation of L is
1
y–0= (x – 7) 1M
3
3y = x – 7
x  3y  7  0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.7

(b) Slope of L = tan 60
= 3 1A
The equation of L is
y – 8 = 3 (x – 0) 1M
y – 8 = 3x
3x  y  8  0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answers if necessary.)
(a) (b)

(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L = tan (180 – 135)
= tan 45
=1 1A
The equation of L is
y – 6 = 1(x – 1) 1M
y–6=x–1
x–y+5=0 1A

## (b) Slope of L = tan (180 – 150)

= tan 30
1
= 1A
3
The equation of L is
1
y–0= [x – (–2)] 1M
3
1
y= (x + 2)
3
3y = x + 2
x  3y  2  0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.8

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L1.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Slope of L1 = slope of L2 =
4
The equation of L1 is
1
y – 4 = (x – 0) 1M
4
1
y–4= x
4
4y – 16 = x
x – 4y + 16 = 0 1A

## (b) Slope of L1 = slope of L2 = –2

The equation of L1 is
y – 5 = –2[x – (–2)] 1M
y – 5 = –2x – 4
2x + y – 1 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.9

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

It is given that the straight lines L1 and L2 are parallel to each other. The inclination of L1 is 60. If
the x-intercept of L2 is –7, find the equation of L2.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answer.)
(3 marks)
Solution:
Slope of L2 = slope of L1
= tan 60
= 3 1A
The equation of L2 is
y – 0 = 3 [x – (–7)] 1M
y = 3x  7 3
3x  y  7 3  0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The straight line L1 passes through the points (3 , 5) and (–2 , –1).
(a) Find the slope of L1.
(b) The straight line L2 is parallel to L1 and passes through the point (4 , 3). Find the equation of
L2.
(4 marks)
Solution:
1  5
(a) Slope of L1 = 1M
23
6
= 1A
5

## (b) Slope of L2 = slope of L1

6
=
5
The equation of L2 is
6
y – 3 = (x – 4) 1M
5
5y – 15 = 6x – 24
6x – 5y – 9 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.10

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L1.
(a) (b)

(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) ∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –1
Slope of L1  (–4) = –1
1
Slope of L1 = 1A
4
The equation of L1 is
1
y – 0 = (x – 0) 1M
4
4y = x
x – 4y = 0 1A

## (b) Slope of L2 = tan 45

=1 1A
∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –1
Slope of L1  1 = –1
Slope of L1 = –1 1A
The equation of L1 is
y – 6 = –1(x – 4) 1M
y – 6 = –x + 4
x + y – 10 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

Find the equation of the straight line L which passes through A(–3 , 6) and is
(a) parallel to L1: 3x – y + 10 = 0,
(b) perpendicular to L2: 2x + 7y – 15 = 0.
(7 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.11

Solution:
(a) Slope of L = slope of L1
3
= 
1
=3 1A
The equation of L is
y – 6 = 3[x – (–3)] 1M
y – 6 = 3x + 9
3x – y + 15 = 0 1A

2
(b) Slope of L2 =  1A
7
∵ L  L2
∴ Slope of L  slope of L2 = –1
 2
Slope of L     = –1
 7
7
Slope of L = 1A
2
The equation of L is
7
y – 6 = [x – (–3)] 1M
2
2y – 12 = 7x + 21
7x – 2y + 33 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

1
It is given that the straight lines L1 and L2 are perpendicular to each other. The slope of L2 is . If
5
the x-intercept of L1 is 8, find the equation of L1.
(3 marks)
Solution:
∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –1
1
Slope of L1  = –1
5
Slope of L1 = –5 1A
The equation of L1 is
y – 0 = –5(x – 8) 1M
y = –5x + 40
5x + y – 40 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.12

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line according to the given information.
2
(a) Slope = , y-intercept = 6
5
1
(b) Slope = –2, y-intercept =
3
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
2
y= x+6 1M
5
5y = 2x + 30
2x – 5y + 30 = 0 1A

## (b) The equation of the straight line is

1
y = –2x + 1M
3
3y = –6x + 1
6x + 3y – 1 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The straight line L1 passes through the origin and (8 , 2). The equation of the straight line L2 is
5x + 2y – 14 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) Is L1 parallel to L2? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L1 is
y0 20
= 1M
x0 80
y 1
=
x 4
4y = x
x – 4y = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.13

1
(b) From (a), slope of L1 = .
4
5
Slope of L2 =  1A
2
∵ Slope of L1  slope of L2 1M
∴ L1 is not parallel to L2 . 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

4
The straight line L1 with slope passes through (0 , –5). The equation of the straight line L2 is
7
7x – 4y – 18 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) Is L1 perpendicular to L2? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L1 is
4
y= x–5 1M
7
7y = 4x – 35
4x – 7y – 35 = 0 1A

7 7
(b) Slope of L2 =  = 1A
4 4
4 7
Slope of L1  slope of L2 = 
7 4
=1
 –1 1M
∴ L1 is not perpendicular to L2 . 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.14

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The y-intercepts of the straight lines L1: 3x – 2y + 8 = 0 and L2: 6x + ay + 16 = 0 are the same.
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Is L1 parallel to L2? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2
8 16
 = 1M
2 a
4a = –16
a = –4 1A

3 3 
(b) Slope of L1 =  =
2 2 
6 3  1A
Slope of L2 =  = 
4 2 
∵ Slope of L1 = slope of L2 1M
∴ L1 is parallel to L2 . 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The x-intercepts of the straight lines L1: 5x + y – 3 = 0 and L2: 5x – 25y + a = 0 are the same.
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Is L1 perpendicular to L2? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) x-intercept of L1 = x-intercept of L2
3 a
 =  1M
5 5
a = –3 1A

5 
(b) Slope of L1 =  = –5
1 
5 1  1A
Slope of L2 =  = 
 25 5 
1
Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –5  1M
5
= –1
∴ L1 is perpendicular to L2 . 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.15

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The straight lines L1: 3x + 2y – 3 = 0 and L2: 4x – y + 6 = 0 are given.The straight line L is
perpendicular to L1. The x-intercepts of L and L2 are the same.
(a) Find the slope and the x-intercept of L.
(b) Find the equation of L.
(5 marks)
Solution:
3
(a) Slope of L1 = 
2
∵ L  L1
∴ Slope of L  slope of L1 = –1 1M
 3
Slope of L     = –1
 2
2
Slope of L = 1A
3
x-intercept of L = x-intercept of L2
6
=
4
3
= 1A
2

## (b) The equation of L is

2   3 
y–0= x   1M
3   2 
2 3
y= x 
3 2
3y = 2x + 3
2x – 3y + 3 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The straight line L passes through (0 , 3) and (8 , 2).
(a) Find the equation of L.
1
(b) The slope of the straight line L1 is – . If the y-intercepts of L and L1 are the same, find the
2
equation of L1.
(4 marks)
Solution:

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.16

(a) The equation of L is
y 3 23
= 1M
x0 80
y 3 1
=
x 8
8y – 24 = –x
x + 8y – 24 = 0 1A

## (b) y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L = 3

The equation of L1 is
1
y=– x+3 1M
2
2y = –x + 6
x + 2y – 6 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

In each of the following, find the equation of the straight line L.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
x y
 =1 1M
5 3
15 x 15 y
 = 15
5 3
3x + 5y = 15
3x + 5y – 15 = 0 1A

## (b) The equation of L is

x y
 =1 1M
6 8
24 x 24 y
 = 24
6 8
–4x + 3y = 24
4x – 3y + 24 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.17

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The x-intercept and the y-intercept of the straight line L are 4 and –9 respectively. The equation of
the straight line L1 is 9x – 4y + 24 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Is L parallel to L1? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
x y
 =1 1M
4 9
36 x 36 y
 = 36
4 9
9x – 4y = 36
9x – 4y – 36 = 0 1A

9 9
(b) Slope of L =  = 
4 4 
 1A
9 9 
Slope of L1 =  = 
4 4
∵ Slope of L = slope of L1 1M
∴ L is parallel to L1. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of the straight line satisfying each of the following conditions.
(a) Passing through (–2 , 1) and parallel to the x-axis
(b) Passing through (8 , 9) and parallel to the y-axis
(c) Passing through the origin and (4 , 1)
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is y = 1. 1A

1
y= x 1M
4
4y = x
x – 4y = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.18

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>


Find the equations of the straight lines L1, L2 and L3 in the figure.
(4 marks)
Solution:
The equation of L1 is x  4. 1A

The equation of L2 is
8
y= x 1M
4
y = 2x
2x – y = 0 1A
The equation of L3 is y  8. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the number of points of intersection of the following straight lines L1 and L2.
L1: x + 5y – 12 = 0
L2: 3x – 2y + 8 = 0
(3 marks)
Solution:
1
Slope of L1 =  
5 
3 3  1A
Slope of L2 =  = 
2 2 
Slope of L1  slope of L2 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have one point of intersection. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.19

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the number of points of intersection of the following straight lines L1 and L2.
L1: 8x + 6y – 1 = 0
L2: 4x + 3y + 13 = 0
(4 marks)
Solution:
8 4
Slope of L1 =  = 
6 3 
4  1A
Slope of L2 =  
3 
1 1
y-intercept of L1 =  = 
6 6 
13  1A
y-intercept of L2 =  
3 
Slope of L1 = slope of L2 but y-intercept of L1  y-intercept of L2 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the number of points of intersection of the following straight lines L1 and L2.
L1: x – 6y + 6 = 0
L2: –3x + 18y – 18 = 0
(4 marks)
Solution:
1 1
Slope of L1 =  = 
6 6 
3 1  1A
Slope of L2 =  = 
18 6 
6
y-intercept of L1 =  =1 
6 
 18  1A
y-intercept of L2 =  =1 
18 
Slope of L1 = slope of L2 and y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.20

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The straight lines L1: 6x + 7y + 15 = 0 and L2: 12x + ay + 20 = 0 are parallel to each other.
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Find the number of points of intersection of L1 and L2.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L1 = slope of L2
6 12
 =  1M
7 a
a = 14 1A

15 
(b) y-intercept of L1 = 
7 
20 10  1A
y-intercept of L2 =  = 
14 7 
y-intercept of L1  y-intercept of L2 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Two straight lines L1: y = 4 – 2x and L2: y = 5x + 11 intersect at the point P.
(a) Find the coordinates of P.
(b) The straight line L3 with x-intercept 7 passes through P. Find the equation of L3.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 y  4  2 x ................................(1)
(a)  1M
 y  5 x  11 ...............................(2)
Substitute (2) into (1).
5x + 11 = 4 – 2x 1M
7x = –7
x = –1
Substitute x = –1 into (1).
y = 4 – 2(–1)
=6
∴ The coordinates of P are (–1 , 6). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.21

(b) The equation of L3 is
y0 60
= 1M
x7 1 7
y 3
= 
x7 4
4y = –3x + 21
3x + 4y – 21 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Two straight lines L1: y = 15 – 3x and L2: 2x – 5y + 7 = 0 intersect at the point P.
(a) Find the coordinates of P.
(b) The straight line L3 passes through P. If L3 is parallel to the straight line L4: 4x + 9y – 6 = 0,
find the equation of L3.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 y  15  3x ................................(1)
(a)  1M
2 x  5 y  7  0 .........................(2)
Substitute (1) into (2).
2x – 5(15 – 3x) + 7 = 0 1M
2x – 75 + 15x + 7 = 0
17x = 68
x=4
Substitute x = 4 into (1).
y = 15 – 3(4)
=3
∴ The coordinates of P are (4 , 3). 1A

4
(b) Slope of L3 = slope of L4 = 
9
The equation of L3 is
4
y – 3 =  (x – 4) 1M
9
9y – 27 = –4x + 16
4x + 9y – 43 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.22

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The equation of the straight line L1 is 2x – 7y – 4 = 0. The slope and the y-intercept of the straight
3
line L2 are  and –5 respectively.
5
(a) Find the equation of L2.
(b) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L2 is
3
y=  x–5 1M
5
5y = –3x – 25
3x + 5y + 25 = 0 1A

2 x  7 y  4  0 .........................(1)
(b)  1M
3x  5 y  25  0 .......................(2)
(1)  3 – (2)  2: –31y – 62 = 0 1M
–31y = 62
y = –2
Substitute y = –2 into (1).
2x – 7(–2) – 4 = 0
2x = –10
x = –5
∴ The coordinates of the point of intersection are (–5 , –2). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

The equation of the straight line L1 is x + 8y – 18 = 0. The straight line L2 with y-intercept 51 is
perpendicular to L1.
(a) Find the equation of L2.
(b) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
(7 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Slope of L1 = 
8
∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1 1M
 1
Slope of L2     = –1
 8
Slope of L2 = 8 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.23

The equation of L2 is
y = 8x + 51 1M
8x – y + 51 = 0 1A

 x  8 y  18  0 ..........................(1)
(b)  1M
8 x  y  51  0 .........................(2)
(1)  8 – (2): 65y – 195 = 0 1M
65y = 195
y=3
Substitute y = 3 into (1).
x + 8(3) – 18 = 0
x = –6
∴ The coordinates of the point of intersection are (–6 , 3). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the number of points of intersection of the straight lines L1: (1 – k)x – ky + 3 = 0 and
1  2
L2: y =  1 x + , where k is a non-zero constant.
k  k
(4 marks)
Solution:
1 k 1 k
Slope of L1 =  = 
k k 
1 1 k  1A
Slope of L2 =  1 = 
k k 
3 3
y-intercept of L1 =  = 
k k 
2  1A
y-intercept of L2 = 
k 
Slope of L1 = slope of L2 but y-intercept of L1  y-intercept of L2 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.24

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of the straight line L in each of the following figures.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) L passes through the points (–4 , 1) and (3 , 5).
The equation of L is
y 5 1 5
= 1M
x3 43
y 5 4
=
x3 7
7y – 35 = 4x – 12
i.e. 4x – 7y + 23 = 0 1A

## (b) L passes through the points (–2 , 3) and (4 , 0).

The equation of L is
y0 30
= 1M
x4 24
y 1
= 
x4 2
2y = –x + 4
i.e. x + 2y – 4 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.25

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>


## Refer to the above figure.

(a) Write down the coordinates of the points P and Q.
(b) Find the equation of the straight line which joins P and Q.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The coordinates of P are (4 , –2). 1A
The coordinates of Q are (–3 , –7). 1A

## (b) The required equation of the straight line is

y  (2)  7  (2)
= 1M
x4 34
y2 5
=
x4 7
7y + 14 = 5x – 20
i.e. 5x – 7y – 34 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of each of the following straight lines.
(a) The straight line is parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (–8 , –7).
(b) The straight line is parallel to the y-axis and passes through the point (11 , –13).
(c) The straight line passes through the origin and the point (–2 , 11).
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The straight line is parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (–8 , –7).
∴ The required equation of the straight line is y = –7. 1A

(b) The straight line is parallel to the y-axis and passes through the point (11 , –13).
∴ The required equation of the straight line is x = 11. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.26

(c) The required equation of the straight line is
 11 
y=  x 1M
2
i.e. 11x + 2y = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=2>

1
Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (–3 , 2) and with slope – .
3
(2 marks)
Solution:
The required equation of the straight line is
1
y – 2 = – [x – (–3)] 1M
3
3y – 6 = –x – 3
i.e. x + 3y – 3 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

5 1
The slope of the straight line L is and its y-intercept is – .
4 2
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Does L pass through the point (6 , 7)? Explain your answer.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
5 1
y= x– 1M
4 2
4y = 5x – 2
i.e. 5x – 4y – 2 = 0 1A

## (b) Substituting (6 , 7) into 5x – 4y – 2 = 0, we have

L.H.S. = 5(6) – 4(7) – 2 1M
=0
∵ L.H.S. = R.H.S.
i.e. (6 , 7) satisfies the equation of L,
∴ L passes through the point (6 , 7). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.27

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The straight line L passes through the point (12 , a) and its slope is a.
(a) Express the equation of L in terms of a.
(b) Express the y-intercept of L in terms of a.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y – a = a(x – 12) 1M
y – a = ax – 12a
i.e. ax – y – 11a = 0 1A

  11a 
(b) y-intercept of L =    1M
 1 
= –11a 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The straight line L1 passes through the point (8 , –7) and its x-intercept is 4.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) If the straight line L2 is perpendicular to L1, find the slope of L2.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) L1 passes through the points (8 , –7) and (4 , 0).
The equation of L1 is
y0 70
= 1M
x4 84
y 7
= 
x4 4
4y = –7x + 28
i.e. 7x + 4y – 28 = 0 1A

7
(b) Slope of L1 =  1M
4
∵ L2 ⊥ L1
∴ Slope of L2 × slope of L1 = –1
 7
Slope of L2 ×    = –1 1M
 4
4
Slope of L2 = 1A
7

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.28

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the slope, the x-intercept and the y-intercept of the straight line L: –5x + 9y – 2 = 0.
(4 marks)
Solution:
 5 5
Slope =    = 1A
 9  9
2 2
y-intercept =    = 1A
 9  9
When y = 0,
–5x + 9(0) – 2 = 0 1M
–5x = 2
2
x= 
5
2
∴ x-intercept =  1A
5

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=2>

The x-intercept of the straight line L is 2 and its y-intercept is –1. Find the equation of L.
(2 marks)
Solution:
The equation of L is
x y
 =1 1M
2 1
x – 2y = 2
i.e. x – 2y – 2 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.29

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

1
The x-intercept of the straight line L1 is –5 and its y-intercept is – .
5
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) The straight line L2 is parallel to L1 and passes through the origin. Find the equation of L2.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L1 is
x y
 =1 1M
5 1

5
x + 25y = –5
i.e. x + 25y + 5 = 0 1A

1
(b) Slope of L1 =  1M
25
∵ L2 is parallel to L1,
∴ slope of L2 = slope of L1
1
=  1A
25
∴ The equation of L2 is
1
y   x0
25
1
i.e. y   x 1A
25

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The equation of the straight line L is 4x – 8y – 5 = 0.
(a) Find the slope of L.
(b) The straight line  is parallel to L and passes through the point (3 , –1). Find the equation
of  .
(5 marks)
Solution:
 4 
(a) Slope of L =    1M
 8
1
= 1A
2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.30

(b) ∵  is parallel to L,
∴ slope of  = slope of L
1
= 1A
2
∴ The equation of  is
1
y – (–1) = (x – 3) 1M
2
2y + 2 = x – 3
i.e. x – 2y – 5 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The equation of the straight line L is –6x + 2y + 1 = 0.
(a) Find the slope of L.
(b) The straight line  is perpendicular to L and passes through the point (7 , 2). Find the equation
of  .
(5 marks)
Solution:
6
(a) Slope of L =    1M
 2 
=3 1A

(b) ∵  is perpendicular to L,
∴ slope of  × slope of L = –1
slope of  × 3 = –1 1M
1
slope of  = 
3
∴ The equation of  is
1
y – 2 =  (x – 7) 1M
3
3y – 6 = –x + 7
i.e. x + 3y – 13 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

 3
The straight line L passes through the points (0 , 1) and   1 ,  .
 5
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) If the point (h , h – 2) lies on L, find the value of h.
(4 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.31
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
3
1
y 1 5
= 1M
x  0 1 0
y 1 2
=
x 5
5y – 5 = 2x
i.e. 2x – 5y + 5 = 0 1A

## (b) Substituting (h , h – 2) into 2x – 5y + 5 = 0, we have

2h – 5(h – 2) + 5 = 0 1M
2h – 5h + 10 + 5 = 0
–3h = –15
h=5 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The straight line L1 passes through the origin and the point (–2 , 5). The equation of the straight
line L2 is 5x + 2y – 14 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) Is L1 parallel to L2? Explain your answer.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L1 is
5
y= x 1M
2
–2y = 5x
i.e. 5x + 2y = 0 1A

5
(b) Slope of L1 = 
2
5
Slope of L2 = 
2
∵ Slope of L1 = slope of L2 1M
∴ L1 is parallel to L2 . 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.32

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

The x-intercepts of the straight lines L1: 5x + 6y – 10 = 0 and L2: ax – 3y – 4 = 0 are the same.
(a) Find the x-intercept of L1.
(b) Find the value of a.
(c) Is L1 perpendicular to L2? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) When y = 0,
5x + 6(0) – 10 = 0 1M
5x = 10
x=2
∴ The x-intercept of L1 is 2. 1A

## (b) Substituting (2 , 0) into the equation of L2, we have

a(2) – 3(0) – 4 = 0 1M
2a = 4
a=2 1A

5
(c) Slope of L1 = 
6
 a  2
Slope of L2 =    =
  3 3
Slope of L1 × slope of L2
5 2
=   1M
6 3
5
= 
9
 –1
∴ L1 is not perpendicular to L2 . 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.33

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The straight lines L1: –2x – y + 1 = 0 and L2: 3x – y + 4 = 0 are given. If the straight line L is
parallel to L1, and the y-intercepts of L and L2 are the same, find the equation of L.
(4 marks)
Solution:
2
Slope of L1 =    = –2
 1 
∵ L is parallel to L1,
∴ slope of L = slope of L1
= –2 1A
y-intercept of L = y-intercept of L2
 4 
=   1M
 1
=4
∴ The equation of L is
y = –2x + 4 1M
i.e. 2x + y – 4 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

5
The slope of the straight line L: 10x + ay + 6 = 0 is , where a  0.
6
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L and the y-axis.
(c) The inclination of the straight line  is 45°.  passes through the point of intersection of L
and the y-axis. Find the equation of  .
(7 marks)
Solution:
5
(a) Slope of L =
6
10 5
 = 1M
a 6
–60 = 5a
a = –12 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.34

 6 
(b) y-intercept of L =    1M
  12 
1
=
2
 1
∴ The coordinates of the point of intersection of L and the y-axis are  0 , . 1A
 2

## (c) Slope of  = tan 45° 1M

=1
The equation of  is
1
y = (1)x + 1M
2
2y = 2x + 1
i.e. 2x – 2y + 1 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the number of points of intersection of the following two straight lines L1 and L2.
1
L1 : x + y – 3 = 0
3
L2: 2x + 6y – 18 = 0
(4 marks)
Solution:
1
1
Slope of L1 =  3 =  1M
1 3
2 1
Slope of L2 =  = 
6 3
 3
y-intercept of L1 =    =3 1M
 1 
  18 
y-intercept of L2 =    =3
 6 
∵ Slope of L1 = slope of L2 and y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2, 1M
∴ L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.35

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

The y-intercepts of the straight lines L1: 5x – 2y + 2 = 0 and L2: 10x + 3y + a = 0 are the same.
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Find the number of points of intersection of L1 and L2.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2
 2  a
 =  1M
2 3
a
1= 
3
a = –3 1A

 5  5
(b) Slope of L1 =   = 1M
2 2
10
Slope of L2 = 
3
∵ Slope of L1  slope of L2
∴ L1 and L2 have one point of intersection. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the equation of L in the following figure.

(3 marks)
Solution:
 L passes through (0 , – 1) and the slope of L is 2.
 The equation of L is
y + 1 = 2(x – 0) 1M
y + 1 = 2x
i.e. 2 x  y  1  0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.36

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

1
Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (2 , 4) and has slope .
2
(3 marks)
Solution:
The equation of the straight line is
1
y4 ( x  2) 1M
2
2y  8  x  2
i.e. x  2 y  10  0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

1  1
Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the point  ,  3  and has slope .
2  2
(3 marks)
Solution:
The equation of the required line is
1 1
y  (3)  (x  ) 1M
2 2
1
2( y  3)  x 
2
4( y  3)  2 x  1 1M+1A

i.e. 2 x  4 y  13  0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.37

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the equation of the straight line which passes through two given points (– 2 , 3) and (1 , – 4).
(3 marks)
Solution:
The equation of the straight line is
y 3 3 4
 1M
x  2  2 1
y 3 7

x  2 3
3 y  9  7 x  14
i.e. 7 x  3 y  5  0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the slope, x-intercept and y-intercept of the straight line x + 4y – 7 = 0.
(3 marks)
Solution:
1
Slope of L =  1A
4
 7 7
y-intercept of L =    1A
 4  4
When y = 0, x + 4(0)  7 = 0
x=7

 x-intercept of L = 7 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.38

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=2>

Find the slope of the line 2 y  3x  7  0 , and state whether the line slopes upward or downward
from left to right.
(2 marks)
Solution:
2 y  3x  7  0
i.e. 3x  2 y  7  0
3
Slope of the line   1A
2
Since the slope is less than 0, the line slopes downward from left to right. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the slope and the angle of inclination of the straight line 2x – 2y – 3 = 0.
(3 marks)
Solution:
2
Slope of the given straight line =  1 1A
(2)
Let the angle of inclination be .
tan θ  1 1M
θ  45
 The angle of inclination is 45. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the slope of the straight line that is perpendicular to L : 3x + 4y – 5 = 0.
(3 marks)
Solution:
3
Slope of L = 1A
4
1
 The required slope = 1M
3
4
4
= 1A
3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.39

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=3>

Find the slope of the straight line that is parallel to L : 5x – 6y + 7 = 0.
(3 marks)
Solution:
 5  5
Slope of L =    1A
 6 6
5
 The required slope = 1M+1A
6

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The equations of five straight lines are given below:
y  2
L1 : y = 3x + 2 L2 : x =
3
L3 : 3x + y – 1 = 0 L4 : x – 3y + 1 = 0
L5 : 3y = x
Which pair(s) of the straight lines is/are
(a) parallel to each other;
(b) perpendicular to each other?
(5 marks)
Solution:
Slope of L1 = 3; slope of L2 = 3;
1
slope of L3 = 3; slope of L4 = ;
3
1
slope of L5 = 1M
3
(a) L1 // L2, L4 // L5 1A+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.40

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Find the equation of the straight line  which passes through P(4 , 5) and is parallel to
L : 3x + 2y – 8 = 0.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 The straight line  is parallel to the straight line L.
3
 Slope of  = slope of L =  1M+1A
2
 The equation of  is
3
y  5   ( x  4) 1M
2
2 y  10  3x  12
i.e. 3x  2 y  22  0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Find the equation of the straight line  which passes through Q(2 , 4) and is perpendicular to
L : 5x – 4y + 1 = 0.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 5  5
Slope of L =    1A
4 4
1 4
Slope of straight line  =  1M
5 5
4
The equation of straight line  is
4
y  4   ( x  2) 1M
5
5 y  20  4 x  8
i.e. 4 x  5 y  28  0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.41

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the point (3 , 4) and is perpendicular to
the line 2x – y + 5 = 0.
(4 marks)
Solution:
2
Slope of the given line   2 1A
1
Let m be the slope of the required line. 1M
m(2)  1
1
m
2
 The equation of the required line is
1
y  4   ( x  3) 1M
2
2 y  8  ( x  3)
i.e. x + 2y –11 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

The equation of the straight line L1 is 2x – y + 1 = 0. The straight line L2 passes through the point
P(–1 , 2) and its slope is twice of the slope of L1. Find the equation of L2.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 2 
Slope of L1 =    = 2 1A
 1 
Slope of L2 = 2(2) = 4 1M
 The equation of L2 is
y  2  4( x  1) 1M
y  2  4x  4
i.e. 4 x  y  6  0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.42

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

Find the equation of the straight line which has x-intercept 3 and is perpendicular to the line
x  2y  7  0.
(5 marks)
Solution:
1 1
Slope of the line x  2 y  7  0 is  , i.e. . 1A
(2) 2
Let the slope of the required line be m.
 The line is perpendicular to x  2 y  7  0 .
1
 m   1 1M
2
i.e. m  2
 x-intercept is 3.
 The required line passes through the point (3 , 0).
The equation of the required line is
y – 0 = –2[x – (–3)] 1M
y = –2(x + 3)
i.e. 2x + y + 6 = 0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

If the lines L1 : 5x + 3y – 4 = 0 and L2 : 6x – ty + 9 = 0 are perpendicular, find the value of t.
(4 marks)
Solution:
5
Slope of L1   1A
3
Slope of L2
6

(t )
6
 1A
t
 L1  L2
 5  6 
      1 1M
 3  t 
t  10 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.43

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

If the lines L1 : ax + 3y – 1 = 0 and L2 : x – 6y + 2 = 0 are parallel, find the value of a.
(4 marks)
Solution:
a
Slope of L1 =  1A
3
1 1
Slope of L2 =   1A
(6) 6
 L1 // L2
 Slope of L1 = slope of L2
a 1
  1M
3 6
 6a  3
1
a 1A
2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

 3
The straight line L passes through (0 , 0) and  2 ,   .
 2
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) If a point (1 , k) lies on L, find the value of k.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
3
 0
y 0
 2 1M
x 0 20
y 3

x 4
i.e. 3x  4 y  0 1M+1A

3(1) + 4k = 0 1M
3
k = 1A
4

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.44

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=5>

(a) Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (k , 2k) and has slope –2. Express
the answer in terms of k.
(b) If the straight line in (a) cuts the y-axis at (0 , –5), find the value of k.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
y  2k  2( x  k ) 1M
y  2k  2 x  2k
i.e. 2 x  y  4k  0 1M+1A

## (b) Putting x = 0, y = 5 into 2x + y  4k = 0, we have

2(0)  5  4k  0 1M
4k  5
5
k  1A
4

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>

Find the equation of the straight line L in each of the following figures.
(a) (b)

(4 marks)
Solution:
(a)  The line is horizontal.
 The equation of L is y = 4. 1M+1A

## (b)  The line passes through the origin (0 , 0).

 The equation of L is
3
y x
4
i.e. 3x – 4y = 0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=4>
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.45

2
The equation of a straight line is y  3   ( x  5) .
3
(a) Convert the equation into the general form.
(b) Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of the line.
(4 marks)
Solution:
2
(a) y  3   ( x  5)
3
3(y – 3) = –2(x + 5)
3y – 9 = –2x – 10 1M
i.e. 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
 The general form of the line is 2x + 3y + 1 = 0. 1A

1 1
(b) x-intercept   , y-intercept   1A+1A
2 3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

Find the equation of the straight line which
1
(a) passes through (1 , 4) and has slope ,
3
(b) passes through (7 , 5) and (2 , 1).
(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of the required line is
1
y  (4)  ( x  1) 1M
3
3( y  4)  x  1
i.e. x – 3y – 13 = 0 1M+1A

## (b) The equation of the required line is

y  (1) 5  (1)
 1M
x  (2) 7  (2)
3( y  1)  2( x  2)
3 y  3  2x  4
i.e. 2x – 3y + 1 = 0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.46

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

In the figure, the equation of the straight line PR is 4x + 5y – 20 = 0. Find
(a) the coordinates of R,
(b) the area of △PQR.

(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) Putting y = 0 into 4x + 5y – 20 = 0, we have
4 x  20  0 1M
4 x  20
x5
 The coordinates of R are (5 , 0). 1A

## (b) Putting x = 0 into 4x + 5y – 20 = 0, we have

5y – 20 = 0
y=4
 OP = 4 1M
 Area of △PQR
1
 (QR)(OP) 1M
2
1
 [5  (3)](4) 1M
2
 16 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

The three points P(1 , 6), Q(–1 , –8) and R(3 , 8) are given.
(a) Find the equation of PQ.
(b) Do the three points P, Q and R lie on the same straight line? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.47
Solution:
(a) The equation of PQ is
y 6 86
 1M
x 1 11
y6
7
x 1
7x  7  y  6
i.e. 7 x  y  1  0 1M+1A

 8  8  16
(b) Slope of QR =  4 1M
1  3  4

 mPQ ≠ mQR 1M

 The three points P, Q and R do not lie on the same straight line. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=6>

Find the number of points of intersection of two straight lines L1 : 2x – y + 1 = 0 and
y
L2 : x – = 0.
2
(6 marks)
Solution:
 2 
Slope of L1 =    = 2
 1 
 2 
Slope of L2 =    = 2 1M+1A
 1 
 1 
y-intercept of L1 =    = 1
 1 
y-intercept of L2 = 0 1M+1A
 Slope of L1 = slope of L2
y-intercept of L1 ≠ y-intercept of L2 1M
 L1 and L2 do not have any point of intersection. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.48

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

In the figure, two straight lines L1 and L2 intersect the y-axis at point P. If the equation of L1 is
x – 3y + 6 = 0 and L1 is perpendicular to L2, find
(a) the coordinates of P;
(b) the equation of L2.

(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) Putting x = 0 into the equation of L1, we have
–3y + 6 = 0 1M
y=2
 The coordinates of P are (0 , 2). 1A

 1  1
(b) Slope of L1 =    = 1A
 3 3
 L1 ⊥ L2
1
 Slope of L2 = = 3 1M
1
3
 The equation of L2 is
y  2  3( x  0) 1M
y  2  3x
i.e. 3x  y  2  0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

The straight line L : x – py + 4p = 0 passes through point A(2 , 0). Find
(a) the value of the constant p,
(b) the equation of the straight line which passes through A and is perpendicular to L.
(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) Putting x = 2, y = 0 into x – py + 4p = 0, we have
2  4p  0 1M
2 
p  1A
4 2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.49

 
 1   1 
(b) Slope of L =       =2 1A
  p   1 
 
 2
1
Slope of the required straight line =  1M
2
The required equation of the straight line:
1
y  0   ( x  2) 1M
2
i.e. x  2 y  2  0 1M+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L1><mark=7>

Consider two lines L1 : kx – y + 3 = 0 and L2 : 2x + 4y + 13 = 0.
If L1  L2 , find
(a) the value of k,
(b) the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
(7 marks)
Solution:
k
(a) Slope of L1 =  k
(1)
2 1
Slope of L2 =   1M+1A
4 2
 L1  L2
 Slope of L1  slope of L2 = 1
 1
i.e. k     1 1M
 2
k 2 1A

## (b) From (a), we have

2 x  y  3  0 ..................(i)
 1M
2 x  4 y  13  0 ..............(ii)
(ii) – (i): 5y + 10 = 0
 y = 2
Substituting y = 2 into (i), we have
2 x  (2)  3  0
x  2.5

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.50

New Century Mathematics (Second Edition)
S4 Question Bank
4A Chapter 2 Equations of Straight Lines

Level 2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The straight line L passes through (3 , –10) and (7 , 2).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Does L pass through P(9 , 8)? Explain your answer.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y  (10) 2  (10)
= 1M
x3 73
y  10
=3
x3
y + 10 = 3x – 9
3x – y – 19 = 0 1A

## (b) Substitute (9 , 8) into 3x – y – 19 = 0.

L.H.S. = 3(9) – 8 – 19 1M
=0
= R.H.S.
The coordinates of P satisfy the equation of L.
∴ L passes through P(9 , 8). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The straight line L with y-intercept –1 passes through (–6 , –7).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Does P(5 , 3) lie on L? Explain your answer.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y  (7)  1  (7)
= 1M
x  (6) 0  (6)
y7
=1
x6
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.51
y+7=x+6
x–y–1=0 1A

## (b) Substitute (5 , 3) into x – y – 1 = 0.

L.H.S. = 5 – 3 – 1 1M
=1
 R.H.S.
The coordinates of P does not satisfy the equation of L.
∴ P(5 , 3) does not lie on L. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The straight line L with x-intercept –5 passes through (8 , –3).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) If P(a , 3) lies on L, find the value of a.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y0 30
= 1M
x  (5) 8  (5)
y 3
= 
x5 13
13y = –3x – 15
3x + 13y + 15 = 0 1A

## (b) Substitute (a , 3) into 3x + 13y + 15 = 0.

3a + 13(3) + 15 = 0 1M
3a = –54
a = –18 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

A(a , 4) lies on the straight line L1: 4x – y + 16 = 0.
(a) Find the value of a.
(b) Find the equation of the straight line L2 passing through A and with y-intercept –6.
(4 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.52

Solution:
(a) Substitute (a , 4) into 4x – y + 16 = 0.
4a – 4 + 16 = 0 1M
4a = –12
a = –3 1A

## (b) The equation of L2 is

y  (6) 4  (6)
= 1M
x0 30
y6 10
= 
x 3
3y + 18 = –10x
10x + 3y + 18 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=5>

A(–2 , 9) is rotated anticlockwise about the origin O through 180 to the point B.
(a) Write down the coordinates of B.
(b) The straight line L passes through A and B.
(i) Find the equation of L.
(ii) Does L pass through the origin? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The coordinates of B are (2 , –9). 1A

## (b) (i) The equation of L is

y 9 99
= 1M
x  (2) 2  (2)
y 9 9
= 
x2 2
2y – 18 = –9x – 18
9x + 2y = 0 1A

## (ii) Substitute (0 , 0) into 9x + 2y = 0.

L.H.S. = 9(0) + 2(0) 1M
=0
= R.H.S.
∴ L passes through the origin. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.53

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

5
The straight line L with slope passes through (7 , 2).
4
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) If P(11 , b) lies on L, find the value of b.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
5
y – 2 = (x – 7) 1M
4
4y – 8 = 5x – 35
5x – 4y – 27 = 0 1A

## (b) Substitute (11 , b) into 5x – 4y – 27 = 0.

5(11) – 4b – 27 = 0 1M
–4b = –28
b=7 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=3>

P(3 , 2) is reflected in the x-axis to the point Q.
(a) Write down the coordinates of Q.
(b) Find the equation of the straight line L passing through Q and with slope 2.
(3 marks)
Solution:
(a) The coordinates of Q are (3 , –2). 1A

## (b) The equation of L is

y – (–2) = 2(x – 3) 1M
y + 2 = 2x – 6
2x – y – 8 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=3>

P(4 , 1) is rotated clockwise about the origin O through 90 to the point Q.
(a) Write down the coordinates of Q.
5
(b) Find the equation of the straight line L passing through Q and with slope .
2
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.54
(3 marks)
Solution:
(a) The coordinates of Q are (1 , –4). 1A

## (b) The equation of L is

5
y – (–4) = (x – 1) 1M
2
2y + 8 = 5x – 5
5x – 2y – 13 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

A(3 , –6) is rotated clockwise about the origin O through 270 to the point B. A is reflected in the
y-axis to the point C.
(a) Write down the coordinates of B and C.
(b) Find the equation of the straight line L passing through B and C.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The coordinates of B are (6 , 3). 1A
The coordinates of C are (–3 , –6). 1A

## (b) The equation of L is

y 3 63
= 1M
x 6 36
y 3
=1
x6
y–3=x–6
x–y–3=0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The inclination of the straight line L1 is 60°. L1 passes through A(7 , 0).
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) The straight line L2 passes through A and is perpendicular to L1. Find the equation of L2.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answers.)
(6 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.55
Solution:
(a) Slope of L1 = tan 60° 1M
= 3
The equation of L1 is
y – 0 = 3 (x – 7) 1M
y = 3x  7 3
3x  y  7 3  0 1A

(b) ∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
Slope of L2  3 = –1
1
Slope of L2 =  1A
3
The equation of L2 is
1
y – 0 = (x – 7) 1M
3
3 y = –x + 7
x  3y  7  0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>


In the figure, the straight lines L1 and L2 have the same y-intercept 5. L1 cuts the x-axis at (–3 , 0).
(a) Find the slope of L1.
(b) Find the equation of L1.
(c) If L1  L2, find the equation of L2.
(6 marks)
Solution:
05
(a) Slope of L1 =
30
5
= 1A
3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.56

(b) The equation of L1 is
5
y – 5 = (x – 0) 1M
3
3y – 15 = 5x
5x – 3y + 15 = 0 1A

(c) ∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
5
Slope of L2  = –1
3
3
Slope of L2 =  1A
5
The equation of L2 is
3
y – 5 =  (x – 0) 1M
5
5y – 25 = –3x
3x + 5y – 25 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

Consider two points A(10 , 0) and B(0 , 6). It is given that M is the mid-point of AB.
(a) Find the coordinates of M.
4
(b) The straight line L with slope passes through M.
5
(i) Find the equation of L.
(ii) Does L pass through the origin? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)
Solution:
 10  0 0  6 
(a) Coordinates of M =  ,  1M
 2 2 
= (5 , 3) 1A

## (b) (i) The equation of L is

4
y – 3 = (x – 5) 1M
5
5y – 15 = 4x – 20
4x – 5y – 5 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.57

(ii) Substitute (0 , 0) into 4x – 5y – 5 = 0.
L.H.S. = 4(0) – 5(0) – 5 1M
= –5
 R.H.S.
∴ L does not pass through the origin. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>


In the figure, A(1 , 0), B(8 , 0) and C(5 , 6) are the vertices of △ABC. D is a point on BC such that
CD : DB = 2 : 1.
(a) Find the coordinates of D.
(b) Find the equation of AD.
(c) Does (–8 , –3) lie on AD? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)
Solution:
 1(5)  2(8) 1(6)  2(0) 
(a) Coordinates of D =  ,  1M
 2 1 2 1 
= (7 , 2) 1A

## (b) The equation of AD is

y0 20
= 1M
x 1 7 1
y 1
=
x 1 3
3y = x – 1
x – 3y – 1 = 0 1A

## (c) Substitute (–8 , –3) into x – 3y – 1 = 0.

L.H.S. = –8 – 3(–3) – 1 1M
=0
= R.H.S.
∴ (–8 , –3) lies on AD. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.58

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>


In the figure, the straight line L cuts the y-axis at the point A and cuts the x-axis at the point B.
C(5 , –4) is the mid-point of AB.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Find the equation of L.
(c) Determine whether A, B and D(15 , 4) are collinear.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) Let (0 , a) be the coordinates of A and (b , 0) be the coordinates of B.
a0
= –4 1M
2
a = –8
0b
=5 1M
2
b = 10
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (0 , –8) and (10 , 0) respectively. 1A+1A

## (b) The equation of L is

y0 80
= 1M
x  10 0  10
y 4
=
x  10 5
5y = 4x – 40
4x – 5y – 40 = 0 1A

## (c) Substitute (15 , 4) into 4x – 5y – 40 = 0.

L.H.S. = 4(15) – 5(4) – 40 1M
=0
= R.H.S.
∴ D lies on L.
i.e. A, B and D are collinear. 1A

Alternative method:
80 4
Slope of AB = =
0  10 5
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.59
40 4
Slope of BD = =
15  10 5
∵ Slope of AB = slope of BD 1M
∴ A, B and D are collinear. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

It is given that A(k , 3k), B(–12 , –1) and C(–k , 2k) are collinear, where k is a non-zero constant.
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) A is reflected in the x-axis to the point A. The straight line L passes through A and is
perpendicular to AB.
(i) Find the equation of L.
(ii) Hence, determine whether ACA is a right angle.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of AB = slope of AC
3k  (1) 3k  2k
= 1M
k  (12) k  (k )
3k  1 k
=
k  12 kk
3k  1 1
=
k  12 2
6k + 2 = k + 12
5k = 10
k=2 1A

## (b) (i) From (a), the coordinates of A are (2 , 6).

The coordinates of A are (2 , –6). 1A
∵ L  AB
∴ Slope of L  slope of AB = –1
6  (1)
Slope of L  = –1
2  (12)
Slope of L = –2 1A
The equation of L is
y – (–6) = –2(x – 2) 1M
y + 6 = –2x + 4
2x + y + 2 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.60

(ii) From (a), the coordinates of C are (–2 , 4).
Substitute (–2 , 4) into 2x + y + 2 = 0.
L.H.S. = 2(–2) + 4 + 2 1M
=2
 R.H.S.
∴ C does not lie on L.
∴ AC is not perpendicular to AC.
i.e. ACA is not a right angle. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

5
The slope and the y-intercept of the straight line L are and 4 respectively.
6
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) If (a , 2) lies on L, find the value of a.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
5
y= x+4 1M
6
6y = 5x + 24
5x – 6y + 24 = 0 1A

## (b) Substitute (a , 2) into 5x – 6y + 24 = 0.

5a – 6(2) + 24 = 0 1M
5a = –12
12
a = 1A
5

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The y-intercept of the straight line L1 is 6. L1 passes through A(3 , 14).
(a) Find the slope of L1.
5
(b) The straight line L2 with y-intercept is perpendicular to L1. Find the equation of L2.
8
(4 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.61
Solution:
6  14
(a) Slope of L1 =
03
8
= 1A
3

(b) ∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
8
Slope of L2  = –1
3
3
Slope of L2 =  1A
8
The equation of L2 is
3 5
y=  x+ 1M
8 8
8y = –3x + 5
3x + 8y – 5 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

1
The slope of the straight line L is  . L cuts the positive x-axis and the positive y-axis at A(a , 0)
3
and B(0 , b) respectively.
(a) Express a in terms of b.
(b) Express the length of AB in terms of b.
(c) If AB = 40 , find the equation of L.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answers if necessary.)
(8 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Slope of L = 
3
b0 1
=  1M
0a 3
a
b=
3
a = 3b 1A

(b) AB = (a  0) 2  (0  b) 2 1M
= (3b) 2  b 2 (From (a))
= 10b 2
= 10b (∵ b > 0) 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.62

(c) AB = 40 1M
10b = 40 (From (b))
10b = 2 10
b=2 1A
The equation of L is
1
y=  x+2 1M
3
3y = –x + 6
x + 3y – 6 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The x-intercept of the straight line L: 2x – 9y + k = 0 is 3.
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) Find the slope and the y-intercept of L.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) x-intercept of L = 3
k
 =3 1M
2
k = –6 1A

2 2
(b) Slope of L =  = 1A
9 9
6 2
y-intercept of L =  = 1A
9 3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

The x-intercept and the y-intercept of the straight line L: ax + by – 12 = 0 are 6 and 4 respectively,
where a and b are constants.
(a) Find the values of a and b.
(b) Find the slope of L.
(c) If the straight line L1 with y-intercept 8 is perpendicular to L, find the equation of L1.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) x-intercept of L = 6
 12
 =6 1M
a
a=2 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.63

y-intercept of L = 4
 12
 =4 1M
b
b=3 1A

a 2
(b) Slope of L =  = 1A
b 3

(c) ∵ L1  L
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L = –1
 2
Slope of L1     = –1
 3
3
Slope of L1 = 1A
2
The equation of L1 is
3
y= x+8 1M
2
2y = 3x + 16
3x – 2y + 16 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

Consider the straight lines L1: kx + 4y – 15 = 0 and L2: 3x – 12y + 8 = 0, where k is a constant. It is
given that L1  L2.
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) The straight line L3 is parallel to L1 and passes through the origin. Find the equation of L3.
(4 marks)
Solution:
k
(a) Slope of L1 =  1M
4
3 1
Slope of L2 =  =
 12 4
∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –1
 k 1
    = –1
 4 4
k = 16 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.64

k 16
(b) Slope of L1 =  =  = –4
4 4
The equation of L3 is
y = –4x 1M
4x + y = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=5>

The straight line L passes through the x-intercept of the straight line L1: 5x – 2y + 10 = 0 and the
y-intercept of the straight line L2: 3x + ky – 8 = 0.
(a) Express the equation of L in terms of k.
(b) If the inclination of L is 45, find the value of k.
(5 marks)
Solution:
10
(a) x-intercept of L1 =  = –2 1M
5
8 8
y-intercept of L2 =  =
k k
The equation of L is
x y
 =1 1M
2 8
k
x ky
  =1
2 8
8 x 8ky
  =8
2 8
–4x + ky = 8
4x – ky + 8 = 0 1A

4
 =1
k
k=4 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.65

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=5>


In the figure, the straight line L passes through (3 , 12) and (–9 , –4).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(c) Find the area of △OAB.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y  12  4  12
= 1M
x 3 93
y  12 4
=
x 3 3
3y – 36 = 4x – 12
4x – 3y + 24 = 0 1A

24
(b) y-intercept of L =  =8
3
24
x-intercept of L =  = –6
4
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (0 , 8) and (–6 , 0) respectively. 1A+1A

1
=  OB  OA
2
1
= 68
2
= 24 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.66

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=5>


In the figure, the straight line L: 5x – 4y – 40 = 0 cuts the y-axis and the x-axis at A and B
respectively. M is a point on L such that OM is an altitude of △OAB.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Find the equation of OM.
(5 marks)
Solution:
 40
(a) y-intercept of L =  = –10
4
 40
x-intercept of L =  =8
5
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (0 , –10) and (8 , 0) respectively. 1A+1A

5 5
(b) Slope of L =  =
4 4
∵ OM  L
∴ Slope of OM  slope of L = –1
5
Slope of OM  = –1
4
4
Slope of OM =  1A
5
The equation of OM is
4
y=  x 1M
5
5y = –4x
4x + 5y = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.67

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>


In the figure, the inclination of the straight line L1 is 60. The straight line L2: x = 15 intersects the
x-axis and L1 at P and Q respectively.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) Find the coordinates of Q.
(c) Find the perimeter of △OPQ.
(Leave the radical sign ‘ ’ in the answers.)
(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L1 = tan 60 = 3 1A
The equation of L1 is
y = 3x 1M
3x  y  0 1A

## (b) Let (15 , k) be the coordinates of Q.

Substitute (15 , k) into 3x – y = 0.
3 (15) – k = 0 1M
k = 15 3
∴ The coordinates of Q are (15 , 15 3). 1A

## (c) OQ = (15  0) 2  [(15 3 )  0]2 = 30 1M

Perimeter of △OPQ
= OP + OQ + PQ
= 15 + 30 + 15 3
= 45  15 3 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.68

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>


In the figure, the straight lines L1: 7x + 4y + 49 = 0 and L2 intersect at a point on the x-axis.
(a) Find the slope and the x-intercept of L1.
(b) It is given that L1  L2.
(i) Find the equation of L2.
(ii) If the straight line L3 is perpendicular to L2 and intersects L2 at a point on the y-axis, find
the equation of L3.
(8 marks)
Solution:
7
(a) Slope of L1 =  1A
4
49
x-intercept of L1 =  = –7 1A
7

(b) (i) ∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
 7
Slope of L2     = –1
 4
4
Slope of L2 = 1A
7
The equation of L2 is
4
y – 0 = [x – (–7)] 1M
7
7y = 4x + 28
4x – 7y + 28 = 0 1A

28
(ii) y-intercept of L2 =  =4 1A
7
∵ L3  L2
∴ L3 // L1
7
Slope of L3 = slope of L1 = 
4
The equation of L3 is
7
y=  x+4 1M
4

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.69

4y = –7x + 16
7x + 4y – 16 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

The y-intercept of the straight line L is –5. L is parallel to the straight line L1: 2x + 8y – 21 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) L cuts the x-axis at A. The straight line L2 cuts the x-axis at B. If L // L2 and AB = 3,
(i) write down the two possible coordinates of B,
(ii) find the possible equations of L2.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L = slope of L1
2
= 
8
1
=  1A
4
The equation of L is
1
y=  x–5 1M
4
4y = –x – 20
x + 4y + 20 = 0 1A

## (b) (i) Let (k , 0) be the coordinates of B.

20
x-intercept of L =  = –20
1
∴ The coordinates of A are (–20 , 0).
Since AB = 3, we have
k – (–20) = 3 or –20 – k = 3
k = –17 or k = –23
∴ The two possible coordinates of B are (–17 , 0) and (–23 , 0). 1A+1A

1
(ii) Slope of L2 = slope of L = 
4
When the coordinates of B are (–17 , 0),
the equation of L2 is
1
y – 0 =  [x – (–17)] 1M
4
4y = –x – 17
x + 4y + 17 = 0 1A
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.70
When the coordinates of B are (–23 , 0),
the equation of L2 is
1
y – 0 =  [x – (–23)]
4
4y = –x – 23
x + 4y + 23 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>


## In the figure, the equation of L1 is 6x – y + 24 = 0. L2 is perpendicular to L1 and passes through

P(–6 , 7).
(a) Find the equation of L2.
(b) If S is a point lying on L1 such that PS = SQ, where the coordinates of Q are (3 , 2), find the
coordinates of S.
(7 marks)
Solution:
6
(a) Slope of L1 =  =6
1
∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
Slope of L2  6 = –1
1
Slope of L2 =  1A
6
The equation of L2 is
1
y – 7 =  [x – (–6)] 1M
6
6y – 42 = –x – 6
x + 6y – 36 = 0 1A

## (b) Let (h , k) be the coordinates of S.

∵ S lies on L1.
∴ 6h – k + 24 = 0
k = 6h + 24 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.71

The coordinates of S are (h , 6h + 24).
∵ PS = SQ
∴ [h  (6)]2  (6h  24  7) 2 = (h  3) 2  (6h  24  2) 2 1M
2 2 2 2
(h + 6) + (6h + 17) = (h – 3) + (6h + 22)
h2 + 12h + 36 + 36h2 + 204h + 289 = h2 – 6h + 9 + 36h2 + 264h + 484
42h = –168
h = –4 1A
When h = –4, k = 6(–4) + 24 = 0.
∴ The coordinates of S are (–4 , 0). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>

P(e , 6) is a point lying on the straight line L1: x + 3y – 15 = 0.
(a) Find the value of e.
(b) Find the slope of L1.
(c) L2 is a straight line with x-intercept –10 and is parallel to L1.
(i) Find the equation of L2.
(ii) If S is a point on L2 such that PS = SQ, where the coordinates of Q are (4 , –1), find the
coordinates of S.
(9 marks)
Solution:
(a) Substitute (e , 6) into x + 3y – 15 = 0.
e + 3(6) – 15 = 0 1M
e = –3 1A

1
(b) Slope of L1 =  1A
3

1
(c) (i) Slope of L2 = slope of L1 = 
3
The equation of L2 is
1
y – 0 =  [x – (–10)] 1M
3
3y = –x – 10
x + 3y + 10 = 0 1A

## (ii) Let (h , k) be the coordinates of S.

∵ S lies on L2.
∴ h + 3k + 10 = 0
h = –3k – 10 1A
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.72
The coordinates of S are (–3k – 10 , k).
∵ PS = SQ
∴ [3k  10  (3)]2  (k  6) 2 = (3k  10  4) 2  [k  (1)]2 1M
2 2 2 2
(–3k – 7) + (k – 6) = (–3k – 14) + (k + 1)
9k2 + 42k + 49 + k2 – 12k + 36 = 9k2 + 84k + 196 + k2 + 2k + 1
56k = –112
k = –2 1A
When k = –2, h = –3(–2) – 10 = –4.
∴ The coordinates of S are (–4 , –2). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>


In the figure, the straight line L1 cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at A(5 , 0) and B(0 , 10) respectively.
The straight line L2 passes through B and is perpendicular to L1. L2 cuts the x-axis at C.
(a) Find the equation of L2.
(b) Find the coordinates of C.
(c) D is a point such that ABCD is a rectangle. Find the coordinates of D.
(9 marks)
Solution:
10  0
(a) Slope of L1 = = –2 1A
05
∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
Slope of L2  (–2) = –1
1
Slope of L2 = 1A
2
The equation of L2 is
1
y = x + 10 1M
2
2y = x + 20
x – 2y + 20 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.73

20
(b) x-intercept of L2 =  = –20 1A
1
∴ The coordinates of C are (–20 , 0). 1A

## (c) Let (p , q) be the coordinates of D.

∵ AD // L2
∴ Slope of AD = slope of L2
q0 1
= 1M
p 5 2
2q = p – 5 ......................(1)
∵ CD // L1
∴ Slope of CD = slope of L1
q0
= –2 1M
p  (20)
q = –2p – 40 ................(2)
Substitute (2) into (1).
2(–2p – 40) = p – 5
–4p – 80 = p – 5
–5p = 75
p = –15
Substitute p = –15 into (2).
q = –2(–15) – 40
= –10
∴ The coordinates of D are (–15 , –10). 1A

Alternative method:
Let (p , q) be the coordinates of D. Let E be a point on AC such that DE  AC.
∵ ABCD is a rectangle and AC is the diagonal.
∴ Area of △ADC = area of △ABC
1 1
 AC  DE =  AC  OB 1M
2 2
0 – q = 10 – 0
q = –10
∵ AD // L2
∴ Slope of AD = slope of L2
 10  0 1
= 1M
p5 2
–20 = p – 5
p = –15
∴ The coordinates of D are (–15 , –10). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.74

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>


5
In the figure, the slope of L1: 5x + ky – 40 = 0 is  . L1 cuts the x-axis at A. The straight line L2
2
passes through A and cut the y-axis at B. It is given that 5OA = 8OB.
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(c) Consider a point C(12 , –10).
(i) Does C lie on L1? Explain your answer.
(ii) The straight line L3 passes through C and is parallel to L2. P is a point on L3. Is the area
of △ABP equal to the area of △ABC? Explain your answer.
(9 marks)
Solution:
5
(a) Slope of L1 = 
2
5 5
 =  1M
k 2
k=2 1A

 40
(b) x-intercept of L1 =  =8 1M
5
∴ The coordinates of A are (8 , 0). 1A
5OA = 8OB
5(8 – 0) = 8OB
OB = 5
∴ The coordinates of B are (0 , –5). 1A

## (c) (i) Substitute (12 , –10) into 5x + 2y – 40 = 0.

L.H.S. = 5(12) + 2(–10) – 40 1M
=0
= R.H.S.
∴ C lies on L1. 1A

(ii) Since L3 // L2, with AB as the bases, the height of △ABP = the height of △ABC. 1M
∴ The area of △ABP is equal to the area of △ABC. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.75

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=4>

The straight lines L1: 4x + 5y – 2 = 0 and L2: ax + by + 20 = 0 (a and b are non-zero constants)
have no points of intersection.
(a) Express b in terms of a.
(b) If (–5 , 2) is a point lying on L2, find the values of a and b.
(4 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L1 = slope of L2
4 a
 =  1M
5 b
5
b= a 1A
4

5
(b) From (a), ax + ay + 20 = 0.
4
5
Substitute (–5 , 2) into ax + ay + 20 = 0.
4
5
a(–5) + a(2) + 20 = 0
4
5
–5a + a + 20 = 0
2
–10a + 5a + 40 = 0
–5a = –40
a=8 1A
5
Substitute a = 8 into b = a.
4
5
b= (8) = 10 1A
4

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The straight lines L1: ax – 8y + 2 = 0 and L2: 4x + by + 1 = 0 (a and b are non-zero constants) have
infinitely many points of intersection.
(a) Find the values of a and b.
(b) Does L1 pass through (5 , 4)? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.76

Solution:
(a) y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2
2 1
 = 1M
8 b
b = –4 1A
and Slope of L1 = slope of L2
a 4
 =  1M
8 b
a 4
= 
8 4
a=8 1A

## (b) Substitute (5 , 4) into 8x – 8y + 2 = 0.

L.H.S. = 8(5) – 8(4) + 2 1M
= 10
 R.H.S.
∴ L1 does not pass through (5 , 4). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The straight lines L1: 8x + 18y + a = 0 and L2: bx + 6y + 2 = 0 (a and b are non-zero constants)
have infinitely many points of intersection.
(a) Find the values of a and b.
(b) If L1 intersects the straight line y = –3 at the point A, find the coordinates of A.
(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2
a 2
 =  1M
18 6
a=6 1A
and Slope of L1 = slope of L2
8 b
 =  1M
18 6
8
b= 1A
3

8 x  18 y  6  0 ...........................(1)
(b)  1M
 y  3 .........................................(2)
Substitute (2) into (1).
8x + 18(–3) + 6 = 0
8x = 48
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.77
x=6
∴ The coordinates of A are (6 , –3). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

The straight lines L1: 3x – 4y – 9 = 0 and L2: x – 6y + 11 = 0 intersect at the point A.
(a) Find the coordinates of A.
(b) A is reflected in the x-axis to the point B. L1 cuts the x-axis at the point C. The straight line L3
passes through B and C. Is L1 perpendicular to L3? Explain your answer.
(8 marks)
Solution:
3x  4 y  9  0 .........................(1)
(a)  1M
 x  6 y  11  0 .........................(2)
(1) – (2)  3: 14y – 42 = 0 1M
14y = 42
y=3
Substitute y = 3 into (1).
3x – 4(3) – 9 = 0
3x = 21
x=7
∴ The coordinates of A are (7 , 3). 1A

## (b) The coordinates of B are (7 , –3). 1A

9
x-intercept of L1 =  =3 1M
3
The coordinates of C are (3 , 0).
3 3 
Slope of L1 =  =
4 4 
30 3  1A
Slope of L3 = 
73 4 
3  3
Slope of L1  slope of L3 =    
4  4
9
=
16
 –1 1M
∴ L1 is not perpendicular to L3 . 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.78

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>

The straight lines L1: 2x + ky + 22 = 0 and L2: x + 2y – 4 = 0 are perpendicular to each other. L1 and
L2 intersect at the point A.
(a) Find the value of the constant k.
(b) Find the coordinates of A.
(c) A is rotated clockwise about the origin O through 90 to the point B.
(i) Find the slope of AB.
(ii) Find the equation of the altitude of △OAB with respect to the base AB.
(9 marks)
Solution:
2
(a) Slope of L1 =  1M
k
1
Slope of L2 = 
2
∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2 = –1
2  1
     = –1
k  2
1
= –1
k
k = –1 1A

2 x  y  22  0 .........................(1)
(b)  1M
 x  2 y  4  0 ..........................(2)
(1) – (2)  2: –5y + 30 = 0 1M
5y = 30
y =6
Substitute y = 6 into (1).
2x – 6 + 22 = 0
2x = –16
x = –8
∴ The coordinates of A are (–8 , 6). 1A

68
Slope of AB =
86
1
= 1A
7

## (ii) ∵ The required altitude  AB

∴ Slope of the required altitude  slope of AB = –1

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.79

1
Slope of the required altitude  = –1
7
Slope of the required altitude = –7 1A
The equation of the required altitude is
y = –7x
7x + y = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>


1
In the figure, B(–6 , 0) and C(0 , 12) are the vertices of △ABC. The slope of AD is  and
2
AB = 15.
(a) Find the coordinates of A.
(b) Find the equations of AD and BC.
(c) Find the coordinates of D.
(d) Is AD a perpendicular bisector of △ABC? Explain your answer.
(11 marks)
Solution:
(a) Coordinates of A = (–6 + 15 , 0)
= (9 , 0) 1A

## (b) The equation of AD is

1
y – 0 =  (x – 9) 1M
2
2y = –x + 9
x + 2y – 9 = 0 1A
The equation of BC is
y  12 0  12
= 1M
x0 60
y  12
=2
x
y – 12 = 2x
2x – y + 12 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.80

 x  2 y  9  0 ............................(1)
(c)  1M
2 x  y  12  0 .........................(2)
(1)  2 – (2): 5y – 30 = 0 1M
5y = 30
y=6
Substitute y = 6 into (1).
x + 2(6) – 9 = 0
x = –3
∴ The coordinates of D are (–3 , 6). 1A

 1
(d) Slope of AD  slope of BC =     2 = –1 1M
 2
∴ AD  BC
Coordinates of the mid-point of BC
  6  0 0  12 
= ,  1M
 2 2 
= (–3 , 6)
∴ D is the mid-point of BC.
i.e. AD is a perpendicular bisector of △ABC. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=13>


## In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. The equations of BC and CD are x – 5y + 45 = 0 and

9x – 5y – 75 = 0 respectively. The y-intercept of AD is 1.
(a) Find the coordinates of B and C.
(b) Find the equation of AD.
(c) Find the coordinates of A and D.
(d) Is △ABD a right-angled triangle? Explain your answer.
(13 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.81

Solution:
45
(a) y-intercept of BC =  =9
5
∴ The coordinates of B are (0 , 9). 1A
 x  5 y  45  0 ..........................(1)
 1M
9 x  5 y  75  0 ........................(2)
(2) – (1): 8x – 120 = 0 1M
8x = 120
x = 15
Substitute x = 15 into (1).
15 – 5y + 45 = 0
5y = 60
y = 12
∴ The coordinates of C are (15 , 12). 1A

1 1
(b) Slope of AD = slope of BC =  =
5 5
The equation of AD is
1
y= x+1 1M
5
5y = x + 5
x – 5y + 5 = 0 1A

5
(c) x-intercept of AD =  = –5
1
∴ The coordinates of A are (–5 , 0). 1A
9 x  5 y  75  0 ........................(1)
 1M
 x  5 y  5  0 ............................(2)
(1) – (2): 8x – 80 = 0 1M
8x = 80
x = 10
Substitute x = 10 into (2).
10 – 5y + 5 = 0
5y = 15
y=3
∴ The coordinates of D are (10 , 3). 1A

## (d) AB2 = (–5 – 0)2 + (0 – 9)2 = 106 

BD2 = (10 – 0)2 + (3 – 9)2 = 136  1A
AD2 = (–5 – 10)2 + (0 – 3)2 = 234 

AB2 + BD2 = 106 + 136
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.82
= 242
 AD2 1M
∴ △ABD is not a right-angled triangle. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=13>


The figure shows a trapezium ABCD, where AB // DC and AB = AD. A is a point lying on the
y-axis. The coordinates of B and D are (13 , 9) and (3 , –7) respectively. The equation of BC is
5x + 8y – 137 = 0.
(a) Find the coordinates of A.
(b) Find the equation of DC.
(c) Find the coordinates of C.
(d) Show that AD  AB and find the area of trapezium ABCD.
(13 marks)
Solution:
(a) Let (0 , a) be the coordinates of A.
∵ AB = AD
∴ (0  13)2  (a  9)2 = (0  3)2  [a  (7)]2 1M
2 2
169 + a – 18a + 81 = 9 + a + 14a + 49
32a = 192
a=6
∴ The coordinates of A are (0 , 6). 1A

## (b) Slope of DC = slope of AB

96
=
13  0
3
= 1A
13
The equation of DC is
3
y – (–7) = (x – 3) 1M
13
13y + 91 = 3x – 9
3x – 13y – 100 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.83

5 x  8 y  137  0 ..............................(1)
(c)  1M
3x  13 y  100  0 ............................(2)
(1)  3 – (2)  5: 89y + 89 = 0 1M
89y = –89
y = –1
Substitute y = –1 into (1).
5x + 8(–1) – 137 = 0
5x = 145
x = 29
∴ The coordinates of C are (29 , –1). 1A

76 13
(d) Slope of AD = =
30 3
 13  3
Slope of AD  slope of AB =     1M
 3  13
= –1
∴ AD  AB 1A
AB = (0  13) 2  (6  9) 2 = 178 

AD = AB = 178  1A

DC = (3  29)2  [7  (1)]2 = 712 = 2 178 
Area of the trapezium ABCD
1
=  ( AB  DC)  AD
2
1
= ( 178  2 178 ) 178 1M
2
= 267 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.84

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>


## In the figure, A is a point lying on the y-axis. The equation of AC is 5x + 4y – 40 = 0. The

coordinates of B are (14 , 13). P and Q are the points lying on AC and BC respectively such that
BP  AC and AQ  BC.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and C.
(b) Find the equations of BP and AQ.
(c) Find the coordinates of the orthocentre of △ABC.
(11 marks)
Solution:
 40
(a) x-intercept of AC =  =8
5
 40
y-intercept of AC =  = 10
4
∴ The coordinates of A and C are (0 , 10) and (8 , 0) respectively. 1A+1A

5
(b) Slope of AC = 
4
∵ BP  AC
∴ Slope of BP  slope of AC = –1
 5
Slope of BP     = –1
 4
4
Slope of BP = 1A
5
The equation of BP is
4
y – 13 = (x – 14) 1M
5
5y – 65 = 4x – 56
4x – 5y + 9 = 0 1A
13  0 13
Slope of BC = =
14  8 6
∵ AQ  BC
∴ Slope of AQ  slope of BC = –1
13
Slope of AQ  = –1
6
6
Slope of AQ =  1A
13

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.85

The equation of AQ is
6
y =  x + 10 1M
13
13y = –6x + 130
6x + 13y – 130 = 0 1A

## (c) The orthocentre of △ABC is the point of intersection of BP and AQ.

4 x  5 y  9  0 ..............................(1)
 1M
6 x  13 y  130  0 ........................(2)
(2)  2 – (1)  3: 41y – 287 = 0 1M
41y = 287
y=7
Substitute y = 7 into (1).
4x – 5(7) + 9 = 0
4x = 26
13
x=
2
 13 
∴ The coordinates of the orthocentre of △ ABC are  , 7 . 1A
2 

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.86

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The straight line L1: 2x – my – 9m = 0 passes through the point A(–3 , 0), where m is a constant.
(a) Find the value of m.
(b) If the straight line L2 passes through A and is perpendicular to L1, find the equation of L2.
(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) Substituting (–3 , 0) into 2x – my – 9m = 0, we have
2(–3) – m(0) – 9m = 0 1M
–6 = 9m
2
m=  1A
3

 
2
 2 
(b) Slope of L1 =    =    = –3 1A
m 2
 
3
∵ L1 is perpendicular to L2,
∴ slope of L1 × slope of L2 = –1
(–3) × slope of L2 = –1 1M
1
slope of L2 =
3
The equation of L2 is
1
y – 0 = [x – (–3)] 1M
3
3y = x + 3
i.e. x – 3y + 3 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.87

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The inclination of the straight line L is 45°. L passes through the point A(9 , 1).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) A is rotated clockwise about the origin through 90° to B.
(i) Write down the coordinates of B.
(ii) Find the equation of the straight line which passes through A and B.
(6 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L = tan 45° 1M
=1
The equation of L is
y – 1 = (1)(x – 9) 1M
y–1=x–9
i.e. x – y – 8 = 0 1A

## (ii) The required equation of the straight line is

y 1  9 1
= 1M
x9 1 9
y 1 5
=
x9 4
4y – 4 = 5x – 45
i.e. 5x – 4y – 41 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.88

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

The straight lines L1: x + y – 5 = 0, L2: x – y + 1 = 0 and L3: 5x – y – 2 = 0 are given. L1 and L2
intersect at M.
(a) Find the coordinates of M.
(b) Find the equation of the straight line which passes through M and is parallel to L3.
(6 marks)
Solution:
 x  y  5  0...............................(i) 
(a)   1M
 x  y  1  0..............................(ii ) 
(i) + (ii): 2x – 4 = 0 1M
2x = 4
x=2
Substituting x = 2 into (i), we have
2+y–5=0
y=3
∴ The coordinates of M are (2 , 3). 1A

## (b) Slope of the required straight line

= slope of L3
 5 
=   1M
 1
=5
The required equation of the straight line is
y – 3 = 5(x – 2) 1M
y – 3 = 5x – 10
i.e. 5x – y – 7 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=5>


In the figure, the straight line L cuts the x-axis at the point A and cuts the y-axis at the point B. It is
given that the coordinates of the mid-point of AB are (–2 , 1).

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.89

(a) Write down the equation of L in the intercept form.
(b) Does the point (8 , 4) lie on L? Explain your answer.
(5 marks)
Solution:
(a) Let (a , 0) be the coordinates of the point A and (0 , b) be the coordinates of the point B.
a0
= –2 1M
2
a = –4
0b
=1 1M
2
b=2
x y
∴ The equation of L is   1. 1A
4 2

x y
(b) Substituting (8 , 4) into  = 1, we have
4 2
8 4
L.H.S. =  1M
4 2
= –2 + 2
=0
∵ L.H.S.  R.H.S.
∴ The point (8 , 4) does not lie on L. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>


In the figure, the straight line L passes through two points (1 , 5) and (–4 , –3).
(a) Find the equation of L.
(b) Find the coordinates of the two points P and Q.
(c) M is the mid-point of PQ. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the
origin O and M.
(9 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.90
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y 5 35
= 1M
x 1  4 1
y 5 8
=
x 1 5
5y – 25 = 8x – 8
i.e. 8x – 5y + 17 = 0 1A

(b) When x = 0,
8(0) – 5y + 17 = 0 1M
–5y = –17
17
y=
5
When y = 0,
8x – 5(0) + 17 = 0 1M
8x = –17
17
x= 
8
 17   17 
∴ The coordinates of P are  0 ,  and the coordinates of Q are   , 0 . 1A+1A
 5  8 

(c) Coordinates of M
  17  
 0     17  0 
=  8 , 5  1M
 2 2 
 
 
 17 17 
=  , 
 16 10 
The required equation of the straight line is
17
y = 10 x 1M
17

16
8
i.e. y   x 1A
5

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.91

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>

The straight line L1 is parallel to the y-axis and passes through the point (5 , –9). The straight line
L2 is parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (2 , 7).
(a) Find the equations of L1 and L2.
(b) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
 k k
(c) It is given that O is the origin and the point P  ,   lies on L2.
 7 3
(i) Find the value of k.
(ii) If the inclination of the straight line OP is θ, find the value of tan θ.
(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) ∵ L1 is parallel to the y-axis and passes through (5 , –9),
∴ the equation of L1 is x  5. 1A
∵ L2 is parallel to the x-axis and passes through (2 , 7),
∴ the equation of L2 is y  7. 1A

## (b) The coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2 are (5 , 7). 1A

 k k
(c) (i) Substituting   ,   into the equation of L2, we have
 7 3
k
 =7 1M
3
k = –21 1A

(ii) Coordinates of P
 (21) (21) 
=  , 
 7 3 
= (3 , 7)
∴ tan θ = slope of OP
70
= 1M
30
7
= 1A
3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.92

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>

p 
The straight line L1 is perpendicular to the x-axis and passes through  ,  p  .
2 
(a) Express the equation of L1 in terms of p.
(b) The straight line L2 is perpendicular to L1 and passes through (–q , 2q).
(i) Express the equation of L2 in terms of q.
(ii) If L1 and L2 intersect at the point (1 , –2), find the values of p and q.
(7 marks)
Solution:
p 
(a) ∵ L1 is perpendicular to the x-axis and passes through  ,  p  ,
2 
p 
∴ L1 is parallel to the y-axis and passes through  ,  p  .
2 
∴ The equation of L1 is
p
x= 1M
2
i.e. 2x – p = 0 1A

## (b) (i) ∵ L2 is perpendicular to L1 and passes through (–q , 2q),

∴ L2 is parallel to the x-axis and passes through (–q , 2q).
∴ The equation of L2 is
y = 2q 1M
i.e. y – 2q = 0 1A

## (ii) From the results of (a) and (b)(i),

p 
the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2 are  , 2q  . 1M
2 
p
∴ =1
2
p=2 1A
2q = –2
q = –1 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.93

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>


In the figure, the straight lines L and L1 intersect at the point M on the x-axis. L is perpendicular to
L2 and intersects L2 at N. It is given that the equation of L is x + 2y + 5 = 0.
(a) Find the coordinates of M and N.
(b) Find the equations of L1 and L2.
(c) Is L1 parallel to L2? Explain your answer.
(11 marks)
Solution:
(a) Substituting y = 0 into the equation of L, we have
x + 2(0) + 5 = 0 1M
x = –5
∴ The coordinates of M are (–5 , 0). 1A
Substituting y = –4 into the equation of L, we have
x + 2(–4) + 5 = 0 1M
x=3
∴ The coordinates of N are (3 , –4). 1A

## (b) The equation of L1 is

x y
 =1 1M
5 5
x – y = –5
i.e. x – y + 5 = 0 1A
1
Slope of L = 
2
∵ L2 is perpendicular to L,
∴ slope of L2 × slope of L = –1
 1
slope of L2 ×    = –1 1M
 2
slope of L2 = 2
The equation of L2 is
y – (–4) = 2(x – 3) 1M
y + 4 = 2x – 6
i.e. 2x – y – 10 = 0 1A
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.94
 1 
(c) Slope of L1 =    = 1 1A
 1
∵ Slope of L1  slope of L2
∴ L1 is not parallel to L2 . 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>


The figure shows a parallelogram OABC, where the point A lies on the y-axis. It is given that the
coordinates of the point C are (–6 , –3) and the length of BC is 7.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Find the equations of the diagonals AC and OB.
(c) Is OABC a rhombus? Explain your answer.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) ∵ AO = BC = 7
∴ The coordinates of A are (0 , 7). 1A
∵ The length of BC is 7,
∴ the coordinates of B are (–6 , –3 + 7), i.e. (–6 , 4). 1A

## (b) The equation of AC is

y7 37
= 1M
x0 60
y7 5
=
x 3
3y – 21 = 5x
i.e. 5x – 3y + 21 = 0 1A
The equation of OB is
4
y= x 1M
6
2
y=  x
3
i.e. 2x + 3y = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.95

(c) Length of OC
= (6  0)2  (3  0)2 1M
= 45
∵ Length of OC  length of AO
∴ OABC is not a rhombus. 1A

Alternative method:
 5  5
Slope of AC =    =
  3 3
2
Slope of OB = 
3
Slope of AC × slope of OB
5  2
=   1M
3  3
10
=
9
 –1
i.e. AC is not perpendicular to OB.
∴ OABC is not a rhombus. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>


In the figure, A(5 , –3), B(4 , 2) and C(–2 , –7) are the vertices of △ ABC. D is a point on BC such
that AD ⊥ BC.
(a) Find the equation of BC.
(b) Find the equation of AD.
(c) Find the coordinates of D.
(d) Is △ ABD an isosceles triangle? Explain your answer.
(11 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.96

Solution:
(a) The equation of BC is
y2 72
= 1M
x4 24
y2 3
=
x4 2
2y – 4 = 3x – 12
i.e. 3x – 2y – 8 = 0 1A

72
(b) Slope of BC = 1M
24
3
=
2
∵ AD is perpendicular to BC,
∴ slope of AD × slope of BC = –1
3
slope of AD × = –1 1M
2
2
slope of AD = 
3
The equation of AD is
2
y – (–3) =  (x – 5) 1M
3
3y + 9 = –2x + 10
i.e. 2x + 3y – 1 = 0 1A

2 x  3 y  1  0..................................(i) 
(c)   1M
3x  2 y  8  0.................................(ii ) 
(i) × 2: 4x + 6y – 2 = 0.................(iii)
(ii) × 3: 9x – 6y – 24 = 0.................(iv)
(iii) + (iv): 13x – 26 = 0 1M
13x = 26
x=2
Substituting x = 2 into (i), we have
2(2) + 3y – 1 = 0
3y = –3
y = –1
∴ The coordinates of D are (2 , –1). 1A

## (d) AD = (5  2) 2  [3  (1)]2 = 13 1M

BD = (4  2) 2  [2  (1)]2 = 13
∴ AD = BD
i.e. △ ABD is an isosceles triangle. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.97

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>


In the figure, A(–4 , 5) and B(6 , 7) are the two vertices of △ ABC. The altitudes of △ ABC
intersect at H(4 , 4).
(a) Find the slope of AC. Hence, find the equation of AC.
(b) Find the equation of BC.
(c) Find the coordinates of C.
(10 marks)
Solution:
47 3
(a) Slope of BH = =
46 2
∵ AC is perpendicular to BH,
∴ slope of AC × slope of BH = –1
3
slope of AC × = –1 1M
2
2
slope of AC =  1A
3
∴ The equation of AC is
2
y – 5 =  [x – (–4)] 1M
3
3y – 15 = –2x – 8
i.e. 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 1A

45 1
(b) Slope of AH = =
4  (4) 8
∵ BC is perpendicular to AH,
∴ slope of BC × slope of AH = –1
 1
slope of BC ×    = –1 1M
 8
slope of BC = 8
∴ The equation of BC is
y – 7 = 8(x – 6) 1M
y – 7 = 8x – 48
i.e. 8x – y – 41 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.98

2 x  3 y  7  0........................................(i) 
(c)   1M
8 x  y  41  0.......................................(ii ) 
(ii) × 3: 24x – 3y – 123 = 0....................(iii)
(i) + (iii): 26x – 130 = 0 1M
26x = 130
x=5
Substituting x = 5 into (i), we have
2(5) + 3y – 7 = 0
3y = –3
y = –1
∴ The coordinates of C are (5 , –1). 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>


In the figure, the equation of the straight line L is y = 3x. A and C lie on L and the x-axis
respectively such that AC is perpendicular to L. The point B(3 , 2) lies on AC.
(a) Find the equation of AC.
(b) Find the coordinates of the two points A and C.
(c) Find the area of △ AOB.
(10 marks)
Solution:
(a) Slope of L = 3
∵ AC is perpendicular to L,
∴ slope of AC × slope of L = –1
slope of AC × 3 = –1 1M
1
slope of AC = –
3
∵ B lies on AC,
∴ the equation of AC is
1
y – 2 = – (x – 3) 1M
3
3y – 6 = –x + 3
i.e. x + 3y – 9 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.99

 y  3x.............................................(i)
(b) 
 x  3 y  9  0.................................(ii)
Substituting (i) into (ii), we have
x + 3(3x) – 9 = 0 1M
10x = 9
9
x=
10
9
Substituting x = into (i), we have
10
 9  27
y = 3  =
 10  10
 9 27 
∴ The coordinates of A are  , . 1A
 10 10 
Substituting y = 0 into the equation of AC, we have
x + 3(0) – 9 = 0 1M
x=9
∴ The coordinates of C are (9 , 0). 1A

(c) OC = 9
27
Distance from A to OC =
10
Distance from B to OC = 2
Area of △ AOB
= area of △ AOC – area of △ BOC
1 27 1
= 9   9  2 1M+1A
2 10 2
63
= 1A
20

Alternative method:
2 2
 9   27  9
AO =     =
 10   10  10
2 2
 9  27  7
AB =  3     2   =
 10   10  10
∴ Area of △ AOB
1 9 7
=   1M+1A
2 10 10
63
= 1A
20

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.100

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>


In the figure, the straight line L1: 2x + y – 8 = 0 cuts the y-axis at the point A. The straight line
L2: x – y + 2 = 0 cuts the y-axis at the point B. L1 and L2 intersect at the point C.
(a) Find the area of △ ABC.
(b) D is a point on L2 such that the area of △ABD is 15. It is given that the x-coordinate of D is
positive. Let BC : CD = 1 : r. Find the value of r.
(7 marks)
Solution:
 8
(a) y-intercept of L1 =    =8
 1 
 2 
y-intercept of L2 =    = 2
 1
∴ The coordinates of A are (0 , 8). The coordinates of B are (0 , 2). 1A
2 x  y  8  0......................................(i) 
  1M
 x  y  2  0.......................................(ii ) 
(i) + (ii): 3x – 6 = 0
3x = 6
x=2
Substituting x = 2 into (i), we have
2(2) + y – 8 = 0
y=4
∴ The coordinates of C are (2 , 4). 1A
AB = 8 – 2
=6
Distance from C to AB = 2
Area of △ ABC
1
= ×6×2 1M
2
=6 1A

## (b) Area of △ ACD = area of △ ABD – area of △ ABC

Ratio of the area of △ ABC to the area of △ ACD = 1 : r

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.101

6 1
= 1M
15  6 r
3
r= 1A
2

Alternative method:
Area of △ ABD = area of △ ABC + area of △ ACD
Ratio of the area of △ ABC to the area of △ ABD = 1 : (1 + r)
6 1
= 1M
15 1  r
6 + 6r = 15
6r = 9
3
r= 1A
2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>


In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle, where the coordinates of A are (–4 , 2). The equation of the
straight line AD is 2x + y + 6 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of AB and the coordinates of B.
(b) Find the equation of BC and the coordinates of C.
(c) Find the equation of CD and the coordinates of D.
(11 marks)
Solution:
2
(a) Slope of AD =  = –2
1
∵ AB is perpendicular to AD,
∴ slope of AB × slope of AD = –1
slope of AB × (–2) = –1 1M
1
slope of AB =
2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.102

The equation of AB is
1
y – 2 = [x – (–4)] 1M
2
2y – 4 = x + 4
i.e. x – 2y + 8 = 0 1A
Let (–10 , b) be the coordinates of B.
∵ B(–10 , b) lies on AB,
∴ –10 – 2b + 8 = 0 1M
–2b = 2
b = –1
∴ The coordinates of B are (–10 , –1). 1A

## (b) ∵ BC is parallel to AD,

∴ slope of BC = slope of AD = –2 1M
The equation of BC is
y – (–1) = –2[x – (–10)]
y + 1 = –2x – 20
i.e. 2x + y + 21 = 0 1A
Let (c , –5) be the coordinates of C.
∵ C(c , –5) lies on BC,
∴ 2c + (–5) + 21 = 0
2c = –16
c = –8
∴ The coordinates of C are (–8 , –5). 1A

## (c) ∵ CD is parallel to AB,

1
∴ slope of CD = slope of AB = 1M
2
The equation of CD is
1
y – (–5) = [x – (–8)]
2
2y + 10 = x + 8
i.e. x – 2y – 2 = 0 1A
Let (d , –2) be the coordinates of D.
∵ D(d , –2) lies on CD,
∴ d – 2(–2) – 2 = 0
d = –2
∴ The coordinates of D are (–2 , –2). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.103

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=12>


In the figure, the coordinates of R are (–4 , –3), the coordinates of P are (p , 2) and the slope of PR
5
is .
9
(a) Find the equation of PR.
(b) Find the value of p.
(c) It is given that RS is an altitude of △ PQR and QR is a vertical line of length 8. Find the area
of △ PQR. Hence, find the length of RS, correct to 3 significant figures.
(12 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of PR is
5
y – (–3) = [x – (–4)] 1M
9
9y + 27 = 5x + 20
i.e. 5x – 9y – 7 = 0 1A

## (b) ∵ P(p , 2) lies on PR,

∴ 5p – 9(2) – 7 = 0 1M
5p = 25
p=5 1A

Alternative method:
32
Slope of PR =
4 p
5 5
= 1M
9 4 p
20 + 5p = 45
5p = 25
p=5 1A

(c) QR = 8
Distance from P to QR = p – (–4) 1M
=5+4
=9 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.104

Area of △ PQR
1
= 89 1M
2
= 36 1A
The coordinates of Q are (–4 , 8 – 3), i.e. (–4 , 5). 1A
PQ = [5  (4)]2  (2  5) 2
= 90 1A
1
∴ Area of △ PQR =  PQ  RS
2
1
36 =  90  RS 1M
2
RS = 7.59, cor. to 3 sig. fig. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>


In the figure, the straight line L1 passes through two points P(–3 , 19) and Q(–13 , 7). L2 is the
perpendicular bisector of the line segment PQ.
(a) Find the equation of L2.
(b) It is given that the straight line L3 passes through the origin O and has no points of
intersection with L1.
(i) Find the equation of L3.
(ii) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L2 and L3.
(10 marks)
Solution:
19  7 6
(a) Slope of L1 = = 1M
 3  (13) 5
∵ L2 is perpendicular to L1,
∴ slope of L2 × slope of L1 = –1
6
slope of L2 × = –1 1M
5
5
slope of L2 = 
6

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.105

Coordinates of the mid-point of PQ
  3  (13) 19  7 
= ,  1M
 2 2 
= (–8 , 13)
∴ The equation of L2 is
5
y – 13 =  [x – (–8)] 1M
6
6y – 78 = –5x – 40
i.e. 5x + 6y – 38 = 0 1A

## (b) (i) ∵ L3 and L1 have no points of intersection,

∴ L3 // L1
∴ Slope of L3 = slope of L1
6
= 1A
5
The equation of L3 is
6
y= x 1M
5
i.e. 6x – 5y = 0 1A

5 x  6 y  38  0.............................................(1)

(ii)  6
 y  x..........................................................(2)
 5
Substituting (2) into (1), we have
6 
5x + 6  x  – 38 = 0 1M
5 
61x = 190
190
x=
61
190
Substituting x = into (2), we have
61
6  190 
y=  
5  61 
228
=
61
 190 228 
∴ The coordinates of the point of intersection of L2 and L3 are  , . 1A
 61 61 

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.106

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>


In the figure, A, B and C are the vertices of △ ABC. The coordinates of A are (2 , 5). D is a point on
AB such that CD ⊥ AB. E is a point on the x-axis such that AE = EC. The equation of CD is
x + y + 1 = 0 and the equation of BE is x – 7y – 3 = 0.
(a) Find the equation of AB.
(b) Find the coordinates of B.
(c) Find the coordinates of C. Hence, find the equation of BC.
(10 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Slope of CD =  = –1
1
∵ AB is perpendicular to CD,
∴ slope of AB × slope of CD = –1
slope of AB × (–1) = –1 1M
slope of AB = 1
The equation of AB is
y–5=x–2 1M
i.e. x – y + 3 = 0 1A

 x  y  3  0..........................................(i)
(b) 
 x  7 y  3  0.......................................(ii )
(i) – (ii): 6y + 6 = 0 1M
6y = –6
y = –1
Substituting y = –1 into (i), we have
x – (–1) + 3 = 0
x = –4
∴ The coordinates of B are (–4 , –1). 1A

(c) When y = 0,
x – 7(0) – 3 = 0
x=3
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.107
∴ The coordinates of E are (3 , 0). 1A
Let (c , d) be the coordinates of C.
∵ AE = EC
2c
∴ 3= 1M
2
6=2+c
c=4
5d
0=
2
d = –5
∴ The coordinates of C are (4 , –5). 1A
The equation of BC is
y  (1)  5  (1)
= 1M
x  (4) 4  (4)
y 1 1
= 
x4 2
2y + 2 = –x – 4
i.e. x + 2y + 6 = 0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>

The equations of two straight lines L1 and L2 are given below:
L1: 3x + 7y + p = 0 (where p is a constant)
L2: 4x – qy + 11 = 0 (where q is a constant)
In each of the following, find the values of p and q.
(a) L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection.
(b) L1 and L2 have no points of intersection.
(c) L1 and L2 have one point of intersection.
(10 marks)
Solution:
3 p
(a) Slope of L1 =  , y-intercept of L1 =  . 1M
7 7
 4  4  11  11
Slope of L2 =    = , y-intercept of L2 =    = . 1M
q q q q
∵ L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection,
∴ slope of L1 = slope of L2 and y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2.
3 4
∴  = 1M
7 q
–3q = 28
28
q=  1A
3
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.108
p 11
and  = 1M
7 q
p 11
 =
7 28

3
33
p= 1A
4

## (b) ∵ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection,

∴ slope of L1 = slope of L2 and y-intercept of L1  y-intercept of L2.
33 28
∴ p  and q   . 1A+1A
4 3

## (c) ∵ L1 and L2 have one point of intersection,

∴ slope of L1  slope of L2.
28
∴ p is any real number and q   . 1A+1A
3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

In a rectangular coordinate plane, the coordinates of the points A and B are (12 , 3) and (2 , 9)
respectively. A is rotated anticlockwise about the origin O through 90° to C.
(a) Find the equation of AC.
(b) Are A, B and C collinear? Explain your answer.
(c) D is a point on AC such that OD ⊥ AC. Find the coordinates of D.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) Coordinates of C = (–3 , 12) 1A
The equation of AC is
y 3 12  3
= 1M
x  12  3  12
y 3 3
= 
x  12 5
5y – 15 = –3x + 36
i.e. 3x + 5y – 51 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.109

(b) Substituting B(2 , 9) into the equation of AC, we have
L.H.S. = 3(2) + 5(9) – 51 = 0 1M
∵ L.H.S. = R.H.S.
∴ B lies on AC.
i.e. A, B and C are collinear. 1A

Alternative method:
93 3
Slope of AB = = 1M
2  12 5
3
Slope of AC = 
5
∵ Slope of AB = slope of AC
∴ A, B and C are collinear. 1A

## (c) ∵ OD is perpendicular to AC,

∴ slope of OD × slope of AC = –1
 3
slope of OD ×    = –1 1M
 5
5
slope of OD =
3
5
The equation of OD is y = x.
3
3 x  5 y  51  0 .......... .......... ...................(i)

 5
 y  x....................................................(ii )
 3
Substituting (ii) into (i), we have
5 
3x + 5  x  – 51 = 0 1M
3 
34x = 153
9
x=
2
9
Substituting x = into (ii), we have
2
5  9  15
y=   =
32 2
 9 15 
∴ The coordinates of D are  , . 1A
2 2 

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.110

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=6>

In a rectangular coordinate plane, the coordinates of the points A, B and T are (–7 , 2), (3 , 10) and
(0 , 5) respectively. It is given that PT and the straight line L: x + y + 7 = 0 have no points of
intersection.
(a) If the coordinates of P are (k , p), express p in terms of k.
(b) If AP = PB, find the coordinates of P.
(6 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Slope of L =  = –1
1
∵ PT and L have no points of intersection,
∴ slope of PT = slope of L
p 5
= –1 1M
k 0
p=5–k 1A

(b) ∵ AP = PB
∴ [k  ( 7)]2  ( p  2) 2 = (k  3)2  ( p  10)2 1M
(k + 7)2 + (5 – k – 2)2 = (k – 3)2 + (5 – k – 10)2
(k + 7)2 + (–k + 3)2 = (k – 3)2 + (–k – 5)2
k2 + 14k + 49 + k2 – 6k + 9 = k2 – 6k + 9 + k2 + 10k + 25 1M
4k = –24
k = –6 1A
p = 5 – (–6) = 11
∴ The coordinates of P are (–6 , 11). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.111

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>

Refer to the figure.

(a) Write down the equation of the straight line L in intercept form. Give the answer in terms of
a.
(b) If the point (–2 , 3) lies on L,
(i) find the equation of L;
(ii) does the point (– 4 , – 10) lie on L? Explain your answer.
(7 marks)
Solution:
x y
(a) The equation of L is   1. 1A
 2a a

## (b) (i) Putting x = 2, y = 3 into L, we have

2 3
 1 1M
 2a a
a4
x y
 The equation of L is   1. 1M+1A
8 4
x y
(ii) Putting x =  4, y =  10 into  = 1, we have
8 4
 4  10 1 5 4
L.H.S. =      = 2 ≠ 1 = R.H.S. 1M+1M
8 4 2 2 2
 (4 , 10) does not lie on L. 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>

3
(a) Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (2 , 6) and has slope  .
2
(b) Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of the straight line in (a).
(7 marks)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.112

Solution:
(a) The equation of the straight line is
3
y  6   ( x  2) 1M
2
3x  6  2 y  12
i.e. 3x  2 y  18  0 1M+1A

(b) When x = 0, 2y – 18 = 0 1M
y=9
When y = 0, 3x – 18 = 0 1M
x=6

##  The x-intercept is 6 , the y-intercept is 9 . 1A+1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=7>

In the figure, the straight line L passes through two points (2 , 3) and (– 1 , – 4).

## (a) Find the equation of L.

(b) Find the coordinates of the two points A and B.
(7 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y 3 43
 1M
x  2 1 2
y 3 7

x 2 3
i.e. 7 x  3 y  5  0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.113

(b) When x = 0, –3y – 5 = 0 1M
5
y =
3
When y = 0, 7x – 5 = 0 1M
5
x=
7
5   5
 The coordinates of A are  , 0 . The coordinates of B are 0 ,  . 1A+1A
7   3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=8>

Straight line L1 passes through the point (2 , 4) and is parallel to the y-axis. Straight line L2 passes
through the point (–3 , 6) and is parallel to the x-axis.
(a) Find the equation of L1.
(b) Find the equation of L2.
(c) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
(d) If the point (a , –2a) lies on L1, find the coordinates of the point.
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a)  L1 // y-axis

##  The equation of L1 is x  2. 1M+1A

(b)  L2 // x-axis

## (d)  (a , 2a) lies on L1.

Putting x = a into the equation of L1, we have
a=2 1M
 The required coordinates are (2 ,  4). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.114

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=9>

A straight line L with slope 1 passes through the point (2 , 4). If L cuts the y-axis at point P, find
(a) the equation of L,
(b) the coordinates of P,
(c) the equation of the line which is perpendicular to L and passes through P.
(9 marks)
Solution:
(a) The equation of L is
y – 4 = –1[x – (–2)] 1M
y – 4 = –(x + 2)
i.e. x + y – 2 = 0 1M+1A

## (b) Substituting x  0 into the equation x  y  2  0 , we have

(0) + y – 2 = 0 1M
y=2
 The coordinates of P are (0 , 2). 1A

## (c) Let the slope of the required line be m.

 The required line  L
 m(1)  1 1M
m=1
The required equation is
y – 2 = (1)(x – 0) 1M
y–2=x
i.e. x – y + 2 = 0 1M+1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.115

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>

In the figure, the coordinates of points P and Q are (0 , 4) and (3 , 0) respectively. The
perpendicular bisector  of the line segment PQ intersects the y-axis at R.

## (a) Find the equation of  .

(b) Find the coordinates of R.
(c) Hence, or otherwise, find the area of △PQR.
(10 marks)
Solution:
03 40  3 
(a) Mid-point of PQ =  ,  =  , 2 1A
 2 2  2 
40 4
Slope of PQ =  1A
03 3
1 3
Slope of  =  1M
4 4
3
 The equation of  is
3 3
y 2  x   1M
4 2
i.e. 6 x  8 y  7  0 1A

## (b) Putting x = 0 into 6x  8y + 7 = 0, we have

6(0)  8 y  7  0 1M
7
y
8
 7
 The coordinates of R are  0 , . 1A
 8

1
(c) Area of △PQR = (PR)(OQ) 1M
2
1 7
=  4   (3) 1M
2 8
11
= 4 1A
16

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.116

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>

In the figure, the straight line L1 : x + 3y + 6 = 0 cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at Q and R
respectively. The straight line L2 passes through R and is perpendicular to L1, and cuts the x-axis at
P.

## (a) Find the coordinates of Q and R.

(b) (i) Find the slope of L1.
(ii) Find the slope of L2.
(iii) Find the equation of L2.
(c) Find the coordinates of P.
(10 marks)
Solution:
(a) Putting x = 0 into the equation of L1, we have 1M
0 + 3y + 6 = 0
y= 2
 The coordinates of R are (0 ,  2). 1A
Putting y = 0 into the equation of L1, we have
x + 3(0) + 6 = 0
x= 6
 The coordinates of Q are ( 6 , 0). 1A

1
(b) (i) Slope of L1 =  1A
3
(ii)  L1 ⊥ L2
1
 Slope of L2 = 3 1M+1A
1

3
(iii) The equation of L2 is
y + 2 = 3(x – 0) 1M
i.e. 3x  y  2  0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.117

(c) Putting y = 0 into L2, we have 1M
3x  0  2  0
3x  2
2
x
3
2 
 The coordinates of P are  , 0 . 1A
3 

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=10>

In the figure, OABC is a parallelogram where point A lies on the y-axis. The coordinates of C are
(2 , – 4) and the length of BC is 6.

## (a) Find the equation of BC.

(b) Find the equation of OC.
(c) Find the coordinates of point A.
(d) Find the equation of AB.
(10 marks)
Solution:
(a)  OABC is a parallelogram.
 BC // y-axis
 The equation of BC is x = 2. 1M+1A

(b) The equation of the straight line passing through the origin and C(2 ,  4) is
y  0 0  (4)

x0 02
i.e. y  2 x 1M+1A

## (c)  OABC is a parallelogram.

 OA = BC = 6 1M
 The coordinates of A are (0 , 6). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.118

(d)  The coordinates of B are (2 ,  4 + 6) = (2 , 2). 1M+1A
 The equation of AB is
y2 62
 1M
x2 02
i.e. 2x  y  6  0 1A

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>

The equations of two straight lines L1 and L2 are given below:
L1 : x + ay – 1 = 0 (where a is a constant)
L2 : 3x – 5y + b = 0 (where b is a constant)
In each of the following cases, find the range of possible values of a and b such that L1 and L2
satisfy the specific condition.
(a) L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection.
(b) L1 and L2 have no points of intersection.
(c) L1 and L2 have one point of intersection.
(11 marks)
Solution:
1  1  1
Slope of L1 =  , y-intercept of L1 =     1M
a  a  a
 3  3  b  b
Slope of L2 =     , y-intercept of L2 =    1M
 5 5  5 5
(a)  L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection.
 Slope of L1 = slope of L2 and
y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2 1M
1 3 1 b
   and 
a 5 a 5
3 b
3a  5 
5 5
5
a b  3 1A+1A
3

## (b)  L1 and L2 have no points of intersection.

 Slope of L1 = slope of L2 and
y-intercept of L1≠ y-intercept of L2 1M
5
 a   and b  3. 1A+1A
3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.119

(c)  L1 and L2 have one point of intersection.
 Slope of L1≠ slope of L2 1M
5
 a and b is any real number. 1A+1A
3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=11>

In the figure, O (0 , 0), A (3 , 5) and B (9 , 1) are three points in a rectangular coordinate plane. The
point C lies on the perpendicular bisector of AB such that OC is parallel to AB. Find
(a) the equation of the perpendicular bisector of AB,
(b) the equation of OC,
(c) the coordinates of C.

(11 marks)
Solution:
(a) Let m be the slope of the perpendicular bisector of AB.
1 5
Slope of AB 
93
2
 1M
3
 2 
 m    1 1M
 3
3
m 1A
2
 3  9 5 1
The coordinates of the mid -point of AB are  , , i.e. (6 , 3). 1M
 2 2 
 The equation of the perpendicular bisector is
3
y 3  ( x  6) 1M
2
2( y  3)  3( x  6)
2 y  6  3x  18
i.e. 3x – 2y – 12 = 0 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.120

(b)  OC // AB
 Slope of OC  slope of AB 1M
2

3
The equation of OC is
2
y  0   ( x  0)
3
2
i.e. y   x 1A
3

3x  2 y  12  0.............(i)

(c)  2 1M
 y   x........................(ii)
 3
Substituting (ii) into (i), we have

2
3x  2( x)  12  0
3
9 x  4 x  36  0
13x  36
36
x
13

36
Substituting x  into (ii), we have
13
2  36 
y  
3  13 
24

13
 36 24 
 The coordinates of C are  ,  . 1M+1A
 13 13 

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.121

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=12>

In the figure, P and A lie on the y-axis and RQ respectively, and PA is the perpendicular bisector of
RQ. QS and PA intersect at B.

## (a) Write down the coordinates of A.

(b) (i) Find the slope of RQ.
(ii) Find the slope of PA.
(iii) Find the equation of PA. Hence, or otherwise, find the coordinates of P.
(c) (i) Find the equation of QS.
(ii) Using the equations of PA and QS, find the coordinates of B.
(12 marks)
Solution:
(a)  A is the mid-point of RQ.
  4  0 53
 Coordinates of A =  ,   (2 , 1) 1A
 2 2 

53 8
(b) (i) Slope of RQ =   2 1A
40 4

1 1
(ii) Slope of PA =  1M+1A
2 2

## (iii) The equation of PA is

1
y  1  ( x  2) 1M
2
i.e. x  2 y  4  0 1A
Putting x = 0 into the equation of PA, we have
x – 2y + 4 = 0
(0) – 2y + 4 = 0
y=2
 The coordinates of P are (0 , 2). 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.122

(c) (i) The equation of QS is
y 1 5 1
= 1M
x0 40
y 1
= –1
x0
i.e. x  y  1  0 1A

## (ii) B is the point of intersection of QS and PA.

 x  y  1  0....................(i)
 1M
 x  2 y  4  0...................(ii)
(i) – (ii):
3y – 5 = 0
5
y=
3
5
Putting y = into (i), we have
3
5
x  1  0
3
2
x
3
 2 5
 The coordinates of B are   , . 1M+1A
 3 3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=12>

In the figure, straight lines L and L1 intersect at point A on the y-axis; L and straight line L2
intersect at B and are perpendicular to each other. It is given that the equation of L is
x – 2y + 8 = 0.

## (a) Find the coordinates of points A and B.

(b) Find the equations of L1 and L2.
(c) Are L1 and L2 parallel to each other? Explain your answer.
(12 marks)
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.123
Solution:
(a) Putting x = 0 into the equation of L, we have
0  2y + 8 = 0
y=4
 The coordinates of A are (0 , 4). 1M+1A
Putting x = – 4 into the equation of L, we have
 4  2y + 8 = 0
y=2
 The coordinates of B are ( – 4 , 2). 1M+1A

## (b) The equation of L1 is

x y
 =1 1M
3 4
i.e. 4 x  3 y  12  0 1A
 1  1
Slope of L =   
2 2
1
Slope of L2 = = 2 1M+1A
1
2
The equation of L2 is
y  2  2[ x  (4)] 1M
y – 2 = –2x – 8
i.e. 2 x  y  6  0 1A

4
(c)  Slope of L1 =    ≠ 2 = slope of L2
3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.124

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=L2><mark=13>

In the figure, RS is the altitude of the triangle PQR, and it cuts the y-axis at T.

## (a) Find the slope of PQ.

(b) (i) Find the slope of RS.
(ii) Find the equation of RS.
(c) (i) Find the coordinates of T.
(ii) (1) Suppose PA is the altitude on RQ. Find the equation of PA. Does T lie on PA?
(2) Prove that the three altitudes of the triangle PQR pass through the same point.
(13 marks)
Solution:
60
(a) Slope of PQ =  3 1A
02

1 1
(b) (i) Slope of RS =  1M+1A
3 3

## (ii) The equation of RS is

1
y  0  ( x  4) 1M
3
x + 4 = 3y
i.e. x  3 y  4  0 1A

## (c) (i) Putting x = 0 into the equation of RS, we have

0  3y  4  0 1M
4
y
3
 4
 The coordinates of T are  0 , . 1A
 3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.125

(ii) (1)

60 3
Slope of RQ =  1A
04 2
1 2
Slope of PA =  1M
3 3
2
The equation of PA is
2
y  0   ( x  2) 1M
3

i.e. 2 x  3 y  4  0 1A

4
Putting x = 0, y = into 2x + 3y – 4 = 0, we have:
3
4
L.H.S. = 2(0) + 3   4 = 0 = R.H.S.
3
 T lies on PA. 1A

(2)  The three altitudes of the triangle are PA, RS and QO.
 The three altitudes of △PQR pass through the same point T. 1A

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.126

New Century Mathematics (Second Edition)
S4 Question Bank
4A Chapter 2 Equations of Straight Lines

Multiple-choice Questions

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight line L passes through (7 , 5). L cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at (a , 0) and (0 , a)
respectively. Find the value of a.
A. –12
B. –2
C. 2
D. 12
Solution:
The answer is D.
50 a0
=
7a 0a
5
= –1
7a
5 = –7 + a
a = 12

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Find the equation of the straight line passing through (2 , 3) and with x-intercept 5.
A. x + y + 5 = 0
B. x + y – 5 = 0
C. x – y – 1 = 0
D. x – y + 1 = 0
Solution:
The answer is B.
The equation of the straight line is
y 3 03
=
x2 52
y 3
= –1
x2
y – 3 = –x + 2
x+y–5=0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.127

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

A(5 , 2) is translated vertically downward by 4 units to B. B is rotated clockwise about the origin O
through 90 to C. D is the reflection image of C with respect to the x-axis. Find the equation of
AD.
A. x – y – 3 = 0
B. 2x – 5y = 0
C. 3x – 7y – 29 = 0
D. 3x + 7y – 29 = 0
Solution:
The answer is D.
Coordinates of B = (5 , –2)
Coordinates of C = (–2 , –5)
Coordinates of D = (–2 , 5)
The equation of AD is
y2 52
=
x5 25
y2 3
= 
x5 7
7y – 14 = –3x + 15
3x + 7y – 29 = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, find the equation of the straight line L.

A. 5x – 4y + 12 = 0
B. 5x + 4y – 12 = 0
C. 4x + 5y – 15 = 0
D. 4x – 5y + 15 = 0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.128

Solution:
The answer is C.
Let L1 be the straight line passing through (6 , 5) and (2 , 0).
50 5
Slope of L1 = =
62 4
∵ L  L1
∴ Slope of L  slope of L1 = –1
5
Slope of L  = –1
4
4
Slope of L = 
5
The equation of L is
4
y=  x+3
5
5y = –4x + 15
4x + 5y – 15 = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the straight lines L1 and L2 have the same x-intercept and L1  L2. The inclination of
L1 is 30. Find the equation of L2.
A. 3x  y  2 3  0
B. 3x  y  2 3  0
C. x  3y  2  0
D. x  3y  2  0
Solution:
The answer is A.
1
Slope of L1 = tan 30 =
3
∵ L2  L1
∴ Slope of L2  slope of L1 = –1
1
Slope of L2  = –1
3
Slope of L2 =  3
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.129
The equation of L2 is
y – 0 =  3 [x – (–2)]
y =  3x  2 3
3x  y  2 3  0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The inclination of the straight line L is 45 and L passes though (4 , 8). Find the equation of L.
A. x – y + 4 = 0
B. x–y–4=0
C. x–y+8=0
D. x + y – 12 = 0
Solution:
The answer is A.
Slope of L = tan 45 = 1
The equation of L is
y – 8 = 1(x – 4)
y–8=x–4
x–y+4=0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the straight line L: 5x + 7y + 35 = 0 cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at A and B respectively, find
the equation of the straight line passing through the mid-point of AB and the origin.
A. 5x – 7y = 0
B. 5x + 7y = 0
C. 7x – 5y = 0
D. 7x + 5y = 0
Solution:
The answer is A.
35
x-intercept of L =  = –7
5
35
y-intercept of L =  = –5
7

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.130

∴ The coordinates of A and B are (–7 , 0) and (0 , –5) respectively.
  7  0 0  (5)   7 5
Coordinates of the mid-point of AB =  ,  =  ,  
 2 2   2 2
The equation of the required straight line is
5

y= 2x
7

2
5
y= x
7
7y = 5x
5x – 7y = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight line 13x + 5y – 65 = 0 cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at A and B respectively. If O is the
origin, find the area of △OAB.
13
A.
2
65
B.
2
C. 13
D. 65
Solution:
The answer is B.
 65
x-intercept of the straight line =  =5
13
 65
y-intercept of the straight line =  = 13
5
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (5 , 0) and (0 , 13) respectively.
Area of △OAB
1
=  OA OB
2
1
=  5  13
2
65
=
2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.131

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight line  : 5x – 6y + 30 = 0 cuts the x-axis and the y-axis at A and B respectively. Find the
equation of the perpendicular bisector L of AB.
A. 6x + 5y + 11 = 0
B. 6x – 5y + 11 = 0
C. 12x + 10y + 11 = 0
D. 12x – 10y + 11 = 0
Solution:
The answer is C.
30
x-intercept of  =  = –6
5
30
y-intercept of  =  =5
6
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (–6 , 0) and (0 , 5) respectively.
 6  0 0 5  5
Coordinates of the mid-point of AB =  ,  =  3 , 
 2 2   2
50 5
Slope of AB = =
0  (6) 6
∵ L  AB
∴ Slope of L  slope of AB = –1
5
Slope of L  = –1
6
6
Slope of L = 
5
The equation of L is
5 6
y – =  [x – (–3)]
2 5
10y – 25 = –12(x + 3)
10y – 25 = –12x – 36
12x + 10y + 11 = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

x y
Which of the following straight lines is parallel to the straight line L:  2?
3 4
A. 3x – 4y + 6 = 0
B. 3x + 4y – 8 = 0
C. 4x – 3y + 5 = 0
D. 4x + 3y – 10 = 0
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.132
Solution:
The answer is D.
x y
 =2
3 4
12 x 12 y
 = 24
3 4
4x + 3y – 24 = 0
4
Slope of L = 
3
3 3
For A, the slope =  =
4 4
3
For B, the slope = 
4
4 4
For C, the slope =  =
3 3
4
For D, the slope = 
3
∵ The slope of 4x + 3y – 10 = 0 is equal to the slope of L.
∴ The answer is D.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Which of the following straight lines is perpendicular to the straight line L: 2y – 5x = 15?
5
A. y =  x
2
2
B. y =  x
5
2
C. y = x
5
5
D. y = x
2
Solution:
The answer is B.
2y – 5x = 15 can be written as 5x – 2y + 15 = 0.
5 5
Slope of L =  =
2 2
Let m be the slope of the straight line perpendicular to L.
5
m  = –1
2
2
m= 
5
∴ The answer is B.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.133

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The straight line L1: ax + 9y + 6 = 0 is perpendicular to the straight line L2: 3x – 5y – 6 = 0, where
a is a non-zero real number. Find the value of a.
A. –15
B. –3
C. 3
D. 15
Solution:
The answer is D.
a
Slope of L1 = 
9
3 3
Slope of L2 =  =
5 5
∵ L1  L2
∴ Slope of L1 × slope of L2 = –1
 a 3
    = –1
 9 5
a = 15

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The x-intercept of the straight line L1: ax + 8y + 16 = 0 is –8. The straight line L2: 3x + by – 6 = 0 is
parallel to L1. Find the values of a and b.
A. a = 1, b = –24
B. a = 1, b = 24
C. a = 2, b = –12
D. a = 2, b = 12
Solution:
The answer is D.
x-intercept of L1 = –8
16
 = –8
a
a=2
Slope of L1 = slope of L2
2 3
 = 
8 b
b = 12

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.134

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

9
The slope of the straight line L: (m + 4)x – my – 20 = 0 is . Find the y-intercept of L.
5
A. –4
20
B.
9
C. 4
D. 5
Solution:
The answer is A.
9
Slope of L =
5
m4 9
 =
m 5
5m + 20 = 9m
4m = 20
m=5
 20
y-intercept of L =  = –4
5

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The coordinates of two points A and B are (–1 , 6) and (1 , –2) respectively. If P is a point lying on
the straight line 2x + y + 7 = 0 such that AP = PB, find the coordinates of P.
A. (–4 , 1)
B. (–3.5 , 0)
C. (0 , –7)
D. (1 , –4)
Solution:
The answer is A.
Let (h , k) be the coordinates of P.
∵ P lies on 2x + y + 7 = 0.
∴ 2h + k + 7 = 0
k = –2h – 7
The coordinates of P are (h , –2h – 7).

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.135

∵ AP = PB
∴ [h  (1)]2  (2h  7  6)2 = (h  1)2  [2h  7  (2)]2
(h + 1)2 + (–2h – 13)2 = (h – 1)2 + (–2h – 5)2
h2 + 2h + 1 + 4h2 + 52h + 169 = h2 – 2h + 1 + 4h2 + 20h + 25
36h = –144
h = –4
When h = –4, k = –2(–4) – 7 = 1.
∴ The coordinates of P are (–4 , 1).

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If a > 0, b < 0 and c > 0, which of the following graphs represents the straight line bx + cy = a?
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is A.
bx + cy = a can be written as bx + cy – a = 0.
a a
x-intercept of the straight line =  = <0
b b
a a
y-intercept of the straight line =  = >0
c c
∴ The answer is A.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.136

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

x y
If a < 0 and b > 0, which of the following graphs represents the straight line   1 ?
a b
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is C.
x y x y
  1 can be written as   1.
a b a b
x-intercept of the straight line = –a > 0
y-intercept of the straight line = –b < 0
∴ The answer is C.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


The figure shows the graph of the straight line L: ax + y + b = 0. Which of the following are true?
I. a > 0
II. b<0
III. a+b>0
A. I and II only
B. I and III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.137

Solution:
The answer is A.
I: From the graph, slope of L < 0
a
i.e.  < 0
1
a>0
∴ I is true.
II: From the graph, y-intercept of L > 0
b
i.e.  > 0
1
b<0
∴ II is true.
III: From the graph, x-intercept of L > 1
b
i.e.  > 1
a
–b > a (∵ a > 0)
a+b<0
∴ III is not true.
∴ Only I and II are true.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, ABCD is a square. The equations of AB and AD are 2x + 7y – 29 = 0 and

7x – 2y + 31 = 0 respectively. The coordinates of B are (4 , 3). Find the area of square ABCD.
A. 34
B. 53
C. 65
D. 113
Solution:
The answer is B.
2 x  7 y  29  0 ........................(1)

7 x  2 y  31  0 ........................(2)
(1)  7 – (2)  2: 53y – 265 = 0
53y = 265
y=5
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.138
Substitute y = 5 into (1).
2x + 7(5) – 29 = 0
2x = –6
x = –3
∴ The coordinates of A are (–3 , 5).
AB = (3  4) 2  (5  3) 2
= 53
Area of square ABCD
= AB2
= ( 53 )2
= 53

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the equation of the straight line L1 is 6x – 7y + 24 = 0. The straight line L2 passes
through (–5 , 7) and (11 , 5). Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2.
A. (3 , 6)
B. (4 , 6)
C. (6 , 3)
D. (8 , 6)
Solution:
The answer is A.
The equation of L2 is
y 5 75
=
x  11  5  11
y 5 1
= 
x  11 8
8y – 40 = –x + 11
x + 8y – 51 = 0
6 x  7 y  24  0 ........................(1)

 x  8 y  51  0 ..........................(2)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.139

(1) – (2)  6: –55y + 330 = 0
55y = 330
y=6
Substitute y = 6 into (2).
x + 8(6) – 51 = 0
x–3=0
x=3
∴ The coordinates of the point of intersection are (3 , 6).

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Which of the following straight lines intersects the straight line L: 2x + 5y – 30 = 0 at infinitely
many points?
A. 2x – 5y = 0
B. 5x – 2y + 12 = 0
C. 4x + 10y – 36 = 0
x y
D.  1
15 6
Solution:
The answer is D.
2
Slope of L = 
5
 30
y-intercept of L =  =6
5
2 2
A: Slope =  = , y-intercept = 0
5 5
5 5 12
B: Slope =  = , y-intercept =  =6
2 2 2
4 2  36 18
C: Slope =  =  , y-intercept =  =
10 5 10 5
x y
D:  =1
15 6
30 x 30 y
 = 30
15 6
2x + 5y – 30 = 0
x y x y
  1 can be written as the same equation of L.   1 and L have the same slope
15 6 15 6
and the same y-intercept.
∴ The answer is D.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.140

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight lines L1: 8x – 3y + 16 = 0 and L2: ax + by – 12 = 0 have no points of intersection. The
y-intercept of L2 is 2. Find the values of a and b.
A. a = 8, b = –3
9
B. a = 6, b = 
4
C. a = 2, b = 6
D. a = –16, b = 6
Solution:
The answer is D.
y-intercept of L2 = 2
 12
 =2
b
b=6
Slope of L1 = slope of L2
8 a
 =
3 6
a = –16

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.141

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the straight line L1: 3x – ay + 123 = 0 is perpendicular to the straight line L2: 4x + 2y + 123 = 0,
where a is a non-zero real number, find the value of a.
A. –6
3
B. 
2
3
C.
2
D. 6
Solution:
The answer is D.
Slope of L1
 3 
=  
a
3
=
a
Slope of L2
4
= 
2
= –2
∵ L1 is perpendicular to L2,
∴ slope of L1 × slope of L2 = –1
3
× (–2) = –1
a
a=6

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.142

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, OABC is a parallelogram. Find the equation of OB.

A. 4x + 5y = 0
B. 4x – 5y = 0
C. 8x – 3y = 0
D. 8x – 3y – 56 = 0
Solution:
The answer is B.
∵ AB = OC = 7
∴ The coordinates of B are (3 + 7 , 8), i.e. (10 , 8).
The equation of OB is
8
y= x
10
4
y= x
5
i.e. 4x – 5y = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the straight lines L1 and L2 are parallel to each other. The inclination of L1 is 60° and
the x-intercept of L2 is 4. Find the equation of L2.
A. x  3y  4  0
B. x  3y  4  0
C. 3x  y  4 3  0
D. 3x  y  4 3  0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.143

Solution:
The answer is C.
∵ L2 is parallel to L1,
∴ slope of L2 = slope of L1
= tan 60°
= 3
The equation of L2 is
y–0= 3 (x – 4)
y= 3x– 4 3
i.e. 3x  y  4 3  0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the straight lines L1: y = ax + b and L2: y = cx + d intersect at a point on the positive
y-axis. Which of the following must be true?
A. ab > 0
B. cd < 0
C. b = d
D. ad = bc
Solution:
The answer is C.
A: Slope of L1 = a < 0
y-intercept of L1 = b > 0
∴ ab < 0
∴ A is not true.
B: Slope of L2 = c > 0
y-intercept of L2 = d > 0
∴ cd > 0
∴ B is not true.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.144
C: ∵ L1 and L2 intersect at a point on the positive y-axis,
∴ y-intercept of L1 = y-intercept of L2
i.e. b=d
∴ C must be true.
D: ∵ Slope of L1  slope of L2
∴ ac
i.e. ad  bc
∴ D is not true.
∴ The answer is C.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the equations of the straight lines L1 and L2 are x + ay = b and cx + y = d respectively.
Which of the following are true?
I. a>0
II. ac > 1
III. b > ad
IV. d > bc
A. I, II and III only
B. I, II and IV only
C. I, III and IV only
D. II, III and IV only
Solution:
The answer is A.
1 b
Rewrite x + ay = b as y =  x .
a a
1
Slope of L1 = 
a
b
y-intercept of L1 =
a
When y = 0, x = b.
∴ x-intercept of L1 = b
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.145
Rewrite cx + y = d as y = –cx + d.
Slope of L2 = –c
y-intercept of L2 = d
d
When y = 0, x = .
c
d
∴ x-intercept of L2 =
c
I: From the figure,
slope of L1 < 0
1
 <0
a
a >0
∴ I is true.
II: From the figure,
slope of L2 < 0
–c < 0
c >0
Slope of L1 > slope of L2
1
 > –c
a
 1
   (–a) < (–c)(–a) (∵ a > 0)
 a
ac > 1
∴ II is true.
III: From the figure,
y-intercept of L1 > y-intercept of L2
b
>d
a
b > ad (∵ a > 0)
∴ III is true.
IV: From the figure,
x-intercept of L1 > x-intercept of L2
d
b>
c
bc > d (∵ c > 0)
∴ IV is not true.
∴ Only I, II and III are true.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.146

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If the x-intercept of the straight line (m + 3)x + (2 – m)y + 4m = 0 is 2, where m  –3, find the
value of m.
A. –2
B. –1
C. 1
D. 2
Solution:
The answer is B.
∵ x-intercept is 2,
∴ when y = 0, x = 2.
(m + 3)(2) + (2 – m)(0) + 4m = 0
2m + 6 + 4m = 0
6m = –6
m = –1

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, if the equation of the straight line L is x + By + C = 0, then

A. B > 0, C > 0.
B. B > 0, C < 0.
C. B < 0, C > 0.
D. B < 0, C < 0.
Solution:
The answer is D.
1
Slope of L = 
B
From the figure, the slope of L is greater than 0,
1
 >0
B
∴ B <0
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.147
C
y-intercept of L = 
B
From the figure, the y-intercept is less than 0,
C
 <0
B
C
>0
B
∴ C < 0 (∵ B < 0)

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Which of the following straight lines is perpendicular to the straight line x + 4y – 7 = 0?
A. 4x + y – 5 = 0
B. 4x – y + 5 = 0
C. x + 4y + 5 = 0
D. –x + 4y – 5 = 0
Solution:
The answer is B.
1
The slope of the straight line x + 4y – 7 = 0 is  .
4
1
Slope of the required straight line = =4
1

4
1
A: Slope of the straight line = 
4
4
B: Slope of the straight line =  =4
1
1
C: Slope of the straight line = 
4
1
D: Slope of the straight line =    =
1
 4  4
∴ The required straight line is 4x – y + 5 = 0.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.148

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight lines L1: ax + y + b = 0 and L2: x + ay – 2 = 0 have no points of intersection. Which of
the following can be the values of a and b?
A. a = –1, b = –2
B. a = 1, b = –2
C. a = 2, b = –1
D. a = 2, b = 1
Solution:
The answer is A.
a
Slope of L1 =  = –a
1
b
y-intercept of L1 =  = –b
1
1
Slope of L2 = 
a
2 2
y-intercept of L2 =  =
a a
A: Slope of L1 = –(–1) = 1
1
Slope of L2 =  =1
(1)
∴ Slope of L1 = slope of L2
y-intercept of L1 = –(–2) = 2
2
y-intercept of L2 = = –2
(1)
∴ y-intercept of L1  y-intercept of L2
∴ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection.
B: L1: x + y – 2 = 0
L2: x + y – 2 = 0
∵ L1 and L2 completely coincide,
∴ L1 and L2 have infinitely many points of intersection.
C: Slope of L1 = –2
1
Slope of L2 = 
2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2
∴ L1 and L2 have one point of intersection.
D: Slope of L1 = –2
1
Slope of L2 = 
2
∴ Slope of L1  slope of L2
∴ L1 and L2 have one point of intersection.
∴ The answer is A.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.149

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Which of the following straight lines has/have one point of intersection with the straight line
L: 2x – 5y – 10 = 0?
L1: 4x – 10y + 5 = 0
1 1
L2 : x + y – 4 = 0
5 2
L3: 6x + 15y + 2 = 0
A. L1 only
B. L2 only
C. L1 and L3 only
D. L2 and L3 only
Solution:
The answer is D.
 2  2
Slope of L =    =
 5 5
 4  2
Slope of L1 =    =
  10  5
∵ Slope of L1 = slope of L
∴ L1 and L have infinitely many points of intersection or no points of intersection.
1
2
Slope of L2 =  5 = 
1 5
2
∵ Slope of L2  slope of L,
∴ L2 and L have one point of intersection.
6 2
Slope of L3 =  = 
15 5
∵ Slope of L3  slope of L
∴ L3 and L have one point of intersection.
∴ Only L2 and L3 have one point of intersection with L.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.150

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In a rectangular coordinate plane, the straight line L1: 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 is perpendicular to the
straight line PQ, where the coordinates of the point P are (0 , –2) and the point Q lies on the
straight line L2: x – y + 3 = 0. Find the coordinates of Q.
A. (–2 , –5)
B. (3 , 6)
C. (10 , 13)
D. (15 , 18)
Solution:
The answer is C.
Let a be the x-coordinate of Q.
Substituting x = a into the equation of L2, we have
a–y+3=0
y=a+3
i.e. The coordinates of Q are (a , a + 3).
2
Slope of L1 = 
3
∵ L1 is perpendicular to the straight line PQ,
1
∴ slope of PQ =
2

3
a  3  (2) 3
=
a0 2
a5 3
=
a 2
2a + 10 = 3a
a = 10
∴ The coordinates of Q are (10 , 13).

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.151

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the y-intercepts of the straight lines L1 and L2 are both 4, and the x-intercepts of the
straight lines L1 and L3 are both 1. If L2 is parallel to L3, which of the following is/are true?
1
I. The slope of L1 is .
4
II. L2 and L3 have no points of intersection.
III. The point (–1 , 10) lies on L1.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and III only
Solution:
The answer is B.
40
I: Slope of L1 = = –4
0 1
II: L2 is parallel to L3.
∴ L2 and L3 have no points of intersection.
III: The equation of L1 is
y = –4x + 4
i.e. 4x + y – 4 = 0
Substituting (–1 , 10) into 4x + y – 4 = 0, we have
L.H.S. = 4(–1) + 10 – 4 = 2
∵ L.H.S.  R.H.S.
∴ The point (–1 , 10) does not lie on L1.
∴ Only II is true.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.152

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The straight lines L1: 3x + 6y – 11 = 0 and L2: 2x – py – 4 = 0 have no points of intersection. If the
point (q , –2) lies on L2, find the values of p and q.
A. p = –4, q = –2
B. p = –4, q = 6
C. p = 4, q = –2
D. p = 4, q = 6
Solution:
The answer is B.
3 1
Slope of L1 =  = 
6 2
 2  2
Slope of L2 =    =
 p p
∵ L1 and L2 have no points of intersection,
∴ slope of L1 = slope of L2
1 2
 =
2 p
p = –4
Substituting (q , –2) into 2x – py – 4 = 0, we have
2q + 4(–2) – 4 = 0
2q – 8 – 4 = 0
q=6

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Find the equation of the straight line which is parallel to the straight line 7x – 2y – 6 = 0 and passes
through the point (–2 , –3).
A. 2x + 7y + 25 = 0
B. 7x – 2y – 4 = 0
C. 7x – 2y + 8 = 0
D. 7x – 2y + 20 = 0
Solution:
The answer is C.
 7  7
For the straight line 7x – 2y – 6 = 0, the slope =    = .
2 2
7
Slope of the required straight line =
2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.153

∴ The required equation of the straight line is
7
y – (–3) = [x – (–2)]
2
2y + 6 = 7x + 14
i.e. 7x – 2y + 8 = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The coordinates of A are (3 , –9). A is reflected in the x-axis to B. B is then rotated clockwise about
the origin through 90° to C. Find the equation of BC.
A. x – y + 12 = 0
B. x+y+6=0
C. 2x – y + 3 = 0
D. 2x + y – 15 = 0
Solution:
The answer is D.
Coordinates of B = (3 , 9)
Coordinates of C = (9 , –3)
The equation of BC is
y 9 39
=
x3 93
y 9
= –2
x3
y – 9 = –2x + 6
i.e. 2x + y – 15 = 0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.154

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If a < 0, which of the following shows the graph of the straight line ax + 3y – 5 = 0?
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is C.
a
Slope of the straight line =
3
 a<0
 Slope of the straight line > 0
 5 5
y-intercept of the straight line =    >0
 3  3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If 8x – 2(k – 1)y – 7 = 0 and 2kx – 6y + 5 = 0 are the equations of a pair of parallel lines, then k =
A. – 4.
B. 4.
C. 3 or –4.
D. –3 or 4.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.155
Solution:
The answer is D.
 The two straight lines are parallel.
 The slopes are the same.
8 2k
i.e. 
2(k  1) 6
4 k

k 1 3
12  k (k  1)
k 2  k  12  0
(k  3)(k  4)  0
k   3 or k  4

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining (2 , –1) and (4 , –2) is
A. 5x + y – 20 = 0.
B. 4x – 2y – 15 = 0.
C. 3x + 4y – 8 = 0.
D. 2x – 3y + 12 = 0.
Solution:
The answer is B.
 1  (2) 1
Slope of the straight line passing through (2 , 1) and (4 , 2) =  
24 2
1
Slope of the perpendicular bisector = =2
1

2
The coordinates of the mid-point of (2 , 1) and (4 , 2)
 2  4  1  (2)   3
are  ,   3 , .
 2 2   2 
Equation of the perpendicular bisector:
 3
y  
 2  =2
x 3
i.e. 4 x  2 y  15  0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.156

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The graph of the straight line y = mx + c is shown below. Which of the following is true?

A. m > 0, c > 0
B. m > 0, c < 0
C. m < 0, c > 0
D. m < 0, c < 0
Solution:
The answer is A.
From the graph, the slope and the y-intercept are larger than 0.
 m > 0, c > 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the line y = mx + c is perpendicular to the line y = 3 – 4x, then m =
A. – 4.
1
B.  .
6
1
C. .
4
D. 6.
Solution:
The answer is C.
The slope of the straight line y = 3 – 4x is – 4.
 The straight line y = mx + c and y = 3 – 4x are perpendicular to each other.
 m(4) = 1
1
m=
4

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.157

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If a < 0, b > 0, which of the following graph represents the straight line ax – by – 2 = 0?
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is D.
 a  a
Slope of the straight line =   
 b  b
 a < 0, b > 0
 Slope of the straight line < 0
2 2
y-intercept of the straight line =   
b b
 b>0
 y-intercept < 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

x y
Which of the following straight lines is perpendicular to the straight line  = 1?
4 3
A. 4x – 3y + 1 = 0
B. 4x + 3y – 1 = 0
C. 3x – 4y + 2 = 0
D. 3x + 4y – 1 = 0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.158

Solution:
The answer is A.
x y
 =1
4 3
i.e. 3x + 4y – 12 = 0
3
 Slope = 
4
1 4
i.e. Slope of the required straight line  
3 3
4
 4  4
Slope of the straight line in A   
  3 3
 4x – 3y + 1 = 0 is the required straight line.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the straight lines 3x + 2y – 1 = 0 and 4x – ky + 1 = 0 are perpendicular to each other, find k.
A. 3
B. – 3
C. 6
D. – 6
Solution:
The answer is C.
L1: 3x + 2y – 1 = 0
3
Slope of L1 = 
2
L2 :4x – ky + 1 = 0
 4  4
Slope of L2 =   
k  k
 L1 ⊥ L2
 Slope of L1‧slope of L2 = 1
 3  4 
     1
 2  k 
k 6

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.159

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the straight lines 2x + y – 3 = 0 and x + py – 1 = 0 intersect at (q , 1), find p and q.
A. p = 0, q = 1
B. p = 1, q = 0
C. p = 1, q = –1
D. p = –1, q = 1
Solution:
The answer is A.
Putting (q , 1) into 2x + y  3 = 0, we have
2q + 1  3 = 0
q=1
Putting (1 , 1) into x + py  1 = 0, we have
1+p  1=0
p=0

 p = 0 , q =1

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

In the figure, P, Q and R are points on a rectangular coordinate plane. PR and QR are parallel to
the x-axis and y-axis respectively. If the coordinates of R are (–1 , 2) and the equation of the
straight line is 2x + y – 4 = 0, find the distance between P and Q.

A. 5
B. 2 5
C. 19
D. 15

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.160

Solution:
The answer is B.

When x =  1,  2 + y  4 = 0
y=6
When y = 2, 2x + 2  4 = 0
2x = 2
x=1
 The coordinates of P are (1 , 2) and the coordinates of Q are (1 , 6).

PQ = 1  (1)2  (2  6) 2  4  16  20  2 5

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

14023011
In the figure, the straight lines L1 and L2 intersect at (–1 , 2). Find the equation of L2.

A. x + 2y + 5 = 0
B. x – 2y + 5 = 0
C. 2x + y – 5 = 0
D. 2x – y – 5 = 0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.161

Solution:
The answer is B.
 L1 passes through (0 , 0).
20
 Slope of L1 = = 2
1  0
 L1 ⊥ L2
 Slope of L1‧slope of L2 = 1
2‧slope of L2 = 1
1
slope of L2 =
2
 The equation of L2 is
y2 1

x 1 2
i.e. x  2y  5  0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the straight line x + 2y – k = 0 passes through the point of intersection of two straight
lines x + y + 1 = 0 and x – y – 3 = 0, find k.
A. 2
B. –2
C. 3
D. –3
Solution:
The answer is D.
 x  y  1  0....................(1)

 x  y  3  0....................(2)
(1) – (2):
(x + y + 1)  (x  y  3) = 0
2y =  4
y= 2
Putting y = 2 into (1), we have
x + (2) + 1 = 0
x=1
 The point of intersection is (1 , 2).
 (1 , 2) passes through x + 2y  k = 0.
 1 + 2(2)  k = 0
k =3

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.162

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Two points P(3 , 4) and Q(–2 , 5) are given. If A is a point lying on the straight line x – y = 0 such
that PA = AQ, then the coordinates of A are
A. (1 , 1).
B. (1 , 3).
 1 1
C.  ,   .
 2 2
 1 3
D.   ,  .
 2 2
Solution:
The answer is C.
 A is a point on x  y = 0.
 Let the coordinates of A be (a , a).
PA = AQ
(a  3) 2  (a  4) 2  (a  2) 2  (a  5) 2
a2 + 6a + 9 + a2  8a + 16 = a2 + 4a + 4 + a2  10a + 25
8a = 4
1
a= 
2
 1 1
 The coordinates of A are   ,  .
 2 2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If the equation of the straight line L is 2x + y – 1 = 0, then the equation of the straight line passing
through (–1 , 3) and perpendicular to L is
A. x + 2y + 7 = 0.
B. x – 2y + 7 = 0.
C. x – 2y – 7 = 0.
D. x + 2y – 7 = 0.
Solution:
The answer is B.
Slope of L = 2
1 1
Slope of the required straight line  
2 2
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.163
The required equation is
y 3 1

x 1 2

i.e. x  2 y  7  0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The figure shows the graph of the straight line ax – by – 1 = 0. Which of the following is true?

## A. a > 0 and b > 0

B. a > 0 and b < 0
C. a < 0 and b > 0
D. a < 0 and b < 0
Solution:
The answer is D.
 a  a
Slope =   
 b  b
 1  1
y-intercept =   
 b  b
From the graph, the slope and the y-intercept are both positive.
 a
 0....................(1)
 b
 
  1  0....................(2)
 b
From (2), b < 0
a
From (1), >0
b
 b<0
 a<0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.164

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, the area of △ABC is

3
A. .
2
25
B. .
4
C. 3.
D. 5.
Solution:
The answer is B.
Let the coordinates of A be (3 , a) and those of C be (b , 1).
Putting (3 , a) into y = 2x, we have
a = 3(2) = 6
Putting (b , 1) into y = 2x, we have
1  2b
1
b
2
1  1
 Area of △ABC  (6  1) 3  
2  2
25

4

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Straight line L passes through (–7 , 1) and both of its x-intercept and y-intercept are equal to k, find
the value of k.
A. – 10
B. – 6
C. 6
D. 10

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.165

Solution:
The answer is B.
The straight line L passes through (7 , 1), (k , 0), (0 , k).
1 0 1 k

7k 70
(7  k )(1  k )  7
k 2  6k  0
k  0 (rejected ) or k   6

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the equation of the straight line L is 2x – y + 4 = 0. Find the length of OR.
A. 5
4 5
B.
5
C. 2 5
D. 3 5
Solution:
The answer is B.
When x = 0, 2(0)  y + 4 = 0
y=4
When y = 0, 2x  0 + 4 = 0
x=–2
1
2
1
Area of △OPQ  (2)(4)  4  (OR) 42  22
2
 
1
4  (OR) 20
2
 
8
OR 
20
4 5
OR 
5

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.166

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, PQRS is a square. Given that the coordinates of point Q is (1 , – 4) and the equation
of PS is 2x – y + 4 = 0, find the equation of PQ.
A. 2x – y + 7 = 0
B. 2x + y + 7 = 0
C. x – 2y + 7 = 0
D. x + 2y + 7 = 0
Solution:
The answer is D.
 PS ⊥ PQ
 Slope of PS‧slope of PQ = 1
2‧slope of PQ = 1
1
slope of PQ = 
2
 The equation of PQ is
y4 1

x 1 2
x  2y  7  0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


In the figure, the coordinates of A and B are (– 4 , 4) and (– 6 , 0) respectively and the three
altitudes of △AOB intersect at a point C. The coordinates of C are
A. (– 2 , 1).
B. (– 4 , 2).
C. (– 1 , – 3).
D. (2 , – 4).
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.167
Solution:
The answer is B.

## Let the coordinates of C be (– 4 , a).

40
Slope of AB = =2
46
1
Slope of OC = 
2
a0 1

40 2
a2
 The coordinates of C are (– 4 , 2).

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

Which of the following straight lines intersects the straight line 2x + 3y – 6 = 0 at infinitely many
points?
A. 2x + 3y = 0
x y
B.  1
3 2
C. 3x – 2y = 0
x y
D.   0
2 2
Solution:
The answer is B.
 Two straight lines with equal slope and y-intercept have infinitely many points of intersection.
L : 2x + 3y  6 = 0
2
Slope of L =
3
 6
y-intercept =    =2
 3 
x y
 1
3 2

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.168

2
Slope  
3
y-intercept = 2
x y
 L and   1 have infinitely many points of intersection.
3 2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

For two given points A(2 , 4) and B(1 , – 3), which of the following straight lines is perpendicular
to AB?
A. x + 7y + 1 = 0
B. x – 7y – 1 = 0
C. 7x + y = 0
y
D. x  =0
7
Solution:
The answer is A.
3 4 7
Slope of AB =  7
1 2 1
1
Slope of the straight line which is perpendicular to AB = 
7
1
 The slope of x + 7y + 1 = 0 is  .
7
 x + 7y + 1 = 0 is perpendicular to AB.

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The slope of a straight line is – 2. If its x-intercept is – 1, then its y-intercept is
A. 2.
B. – 2.
C. 0.
1
D. .
2
Solution:
The answer is B.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.169

Let the y-intercept be a.
a0
 2
0 1
a 2

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

If A(1 , 1) lies on the straight line joining B(2 , k) and C(4 , 9), then k =
29
A. .
5
31
B. .
7
29
C.  .
5
31
D.  .
7
Solution:
The answer is A.
 A, B, C lie on the same straight line.
9 1 k 1
 
4 1 2 1
5k  5  24
5k  29
29
k
5

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

PQRS is a parallelogram. Three of the vertices are P(0 , 0), Q(p , q) and R(p + q, p – q). The
coordinates of the mid-point of the diagonal QS are
 p q
A.  , .
 2 2
 pq pq
B.  , .
 2 2 
q p
C.  , .
2 2
 2 p  q p  2q 
D.  , .
 2 2 

Solution
The answer is B.

##  The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

 p q p q 
 Mid- point of QS  mid - point of PR   , 
 2 2 

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>


## In the figure, the equation of the straight line L1 is

A. x – y + 4 = 0.
B. x + y – 4 = 0.
C. x – y – 4 = 0.
D. x + y + 4 = 0.
Solution:
The answer is D.
Slope of L2 = tan 135° = 1
 L1 // L2
 Slope of L1 = 1
 The equation of L1 is
y4
= 1
x0
i.e. x+y+4=0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.171

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

The equations of three straight lines are given below:
1 3
L1 : y =  x +
2 2
L2 : x + 2y – 7 = 0
L3 : 2x = y + 4
Which of the following is/are correct?
I. L1 ⊥ L2
II. L1 ⊥ L3
III. L2 // L3

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II only
D. I and III only
Solution:
The answer is B.
1
Slope of L1 = 
2
1
Slope of L2 = 
2
 2 
Slope of L3 =    = 2
 1 
 Slope of L1 = slope of L2
 L1 // L2
 Slope of L1‧slope of L3 = 1
 L1 ⊥ L3
 Slope of L2‧slope of L3 = 1
 L2 ⊥ L3

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

P(2 , 5), Q(4 , –1) and R(–4 , 3) are three points on a rectangular coordinate plane. A and B are the
midpoints of PQ and PR respectively. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through P
and is perpendicular to AB.
A. 2x + y – 1 = 0
B. 2x – y + 1 = 0
C. 2x – y – 1 = 0
D. 2x + y + 1 = 0
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.172
Solution:
The answer is B.
 2  4 5 1 
A=  ,  = (3 , 2)
 2 2 
 2 4 53
B=  ,  = (1 , 4)
 2 2 
2  4  2 1
Slope of AB =  
3 1 4 2
 Slope of the straight line which is perpendicular to AB = 2
 The required equation is
y 5
=2
x2
i.e. 2x  y + 1 = 0

<bk=4A><ch=2><type=MC><mark=2>

O(0 , 0), P(0 , – 4) and Q(5 , 0) are three points on a rectangular coordinate plane. A is a point on
PQ such that OA divides △OPQ into 2 parts with the same area. Find the equation of the straight
line OA.
A. 5x – 4y = 0
B. 5x + 4y = 0
C. 4x – 5y = 0
D. 4x + 5y = 0
Solution:
The answer is D.

1
Area of △OPQ = (5)(4) = 10
2
1
 Area of △OPA = area of △OPQ
2
1 1
 (OP)(a)  (10)
2 2
1
(4)a  5
2
5
 a=
2
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.173
1
 Area of △OAQ = area of △OPQ
2
1 1
 (OQ)(b)  (10)
2 2
1
 (5)b  5
2
b  2
5 
 A =  ,  2
2 
 The equation of OA is
y0 20

x0 5
0
2
4x  5 y  0

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L1 : k(x + 2) + y = 0
L2 : 2x – y = 0
L3 : 2x + y  8 = 0
The three straight lines above intersect at point A. Find the value of k.
A. – 1
1
B. 
3
C. 0
D. 1
Solution:
The answer is A.
 2 x  y  0....................(1)

 2 x  y  8  0....................(2)
(1) + (2):
4x  8 = 0
x=2
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.174
Putting x = 2 into (1), we have
2(2)  y = 0
y=4
 The coordinates of A are (2 , 4).
Putting x = 2 and y = 4 into the equation of L1, we have
k(2 + 2) + 4 = 0
4k + 4 = 0
k = –1

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In the figure, the straight line L1 : 2x + y + 8 = 0 intersects the y-axis at point P(0 , –8). L2 is a
horizontal line between the origin and P. Suppose the equation of L2 is y = k. Express the
coordinates of the point of intersection of L1 and L2 in terms of k.

 k 8 
A.  , k
 2 
  k 8 
B.  , k
 2 
 k 8 
C.  , k
 2 
8k 
D.  , k
 2 
Solution:
The answer is B.
Putting y = k into L1, we have
2x  k  8  0
 k 8
x
2
  k 8 
 The required coordinates are  , k .
 2 

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.175

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Suppose the coordinates of A and B are (–2 , 3) and (4 , –5) respectively. A straight line L passes
through the mid-point of AB and is parallel to the straight line 3x – 2y + 7 = 0. Find the equation of
L.
A. 3x – 2 + 5 = 0
B. 3x – 2 – 5 = 0
C. 2x + 3 + 5 = 0
D. 2x + 3 – 5 = 0
Solution:
The answer is B.

  2  4 3 5 
P  , 
 2 2 
 (1 , 1)
 3  3
Slope of L =   
2 2
 The required equation is
y 1 3

x 1 2
3x  2 y  5  0

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The coordinates of the points P and Q are (6 , –3) and (–4 , 1) respectively. The equation of the
perpendicular bisector of PQ is
A. 2x + 5y + 3 = 0.
B. 2x – 5y – 13 = 0.
C. 5x + 2y + 7 = 0.
D. 5x – 2y – 7 = 0.
Solution:
The answer is D.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.176
Mid-point of PQ
 6  (4) (3)  1 
 , 
 2 2 
 (1 ,  1)
Slope of PQ
1  (3)

46
2

5
Let the slope of the perpendicular bisector of PQ be m.
 2
m    1
 5
5
m
2
 The equation of the perpendicular bisector of PQ is
5
y  (1)  ( x  1)
2
2( y  1)  5( x  1)
2 y  2  5x  5
i.e. 5x  2 y  7  0

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x
If the straight lines  4 y  3 and y + px + q = 0 are parallel, then p =
p
A. 2 or –2.
1 1
B. or  .
2 2
1
C. 2 or .
2
D. 1 or –1.
Solution:
The answer is B.
x
Slope of  4y  3
p
1
p

4
1

4p
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.177
Slope of y  px  q  0
p

1
 p
 The two given lines are parallel.
 Their slopes are equal.
1
i.e.   p
4p
1
 p2
4
1 1
p  or 
2 2

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If a, b and c are all positive, which of the following represents the graph of ax = by – c?
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is B.
ax  by  c
i.e. ax  by  c  0
a a
Slope =  0
b b
 The line slopes upward from left to right.

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.178

c c
y - intercept    0
(b) b
 The graph in B represents ax – by + c = 0.

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Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (3 , 2) and is perpendicular to the
x-axis.
A. x = 2
B. x=3
C. y = 2
D. y=3
Solution:
The answer is B.
The required line is vertical (parallel to the y-axis, i.e. x = 0)
 The required equation is x  3.

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Which of the following straight lines is parallel to the line 2x  y + 3 = 0 and
passes through the point (1 , 2)?
A. 2x + y = 0
B. 2x  y = 0
C. 2x  y  4 = 0
D. x + 2y  3 = 0
Solution:
The answer is C.
Slope of the given line 2 x  y  3  0
2

(1)
2
 Slope of the required line = 2
 The equation of the required line is
y  (2)  2( x  1)
y  2  2x  2
i.e. 2 x  y  4  0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.179

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Given that the equation of a straight line is 5x  60y = 15, find the x-intercept and y-intercept of
the line.
x-intercept y-intercept
1 1
A. 
3 4
1 1
B.
3 4
C. 3 –4
1
D. 3 
4
Solution:
The answer is D.
5x – 60y = 15
i.e. 5x – 60y – 15 = 0
(15)
x - intercept   3
5
(15) 1
y - intercept   
(60) 4

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In the figure, the equation of the straight line L is 5x  12y + 30 = 0. Find the shaded area.
A. 3.6
B. 7.2
C. 7.5
D. 15
Solution:
The answer is C.
30
x - intercept    6
5
30
y - intercept    2.5
(12)

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.180

 The shaded area
6  2.5

2
 7.5

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y
B
A(3,6)

C(7,4)

O x

## In the figure, OABC is a parallelogram. The coordinates of A and C are (3 , 6) and (7 , 4)

respectively. Find the equation of OB.
A. x  y=0
B. x  2y = 0
C. 2x  y = 0
D. 2x + y = 0
Solution:
The answer is A.
The coordinates of B are (3  7, 6  4), i.e. (10 , 10).
The equation of OB is
10
y x
10
yx
i.e. x – y = 0

## OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2014 4A Chapter 2 P.181

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Which of the following figures represents the graph of y = ax + b where a < 0 and b < 0?
A. B.

C. D.

Solution:
The answer is D.
y = ax  b
i.e. ax – y + b = 0
a
Slope of the line   a0
(1)
 The line slopes downward from left to right.
b
y-intercept   b0
(1)
 The graph in D represents y = ax + b.

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