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Thyroid disease in thyroglobulin protein

Santiago Daza Cardenas


Mario Alejandro Hernández Cuellar

Gimnasio Campestre la fontana


Science
Ninth grade
Villavicencio/ Meta
2020
Introduction

All frequent investigations should methodically include palpation of the thyroid

gland, but it is essential when its pathology is suspected. Palpation is of diagnostic

importance, the presence of diffusely enlarged thyroid pain, in which the autoimmune

disorder of the immune system creates antibodies that damage the thyroid gland. And the

release of hormones that cause hyperactivity of the gland is called hyperthyroidism, the latter

produces inflammation that prevents the thyroid gland from producing enough hormones

called hypothyroidism, a combination of factors including hereditary factors, sex and age,

could determine the probability of that if you suffer from this disorder referring to (Ross DS,

Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis

and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyroid. 2016), the diagnosed

criterion is thyroiditis that occurs in the thyroid gland, which is an organ that produces

hormones that play an important role in metabolism and the function is that the follicular

cells and the thyroid gland are produced, stored and released in the blood thyroid hormones,

also known as T3 ´´triiodothyronine´ ´ and T4 ´´tiroxina´´, very similar to each other and

whose basic compound is thyroxine.

Some of your thyroiditis symptoms may be fatigue, heat intolerance, cold feeling, or

excessive sweating. This disease is frequently diagnosed today, they are not usually difficult,

if they alter people's lifestyle and cause concern. Both aesthetic and general health problems

can be distressing, however, a patient with adequate information about their disease can

adequately manage their disease without major consequences for their body, whose proper

diagnosis and treatment can prevent the devastating and irreversible effects, the Pathological
anatomy according to Edward C. Kendall (Nobel laureate years later for his discovery of

cortisone), this thyroiditis is characterized by destruction of the parenchyma by infiltration of

the follicles by multinucleated giant cells, with the formation of granulomas and presence of

colloidophagy phenomena according to (Oswald). In which the use of bioinformatics will be

applied, that is, the use of the discipline that allows computer tools to be applied to the study

and management of biological data, where various areas of knowledge interact, such as

computing, statistics and chemistry, which collects the storage, organization, analysis,

manipulation, presentation and distribution of information related to biological data, through

bioinformatics, the thyroglobulin protein will be examined to also analyze the structure of

thyroiditis, in addition a chemical reaction will be identified and what deficiencies within the

human body.
Materials and methods

The revelation of the complete sequence of the human genome allows knowing the

molecular causes of diseases, as well as discovering the significance of genetic differences

between people for the development of diseases and the disease to be treated is thyroiditis,

and with the help of bioinformatics.

This project is going to be carried out, which can be defined as the understanding of

how genetic variants according to (National Institute for Human Genome Research, NHGRI),

that is, with the support of miles of research that they have done, by

(informaticamedica.org.ar)storing the information in Websites and more specifically

bioinformatics is an emerging discipline a discipline that uses information technology to

capture, organize, analyze, and distribute biological information for the purpose of answering

complex questions in biology.

Using some applications, we are going to delve into the disease and analyze the structure of

thyroiditis and while it is true that there are miles of proteins that can be found in an organism

and in the thyroid there is thyroglobulin produced by thyroid cells. . Where the activity of the

thyroid hormone T4 or thyroxine depends on the very intense form of body temperature, the

states of lethargy of hibernating mammals, we can refer to the materials as the development

and implementation of tools that affect access, use and management. of various types of

information, which will be used by the ncbi platform, uniprot to use them as the source of

information, and molecular viewers such as pymol to analyze the structure to see a detail of

its compound, both the thyroid hormone protein and thyroiditis disease to know how it affects
this part of the body. Where would be the simulation of artificial life systems, which includes

the modeling of the compressed use of bioinformatics.

To validate this query, it is considered necessary to make use of bioinformatics

platforms such as NCBI, which is the one that completes the function of being an important

source of molecular biology information and we also offer some bioinformatics tools for the

analysis of DNA sequences. , RNA and proteins, BLAST being one of the most used.

Another of these platforms is Uniprot, this is that database of free access to protein sequence

and functional information, many entries that are derived from genome sequencing projects.

It is the thyroid-specific protein, the main component of the colloid, which constitutes 75% of

the proteins. Thyroglobulin incorporates, for which it requires the enzyme thyroid peroxidase

and H2O2. Thyroid hormones T4 and T3 are formed within thyroglobulin after a coupling

process between its precursors. The thyroid protein in which it is located is called

Thyroglobulin in which from the ncbi which can be said to be T4 as a scientific name could

be found where (Jacobs D.S., Demott W.R. Grady H. et al., Laboratory Test Handbook, Edit

by Lexi-Comp Inc., Cleveland, United States of America) Thyroglobulin is a high P.M.

´´660.000 D ´´s synthesized and secreted specifically by the thyroid follicular tissue.

Quantitatively it represents the most important protein of this gland. It is used as a matrix for

the synthesis of thyroid hormones and provides a storage of thyroid hormones in the follicular

colloid. A small amount of circulating thyroglobulin is detected, even under physiological

conditions.
Results:

Thyroglobulin is a protein synthesized and secreted specifically by thyroid follicular

tissue, to say how much is the molecular weight of this protein, it is wanted to clarify that,

Kilodalton is a unit of molecular mass equivalent to 1,000 daltons, where the molecular

weight would be 69 KDa, and to say how many amino acids the protein has, I have to say that

an amino acid is an organic molecule with an amino group (-NH2 ) and a carboxyl group

(-COOH), these are the basis of proteins, in which the function is the optimal transport of

nutrients and the optimization of the storage of all nutrients, and this protein is composed of

610 amino acids, a component The main colloid, which constitutes 75% of the proteins,

thyroglobulin incorporates I-, for which it requires the enzyme thyroid peroxidase and H2O2.

Thyroid hormones T4 and T3 are formed within thyroglobulin after a coupling process

between their precursors MIT (monoiodotyrosine) and DIT (diiod tyrosine). The

thyroglobulin storage function provides a constant reserve of thyroid hormone. The

thyroglobulin (TG) gene is organized into 48 exons, that is, the portion of the gene that

encodes amino acids,

Where an investigation by (Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping

studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections), identified and

characterized new mutations in the TG gene, reported eight patients from seven families not

related to goiter, hypothyroidism and low serum TG levels. Molecular analyzes revealed

three novel inactivating TG mutations: c.5560G> T [p.E1835 *], c.7084G> C [p.A2343P]

and c.7093T> C [p.W2346R], and four previously reported mutations: c.378C> A [p.Y107
*], c.886C> T [p.R277 *], c.1351C> T [p.R432 *] and c.7007G> A [p. R2317Q]. (National

Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI).

With this it can be deduced that the genetic heterogeneity of the TG defects and the

pathophysiological importance of the predicted TG folding and, therefore, the formation of

thyroid hormone as a consequence of truncated TG proteins and nonsense mutations located

within its domain ACHE type.


Conclusion

The applications with which they can interact are diverse in the biological part, and the

molecular vializers are diverse, in this investigation the pymol application was used, which

allowed us to see the molecule and in this case we visualized the thyroglobulin protein, where

this protein comes from the thyroid gland and characteristics were shown, that is, the analysis

process was carried out, since the amino acids and the weight of the thyroglobulin protein

were examined. The result of the study allowed an analysis of the protein and a greater

knowledge of thyroid disease in the thyroid gland, the same access to the multiple

investigations of the ncbi to use this information in research. The implementation of

bioinformatics allowed to summarize the information in a faster and more efficient way to

carry out the research, this topic is important in what is the development of biology, that is,

an advance in every sense, through these tools You can strengthen the understanding of new

issues or problems that are taking place.To finish I want to say that the natural process that

the body has when it gets sick is great in all the structure that divides, where we believe that it

is little, but it is not true, in conclusion of the thyroid, it is that the gland is important since it

is capable of secreting and producing and storing two hormones, thyroxine and

thiodothyroidine.
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