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FAS Military Analysis

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Russian Missiles
S-25
SA-1 GUILD
The S-25 SA-1 GUILD was the first surface-to-air strategic air
defense system deployed by the Soviet Union These R-113 missiles
were deployed in a ring around Moscow, and remained in service
through the mid-1980s. The SA-1 system entered operational
service in the late 1950s, and was deployed around Moscow in a
dense complex of 56 sites arranged in two concentric rings. There
were 22 sites in the inner ring at about 25 nm radius from the center
of Moscow and 34 sites on the outer ring at about 45 nm radius. A
typical site had 60 launch positions joined by a road network.

The V-301 missile, as originally designed for use with this system,
was unboosted and employed a single liquid sustainer motor.
Although its maximum speed was on the order of Mach 2.5, it had a
low initial velocity which limited its engagement capability against
supersonic targets. Its maximum intercept range varied depending
upon the approach and type of target; for example, against a directly
incoming, high-flying B-252 its range was on the order of 20 n.m.
This missile ccould carry an HE or nuclear payload of 450-700
pounds and its CEP was estimated to be 65-120 feet. It was believed
to be capable of interceptions from a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet
up to 60,000 feet, with some additional capability up to about
80,000 feet, particularly if equipped with a nuclear warhead.

The B-200 guidance system at each site employed a track-while-scan radar (designated
"Yo-Yo" by US intelligence) having about 54° coverage in both the vertical and
horizontal planes. The system also incorporated fire control equipment which enabled
each site to engage as many as 20 targets simultaneously. This capability, with the
spacing of adjacent sites for mutual support and the inner ring of sites for backup, enables
the system to direct an extremely high rate of fire against incoming targets.

Because of its' cost, immobility, and inflexibility, the SA-1 system was not deployed
elsewhere in the Soviet Union apart from Moscow.
V-75
SA-2 GUIDELINE
HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions)
Tayir as Sabah (Egyptian versions)
The V-75 (SA-2) surface-to-air missile system was designed
for the defense of both fixed targets and field forces. The V-75
was designed to cope with the threat posed by small groups of
aircraft rather than massed raids. Flexibility and mobility are its
chief advantages over the SA-1. In contrast to the massive SA-
1 sites, each of which is capable of defending only a limited
sector around the target area, each SA-2 site is capable of 360°
coverage. This flexibility is obtained at the expense of target
handling capacity and rate of fire relative to the SA-1.

Although there are a variety of arrangement patterns, all sites


consist of six launching positions -- usually revetted - deployed
around a guidance radar and linked by service roads to
facilitate loading. While the sites were permanent installations,
all operating components of the system are mounted on
wheeled vehicles and are capable of movement by road or raiL

The V-75 was the basic missile defense system for critical
urban-industrial areas in the USSR, other than Moscow. The V-
75 deployment began on a wide scale since early 1958, with
sites located throughout the western part of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries.
Deployment patterns and levels of concentration varied according to the geography, size,
and shape of the target area, and the Soviet estimate of the worth of individual targets.
Between mid-1958 and 1964 more than 600 SA-2 sites were identified by US intelligence
in the USSR, mostly in defense of population centers, industrial complexes, and
government control centers.
Most SA-2 sites defended major centers of population and industry. SA-2 defenses were
also deployed for the special protection of nuclear materials production and storage
facilities. In addition, some key Soviet field forces and long range bomber bases were
included in the SA-2 deployment pattern. The construction of sites and the training and
activation of firing units was seasonal, with activity at a minimum during the winter
months.
The sites in the Moscow area, located within the inner ring of SA-1 sites, were intended
to supplement the existing defenses. Deployment of SA-2 installations around Moscow
included seven sites as of 1964 as part of a program to supplement the SA-1 system.
Missile defenses were provided for most of the Soviet cities with populations greater than
200,000. SA-2 sites were emplaced at some smaller urban areas which contained
government control centers or other installations of critical importance. They were also
deployed for defense of naval and port facilities, nuclear production and weapon storage
Installations, missile test ranges, and Industrial facilities. Other major military
installations, such as long-range missile sites and alrfields of the long-range air force, are
also defended by SA-2. A number of sites in border areas, which were unrelated to
specific targets, were part of the deployment of peripheral defenses which eventually
extended from the Kola Peninsula along the western and southern borders of the USSR
into central Asia. Deployment in the Baltic coastal area was particularly dense. In mid-
1962 about 750 sites were operational in defense of more than 200 target areas in the
USSR. The Soviets eventually deployed roughly a thousand SA-2 sites in the USSR, with
the major portion of the deployment completed by the mid-1960s.

Some SA-2 units were deployed in support of Soviet field forces in East Germany and in
the USSR. Although SA-2 units assigned to Soviet field forces were normally emplaced
at fixed installations, the system is transportable by road and SA-2 units were observed in
field exercises. However, SA-2 units have a limited ability to follow a fast moving front
because of the requirement for good roads and the time required to displace to new
positions. SA-2 missile defenses for field forces were primarily assigned to such targets
as major headquarters, logistic centers, and airfields.

Deployment of SA-2 sites for defense of Warsaw Pact targets began in 1960. The
heaviest deployment has occurred in East Germany. About half of the sites were manned
by East German troops, and the remainder by units of the Soviet field forces. The East
German sites were located in the vicinity of Berlin and in the northern portion of East
Germany. The Soviet sites were deployed to defend important Soviet military
installations such as major headquarters and airfields.

China

Suspension of Soviet assistance limited the extent of SA-2 deployment in China. Only
about a half dozen sites were initially deployed in China, three of them at Beijing. These
sites contained Soviet manufactured equipment. The Chinese license-built version of the
V-75 was designated the HQ-1. The People's Republic of China developed its own
modified version of the V-750 under the designation HQ-2 (Hong Qian = Red Leader),
with the Western designation CSA-1.

According to a China sales brochure, the FT-2000A SAM will use a highly-modified
HQ-2/ CSA-1 missile that has been equipped with a passive radio frequency homing
seeker operating in the 2- to 6-GHz band. The FT-2000A also will contain a new
millimeter-wave band fuze, a new guidance-and-control section, and a new 60 kg
fragmentation warhead. The missile has a cutoff valve for thrust adjustment while in
flight, probably to extend its range. The missile seeker is loaded with the target aircraft’s
radio frequency (RF) signature before launch and relies on this information for tracking
and intercept. The missile has an estimated maximum range of 60 km, with a maximum
altitude of 18,000 meters.

A stand-alone FT-2000A battery consists of a central control station and twelve


launchers, each holding one missile. The central control station has one master passive
sensor and three auxiliary passive sensors. The auxiliary passive sensors coordinate with
the master passive sensor through triangulation to determine angle and range of targets
emitting in the 2- to 6-GHz band. This configuration is totally passive, relying on the RF
emissions of the target.

A composite fire unit consists of FT-2000A launchers and missiles, integrated with
standard SAM components like those of the HQ-2, SA-2, or SA-3. Although a special
fire control unit and launcher are required, this configuration allows anti-jamming
missiles to replace several of the command guided missiles normally associated with
these SAMs.

Egypt

Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn
as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2).

V-75 Missile System

The V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system.
This two-stage missile has a large solid propellant booster stage fitted with four very
large delta fins. The core stage consists of a storable liquid propellant sustainer rocket
motor using inhibited red fuming nitric acid oxidizer and kerosene fuel. A set of four
cropped delta-shaped wings are located near the mid-section, with a second in-line set of
smaller fixed fins at the nose, and a third in-line set of slightly larger powered control fins
at the tail.

The guidance system at an SA-2 site can handle only one target at a time, but can direct
three missiles against a target simultaneously. Additional missiles could be fired against
the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run. The
Soviets apparently believed they must program three or four missiles against each target
in order to achieve acceptable kill probabilities.

The 295 kg nuclear warhead used only on the SA-2E variant is believed to have a yield of
15 kT. The other V-75 variants have an internally grooved fragmentation warhead weighs
195 kg (130 kg of which is high explosive) with proximity, contact and command fusing
available. This conventional warhead is fitted forward of the main fins and behind the
nose-mounted guidance assembly. At medium and low altitudes the kill radius is about 65
meters and the blast radius for severe damage is 100-120 meters. The maximum blast
radius against a high altitude target is approximately 250 meters, due to the rarefied
atmosphere. The weapon has a accuracy of 75 meters with the large blast radius
compensating for system inaccuracies.
The V-75 system is designed to be simple and easy to operate with the minimum of
specialized training. The standard deployment pattern of a battalion site consists of six
semi-fixed trainable single rail launchers are deployed in the familiar hexagon
arrangement about 60-100 meters apart. The launchers may be dug into pits, left at
ground level or hardened in concrete revetments. The battery command post fire control
team and its computer, the Fan Song missile control radar, the P-12 Spoon Rest early
warning radar, and typically six reload rounds on their articulated trailers are all located
in the center of the launchers array.

The Spoon Rest A-band warning and target acquisition radar has a range of 275 km using
a large Yagi antenna array.

SPOON REST
Function: Target acquisition, early warning
Range 275 km
Frequency A versions: A band (VHF)
B versions: VHF below A band
Comments Power 314kw, BW 6x22.5
PRF 310-400pps
PW 4-6us
Max Alt 32km
Scan 2-6rpm
Associated weapon system SA-2 GUIDELINE
FAN SONG fire control radar
Recognition Six yagi array with bisecting crossbar
Mast mounted on 6x6 truck
In transit, two truck carry array and
generator

KNIFE REST
Type KNIFE REST A KNIFE REST B/C
Russian Designation P-8 Dolfin P-10
Function Early Warning
Frequency A-band A-band
Range 75 km 70 km
Comment 75kw power
PW 4-12us
Associated weapon SA-2
system
Recognition

The maximum radar range of the E-band Fan Song A/B/F radar varies between 60-120
km depending upon target type, altitude and operating conditions. The G-band Fan Song
D/E maximum range is extended to between 75-145 km under equivalent conditions.

FAN SONG
FAN SONG A/B FAN SONG C/E FAN SONG F
Function: Fire Control & Tracking
Can track six targets simultaneously
Range 60-120km (A/B 70-145km (D/E/F versions)
versions)
Frequency E/F bands (A/B G band (C/E E/F bands (F
versions) versions) version)
Comments 600kw power 1.0mw power 600kw power
Vert Ant BW 10 Vert Ant BW Vert Ant BW 10
10x2deg 7.5x1.5deg 10x2deg
Hort Ant BW Hort Ant BW Hort Ant BW
2x10deg 11.5x7.5 2x10deg
Scan 15.5-17HZ Scan 15.5-17HZ Scan 15.5-17HZ
PRF 828-1440 (guidance): PRF
Search 44pps
1656-2880 Trk
PW .4-1.2ms us
2-.9ms us
Associated weapon SA-2 GUIDELINE SAM,
system SPOON REST target acquisition radar
Recognition Trailer-mounted with tilting superstructure
Two orthogonal antennas(lewis scanners)
E version have 2 additional parabolic dishes
Scanners exhibit 'flapping' motion in operation

SIDE NET PRV-11


Function Height
Range 28 km
32km Max altitude
Frequency E-band
Associated weapon system SA-2/3/5
Recognition

At regimental HQ there is a fourth Spoon Rest, a van-mounted P-15 Flat Face 250 km
range C-band search and tracking radar with two elliptical parabolic reflectors and a
PRV-11 Side Net 180 km range E-band nodding height-finder radar mounted on a box-
bodied trailer. There is also a radar control truck and a Mercury Grass truck-mounted
command communications system for linking the HQ to the three battalions.
Some countries which deploy early versions of the V-75 use the older ground-mounted P-
8 Dolphin Knife Rest-A truck-mounted P-10 Knife Rest-B/C radars instead of the Spoon
Rest. These A-band radars have an operating range of about 150-200 km.

The People's Republic of China has deployed a modified version of the V-75 under the
designation HQ-2. The license-built version was the HQ-1.

Specifications
DOI 1959
Status Standard
Length (m) 10.60
Diameter (m) .70
Weight at launch (kg) 2,300
Propulsion system
Booster Solid
Sustainer Liquid
Launch rails/tubes Single rail, ground mounted (not mobile)
Guidance Command
Warhead (type) HE 200kg (295kg SA-2E) 188kg (HQ-2B/F/J/P),
possible nuclear
Performance:
Max. velocity (Mach) 4.0 B/C/D, 4.5 E/F Mach
Effective altitude 27 B/C/F & HQ-2B/F/J/P, 40 D/E km
Maximum range (km) 35km B/F, 44km C, 50km D/E
35km HQ-2B, 50km HQ-2J
Minimum range (km) 7-9
Kill Radius 65 m
Reload time (min) 10
Associated radars FAN SONG, SPOON REST
HQ-1 / HQ-2 (Chinese versions)

SJ-202 Radar
S-125 SA-3 GOA
The S-125 SA-3 GOA medium altitude surface-to-air missile system
uses a two-stage, solid-fuel missile built by the Isayev OKB. The S-125
missile includes a large 2.6 second burn-time solid propellant booster
with rectangular fins that rotate through 90º at launch. The smaller
main stage has an 18.7 second burn-time solid propellant sustainer
motor, and has four aft fixed fins and four forward movable control.
Following booster jettison the missile is tracked by the system's radar
with guidance signals sent to an antenna on the rear fins.

US intelligence imagery at Kapustin Yar in late 1959 revealed two


probable R&D sites, each of which consisted of four launch pads. A
possible launcher on one of the pads held two missile-like objects about
20 feet long. US intelligence subsequntly identified more than 35 sites
of this type in the USSR between late 1961 and 1964, usually near SA-
1 or SA-2 sites. The initial SA-3A GOA Mod 0, deployed in 1961,
includes command guidance throughout the missile's flight. The
subsequent SA-3B GOA Mod 1, first deployed in 1964, incorporated an improved
guidance system. The missile's ability to dive allows it to be used against surface targets
and naval vessels.

Long-range surveillance and target acquisition is handled by the van-mounted P-15


FLAT FACE) radar. The P-15 radar has been replaced in many S-125 units by the P-15M
SQUAT EYE radar, which has the antenna mounted on a 20-30 m mast for improved low
altitude coverage. The accompanying PRV-11 SIDE NET E-band height-finding radar
has a range of 180 km covering targets at altitudes of up to 32000 meters.

FLAT FACE P-15

Function: Target acquisition


Range 200-250 km
Frequency C band (UHF)
Associated weapon system SA_3 GOA possibly SA-8 GECKO SAM,
LOW BLOW missile control radar
Comments Can guide three missiles simultaneosly
Power 380kw,
BW AZ 4.3deg-ELEV 4.3 deg
PW 2us,
PRF 200-700pps,
70km range at 300m alt,
accuracy 650m range, 1.8 deg AZ
Recognition: Van mounted
Two eliptical parabolic reflectors
measuring 11x5.5 m
Reflectors arranged one above the other on
van roof

Target data generated by these tracking radars is passed to the battalion's LOW BLOW
trailer-mounted fire control radar. With a maximum acquisition range of 110 km, the
tracking range of this I-band system is between 40-85 km, depending on target size and
altitude. The system can simultaneously track six target aircraft and guide one or two
missiles. Improved LOW BLOW radars include TV cameras with a range of 25 km to
provide the fire control team with the data needed to perform a command guidance
intercept in a heavy ECM environment. If the missile fails to intercept it would be
commanded to either change trajectory or self-destruct.

LOW BLOW
Function: Fire Control Trk/FC Guidance
Frequency I band I band D band
Range 40 km 40-85 km 29 km
Comments Power 250kw PRF 3560-
PRF 1750- 3585HZ
3500pps Scan (Para)
PW .25-5ms(us) 25HZ
BW 12x1.5
Scan (trough)
16HZ
Associated weapon SA-3 GOA SAM, FLAT FACE, SQUAT EYE
system acquisition radar
Recognition: Four-wheeled trailer-mounted
Two scanning parabolic dishes
one above the other
The S-125 is fired from trainable launchers which are normally fixed, but can be
relocated. The crew loads the missiles with the aid of a conveyor onto the ground-
mounted, trainable launcher for firing, with both twin and quadruple launchers in use. A
pair of missiles are carried in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle. The S-125 is
normally transported from battalion storage areas on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) or ZIL-
157 (6 x 6) trucks and loaded onto the launchers. Approximately one minute is required
to load the missiles onto the launch rails, but nearly an hour is required between missile
launches due to missile preparation, truck transit and other reloading procedures.

SQUAT EYE P-15M(2)


Function
Range 128 km
Frequency C-band
Associated weapon system SA-3/5
Recognition Power 380kw

SIDE NET PRV-11


Function Height
Range 28 km
32km Max altitude
Frequency E-band
Associated weapon system SA-2/3/5
Recognition
Specifications
Missile Characteristics:
DOI 1961
Status Standard
Length (m) 6.70
Diameter (m) .60
Weight at launch (kg) 400
Propulsion system
Booster Solid
Sustainer Solid
Launch rails/tubes 2 or 4 rails, ground mounted (not
mobile)
Guidance Command, (poss. IR terminal homing)
Warhead (type) HE
Kill Radius 12.5 m
Performance:
Max. velocity (Mach) 3+
Max. altitude (m) 25,000
Min altitude (m) 100
Operational range (km) 25
Minimum range (km) 6
Reload time (min) 50

Associated radars FLAT FACE, LOW BLOW, SQUAT


EYE
SA-4 GANEF
SA-4 GANEF is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. Over the years
at least four variants of the missile have been produced, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1
and 9M8M2, though external differences are minimal. The 9M8M1 and 9M8M2 variants
are the primary types in service. The 9M8M1, introduced in 1967, is a 8.8 meter long-
nosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude
limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m
version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). It has improved close-range performance to reduce
the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10
km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a
wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is
detonated by a proximity fuse.

The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body.
The missile is armed 300 meters from the launcher. After launch the boosters burn for
about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor
ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are
fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated.

A battery typically has one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1
missile, although some TELs may carry one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire
control system is fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment. Targets are initially
detected by the long range LONG TRACK early warning E-band radar, which has a 150
km range and 30 km maximum altitude coverage. LONG TRACK is mounted on a
lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added, and is
also used for the SA-6 SAM.

This system passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band PAT HAND
continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. The PAT HAND
radar is mounted on the same chassis as the GANEF launcher, with the whole assembly
collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the radar for road transit. This radar acquires
the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single
missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active
terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous
wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the PAT
HAND can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability.

Target altitude information is also provided by the 240 km range THIN SKIN truck- or
trailer-mounted height-finder H-band radar.

The SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis
on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying two missiles. The
launcher can be traversed by 360º with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45º
on their launcher arms for launching. The vehicle's engine is to the right of the driver
with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics.
Hatches for the other crew members are on either side of the missile turntable. The
torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive
sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has
an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the
commander and driver but no amphibious capability.

Reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks, and reloading the TEL takes
between 10 and 15 minutes.

Specifications
Deployment Russia, 9 other countries
Deployment Year 1967
Length 8.8m (SA-4A), 8.4m (SA-4B)
Body Diameter 86 cm
Launch Weight 2,500 kg
Warhead 135kg HE fragmentation effect
Guidance Radio command, semiactive radar
Ramjet sustainer,
Propulsion
4 solid rocket boosters
Range 55km (SA-4A), 50km (SA-4B)
Design Lyulev Design Bureau
S-200 SA-5 GAMMON
The S-200 SA-5 GAMMON is a medium to
high -altitude surface-to-air missile system.
The single-stage missile has four
jettisonable, wraparound solid propellant
boosters, each of which is is 4.9 m long and
0.48 m in diameter with a single fin spanning
0.35 m from the booster body. The missile is
10.72 m long overall with a wing span of
2.85 m. The main body is 0.85 m in diameter
and has a solid fuel dual thrust sustainer
rocket motor.

Each missile battalion has one 320 km range


P-35M BARLOCK-B E/F-band target search
and acquisition radar with an integral D-band
IFF system, one 270 km range SQUARE
PAIR H-band missile guidance radar, and six
trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers.

The missile's minimum range of 60 km is


due to the booster burn time and jettison
requirements, limiting the system to
engagements against relatively large
unmaneuverable targets at ranges up to 250 km. Guidance beyond the 60 km booster
jettison point is by course correction command signals from the SQUARE PAIR radar
with the S-200's own active radar terminal homing seeker head activated near the
projected intercept point for final guidance.

The large HE warhead is detonated either by a command signal or the onboard proximity
fusing system. When fitted with a nuclear warhead only the command detonation option
is used.

SQUAT EYE P-15M(2)


Function
Range 128 km
Frequency C-band
Associated weapon system SA-3/5
Recognition Power 380kw
TALL KING P-14
Function EW
Range 605 km
Frequency A Band
Associated weapon system SA-5
Recognition Scan 2-6rpm

SIDE NET PRV-11


Function Height
Range 28 km
32km Max altitude
Frequency E-band
Associated weapon system SA-2/3/5
Recognition

BACK NET
Function EW/GCI
Range 300 km
Frequency E-band
Associated weapon system SA-5
Recognition 3-6 rpm Scan

BAR LOCK P-35/37


Function EW
Range 200 km
Frequency E/F-bands
Associated weapon system SA-5
Comments 1 mw/b power
PRF 375pps
7 rpm Scan
BW .7deg
PW 1.5, 4.5 us
Accuracy range 350m AZ .14 deg
Recognition
Specifications
Maximum Speed 4 Mach
Effective Altitude 30.5 km
Effective Range 300 km
Warhead HE 215kg
Fuze Proximity and command
Kill Radius Unknown
ZRK-SD Kub 3M9
SA-6 Gainful
The SA-6 GAINFUL is a two stage, solid-fuel, low-altitude SAM. It has radio command
guidance with semi-active radar terminal homing. Development of the 3M9 antiaircraft
missile for the Kub [Cube] system ended the career of Ivan Ivanovich Toporov, founder
of the OKB-134 Special Engineering Office. The missile designed had not been
experimentally verified, and it became necessary not only to build the missile but also to
simultaneouly conduct basic research. During the initial test launch in 1961, the 3M9
missiles disintegrated in the air. The associated aerodynamic, engine, and guidance
problems compelled Toporov to ask the Ministry of Armaments to extend the deadline
for submitting the 3M9 to governmental tests. Toporov was removed from his post of
chief engineer at the end of August 1961, becoming department chairman at the Moscow
Institute of Aviation, and replaced by Andrey Lyapinov as director of the team. This did
not accelerate the work on the 3M9.
Finally in 1966 the missile together with all the Kub equipment was certified as an
operational weapon, and it turned out to be one of the most successful Russian
antiaircraft missiles. Although it is frequently reported that a naval version of the missile
is the SA-N-3 GOBLET, this is evdiently not the case.
The SA-6a missile has a length of 5.7 meters, body diameter of 0.335 meters, a wing span
of 1.245 meters, a tail span of 1.524 meters and has a launch weight of 599 kilograms
with a 56 kilogram HE-fragmentation warhead. The proximity and contact fuses are
armed after some 50 meters of flight. The basic SA-6a has a maximum effective range of
24,000m and has a minimum effective range of 3,000m, the minimum engagement height
is 100m when using the fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radar and 80m when in the
optical tracking mode, the maximum effective altitude is about 11,000m.
A battery is able to relocate to an alternate firing position in approximately 15 minutes
from systems being shutdown. In 1977, a new version - the SA-6b Gainful, was mounted
on an SPU medium-tracked transporter. The SPU carried three SA-6b missiles and also
an associated FIRE DOME H/I-band missile guidance illuminator radar is fitted on the
front end of the launcher assembly. Reload missiles are carried on modified 6x6 trucks
and are loaded manually onto the launcher by a crane carried on the rear of the loader
vehicle. Reloading an TEL takes approximately 10 minutes.
The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar has a maximum range of 55 - 75km and a
10,000m altitude capability depending upon the conditions and target size, and performs
limited search, low altitude detection and/or acquisition, pulse Doppler IFF interrogation,
target tracking & illumination, missile radar command guidance and secondary radar
missile tracking functions. Some modified fire control (STRAIGHT FLUSH) radars use a
TV camera with a 30km range to enable the battery to remain in action even if the
vehicle's radar is jammed or forced to shut down due to threats from anti-radiation
missiles. This radar can also be linked to the launch vehicles by either a radio data link or
a 10m long cable for direct data input to the launcher's systems. The data link antenna is
carried on the right forward hull corner of the TEL. It also carries the fire control
computers for the SA-6 Gainful missile battery.
The foldable 28km range dish antenna is of the conical scanning type and is used for low
altitude H-band sector search scans, target tracking and target illumination. The lower
parabolic antenna is the G-band medium altitude target acquisition and early warning
radar with a 55-75km range, with the lower feed for medium to high altitude coverage
and the upper feed for low altitude coverage.
The STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar can begin target acquisition at its maximum
range of 75km, and begin tracking & illumination at 28km. The STRAIGHT FLUSH
radar can only illuminate a single target and control three missiles at any one time so
normal practice when a target track has been initiated is to normally order the launch of
two and sometimes three weapons from one or more TELs.
STRAIGHT FLUSH
Function: Fire control/short range target acquisition
Can guide three missiles simultaneosly
Range 60-90km, 10,000m alt
Frequency G/H band (acquisition, I band (tracking)
Associated weapon system SA-6 GAINFUL and possibly SA-11
GADFLY SAM, LONG TRACK, THIN
SKIN target acquisition radars
Recognition: Essentially same chassis as SA-6
12ft long search reflector with 7 ft
diameter fire control parabolic dish on top
Radars mounted on heavy turntable
Reflector backs have hvy pressed metal
appearance
Radars can rotate independently of one
another
Assembly folds flat in transit

With radar up, reaction time from a dormant condition through the target acquisition, IFF
interrogation and lock-on phases to missile launch is about three minutes. If the radar
vehicle is already active then the time taken for the sequence is reduced to between 15 to
30 seconds. A battery is able to become mobile and relocate to an alternate firing position
in 15 minutes from systems being shutdown.

The LONG TRACK target acquisition radar is also associated with the SA-6 system.
After target data has been acquired by the SA-^ regiment's LONG TRACK surveillance
radar, target acquistion and fire control are taken over by the STRAIGHT FLUSH missile
site radars.

LONG TRACK

Function: Target acquisition


Range 150 km+, 30,000+ alt.

Frequency E band (UHF)

Associated weapon system SA-4 GANEF, SA-6 GAINFUL, SA-8


GECKO, PAT HAND fire control radar

Recognition: Highly modified AT-T chassis


Large eliptical parabolic antenna
Operators' cab at front

The TELAR vehicle is of all-welded construction with the crew compartment at the front,
missiles on the turntable immediately behind the crew compartment and the engine at the
rear. The transmission is at the rear of the hull. The torsion bar suspension system
consists of six rubber tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at
the front. There are no track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and over
pressure NBC system and infra-red night vision equipment fitted as standard but the
vehicle has no amphibious capability. Three SA-6 Gainful missiles are carried on a
turntable which can be traversed through a full 360º with the missiles elevated on their
launchers to a maximum of 85º. When traveling the turntable is normally traversed to the
rear and the missiles are horizontal to reduce the overall height of the vehicle.

Besides being vulnerable to suppresive fires and ECM, the system is slaved to the long-
range LONG TRACK radar. Without it the SA-6 is "blind" at high altitudes.
Specifications
System designation Kub (domestic version) or Kvadrat (export version)
Type Mobile tactical air defense complex
Protection of troops and objects of thereof from low-
flying airplanes and helicopters of adversary under
Mission conditions of jamming and fire counteraction
(The system was reportedly designed to defend
advancing Soviet tank divisions in case of the war)
V.V.Tikhomirov Science and Research Institute of
System Developer Instrument-Engineering (NIIP)
Chief Designer of the System: Yevgeniy Pigin
State Machine-building Design Bureau «Vympel»
Missile Developer
(Moscow)
Serial Production Ul'yanovsk Mechanical Plant (for launchers and
Facility reconnaissance facility)
CHRONOLOGY
Development started late 1950s
Testing started 1965 (Army)
Serial Production
1968 [1] or 1967 [3]
started
Production ceased 1983 [3] or 1985 [1]
PERFORMANCES:
One Self-Propelled Reconnaissance and Targeting
Facility and 4 Self-propelled SAM Launchers, each
System Composition carrying three missiles (all on tracked chassis). Initial
version of the system carried 3M9 missiles, Kub-M3
features 3M9M3 missiles
Probability of kill by
one missile (within To increase Pk target can be engaged by several
the lethality missiles, fired from either single or several Launchers
envelope)
for «non manuevering
0.8-0.9 [1], 0.7-0.8 [2] 0.8-0.95 [3]
aerodynamic target»
for manuevering high-
0.5-0.7 [2]
speed target
for cruise missile 0.3-0.4 [1] 0.1-0.3 [2]
semi-active radar homing
(on recently upgraded complexes TV/optical seeker
Missile Guidance introduced)
For protection aganst anti-radar missiles seeker of SAM
can lock on target mid-air, after launch
Length: 5.8 m
Diameter: 0.335 m
Wing span: 1.245 m
Max speed: Mach 2.8
Launch weight: 599 kg
Max effective range: 24,000 m
24-28 kilometers [1-3] (for M3 and M4 modifications)
Min effective range: 3,700 m
3-3.5 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications)
Max effective 12,000 m 14 kilometers (for M3 and M4 modifications)
altitude:
Min effective (radar mode) 100 m
altitude: (optical mode) 50 m
25 meters (for M3 and M4 modifications)
Propulsion: integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor
assembly
Warhead: 59 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity
fuzes
Reload time (SPU): 10 min
Time of Deployment
5 minutes
for Combat
20 [1] or 22 [3] seconds between target detection and
Reaction Time
missile firing
Operational -50 C .. + 50 C
Temperatures
«In the interests of foreign customers» NIIP currently
upgrades the system to increase efficiency of tracking
targets at low altitudes and improve jam-resistance of
Performance
illumination channel. Work is also underway to increase
Upgrade Activity
combat performance can be enhanced by inclusion of a
newer 9A310M1 Self-propelling Launcher from Buk-
M1 (SA-17) system
Exports Was delivered to 22 [1] or 25 [3] countries, including
Syria and Yugoslavia. Extensively used in the 1973
Israeli-Arab war (64 airplanes were shot down by 95
fired missiles)
SA-N-3
SA-7 GRAIL
9K32M Strela-2
HN-5 (Hongying 5) China
Anza MKI - Pakistan
Ayn as Saqr - Egypt
The SA-7 GRAIL (Strela-2) man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude SAM system is
similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explsive warhead and passive infrared
homing guidance. The HN-5 ( Hong Nu = Red Cherry ) is an improved Chinese version
with upgraded capabilities. The SA-7 was the first generation of Soviet man portable
surface-to-air missiles. Although classed as "fire and forget" types, the missiles were
easily overcome by solar heat and, when used in hilly terrain, by heat from the ground.

The SA-7 seeker is fitted with a filter to reduce the effectiveness of decoying flares and to
block IR emissions. The system consists of the missile (9K32 & 9K32M), a reloadable
gripstock (9P54 & 9P54M), and a thermal battery (9B17). An identification friend or foe
(IFF) system can be fitted to the operators helmet. Further, a supplementary early
warning system consisting of a passive RF antenna and headphones can be used to
provide early cue about the approach and rough direction of an enemy aircraft. Although
the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above
minimum radar limitations which results in detection and vulnerability to regimental and
divisional air defense systems.

The SA-7a (9K32 Strela-2) was introduced for service in 1968, but was soon replaced by
the SA-7b (9K32M Strela-2M) which became the most common production model. The
SA-7b, differs from the SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant charge to increase
range and speed. The SA-7a had a slant range of 3.6 km and a kill zone between 15 and
1500 meters in altitude, with a speed of about 430 meters per second (Mach 1.4). The
SA-7b has a slant range of about 4.2 km, a ceiling of about 2300 meters, and a speed of
about 500 meters per second (Mach 1.75). Both the SA-7a and SA-7b are tail-chase
missile systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of
low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft targets.

The Anza anti-aircraft missiles give Pakistan a response to India's superiority in modern
aircraft -- India has a numerical superiority in modern fighter aircraft of more than 3 to 1
over Pakistan. The Anza MK-1, Anza MK-2, and Anza MK-3 surface to air anti-aircraft
missiles have ranges of 4, 6 and 15 km, respectively. The missiles are manufactured by
the laboratory named after Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear
program.
The Anza MKI missiles, which have a range of 4.2 km, were manufactured and handed
over to the military forces in 1990. It has been reported that the missile was used during
the Kargil incidents between Pakistan and India. Pakistan downed two of India's military
planes, a MIG-21 and a MIG-27, with the Anza MKI missiles for violating its airspace on
26 May 1999.

Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn
as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). The Ayn
as Saqr [Falcon Eye] anti-Aircraft missile system is designed to counter air-ground attack
by all types of aircraft flying at low and very low altitudes due to its simplicity of
operation, accuracy, light weight, mobility & versatility (either by one man or to be
integrated into other overall A/D systems). Also it can be mounted on any combat
vehicle, light or armored. Moreover the basic equipment can be fitted with IFF & night
vision units.

Specifications
Date of Introduction 1972
Proliferation Worldwide
Crew 1
Launcher Name 9P54M
Length (m) 1.47
Diameter (mm) 70
Weight (kg) 4.71
Reaction Time 5-10 seconds (acquisition to fire)
Time Between
INA
Launches (sec)
Reload Time (sec) 6-10
Missile Name 9M32M
Max. Range 5,500 meters
Min. Range 500 meters
Max. Altitude 4,500 meters
Min. Altitude 18 meters
Length (m) 1.40
Diameter (mm) 70
Weight (kg) 9.97
Missile Speed (m/s) 580
Propulsion Solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor.
Passive IR homing device (operating in the medium IR
Guidance
range)
Seeker Field of View 1.9°
Tracking Rate 6°/sec
Warhead Type HE
Warhead Weight (kg) 1.15
Fuze Type Contact (flush or grazing)
Self-Destruct (sec) 15
Launcher has sighting device and a target
FIRE CONTROL acquisitionindicator.
The gunner visually identifies and acquires the target.
Gunner Field of View INA
Acquisition Range
INA
(m)
SA-N-5 Naval version
HN-5A Chinese version
Strela 2M/A Yugoslavian upgrade
Sakr Eye Egyptian upgrade
VARIANTS
Mounted in several types of vehicles in four, six, and
eight-tube launcher varieties.
Can be mounted on several helicopters (Mi-24, S-342
Gazelle)

ANZA MK-1 Specifications

Type 2-stage, low altitude


Length (missile, with retracted tail fins) 1.44 m
(total launch assembly in firing condition)
Weight 15 Kg (Missile at launch) 9.8 Kg
solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket
Propulsion
motor
Guidance uncooled Pbs passive infrared homing seeker
HE fragmentation (containing 0.37 Kg HE) with
Warhead contact
and graze fuzing
Average missile
500 m/s
cruise speed
Max missile
6g
manoeuvring
Self destruction time 14-17 s
Max target speed (receding target) 260 m/s
Max effective slant 4,200 m
range
Min effective slant 1,200 m
range
Max effective altitude 50 m
Weapon reaction less than 5 s
time
Time from march to less than 10 s
ready for operation
Battery operation
more than 40 s
time
HN-5 (Hongying 5)
Anza MK-1

Ayn as Saqr
SA-8 GECKO
9K33M3 Osa-AKM
The SA-8 GECKO is a single-stage, solid-fuel, short-range, low-altitude, all-weather
SAM system. The first production version of this system was identified as SA-8a, which
only had 4 launcher rails and exposed missiles. The SA-8b typically has two BAZ-5937
resupply/transloader vehicles, carrying 18 missiles each (boxed in sets of three) that
supports a battery of four TELARs. A target can be brought under fire both with one
missile as well as a volley of two missiles. This system is also air transportable.

The SA-8a (GECKO Mod 0) high acceleration missile (Factory Index number 9M33) has
a launch weight of about 130 kg. Maximum speed is Mach 2.4, minimum altitude is 25
meters, maximum effective altitude 5000 meters. The minimum range is 1500 meters and
the maximum range 12000 meters. The SA-8b or GECKO Mod 1, introduced in 1980, is
mounted in a rectangular launch box and incorporates improved guidance and higher
speed providing an increased maximum range of 15000 meters. The warhead of both
missiles is fitted with proximity and contact fuses, and the 19 kilogram warhead's lethal
radius at low altitude is about 5 meters. The system reload time is five minutes, and
combat deployment time is four minutes with system reaction 26 seconds. The LAND
ROLL conical-scan fire control radar operates in the H-band with a 360º travers, with a
maximum range of 35 kilometers and an effective range of around 30 kilometers against
a typical target. LAND ROLL also has a short-range target acquisition capability. The
radar, at the rear of a one-man gunner-radar operator position, folds back 90º to reduce
the overall height of the vehicle for air transport and high speed road travel. The pulsed-
mode tracking radar operates in the J band with a range of 20 to 25 kilometers. The two I-
band guidance radars make it possible to launch two missiles at the same target, each one
responding to a different frequency to frustrate ECM.

Mounted on top of each missile guidance radar is an low light level TV optical assist
system for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM.

The SA-8 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicle is a six-wheeled
design designated BAZ-5937. Four command-guided missiles are carried ready to launch,
two either side. The driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle has accommodation
for two, the driver and commander, with access via a hatch in the roof. The engine is at
the very rear, and the vehicle is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two
water jets at the rear of the hull. The vehicle is fitted with an air filtration and
overpressure NBC system together with IR systems for the commander and driver.

There are at least three major families of SA-8 launch vehicles. The first, a pre-series
prototype, had a very blunt nose. The standard production model has a sharper nose, and
variants of this vehicle with feature minor changes in the detail of hull fittings. The SA-
8b vehicle is basically similar to the SA-8a vehicle aside from the launcher which
accommodates six missile canisters. Variants of the SA-8b launcher feature a
reconfigured rear end, while some SA-8b TELs include an additional small radar antenna
fitted above the surveillance radar associated with a newIFF system.

Each battery has two missile transloaders based on the same chassis with a long tarp-
covered structure covering the cargo space and crane which slides to the rear when
operating. A total of 18 reloads in boxed sets of three are transferred to the TELARs by
the centrally-mounted hydraulic crane.

Regimental maintenance batteries include a single radar collimation vehicle using the
same chassis. The collimation antenna lies on both sides of the vehicle and overhangs the
rear during transit. In operation it is raised and mounted on each side of the hull directly
behind the cab.

Specifications
Date of Introduction 1980
Proliferation At least 25 countries
Crew 3
Combat Weight (mt) 9
BAZ-5937 6x6 amphibious cross-country capable
TELAR
vehicle
Length (m) 9.14
Height (m) 4.2 (with surveillance radar folded down)
Width (m) 2.75
Engine Type D20K300 diesel
Cruising Range (km) 500
Max. Road Speed 80 km/h
Max. Swim Speed 8 km/h
Radio R-123M
Protection NBC Protection System
Launcher Name 9P35M2
Length (m) 3.2
Diameter (mm) INA
Weight (kg) 35
Reaction Time (sec) INA
Time Between 4
Launches (sec)
Reload Time (min) 5
Fire on Move No
Emplacement Time
4
(min)
Displacement Time Less than 4 (est.)
(min)
Missile Name 9M33M3
Max. Range 15,000 meters
Min. Range 200 meters
Max. Altitude 12,000 meters
Min. Altitude 10 meters
Length 3158 mm
Diameter 209.6 mm
Weight 170 kg
Missile Speed 1020 m/s
Propulsion Solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance RF CLOS
Warhead Type Frag-HE
Fuze Type Contact and proximity
Warhead Weight 16 kg
Self-Destruct 25-28 seconds
Sights w/Magnification
FIRE CONTROL LLLTV/optical assist (for target tracking in low
visibility and heavy ECM)
IFF Yes
Radar Name LAND ROLL
Function Target Acquisition
Detection Range (km) 20-30
Tracking Range (km) 20-25
Frequency 6-8 GHz
Frequency Band H
Radar Name Monopulse Target Tracking Radar
Function Target Tracking
Detection Range (km) 20-25
Tracking Range (km) INA
Frequency 14.2-14.8 GHz
Frequency Band J
Missile tracking 2
radars
Frequency 10-20 GHz
SA-8a Initial production model that carries four
VARIANTS missiles on exposed rails.
4K33 Osa-M (SA-N-4) Naval variant
SA-9 GASKIN
9K31 Strela-1
The SA-9 GASKIN is a short-range, low-altitude self-propelled SAM-carrying system
based on the BRDM-2 chassis. The vehicle carries quadruple SA-9 SAM launchers on a
revolving mount in place of the KPV/PK machine gun turret. The missiles are usually
fired in pairs against each target to increase the kill probability, with an interval between
rounds of about five seconds. Reloading is performed manually and takes about five
minutes.
The 30 kilogram Mach 1.5 Strela-1 missile is 1.8 meters long and 0.12 meters in diameter
with a wing span of 0.375 meters. It carries an HE-fragmentation warhead and proximity
fuse with a lethal radius of 5 meters and damage radius of 7.6 meters. The original
version of the Strela-1 was known as the 9M31 (SA-9A GASKIN Mod 0) and used an
uncooled first-generation lead sulfide (PbS) infra-red (IR) seeker operating. This was
supplemented by the 9M31M variant (SA-9B GASKIN Mod 1) which has an improved
seeker providing greater target sensitivity and lock on ability. The minimum range of the
9M31 is 800 m and the maximum range 6500 m within altitude limits of 15 to 5200 m.
The minimum range of the 9M31M is 560 meters and the maximum range 8000 meters
(increasing to a possible 11000 meters when used in a tail-chase engagement) within
altitude limits of 10 to 6100 meters. When engaging a head-on target the system has a
considerably reduced range.

One SA-9 TEL (SA-9 Mod A, BRDM-2A1 or SA-9A TEL) in each battery is fitted with
FLAT BOX A passive radar detection antenna, one either side of the hull above the front
wheel housings, one under the left launch canisters pointing forward and one mounted on
a small frame above the rear engine deck plate pointing rearwards to give 360º coverage.
The TEL without the FLAT BOX A system is known as the SA-9 Mod-B, BRDM-2A2
or SA-9B.

The BRDM-2 transporter erector launcher (TEL) has the chain-driven belly wheels
removed and the normal turret replaced by one with four ready to launch SA-9 container-
launcher boxes. These are normally lowered to the horizontal when traveling to reduce
the overall height of the vehicle. The vehicle crew of three consists of the commander,
driver and gunner. An air-filtration and overpressure NBC system are standard.

Missile Specifications
9M31 9M31M
Length: 1.803 m 1.803 m
Diameter: 0.12 m 0.12 m
Wing span: 0.36 0.36
Max speed: Mach 1.8 Mach 1.8
Max target speed: 300 m/s 300 m/s
Launch weight: 32 kg 32 kg
Max effective range: 4,200 m 8,000 m
Min effective range: 800 m 560 m
Max effective altitude: 3,500 m 6,100 m
Min effective altitude: 30 m 10 m
Guidance: 1-3 waveband uncooled 1-5 waveband
PbS passive IR homing cooled PbS passive IR
seeker homing seeker
Propulsion: single-stage solid propellant single-stage solid
rocket motor propellant rocket
motor
Warhead: 2.6 kg HE fragmentation 2.6 kg HE
with contact and proximity fragmentation with
fuzing contact and proximity
fuzing
basic load on vehicle 4
reload time (min) 5
radar(s) Passive radar detection antenna giving 360º
coverage

emplace/displace time 25895


(min)
chassis Modified BRDM-2 chassis
4 wheels
speed, road 100
water 10
road range (kg) 750
crew 3
S-300PMU
SA-10 GRUMBLE
SA-N-6 GRUMBLE
HQ-10/15 (Chinese licensed copy)
The S-300PMU [SA-10 land-based, SA-N-6 naval version] surface-to-
air missile system is able to engage a number of targets simultaneously,
countering intensive aircraft raids at low-to-high altitude. The SA-10
offers significant advantages over older strategic surface-to-air missile
systems, including multitarget handling and engagement characteristics,
a capability against low altitude targets with small radar cross-sections
such as cruise missiles, a capability against tactical ballistic missiles,
and possibly a potential to intercept some types of strategic ballistic
missiles.
The first SA-10 site became operational in 1980. Over 80 sites were
operational by 1987, when work was progressing on at least another 20
sites. Nearly half of these sites were located near Moscow. This
emphasis on Moscow as well as the deployment patterns noted for the
other SA-10 sites suggested a first priority on terminal defense of
command-and-control, military, and key industrial complexes. A
program to replace all of the older strategic SAM systems with the SA-
10, well under way by 1996, has been considered by experts to be one
of the most successful reequipment programs of the post-Soviet armed
forces.

This vertically launched missile uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor. It is
normally armed with a 100 kg HE-fragmentation warhead with a proximity fuse, though
a low yield tactical nuclear type is believed to be an alternative warhead option. The
missile's vertical launch trajectory provides fastest available reaction time capability to
counter targets approaching from any azimuth. Missile engagement altitude extend from
25 m up to about 30000 m. The maximum engagement range is stated as at least 90000
m, though in practice it is probably greater.

The SA-10A launch complex consists of a missile battery which includes a battery
command post and engagement control center, the large CLAM SHELL 3D continuous
wave pulse Doppler target acquisition radar, the FLAP LID A I-band multi-function
phased-array trailer-mounted engagement radar with digital beam steering in hardened
sites, and up to 12 semi-trailer erector-launchers which mount four tubular missile
container-launchers. The towing unit for the semi-trailer erector-launcher is the KrAZ-
260V (6 x 6) tractor truck. The launchers are usually positioned on concrete pads with the
trailers being leveled by the use of four hydraulic jacks. An S-300PMU Regiment
comprises three such batteries and employs the BIG BIRD 4 meter tall F-band long-
range, 3D surveillance and tracking radar at the Regimental command post for initial
target detection.

In the mid-1980s design work on the mobile S-300PMU


SA-10B GRUMBLE Mod 1 was completed. This version
of the weapon is carried and vertically launched from a
dedicated four-round capacity transporter-erector launcher
vehicle based on the MAZ-7910 (8 x 8) truck chassis. The
combined engagement radar and control station is mounted
on the same chassis. The SA-10B mobile missile battery
comprises the combined FLAP LID B engagement radar
and engagement control/command post station mounted on a MAZ-7910 chassis, up to
12 TELs (SPU: mobile launcher unit), a trailer-mounted 36D6; CLAM SHELL 3D 360º
scanning target designation radar, and a maintenance section. The SA-10B Regiment
consists of three such batteries with an additional radar section and a number of TZM
(transport-loader vehicles) MAZ-7910 transloaders for resupply purposes. The TEL
carries a total of four sealed container-launcher cylinders, each of which is used for the
storage, transport and launching of a missile. When traveling the launcher system is
carriedin the horizontal position but at the launch site is elevated to an angle of 90º.

The combined FLAP LID-B radar/engagement control vehicle has the 2.75 m2 planar
array antenna on a box-like antenna mount and support systems container. When
traveling the array is carried horizontally, and when deployed it is raised above the
container to an angle of approximately 60º.

The battery takes only five minutes to deploy once it comes to the halt. The vehicles have
electronic inter-vehicle communications and data transmission links with elevatable pole-
type antenna, and thus it does not require interconnecting vehicle cables. Each of the
MAZ-7910 derivative vehicles has four hydraulic jacks positioned either side between
the first/second and third/fourth road wheels which are lowered to the ground to provide a
more stable and level environment.

Missile guidance is of the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) type with the FLAP LID guidance
radar capable of engaging up to six targets simultaneously, with two missiles assigned per
target to ensure a high kill probability. Maximum target velocity is stated as 4200 km/h
with the battery capable of firing three missiles per second.

If the battery is employed in rugged terrain or forest then the engagement radar system
can be mounted on a special trailer-mounted extendible 24.4 m high tower to improve
radar coverage. The use of this extended-range radar for low level engagements increases
the system's range to 43,200 m from the original 32,000 m. In its sealed container-
launcher cylinder the missile is considered to be a round of ammunition and is said not to
require any check-ups or adjustments for a period of 10 years.
The S-300PMU1 is an extended range version of S-300PMU with a limited anti-ballistic
missile capability, including capabilities against aerodynamic targets with speeds up to 3
kilometers/second.

The S-300PMU2 Favorit variant is a new missile with


larger warhead and better guidance with a range of
200 km, versus the 150 km of previous versions.
Unveiled at the MAKS'97 exhibition in August 1997,
it represents a thorough modification of the S-
300PMU1. The first tests were performed on 10
August 1995 at the Kapustin Yar firing range. One
new element is the entirely new 96L6E autonomous
mobile radar, which works in conjunction with the
83M6E2 control post and S-300MPU2 launchers. The new 48N6E2 missile, developed
by MKB Fakel, weighs 1,800 kg, and is 7.5 m long and 0.5 m in diameter. After a cold
start in the upright position with help of a catapult, the 48N6E2 accelerates up to 1,900
m/s in 12 sec time, and then approaches the target from above. The 48N6E2 differs from
the older 48N6E in having a new warhead specially designed for destroying ballistic
missiles, with a warhead weight of 145 kg versus 70-100 kg.

The S-300PMU2 Favorit can engage targets flying from 10 m to 27 km above the surface
at a speed of up to 10,000 km/h. It is claimed that it has a kill ratio ranging from 0.8 to
0.93 against aircraft and from 0.8 to 0.98 against Tomahawk-class cruise missiles.

Export Sales
China
In the early 1990s China imported 100-120 S-300 missile systems which are
deployed aroung Bejing, and it has been suggested that China intends to obtain a
license to produce them, with a designation variously reported as either HQ-10 or
HQ-15. The first Chinese copy have been tested, but all the components of the
first copy version were imported from Russia. The October 1999 parade
celebrating the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic of China in Beijing
featured a large number of truck towed quad-cannister systems associated with
the SA-10.
India
Since 1995 India has been negotiating with Russia regarding purchase of the S-
300, in response to Pakistan's deployment of M-11 missiles from China. In 1995
Russian Defense Deputy Minister Kokoshin offered to sell S-300 missiles during
his trip to India. Following this offer Indian officials started negotiations with the
Russian manufacturers, and in August 1995 the Indian Defense Secretary
Nambiar went to Russia to observe tests of the missiles near Moscow. The $1
billion purchase is said to include six S-300 systems, with each combat system
consisting of 48 missiles. Reportedly in June 1996 27 S-300 missiles were
delivered to India.
Cyprus signed an agreement with Rosvooruzhenie (Russian Armament) state
arms-trade agency on 4 January 1996.
South Korea discussed possible purchase of the SA-10, prior to deciding in late
1999 to purchase the American Patriot PAC-3.

Specifications
Builder Almaz Scientific-Production Association
7.0 m
Lemgth
7.5 m - 48N6 S-300PMU1
0.45 m
Diameter
0.50 m - 48N6 S-300PMU1
1,480 kg
Weight
1,800 kg - 48N6 S-300PMU1
Propulsiom Single-stage, solid-fuel rocket
45 km - 5V55K
Range, (km) 90 km - 5V55R
150-200 km - 48N6 S-300PMU1
Altitude, (m) 30,000 m
Basic load on vehicle
Detection range, km
Reaction time, sec
1.7 km./sec S-300P
Speed
2.0 km./sec S-300PMU
Reload time
70-100 kg high explosive - 5V55K
Warhead
145 kg high explosive - 48N6 S-300PMU1
Command guidance
Flap Lid or Tombstone engagement radar
Radar(s) Clam Shell acquisition radar
Big Bird designation radar
Emplace/displace time (min)
Support vehicles
Chassis
SA-N-6
SA-11 GADFLY
9K37M1 BUK-1M
The SA-11 GADFLY is a medium-range, semi-active, radar-guided missile using solid-
rocket propulsion that provides defense against high-performance aircraft and cruise
missiles. The SA-11 represents a considerable improvement over the earlier SA-6
GAINFUL system, and can engage six separate targets simultaneously, rather than the
single target capability of the SA-6. Single-shot kill probability are claimed to be 60-90%
against aircraft, 30-70% against helicopters, and 40% against cruise missiles, a significant
improvement over the SA-6. The system is more mobile, taking only about 5 minutes to
move from road march to engagement. The new system also offers significantly greater
resistance to ECM than previous systems. The SA-11 system is comprised of the TELAR
(9A310M1), Loader/Launcher (9A39M1), SNOW DRIFT Surveillance Radar (9S18M1),
and Command and Control vehicle (9S470M1).
The Mach 3 semi-active homing 9M28M1 missile has a maximum slant range of 28 km
and a minimum range of 3 km. It is capable of engaging targets between altitudes of 30
and 14000 m and can sustain 23 g maneuvers. The solid fuel missile is 5.6 meters long
with a diameter is 0.4 m and a wing span is 1.2 m. The launch weight is 650 kg, which
includes a 70 kg HE warhead with a 17 meter lethal radius.
The SNOW DRIFT warning and acquisition radar provides target height, bearing and
range data. The SNOW DRIFT has a detection range of 85 km against high-flying
targets, 35 km against targets at an altitude of 100 meters, and 23 km against targets
flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The radar's tracking range extending from 70 km for high-
flying targets to 20 km for NOE targets. Tracking of helicopters hovering at 30 m can be
made as far as 10 km. Once a target is identified it is turned over to an TELAR via a data
link for tracking and attack. The SNOW DRIFT receives early warning from brigade-
level surveillance radars such as the SPOON REST.

The H/I-band FIRE DOME monopulse guidance and tracking engagement radar has an
effective guidance range of 3-32 km and an altitude envelope 15 meters to 22 km, and
can engage approaching targets moving at a maximum of 3000 km/h (1860 mph). The
radar guides as many as three missiles against a single target.

The SA-11 GADFLY system also can be fitted with a supplementary electro-optical
sighting system for use in a severe jamming environment, which would overwhelm the
normal semi-active radar homing system -- in which case the missile uses radio-
command guidance.

The TELAR, based on the GM-569 tracked chassis, carries four ready to fire missiles on
a turntable that can traverse a full 360º and FIRE DOME radar. The tracked Surveillance
Radar vehicle uses the same chassis and carries the SNOW DRIFT radar. The Command
and Control vehicle works in conjunction with the SNOW DRIFT radar. The
Loader/Launcher vehicle (LLV) resembles the normal TELAR, but replaces the FIRE
DOME fire control radar with a hydraulic crane for reloading 9M38 missiles. The LLV
can load itself in rear areas from the 9T229 transporter in 15 minutes, and take those
missiles to reload the TELAR in about 13 minutes. The LLV can also launch missiles,
though it requires radar guidance from a nearby TELAR.

Specifications
SA-11 GADFLY
Missile Characteristics:
DOI 1979
Status Standard
Length (m) 5.7
Diameter (m) 0.13
Weight at launch (kg) 55
Propulsion system
Booster Solid
Sustainer Solid
Launch rails/tubes 2 or 4 canister tubes
Guidance Semiactive radar homing
Warhead (type) HE
Performance:
Max. velocity (Mach) 3 (est.)
Max. altitude (m) 15,000 (est.)
Min altitude (m) 25-30 (est.)
Operational range (km) 30 (est.)
3 (est.)
Reload time (min) INA

Associated radars U/I acquistion radar; U/I tracking


radar; possible STRAIGHT FLUSH
Recognition:
Variant ZSU-23-4 chassis
4 missiles mounted side-by-side on
launch rails
Entire missile system mounted on
turntable

Vehicle: Tracked, transporter, erector, and


launcher (TTEL)
S-300V
SA-12A GLADIATOR and SA-12B
GIANT
HQ-18
The S-300V (SA-12) low-to-high Altitude,
tactical surface to air missile system also has
anti-ballistic missile capabilities. The HQ-18
reportedly the designation of a Chinese copy of
the Russian S300V, though the details of this
program remain rather conjectural. In early 1996
Russia astounded the United States Army by
marketing the Russian SA-12 surface-to-air
missile system in the UAE in direct competition
with the United States Army's Patriot system. Rosvooruzheniye
offered the UAE the highest-quality Russian strategic air defense
system, the SA-12 Gladiator, as an alternative to the Patriot at half
the cost. The offer also included forgiveness of some of Russia's
debt to the UAE.

The S-300V consists of:

 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile


 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missile
 9A82 SA-12b GIANT TELAR
 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR
 9A84 GIANT Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)
 9A85 GLADIATOR Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV)
 9S15 BILL BOARD Surveillance Radar system
 9S19 HIGH SCREEN Sector Radar system
 9S32 GRILL PAN Guidance Radar system
 9S457 Command Station

The 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR is a dual-role anti-missile and anti-aircraft missile with
a maximum range between 75 and 90 km.
The 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missile, configured primarily for the ATBM role, is a longer
range system [maximum range between 100 and 200 km] with a longer fuselage with
larger solid-fuel motor.

The 9A82 SA-12b GIANT and 9A93 SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR vehicles are
similar, though the 9A83-1 carries four 9M83 SA-12a GLADIATOR missiles, whereas
the 9A82 carries only two 9M82 SA-12b GIANT missiles. The configuration of the
vehicles command radar is also different. On the 9A83-1 the radar is mounted on a
folding mast providing 360º coverage in azimuth and full hemispheric coverage in
elevation. The radar on the 9M82 TELAR is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the
cab, providing 90º coverage on either side in azimuth and 110º in elevation. The TELARs
are not capable of autonomous engagements, requiring the support of the GRILL PAN
radar.

The 9S457-1 Command Post Vehicle is the command and control vehicle for the SA-12
system, which is supported by the BILL BOARD A surveillance radar and the HIGH
SCREEN sector radar. The CPV and its associated radars can detect up to 200 targets,
track as many as 70 targets and designate 24 of the targets to the brigade's four GRILL
PAN radar systems for engagement by the SA-12a and SA-12b TELARs.

The BILL BOARD A radar provides general surveillance, with the antenna rotating every
6-12 seconds. The radar, which can detect up to 200 targets, provides target coverage of
0-55º in elevation and 10-250 km in range with an accuracy is 30-35 min of arc in
azimuth and 250 m in range. and.

The HIGH SCREEN sector radar supporst the ATBM role, providing surveillance of
anticipated azimuths of threat missiles. The radar is switches to a tracking mode when
high speed targets are detected, automatically transmiting the trajectory parameters to the
Command Post Vehicle. The CPV prioritizes the threat and instructs the HIGH SCREEN
radar to track specific missiles, with the maximum being 16 simultaneous targets.

The GRILL PAN radar system controls the battery's launcher vehicles (TELARs and
LLVs). It can simultaneously track up to 12 targets and control up to six missiles against
these targets The radar can acquire targets with a radar cross-section of 2m2 at a range of
150 km in manual mode and 140 km in automatic mode. The GRILL PAN tracks targets
assigned to it by the CP while simultaneously maintaining a horizon search for new
targets.

The LLVs (9A85 GLADIATOR and 9A83 GLADIATOR) resemble normal TELARs,
but with a loading crane rather than command radars. While the primary role of the LLV
is to replenish the TELARs, they can also erecting and launch missiles if needed, though
they are dependent on the use of command radars from neighboring TELARs.
Specifications

SA-12a
Range, (km) 6-75 km
Altitude, (m) 25 km
Basic load on
4 missiles on launcher
vehicle
Detection range, km
Reaction time, sec
Speed 1.7 km./sec
Reload time
Warhead 150 kg, HE
Command guidance Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance
GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD
Radar(s)
surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar
Emplace/displace 5
time (min)
Support vehicles TELAR, Transloader, command post
Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch
Chassis vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance
station, command post vehicle, and the radars.
Specifications

SA-12b
Range, (km) 13-100 km
Altitude, (m) 1-30 km
Basic load on
2 missiles on launcher
vehicle
Detection range, km
Reaction time, sec
Speed 2.4 km./sec.
Reload time
Warhead 150 kg, HE
Command guidance Combined, inertial with semi-active self-guidance
GRILL PAN missile guidance radar, BILL BOARD
Radar(s)
surveillance radar, HIGH SCREEN sector scan radar
Emplace/displace 5
time (min)
Support vehicles TELAR, Transloader, command post
Variations of the MT-T chassis are used for the launch
Chassis vehicle, loader-launcher vehicle, missile guidance
station, command post vehicle, and the radars.
SA-13 GOPHER
ZRK-BD Strela-10
The SA-13 GOPHER [ZRK-BD Strela-10] is a short-range, low altitude SAM system.
The SA-13 missile (9M37) is 2.2 m long, 0.12 m in diameter with a 0.4 m wingspan and
has a maximum speed of Mach 2. It carries a 5 kg HE warhead and is fitted with either an
improved passive lead sulfide all-aspect infra-red seeker unit, or a cryogenically cooled
passive all-aspect infra-red seeker unit. The estimated minimum range of the SA-13 is
500 meters and the maximum effective range of 5000 meters with altitude engagement
limits of 10 to 3500 meters.
The SA-13 Strela-10M3 variant is designed to defend troops on the march from low level
aircraft and helicopters, precision-guided munitions and reconnaissance RPVs. The major
change is the adoption of a dual mode guidance system for the missile seeker - optical
'photo-contrast' and dual band passive IR. The 9M333 missile weighs 42 kg at launch and
when in its container-launcher the box-like canister has a total mass of 74 kg. Target
acquisition range using the optical 'photo-contrast' channel is between 2000-8000 meters
while for the IR channel it is between 2300-5300 meters. Altitude engagement limits are
from 10 meter up to 3500 meters at a maximum range of 5000 meters. Average missile
speed is 550 m/s. The HE-fragmentation rod warhead weighs 5 kg in total (including 2.6
kg of HE) and uses both contact and active laser proximity fusing systems. The actuation
radius of the proximity fuse is up to 4 meters. The dual mode passive optical 'photo-
contrast/IR seeker ensures good IR decoy counter-countermeasures discrimination
capability and optimum use of the system against extremely low altitude targets and in
adverse weather conditions.
The SA-13 incorporates the range-only HAT BOX radar which provides the operator the
targets range to the system to prevent wastage of missiles outside the effective range of
the system. The HAT BOX circular parabolic radar antenna is located between the two
pairs of missile canisters.
There are two versions of the SA-13 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR).
The TELAR-1 carries four FLAT BOX B passive radar detection antenna units, one on
either corner of the vehicle's rear deck, one facing aft and one between the driver's vision
ports at the front, whereas the TELAR-2, which is used by the SA-13 battery commander,
has none. The SA-13 TELAR is a modified MT-LB amphibious armored tracked vehicle
with the machine-gun turret removed. The launcher pedestal mounted to the rear of center
of the vehicle is 360º traversable. It incorporates the operators position behind a large,
rectangular window at its base.
Normally the TELAR carries four ready to fire SA-13 missile container-launchers and
eight reloads in the cargo compartment but it can also carry either SA-9 GASKIN
container-launcher boxes in their place or a mixture of the two. This enables the the
cheaper SA-9 (Strela-1) to be used against the easier targets and the more expensive and
sophisticated SA-13 (Strela-10) against the difficult targets. The missile mix also allows a
choice of infra-red (IR) seeker types on the missiles for use against extremely low
altitude targets and in adverse weather.
Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Effective range 600-5000 meters
Altitude 10-3500 meters
Guidance mode IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency
Single-shot hit
probability
basic load on vehicle 8
reload time (min) 3
fire control IR homing, cooled seeker, dual frequency

radar(s) SNAP SHOT (range only)


PIE RACK (IFF)
emplace/displace time 40 sec
(min)
support vehicles 14631
chassis MT-LB

speed, road 60
water 6
road range (kg) 500
crew 3
SA-14 GREMLIN
9K34 Strela-3
SA-14 GREMLIN (Strela-3 9K34) man-portable SAM is the successor to the SA-7/SA-
7b (Strela-2 9K32 and Strela-2M 9K32M). The system consists of the 9P59 gripstock,
9P51 thermal battery/gas reservoir, and 9M36-1 missile. The external appearance of the
SA-14 is very similar to the SA-7, and the gripstock, launch canister and aft missile body
are almost identical. The most significant differences are the new seeker system and the
substitution of a ball-shaped 9P51 thermal battery and gas reservoir for the SA-7's
canister shaped battery. The SA-14's new nitrogen-cooled lead sulfide seeker allows it to
home in on the exhaust plume of jet engines, turboprop and helicopter gas turbine
engines. The enhanced seeker allowed the SA-14 to be fired against targets from much
broader angles, as well as defeating countermeasures such as exhaust shrouds. Optical
filtration was added to the seeker to reduce vulnerability to typical IRCM flares. The
warhead of the SA-14 was nearly doubled in weight over the small warhead of the SA-7.
The guidance electronics were reduced in weight and a new solid-propellant motor was
introduced, compensating for the heavier warhead and improving aerodynamic
performance. The SA-14 has a maximum range of 4500 meters, and a maximum altitude
of 3000 meters.

Specifications
Designation 9K34 Strela-3
Date of Introduction 1978
Proliferation Worldwide
Crew 1
Launcher Name 9P59
Dimensions
Length (m) 1.40
Diameter (mm) 75
Weight (kg) 2.95
Reaction Time (sec) 14
Time Between
35-40
Launches (sec)
Reload Time (sec) 25
Missile Name 9M36 or 9M36-1
Max. Range (m) 6,000
Min. Range (m) 600
Max. Altitude (m) 6,000
Min. Altitude (m) 50
Length (m) 1.4 m
Diameter (mm) 75 mm
Fin Span (mm) INA
Weight (kg) 10.3
Missile Speed (m/s) 600
Propulsion 2-stage solid-propellant rocket
Guidance passive IR homing
Seeker Field of View INA
Tracking Rate INA
Warhead Type Frag-HE
Warhead Weight (kg) 1.0
Fuze Type Contact/grazing
Self-Destruct (sec) 14-17
Sights w/Magnification
FIRE CONTROL
Launch tube has simple sights
Gunner Field of View INA
(o )
Acquisition Range
INA
(m)
IFF Yes
VARIANTS Igla 9M39 (SA-N-8) Naval version
9K331 Tor
SA-15 GAUNTLET
SA-N-9
HQ-17
The 9K331 Tor [SA-15 GAUNTLET land-based, SA-N-9 naval version] low-to-medium
altitude SAM system is capable of engaging not only aircraft and helicopters but also
RPVs, precision-guided weapons and various types of guided missiles. The HQ-17 is a
copy of Tor-M1, that China will use it to replace the aging HQ-61 SAMs, will enter
service around the year 2005. Although it is an autonomous system it can be interfaced
into an integrated air defense network. SA-15b is designed to be a completely
autonomous air defense system (at division level), capable of surveillance, command and
control, missile launch and guidance functions from a single vehicle. The basic combat
formation is the firing battery consisting of four TLARs and the Rangir battery command
post. The TLAR carries eight ready missiles stored in two containers holding four
missiles each. The SA-15b has the capability to automatically track and destroy 2 targets
simultaneously in any weather and at any time of the day.
The single stage solid propellant missile has a maximum speed of 850 m/s and is fitted
with a 15 kg HE-fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fusing system. The
missile is approximately 3.5 meters long with a diameter of 0.735 meters and a launch
weight 170 kilograms. The cold launch ejection system propels the missile upwards to a
height of 18-20 meters, whereupon thruster jets ignite and turn the weapon to the target
bearing. The main sustainer rocket motor then ignites and the missile is command guided
to the intercept point where the proximity fuse is triggered.
Effective range limits are from 1500 to 12000 m with target altitude limits being between
10 and 6000 m. The maximum maneuvering load factor limit on the weapon is 30 g.
The missile launcher consists of a box container extending down below the level of the
hull top, holding two groups of four ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. Each
missile is in a maintenance-free factory-sealed container-launcher box. The system is
reloaded by a dedicated transportation/loader vehicle.

The 3D pulse Doppler electronically beam steered E/F-band surveillance radar provides
range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation data on up to 48 targets for the
digital fire control computer processing system. Automatic track initiation can be
performed on the 10 most dangerous targets, which are categorized and prioritized in
order of threat for engagement. The operator reconfirms the highest priority target choice
and tracks this target before firing the missile. The maximum radar range is stated as 25
kilometers, but the rapid five to eight second reaction time [including fire control target
prioritization] suggests a somewhat greater range. The radar antenna, on top of the turret,
is swung through 90º to the horizontal position for travel. Target radar surveillance is
carried out on the move but the vehicle would normally come to a halt for missile launch.
The phased-array pulse Doppler G/H-band tracking radar is located at the front of the
turret. This electronically steered radar is capable of simultaneously tracking two targets
traveling at speeds of up to 700 km/h in all weather conditions, and countering threat
ECM operations. The antenna assembly can be folded down for travel.
Mounted on the top left of this radar is a small vertical pointing antenna which serves to
initially acquire the missile after launch before it is handed over to the main
tracking/guidance system. On the lower right side of the tracking radar is an automatic
TV tracking system with a range of 20000 m that complements the tracking radar and
enables the system to operate in a heavy ECM environment.
The Tor is not amphibious although it is airportable. An NBC system is fitted as standard
as is a built-in training system. The chassis of the vehicle is almost identical to that used
for the 2S6 self-propelled hybrid air defense system and is based on the GM-569 tracked
vehicle. The three man crew consists of the vehicle commander, system operator and
vehicle driver, seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret
in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. This arrangement is similar to that
of the Kub (SA-6) and Shilka (ZSU-23-4) vehicles. The vehicle suspension consists of
six dual rubber tired roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and
three return rollers.
An auxiliary gas turbine powers a 75 kW generator, allowing the main diesel engine to be
shut down when the system is deployed to conserve fuel.
The Russian company Antei which produces anti-aircraft missile systems has developed
a new efficient system Tor M1. A number of countries have precision weapons and a
reliable shield is necessary against these weapons. The new Russian anti-aircraft missile
system Tor is such a shield. The system consists of a special vehicle and two radars to
detect targets and to accompany flying targets and missiles, a computer, and equipment
for launch and navigation. The missile unit is a transportation and launch container with
four missiles. A anti-aircraft guided missile is a one-stage missile with a solid fuel
engine. The system is operated by 3 or 4 people. The Tor system ensures reliable
protection for government, industrial and military sites and ground troops from all types
of missiles, unpiloted aircraft, aircraft bombs, aircraft and helicopters with stealth
capabilities. The Tor system is the only system in the world which can detect and identify
various targets. It can detect targets at a height ranging from 10 meters to 6 kilometers.
The Tor system is autonomous and has short reaction time. The latest technologies of
Russia's defense industry are used in it.

Specifications
Designations 9K331 Tor-M1
Date of Introduction 1990
Proliferation At least 5 countries
Crew 3
TLAR 9A331 combat vehicle
Chassis GM-355
Combat Weight (mt) 34
Length (m) 7.5
Height (m) 5.1 (TAR up)
Width (m) 3.3
Engine Type V-12 diesel
Cruising Range (km) 500
Max. RoadSpeed 65 (km/h)
Radio INA
Protection NBC Protection System
Launcher Reaction
5-8
Time (sec)
Reload Time (min) 10
Fire on Move Yes
Emplacement Time
5
(min)
Displacement Time
Less than 5
(min)
Missile Name 9M331
Max. Range (m) 12,000
Min. Range (m) 100
Max. Altitude 6,000 (m)
Min. Altitude 10 (m)
Length 2,900 (mm)
Diameter 235 (mm)
Weight (kg) 167
Missile Speed (m/s) 850
Propulsion INA
Guidance Command
Warhead Type Frag-HE
Fuze Type RF Proximity
Warhead Weight (kg) 15
Self-Destruct (sec) INA
FIRE CONTROL Sights w/Magnification
Electro-optical (EO) television system
Range 20 km
IFF Yes
Radar Function Target Acquisition
Detection Range (km) 25
Tracking Range (km) INA
Frequency INA
Frequency Band H-band Doppler
Radar Function Target Tracking and Guidance
Detection Range (km) INA
Tracking Range (km) 25
Frequency INA
Frequency Band K-band Doppler, Phased Array
VARIANTS SA-N-9 Naval version
SA-N-9
SA-16 GIMLET
Igla-1 9K310
SA-16 GIMLET (Igla-1 9K310) man-portable surface-to-air missile system, a further
development from the SA-7 & SA-14 series, is an improved version of the SA-18
GROUSE, which was introduced in 1983, three years before the SA-16. The SA-16
feattures a new seeker and modified launcher nose cover. Whereas the the SA-18 9M39
missile is fitted with an aerodynamic spike on the nose, the 9M310 missile of the SA-16
has the spike replaced with an aerodynamic cone held in place with a wire tripod. On the
SA-18 the protective cover of the seeker is conical, on the SA-16 it is tubular with a
prominent lip at the forward edge. The 9M313 missile of the SA-16 employs an IR
guidance system using proportional convergence logic, and an improved two-color
seeker, presumably IR and UV). The seeker is sensitive enough to home in on airframe
radiation, and the two-color sensitivity is designed to minimize vulnerability to flares.
The SA-16 has a maximum range of 5000 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500
meters.

Specifications
Maximum Speed 2+ Mach
Effective Altitude 3,500 m
Effective Range 500 -- 5,000 m
Altitude 10-3500 m
Warhead HE 2kg
passive 2-color IR and
Guidance
UV homing
Fuze Contact and graze
Kill Radius Unknown
SA-17 GRIZZLY / Buk-M1-2
SA-N-12 GRIZZLY / Yezh
HQ-16
SA-17 GRIZZLY is a new mobile SAM system to augment and eventually replace the
SA-11 GADFLY. The new system uses the same launch vehicle chassis, and overall has
a similar configuration to the SA-11 GADFLY. The SNOW DRIFT surveillance radar is
also carried on the modified GM-569 tracked vehicle chassis. Russia is upgrading the
Belorussian Buk (NATO: SA-11 Gadfly) air defence missile system at the Uliyanovsk
Mechanical Plant. The new Buk-M1-2 (SA-17 Grizzly) system has increased fire power,
and guarantees hits against six targets flying simultaneously from different directions and
at different altitudes. The Yezh naval version [SA-N-12] of the SA-17 is visually Identical
to SA-N-7.

The HQ-16 is a joint development project between China and Russia that apparently
represents a further evolution of the Russian Grizzly. The system would represent a
significant overall improvement in Chinese air defense capabilities. The HQ-16 will
reportedly have a range of 50 miles and the ability to hit both high and low flying targets.
SA-18 GROUSE
Igla 9K38
SA-N-10 GROUSE
Igla-M
The SA-18 GROUSE (Igla 9K38) is an improved variant in the the SA-7 & SA-14 series
of manportable SAMs. As with the earlier SA-14, the SA-18 uses of a similar thermal
battery/gas bottle, and the SA-18 has the same 2 kilogram high-explosive warhead fitted
with a contact and grazing fuse. But the missile of entirely new design with substantially
improved range and speed,. The new seeker and aerodynamic improvements extend its
effective range, and its higher speed enables it to be used against faster targets. The SA-
18 has a maximum range of 5200 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters. The
9M39 missile SA-18 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence
logic. The new seeker offers better protection against electro-optical jammers; the
probability of kill against an unprotected fighter is estimated at 30-48%, and the use of
IRCM jammers only degrades this to 24-30%.

The Igla-M [SA-N-10 ] is the naval version of the SA-18.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
5200 meters
range
altitude, (m) 10-3500
Guidance mode passive IR homing
emplace/displace
13 sec
time
Single-shot hit
probability
SA-19 GRISOM
9M111 Pantsyr S1
The SA-19 GRISOM (9M111) is a radar command guided, two-stage surface to air
missile mounted on the 2S6 Integrated Air Defense System. The 2S6 vehicle is fitted
with two banks of four missiles in blocks of two, which can be elevated vertically
independent of each other. The SA-19 can engage aerial targets moving at a maximum
speed of 500 meters/second at altitudes ranging from 15 to 3,500 meters, and at slant
ranges from 2400 to 8000 meters. The missile's high-explosive fragmentation warhead is
actuated by a proximity fuse if the missile passes within 5 meters of the target. The SA-
19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar
with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km.
The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to
track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight. The SA-19 is claimed to
have a kill probability of 0.65.

Specifications
Chassis: Ural-53234 8 x 8 truck
Crew 3
Armament 12 57E6 SAMs, 2 2A72 30 mm guns
Missile
Guidance system radio commands with IR or radio direction finding
Maximum speed 1,100 m/sec
Time of flight to 10
14 sec
km range
Weight
With container 90 kg
Launch weight 65 kg
Container diameter 170 mm
Length in container 3.2 m
Warhead type: fragmentation rod
Warhead weight 16 kg
Gun
Calibre 30 mm
Total rate of fire 700 rds per minute
Muzzle velocity 960 m/sec
Projectile weight 0.97 kg
Ammunition load 750 rounds
Radar
Range, with target
reflection surface of 2-
3 sq cm
Target detection at least 30 km
Target tracking at least 24 km
Kill zone
Missiles
Range 1,000 to 12,000 m
Altitude 5 - 8,000 m
Guns
Range 0.2 - 4,000 m
Altitude 0 - 3,000 m
Number of
simultaneously 2
engaged targets
Number of targets
10 - 12
handled per minute
Reaction time 5 - 6 sec
S-400 SA-20 Triumf
The Triumf S-400 is a new generation of air defense and theater anti-missile weapon
developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an evolution of the S-300PMU [SA-
10] family. This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a
distance of up to 400 km (2- 2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The
Triumf system includes radars capable of detecting low-signature targets. And the anti-
missile capability of the system has been increased to the limits established by the ABM
Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8
km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km.

The system was developed through the cooperation of the Almaz Central Design Bureau,
Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau, Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of
Instruments, St. Petersburg Design Bureau of Special Machine Building and other
enterprises.

The Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau has developed two new missiles for Triumf.

 The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown] has a range of up to 400 km


and will be able to engage "over- the-horizon [OTH]" targets using a new seeker
head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both
a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on
ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile
include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers.
 The 9M96 missile is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at
ranges in excess of 120 km. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the
ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is
equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill
probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft.
a gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes
of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic
ballistic missiles. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms
exhibition in October 1998. One 9M96 modification will become the basic long-
range weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized
missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems,
and fighter aircraft.

These new missiles can be accomodated on the existing SAM system launchers of the S-
300PMU family. A container with four 9M96's can be installed in place of one container
with the 5V55 or 48N6 missiles, and thus the the standard launcher intended for four
48N6Ye missiles can accommodate up to 16 9M96Ye missiles. Triumf provides for the
greatest possible continuity with systems of the S-300PMU family (PMU1, PMU2),
making it possible to smoothly change over to the production of the new generation
system. It will include the previous control complex, though supporting not six but eight
SAM systems, as well as multifunctional radar systems illumination and guidance,
launchers, and associated autonomous detection and target indication systems.

The state tests of the S-400 system reportedly began in 1999, with the initial test on 12
February 1999. As of May 1999 the testing of S-400 air defense system was reportedly
nearing completion at Kapustin Yar, with the first systems of this kind to be delivered to
the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District in the fourth quarter of 1999. However,
as of August 1999 government testing of the S-400 was slated to begin at the end of
1999, with the first system complex slated for delivery in late 2000. The sources of the
apparent one-year delay in the program are unclear, though they may involve some
combination of technical and financial problems with this program. Russian air defense
troops conducted a test of the new anti-aircraft missile system S-400 on 07 April 2000. At
that time, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov said that serial production of the new
system would begin in June 2000. Kornukov said air defense troops would get one S-400
launcher system by the end of 2000, but it would be armed with missiles of the available
S-300 system.

On condition of normal funding, radars with an acquisition range of 500-600 km should


become operational by 2002-2003. However, other sources report that while it was
ordered by the Defence Ministry, the military has nothing to pay for it with, so it is
unclear when the Russian military will get this new weapon.

The Russian Air Force is studying a reduction in the number of types of air defense
weapons, and it is possible that Triumf will become the only system being developed,
providing defense both in the close-range and mid-range as well long-range zones.

Specifications
Almaz Central Design Bureau
Contractor
Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 120 km 9M96 missile
range 400 km "big" missile
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
SA-X-21 Mysk
In 1996 there were reports of that US sources had suggested the fact of the existence of a
new Russian SAM system in development with the US designators SA-X-21 and the
Russian system nomenclature believed to be Mysk. However, no additional information
has been forthcoming concerning either a Russian system designated Mysk, or any other
system that might be associated with the SA-X-21 designator. The Ballistic Missile
Defense Simulation Support Center's Extended Air Defense Simulation [EADSIM]
modeling database does contain an entry for the SA-21, though publicly available details
are lacking. The Extended Air Defense Simulation is a system-level simulation used to
assess the effectiveness of Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and air defense systems
against the full spectrum of extended air defense threats. EADSIM models performance
and predicts effectiveness of ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles, aircraft missiles,
and cruise missiles in a variety of user defined scenarios. EADSIM is being used by all
four U.S. military services, individually and jointly, at over 300 subscriber sites around
the world. It is also being used by the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and the SHAPE
Technical Center under Memoranda of Agreement with the U.S. Army. EADSIM has
been used in support of the TMD Advanced Warfare Experiment, as well as TMD Cost
and Operational Effectiveness Analysis studies. EADSIM was used successfully by the
U.S. Air Force Studies and Analyses Agency to analyze attrition, Suppression of Enemy
Air Defense missions, and refueling operations during Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
AA-1 ALKALI
K-5 (RS-1U / RS-2)
PL-1
In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing
gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the
first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles.

The R-55 (K-55, Object 67), a modification of the K-5 missile, was series-produced
throughout the 1967-77 period and quite widely used. By then the Almaz team had given
up work air-to-air missiles, and the development of the K-55 missile was assigned to the
engineering office at the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant. This
plant was producing aircraft weapons (artillery turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft, sights,
etc.), then in 1955 began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air
missiles. Developing the K-55 missile was the first task ever assigned to this team alone
(and the only one concerning air-to-air missiles in the history of this team). Currently this
engineering office in Kaliningrad, under the name Zvezda, is the leading Russian creator
of strategic guided air-to-ground missiles.

During the 1966-168 period the two teams working on air-to-air missiles were renamed --
Bisnovat's OKB-4 team was renamed Molniya and Andrey Lyapin's (who replaced Ivan
Toropov in 1961) team was designated Vympel. During later part of the 1960s the
Vympel team began working on modifications to the R-55 which resulted in the R-55M
missile, with a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a
more potent warhead. The PL-1 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] medium
range air-to-air missile was a Chinese copy of the AA-1.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service 1957
Total length 2.83 m
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight 83.2 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 2 - 6 km
range
Guidance mode Radio Controlled
Single-shot hit
probability
Carried by MiG-17PFU, MiG-19P, MiG-21F, Yak-25, Yak-28
AA-2 ATOLL
K-13 (R-3 or Object 310)
PL-2 / PL-3 / PL-5
The 24 September 1958 Chinese acquisition of an American AIM-9B Sidewinder missile
marked the beginning of a breakthrough in the development of Soviet air-to-air missiles.
The missile, fired from a Taiwanese F-86 Sabre aircraft, lodged without exploding in a
Chinese MiG-17. The missile was sent to Toropov's engineering office to be copied, and
the product the K-13, long the most popular Soviet air-to-air missile. The Sidewinder had
a number of valuable features, not least of which was the modular construction that
facilitated ease in production and operation. The simplicity of the AIM-9 was in marked
contrast to the complexity of contemporary Soviet missiles. The Sidewinder's infrared-
guided homing head contained a free-running gyroscope and was much smaller than
Soviet counterparts, and the steering and in-flight stabilization system were equally
superior. Gennadiy Sokolovskiy, later chief engineer at the Vympel team, said that "the
Sidewinder missile was to us a university offering a course in missile construction
technology which has upgraded our engineering education and updated our approach to
production of future missiles."
The Soviets soon made advances over the original Sidewinder model, making dozen of
modifications to the initial design. In 1960 series-production of the K-13 missile (also
called R-3 or Object 310) began. In 1962 the R-3S (K13A or Object 310) became the first
version to be produced in large numbers, though its homing operation took much more
time (22 seconds instead of 11 seconds). In 1961 development began of the high-altitude
K-13R (R-3R or Object 320) with a semiactive radar head, which was entered service
with combat aircraft in 1966. The training versions were the R-3U missiles ("uchebnaya",
barrel with a homing set, not fired from an aircraft) and the R-3P ("prakticheskaya"
differing from the combat version by absence of an explosive charge). The RM-3V (RM
denoting "raketa-mishen" [target-missile] served as an aerial target.

During late 1960s the Vympel team began working on the K-13M (R-13M, Object 380)
modification of the K-13 missile, which in 1973 was certified as an operational weapon.
It has a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more
potent warhead. Analogous modifications of the R-55 resulted in the R-55M missile. The
last version of the K-13 is the R-13M1 with a mofified steering apparatus.

The K-13 missile was produced in China as the PL-2 (updated versions PL-3 and PL-5)
and also in Romania as the A-91. The PL-5E [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air
Dragon] air-to-air missile has a maximum mobility overload of 40g, exceeding the 35g of
the AIM-9L of the United States. Mobility overload a unit for measuring the mobility of
aircraft. The larger the value the better the aircraft can adapt to violent mid-air mobility.
An air-to-air missile with a great overload means that the attacked side is less likely to
escape the attack). The speed of the missile is Mach 2.5 (2.5 times sound speed) and its
maximum range is 14,000 meters.
Specifications
Year 1961
Type short-range missile
AA-2 - infra-red guidance
Modifications AA-2-2 "Advanced Atoll" - semi-active radar
guidance
Wingspan (AA-2) 0.45 m
Wingspan (AA-2-2) 0.53 m
Length (AA-2) 2.8 m
Length (AA-2-2) 3.0 m
Diameter 0.12 m
Launch weight 70 kg
Max. speed 2850 km/h
Maximum range 6.5 km
Propulsion solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance passive infra-red homing or semi-active radar homing
Warhead proximity-fuzed blast fragmentation, 6 kg
USSR, India, South Yemen, Romania, Afghanistan,
North Yemen, North Vietnam, Albania, Nigeria,
Uganda, Iraq, Poland, Syria, Algeria, Sudan,
Service Morocco, Somalia, Angola, Bangladesh, Peru,
Yugoslavia, Mozambique, China, Libya, Hungary,
Laos, North Korea, Ethiopia, East Germany, Finland,
Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Bulgaria.
AA-2

PL-2

PL-3
PL-5
AA-3 ANAB
K-8
PL-2 [China]
In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing
gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the
first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. The improved version K-8M was certified in
1961 as a combat weapon (designated by ordnance as the R-8M; the letter K referring to
Engineering Office and the letter R referring to Air Force). This missile operated with the
Oriol [Eagle] radar set.
In January 1960 it was decided to use the homing head of the K-13 missile in K-5 and K-
8 missiles to devise a missile for tactical air combat. In 1962 M. Bisnovat's OKB-4
Special Engineering Office was testing K-88 missiles, smaller than the K-8 and with a K-
13 head, although the K-88 never moved beyond prototype status.

Subsequent modifications of the K-8 missile led to the K-8M (R-8M1, more widely
known as the K-98 or R-98), equipped with a semiactive radar homing head which
enabled it to attack airborne targets not only from behind but also head on. The first
interceptor-fighter system using the R-98 missile was the Su-15-98 aircraft. The missile
was subsequently employed on the on the Yak-28P aircraft with the Oriol-D radar set,
and later on the Su-15TM aircraft with the Tajfun [Typhoon]-M radar set.

In 1973 production of the R-98 missile shifted to the final variant, the R-98M (K-8M)
with improved firing capabilities and greater resistance to countermeasures. The R-98M
missile remains part of the combat load of the Su-15TM aircraft.

All these missiles were produced in two variants, with radar guidance (suffix R) and an
infrared guidance (suffix T) respectively. The training version is the UR-8M, which first
entered service in 1966.

Specifications
Contractor
Year 1961
Type medium-range intercept missile
Semi-active I-band and J-band radar guidance
Modifications
Passive infra-red guidance
Wingspan 1.3 m
Length (SAR
4.1 m
version)
Length (IR version) 4.0 m
Diameter 0.28 m
Launch weight 275 kg
Max. speed 3420 km/h (Mach=3.0)
Maximum range 19 km
Propulsion single stage solid propellant rocket motor
semi-active I-band and J-band radar homing or passive
Guidance infra-red homing
Warhead proximity-fuzed high-explosive blast
Carried by Yak-28, Su-15
USSR, Bulgaria, Romaina, Poland, East Germany,
Service
Hungary, Czechoslovakia
AA-4 AWL
K-9 / K-155
In the late 1950s the Mikoyan and Gurevich design bureau built the long-range K-9
missile, also called the K-155. The prototype of this weapon was displayed publicly in
1991 under an E-152A plane, but the missile was not certified as a combat weapon.
AA-5 ASH
R-4
In 1959 the Bisnovat design team began work on the K-80 missile (Object 36 -- later
called the R-40) as part of the the Tu-128S-4 interception system. This strategic air
defense system consiste of the Tu-128 long-range interceptor fighter aircraft, a Smerch
[Tornado] on-board radar set (the letter S in the system designation), and the R-4 missiles
(the digit 4 in Tu-128S-4). Two variants of the R-4 missile were developed: the R-4R
using a semiactive radar set with a PARG-10-88 homing head and the R-4T using
infrared homing with the T-80NM seeker head. Apart from the Tu-128, only the Mikoyan
E-152M experimental aircraft carried the R-4 missiles. The R-4 missile entered series-
production in 1963, although significant development efforts remained, as was also the
case with the Smerch radar set. In 1973 production began of the improved K-80M (R-
4TM and R-4RM variants) for the Tu-128S-4M system, consisting of the Tu-128M
aircraft, the Smerch-M radar set, and the R-4M missile. In the West the K-80 missile and
its modifications are called The AA-5 Ash R-4 missile was withdrawn from service along
with the remaining Tu-128 aircraft around the end of the Cold War.

Specifications
Contractor
Year 1961
Type medium-range missile
Infra-red guidance
Modifications
Semi-active radar guidance
Wingspan 1.3 m
Length (SAR
5.3 m
version)
Length (IR version) 5.2 m
Diameter 0.31 m
Launch weight 390 kg
Max. speed 1710 km/h
Maximum range
30 km
(SAR version)
Maximum range (IR 15 km
version)
Propulsion solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance passive infra-red homing with Cassagrain optics or
semi-active I-band radar homing
Warhead high-explosive blast
Carried by Tu-128
USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, East
Service
Germany, Poland.
AA-6 ACRID
R-40
In early 1962 the Bisnovat design team began working on the R-40 (K-40), a new long-
range missile intended for use with the the MiG-25-40 high- altitude interception system,
consisting of the MiG-25 aircraft with Smerch-A radar set and the R-40 missile. Though
only slightly larger than the predecessor R-4, the range of the R-40 is over three times
greater. This missile was produced in two variants: R-40R (Object RD46 with PARG-12
head) and R-40T (Object TG-46).

After the defection of a MiG-25P to Japan on 06 September 1976, an extensive redesign


of the aircraft was undertaken, resulting in the MiG-25PD interception system. Instead of
the Smerch-A, a Sapfir-25 radar was installed. The new missile R-40D and its R-40D1
update ("dorabotanaya" [more elaborate]) were produced in two variants R-40RD and R-
40TD, both featuring improved countermeasures resistance and a more sensitive homing
head to improve performance against low-flying targets. The R-40D1 missile was
developed by the Vympel team, the Molniya team having by that time withdraw from
development of aircraft missiles. The R-40 is still included among the weapons of MiG-
25 and MiG-31 aircraft, although production was discontinued in 1991.

Specifications
Manafacturer
Date Deployed Late 60s
Range 30 km (R-40) 50 km (R-40TD and R-40RD)
Speed Mach 4.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Fuze Radar and active laser
Command, inertial and semi-active radar (R-40R)
Guidance
Command, inertial and IR (R-40T)
Warhead 70 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 475 kg
Length 6.2 m
Diameter 355 mm
Fin Span 1.8 m
Platforms Su-15, MiG-25, MiG-31
AA-7 APEX
R-23 / R-24
In the mid-1960s the Vympel design bureau developed the K-23 intermediate-range
missile for MiG-23 fighter jet aircraft. While the first units of the K-23 missile were
tested with the prototypes the MiG-23 aircraft, the missile was certified as a weapon for
the MiG-23M in 1973. The R-23 comes in two variants: R-23R (Object 340) with radar
guidance and R-23T (Object 360) with infrared guidance. There is also the training
version R-23UT.

The later MiG-23ML and MiG-23MLD aircraft carry the R-24 missile, a modification of
the R-23 with various improved characteristics, most importantly a 50 km rather than 35
km range. In its external appearance this missile is similar to the predecessor R-23. For
actual use it is available in two variants: R-24R (Object 140) and R-24T (Object 160).
The R-23 is produced in Romania under license as the A-911.
In 1968 the Soviets acquired an American AIM-7M Sparrow, which was similar to the R-
23 class of missiles the under development, and the Vympel team copyied the Sparrow
under the designation K-25. Several of these missiles were tested, but Soviet R-23 missile
was sent to production, and work on the K-25 ended in 1971. The R-23 and R-24 missiles
were superior to the K-25 Sparrow-ski in versatility and range, as well as interference
immunity, signal processing logic, and other characteristics. Nevertheless, analysis of the
Sparrow missile design were helpful in later work on the the R-27 missile: on its
hydraulically driven closed-loop servomechanisms and aerodynamic system with
movable wings.

Specifications
Contractor
Year 1975
Type medium-range missile
Semi-active radar guidance
Modifications
Passive infra-red guidance
Wingspan 1.0 m
Length (SAR
4.5 m
version)
Length (IR version) 4.2 m
Diameter 0.22 m
Launch weight 320 kg
Max. speed 3420 km/h (Mach=3.0)
Maximum range 35 km
(SAR version)
Maximum range (IR
15 km
version)
Propulsion two stage solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance semi-active radar homing or passive infra-red homing
Warhead proximity-fuzed high-explosive, 40 kg
Carried by MiG-23
Service USSR, Czechoslovakia, Libya, India, East Germany.
AA-8 APHID
K-60 (R-60, Object 62)
Toward the end of the 1960s the Molniya design bureau begin working on the first
missile for tactical air combat, the K-60 (R-60, Object 62), with infrared self-guidance.
Series production of this missile began in 1973, with the R-60 missile being certified as a
weapon for a variety combat aircraft.

The R-60 missile is an unusually small missile, weighing half as much as the lightest
Western missiles, with a correspondingly small warhead which weighs barely 3.5 kg).
The R-60 on attack aircraft such as the MiG-27, Su-24 or Su-25 serves as a self-defense
missile, and on fighter aircraft such as the MiG-23, MiG-25, and Su-15 it is occasionally
used as a supplementary missile. The R-60 missile had an unusually short development
time, with only four years passing from the beginning of its design to the beginning of its
production -- the normal development process of Soviet air-to-air missiles typically
required 8 to 9 years. This rapid development was facilitated by the availability of a
wealth of experimental data on the K-13 missile, and no new research was done for the
R-60. Further developments of the R-60 include the R-60M missile, the export variant R-
60MK, and the UZR-60 training version.

Specifications
Manufacturer
Date Deployed 1975
Range 3 km, 5 km 10 km
Speed Mach 2+
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Two active radar fuze aerials located aft of the
moving control fins, and a single strake running
Fuze
down the forward half of the body. Active laser in
R-60M
Guidance All aspect Infrared
6 kg ( 1.6 kg of which is uranium ) HE
Warhead
fragmentation
Launch Weight 65 kg
Length 2.08 m
Diameter 130 mm
Fin Span 0.43 m
Mi-24, Su-15bis, Su-17M3, Yak-38, Su-25, Su-24M,
Platforms MiG-21bis, MiG-23, MiG-25, MiG-27, MiG-29,
MiG-31
AA-9 AMOS
The R-33 long-range missile was created for arming MiG-31 fighter-interceptors. It
became operational in 1980 and is capable of engaging SR-71 strategic reconnaissance
aircraft, B-52 and B-1 bombers, aircraft of front and transport aviation, and also
helicopters and cruise missiles. The R-33 may be used at any time of day, under any
weather conditions, in the presence of interference and jamming to engage targets flying
against earth and water surfaces. The missile is made in a normal aerodynamic scheme
and has a cruciform configuration. Lifting surfaces of the R-33 are made with a low
aspect ratio and two control surfaces are folding for its semirecessed accommodation
beneath the platform's fuselage. Control and stabilization in three angles are
accomplished with the help of four mechanically unconnected (differential) aerodynamic
surfaces activated by gas drives. The missile is equipped with a semiactive radar homing
head that locks onto a target on the trajectory. Guidance of the R-33 to a target is a
combination: inertial in the initial phase and homing in the terminal phase.

The R-33 is the first Russian air-to-air missile to use an onboard digital computer, which
has stable characteristics compared with analogue devices. It is fitted with an active radar
proximity fuze and impact fuze as well as with an HE-fragmentation warhead.

Specifications
Manafacturer Vympel
Date Deployed 1985?
Range 160 km
Speed Mach 4.5
Propulsion solid rocket
Fuze Active radar
Guidance Inertial, command updates and semi-active radar
Warhead 47 kg HE fragmentation
Launch Weight 490 kg
Length 4.15 m
Diameter 380mm
Fin Span 1.18 m ( 0.9 m wingspan )
Platforms Mig-31, up to 6 can be carried
AA-10 ALAMO R-27
The R-27 medium-range missile is a component of the MiG-29 armament. In its overall
characteristics the R-27R is generally comparable to the the American AIM-7M Sparrow
missile, which it is said to surpasse it in certain combat capabilities. The R-27 is designed
according to a modular principle and is the base for a family of missiles equipped with
various types of homing heads and propulsion systems. Several versions of this missile
have been produced in Russia with infrared, semi-active and active radar guidance. The
AA-10 Alamo-C has a range of 130 km, while other variants have a maximum range of
between 70 to 170 kilometers.
The R-27 standardized medium-range guided missile became operational in 1985,
intended for MiG-29 and Su-27 frontal aviation fighters. The R-27 is capable of engaging
manned and unmanned targets in long-range and close maneuverable air-to-air combat. It
can be employed both in individual as well as group operations of platform aircraft. It
supports the intercept of targets moving from different directions against the background
of the earth's and water's surface in any weather conditions.

The R-27R is equipped with a semiactive radar homing head. The R-27R is equipped
with an active radar proximity fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead. It is
guided to the target by a combination method according to the proportional navigation
method: inertially with radiocorrection of trajectory in the initial flight phase, and homing
in the terminal phase. This provides for reliable target lock-on at long ranges from the
launching aircraft. The missile can be guided along special trajectories to create favorable
conditions for homing head and proximity fuze operation. It is capable of going around a
plume of passive jamming, of being moved out of the main lobe of the platform's radar,
and of approaching a low-flying target from above at a given angle.

The missile has a canard aerodynamic configuration with an axially symmetric cruciform
arrangement of aerodynamic surfaces. Control surfaces of original (so-called "butterfly")
configuration permit using the same surfaces both for missile yaw and pitch control as
well as for its roll stabilization. Each of the four control surfaces has an independent
hydraulic drive with a pump-accumulator system for supplying pressure fluid. Canard
surfaces are mounted ahead of them. Changing their size ensures identical balance
characteristics of the missile when the homing head is replaced.

Specifications
Contractor Vympel
Date Deployed 1982
2 - 80 km R-27R 70 km R-27T 130 km R-27RE
Range
120 km R-27TE
Speed Mach 4
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
SARH R-27R, R-27E All-aspect Infrared R-27T,
Guidance
R-27TE
Warhead 39 kg expanding rod
253 kg R-27R 254 kg R-27T 350 kg R-27RE 343
Launch Weight
kg R-27TE
Length 3.70 m
Diameter 230 mm
Fin Span 0.77 m
Platforms Su-27, Su-33, Su-35, Mig-29, Yak-141
AA-11 ARCHER R-73
Currently the R-73 is the best Russian short range air-to-air missile. Apart from an
exceptional maneverability, this missile is also directly connected to the pilot's helmet,
which allows engagement of targets lateral to the aircraft, which cannot be engaged by
missiles with a traditional system of targeting and guidance. The R-73A, an earlier
variant of this missile, has a 30 km range, while the most recent R-73M can hit targets at
a distance of 40 km.

The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel
Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included
in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their
modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in
flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.

The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers,
helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-
force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any
weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate
jamming. It realizes the "fire and forget" principle.

The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are
positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists
of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface
drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system
and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are
mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces. The combined aero-gas-dynamic
control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and
pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just
as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control
with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization
of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons
mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-
propellant gas generator.

The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the
predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile's combat
equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a
continuous-rod warhead. The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a
high-tensile steel case.
Russia's Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile,
which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and
militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues
far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily
installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes
which will now be able to effectively handle the US' highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16
jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel
and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize
their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile's main secret, the
so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach
trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.

Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it
can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector
engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat.
Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted
to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in
third-world countries' air forces.

Specifications
Contractor Vympel
Date Deployed 1980s
Range 20 km (R-73M1) 30 km (R-73M2) 40 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead
Launch Weight 105 kg (R-73M1) 115 kg (R-73M2)
Length 2.9 m
Diameter 170 mm
Fin Span 0.51 m
Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG-
Platforms
31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52
AA-12 ADDER
R-77
The most recent Russian R-77 medium-range missiles (AA-12 "AMRAAMSKI") is
similar to and in some respects equal to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. The
R-77 missile has an active radar finder and a maximim range of 90-100 kilometers (50
km more than AMRAAM) and flies at four times the speed of sound.
The AA-12 has rectangular narrow span wings and a distinctive set of four rectangular
control surfaces at the rear. similar to the configuration used on the terminal control fins
of the SS-21 'Scarab' and SS-23 'Spider' ballistic missiles. These unique control surfaces
feature reduced flow separation at high angles of attack, producing greater aerodynamic
moment force than conventional control surfaces. The missile's guidance is inertial with
mid-course updates from the launch aircraft, followed by a terminal active radar phase
from an acquisition range of about 20 kilometers. Development of the missile is believed
to have begun around in 1982.

Specifications
Length 3.60 m
Body diameter 200 mm
Wingspan 0.35 m
Launch weight 175 kg
Warhead 30 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze Active radar
Guidance Inertial, command and active radar
Propulsion Solid propellant
Range 50 km
Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-33, MiG-31M, Yak-
Platforms 141
AS-1 KENNEL
SSC-2a SALISH
SSC-2b SAMLET
The AS-1 air-to-surface missile is a subsonic,turbojet-powered, cruise missile with a
range or 35 to 97 nm. It weighs approximately 6030-lb and has a conventional warhead
of 2020-lb. For guidance, it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, a
beam rider for mid-course, and semi-active radar for terminal flight. It has a CEP of 150
ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1.0 nm when used against land targets.
Two AS-1 missiles are carried on the Badger B aircraft. Production of the AS-1 is
estimated to have began in 1953, with IOC reached in 1956. It was first seen in 1961.

Two versions of the SSC-2 were developed from the Soviet "KENNEL" air-to-surface
anti-shipping missile. They resemble a small jet fighter in appearance and are transported
on one-axle semitrailers. The field missile SSC-2a "SALISH" is launched from its
transport semitrailer which is towed by a KrAZ-214 tractor truck The SSC-2b
"SAMLET" coastal missile transport semitrailer is towed by a ZIL-157V tractor truck
and is not used for launching. The missile must be removed from the transport semitrailer
and placed on a large rail-type launcher for firing. The "SAMLET" coastal defense
missile is the most commonly encountered cruise missile, and has been identified in East
Germany and Poland.

Specifications
Contractor
Initial operational
1956
capability
Production terminated 1960
First detected 1961
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Mikoyan K-10S (AS-2 Kipper)
The AS-2 air-to-surface missile is a supersonic, turbojet-powered, low-level run-in,
cruise missile with a range of 30 to 100 nm. The K-10S missile (Article 352), developed
specially for the Tu-16K-10 (Badger-C) aircraft as weapon against naval vessels, was in
October 1961, together with that aircraft certified for ordnance. One K-10S missile is
suspended from the aircraft, under the middle section of the fuselage. It carries either a
conventional or a nuclear 2200-lb warhead. The missile weighs approximately 9120
pounds. For guidance, it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb, an
autopilot with command correction for mid-course flight, and active radar for terminal
flight. The guidance system combines inertial guidance during the initial flight stage and
active-radar homing close to the target. The missile can carry a nuclear warhead. It has a
CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1 to 2 nm when used against
land targets.

Specifications
Contractor
Initial operational
1961
capability
First detected 1961
Production
1965
terminated
Type long-range anti-ship standoff missile
Wingspan 4.6-4.88 m
Length 9.5 m
Diameter 0.9 m
Launch weight 4200 kg
Max. speed 1400 km/h
Ceiling 12000 m
Maximum range 260-350 km
Propulsion Lyulka AL-5 RD-9FK liquid fuel turbojet
Guidance active radar homing
impact with delay-fuzed high explosive, 1000 kg or
Warhead
nuclear 1000-kg warhead
Kh-20 / AS-3 KANGAROO
The AS-3 air-to-surface missile is a large, supersonic, turbojet-powered, cruise missile
weighing approximately 24,500 lb with a range of 100 to 350 nm. It carries a 5000-lb
nuclear warhead. For guidance it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for launch and climb,
an autopilot with command guidance for mid-course flight, and a preprogrammed dive to
target. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in an anti-ship role and a CEP of 1 to 3 nm when
used against land targets. One AS-3 is carried aboard the Bear B and Bear C aircraft.

Specifications
Contractor
Type meduim- to long-range standoff missile
Initial operational
1960
capability
First detected 1961
Production 1965
terminated
Wingspan 9.2 m
Length 14.9 m
Diameter 1.9 m
Launch weight 11000 kg
Max. speed 2280 km/h
Ceiling 18000 m
Maximum range 650 km
Tumansky R-11 twin spool turbojet with afterburner,
Propulsion
50.9 kN of thrust
Guidance beam riding
high-explosive, 2300 kg, or thermonuclear, 800 kT
Warhead
yield
Raduga Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen)
Built by A. Berezhnyak's "Raduga" engineering group for Tu-22 and Tu-22M aircraft,
this missile is now also arming modified Tu-95K-22 aircraft. During experimental tests
conducted from the late nineteen fifties to the early nineteen sixties the Kh-22B version
had reached a speed of Mach 6 and an altitude of about 70 km. The "Raduga" Design
Bureau, first a branch of Mikoyan's OKB-2-155 Special Design Bureau, became an
independent group in March 1957. Since 1974, after the death of Alexander Berezhnyak,
its chief engineer is Igor Seleznyev. The Kh-22 missile comes in three variants: 1. Kh-
22N with a nuclear warhead and inertial guidance; 2. Kh-22M with a conventional load
for use against ships and with an active-radar operating during the final flight stage; 3.
Kh-22MP for breaking through enemy air defenses (overcoming enemy radars).

Specifications
Contractor
Type long-range tactical standoff missile
Wingspan 3.0 m
Length 11.3-11.65 m
Diameter 0.92 m
Launch weight 5780-6000 kg
Max. speed 4000 km/h
Ceiling 24000 m
Maximum range 460-500 km
Propulsion liquid propellant rocket motor
Guidance active radar or passive infra-red homing
high-explosive, 1000 kg, or
Warhead
nuclear, 350 kT yield
KSR-2 / KS-11
AS-5 KELT
The AS-5 air-to-surface missile is a small supersonic, liquid-rocket propelled, cruise
missile weighing approximately 7760 lb. It has a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 at an
altitude of 30,000 ft. and a range of 80 to 125 nm. It can carry an 1100-lb conventional
warhead, or a nuclear warhead weighing 850 to 1200 lb. For guidance, it uses active radar
homing from launch to impact when employed in an anti-ship role, and an alternate
passive radar homing system when used in an anti-radar role. It has a CEP of 150 ft when
used in an anti-ship role, and a CEP of 1 to 2 nm when employed against land targets.

The Badger G carries two AS-5 missiles suspended beneath its wings. Production of the
missile is estimated to have begun in 1963, with IOC in 1965. It was first seen in 1966.

Specifications
Contractor
Year 1968
Type anti-ship and ground attack standoff cruise missile
Wingspan 4.6 m
Length 9.5 m
Diameter 0.9 m
Launch weight 3000 kg
Max. speed 1080 km/h
Ceiling 18000 m
Maximum range 320 km
Propulsion single stage liquid propellant rocket motor
Guidance active radar or anti-radar seeker
impact- and direct impact-fuzed high explosive, 1000
Warhead kg
Service CIS, Egypt
Raduga KSR-5 (AS-6 Kingfish)
The AS-6 air-to-surface missile is a supersonic, liquid-rocket propelled, cruise missile
weighing approximately 13,000 lb. It has an estimated maximum speed of Mach 3.5 at an
altitude of 65,000 ft. and an estimated range of 300 nm. It can carry an 1100-lb
conventional or nuclear warhead. For guidance it uses a preprogrammed autopilot for
launch and climb, an inertial guidance system or an autopilot with radio command
override for mid-course, and an active radar system for terminal dive when used in an
antiship role. It has a CEP of 150 ft when used in the antiship role, and a CEP of 1 to 2
nm when employed against land targets. The AS-6 probably is a follow-on to the AS-2
and AS-5.

This is a smaller version of the Kh-22 missile, intended for Tu-16 bomber aircraft. Series
production of the KSR-5 (Article D-5) anti-ship version with active-radar homing began
in 1966. Target indication is given by either a "Rubin" radar of the Tu-16K-26 or a YeN
radar of the Tu-16K-10-26. The KSR-SP antiradar missile entered service in 1972, at
which time was also built the KSR-5N version with a nuclear load. On the basis of the
KSR-5 was later built the KSR-5NM airborne target for training exercises. Modified
Badger C and Badger G aircraft carry two AS-6 missiles. The Backfire may also have
been an AS-6 carrier, but evidence is lacking to confirm this estimate. Production is
estimated to have begun in 1969,with IOC in Badger aircraft in 1970. IOC with Backfire
is estimated in 1974.

Specifications
Contractor
operational Badger 1970
operational with
1974
Backfire
Type long-range cruise missile
Wingspan 2.5 - 2.61 m
Length 10.0 - 10.52 m
Diameter 0.9 m
Launch weight 3900-4800 kg
Max. speed 3200 - 3400 km/h
Ceiling 20000 m
Maximum range 240-700 km
Propulsion two stage solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance active radar or anti-radar seeker
proximity-, impact- or impact with delay-fuzed high-
Warhead explosive, 1000 kg, or
nuclear, 350 kT yield 700 kg
Service CIS, Iraq
Zvezda Kh-66 (AS-7 Kerry)
Zvezda Kh-23 (AS-7 Kerry)
In April 1965, when work on the MiG-23 fighter aircraft began, the "Vympel" [Pennant]
OKB-134 Special Design Bureau received an order for a Kh-23 tactical guided air-to-
ground missile. The main incentive for developing it was intelligence received about the
Bullpup missile, a highly effective American one of the same class built several years
earlier. Right away the engineers faced an obstacle of technological nature: the Russians
had never before built tactical guided missiles and had not acquired any experience with
missile guidance systems. A particularly difficult problem was the stipulation by the Air
Force that the missile guidance system fit already existing fighter aircraft and thus be
small. Because the OKB-134 did not meet time schedules, the Air Force in early 1966
accepted the proposal from the "Zvezda" small Design Bureau at the Kalinin No 455
Series Production Plant near Moscow producing K-5, K-8, and other guided air-to-air
missiles. They proposed to build the first tactical air-to-ground missile with ready-made
components of air-to-air missiles.
What prompted the "Zvezda" OKB to submit its proposal was that it already had certain
experience in using air-to-air missiles against ground targets. Such tests had been
conducted during late nineteen fifties and early nineteen sixties with K-51 (RS-2US)
missiles fired from MiG-19PM fighter aircraft. The main results of these tests indicated
the feasibility of using these missiles against land and sea targets, though not very
effectively because of the small warhead.
The first Soviet tactical air-to-ground missile was built in 1966 and, therefore, called the
Kh-66 or Article 66. The key design requirement was that it be able to carry a warhead
weighing 100 kg (for comparison, the warhead of the K-5 missile weighed 13 kg). For
propulsion of the Kh-66 missile the propulsion system of the K-8 was used with only a
small modification of the nozzle. The nozzle had to be split in two, because the K-51
(RS-2US) guidance system, also used by the Kh-66 missile, was located in the tail. Using
the old guidance system had many drawbacks but also offered one great advantage,
namely that it could be carried by every aircraft previously carrying a K-5 missile without
modifications of the aircraft (except for a new attachment underneath the fuselage). The
missile was produced within a few months and in September 1966 began to be tested
with an MiG-21PFM aircraft. Then in 1968 the Kh-66 was officially certified as weapon
of MiG-21 aircraft, supported on the center line beneath the fuselage.
The Kh-66 missile was a temporary solution and therefore, work on the Kh-23 missile
was not discontinued but transferred from the "Vympel" OKB to the "Zvezda" OKB.
Many components of the Kh-66 missile were used for building the Kh-23 and only the
tail carrying the Delta-R1M radio-command guidance system had to be altered.
Furthermore, the propulsion fuel was replaced with one having a higher energy content.
The first ten experimental Kh-23 units were tested in the beginning of 1968. Due to
defects, factory testing continued till the end of 1969. The cause of perturbations in the
missile guidance could not be determined for quite a long time. Eventually the cause was
found to be the wrong location of the smoke tracker allowing it to interfere both
thermally and mechanically with the antenna of the guidance system. This problem was
solved by placing the tracker on the tail extension of the missile. The aircraft part of the
Delta apparatus was installed either permanently on the aircraft (Delta N and Delta NM)
or in containers (Delta NG or Delta NG2 systems). After completion of Government
Qualification tests on MiG-23S and MiG-23B aircraft in autumn 1973, the Kh-23 missile
was in 1974 officially certified as weapon with the Kh-23M (Article 68M) designation.

Specifications
Version Kh-66 Kh-23M
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 3.63 m 2.49 m
Diameter 0.275 m 0.275 m
Wingspan 0.811 m 0.785 m
Weight 278 kg 286 kg
Warhead Weight 103 kg 111 kg
Propulsion single stage solid propellant rocket motor
Maximum Speed 2340 km/h 2900 km/h
Maximum effective 10 km 10 km
range
Guidance mode beam riding beam riding
Raduga Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle)
Tactical missiles were also built by A. Berezhnyak's "Raduga" OKB engineering group,
but by a different route than taken by the "Zvezda" Design Bureau. While "Zvezda"
started from light air-to-air missiles, "Raduga" scaled down heavy air-to-ground missiles
for strategic aircraft into light tactical ones.
The Kh-28 (Article 93, alias D8) was built by applying to it Kh-22 and KSR-5 features.
Its structure is a conventional aerodynamic one, with small delta wings. Its propulsion
system is a two-stage liquid-fuel rocket engine. It was produced as early as the nineteen
sixties, especially as an antiradar missile for Yak-28 bomber aircraft (the first Soviet
missile of this type). It was, however, never actually put on Yak-28 aircraft but instead
used as weapon of Su-7B/17/24 and Tu-22M aircraft. Series production of the Kh-28
began in 1971. The warhead is programmed prior to the missile launch, either by a
"Filin" [Eagle Owl] set on board the aircraft (Su-24) or a "Metel" [Blizzard] set
suspended from the aircraft (Su-7B/17, Tu-22M), to track the frequency of detected
enemy ground radar. On the Su-17 aircraft this missile is suspended under the center line
of the fuselage and the "Metel" set on the right underwing pylon. The missile is no longer
used.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 5.97 m
Diameter 0.43 m
Wingspan 1.93 m
Weight 720 kg
Warhead Weight 160 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed 3500 km/h
Maximum effective
120 km
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Zvezda Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen)
The Kh-23 missile was very difficult to operate. After having been fired, it required
continuous control by the pilot so that the pilot had to view the target image and the
missile image as well as the sight screen. The necessity of continuously watching three
images diverted the pilot from other tasks was very dangerous during combat. The
distance to the target was, moreover, logged by the pilot manually on the basis of rough
"eyesight" estimates and thus with significant errors.
Other methods of guidance were sought, therefore, and the use of a laser for target
indication to a guided missile became the choice. Work on this project was carried out by
the "Zvezda" OKB jointly with Sukhoy's engineering group, the system developed by
them being designated as the Su-17MKG (initial plans also included missiles with laser
guidance as weapons for Su-7BM aircraft, but the autopilot of these aircraft was weaker
and not able to ensure adequate damping of vibrations and thus sufficiently accurate
aiming).
While the Kh-23 was still being tested, its Kh-25 version (Article 71) was being prepared
with a 24N1 semiactive laser homing head, using light rays reflected by the target upon
their incidence from the first Soviet aircraft laser station ''Prozhektor-1'' (or possibly from
a laser station on the ground). The missile was also equipped with an SUR-71 autopilot.
Inasmuch as the Kh-25 version did not need a Delta system, instead an additional
warhead weighing 24 kg to supplement the 113 kg warhead in the front, was placed in its
tail section. The "Prozhektor" laser station had been built by the "Geofizika"
[Geophysics] SKB (D. Khorol chief engineer). Flight tests of the Kh-25 missile on an Su-
17M aircraft, also carrying a "Prozhektor" laser, began toward the end of 1973, after
which followed in autumn 1974 Government Qualification tests of the Su-17KMG
complex. Both Kh-23 and Kh-25 missiles were also tested on Ka-25 and Ka-27
helicopters.
The experience acquired during work on radio command-guided Kh-23, laser- guided
Kh-25, and Kh-25 antiradar missiles was all applied to a new design: of the "Modulnaya"
[Modular] Kh-25M missile (Article 71). This one became ultimately the most popular
Soviet missile of its class and replaced earlier types. In 1975-76 it was approved for
ordnance, especially as weapon of the MiG-27, then later also as weapon of almost all
other aircraft and also of some helicopters such as Ka-50.
The Kh-25M missile is series produced in three versions, all using the same engine,
autopilot, warhead, power supply, body with wings, and other components. Only the
guidance heads are different. The Kh-25MP antiradar missile (Article 711, NATO's AS-
12 Kegler) is similar to the Kh-27PS with an almost identical outer appearance. The Kh-
25ML (Article 713, NATO's AS-10 Karen) has a 24N1 laser guidance head and thus the
same one which the Kh-25 has. The Kh-25MR (Article 714, NATO's AS-10 Karen) has
the guidance head in the nose section replaced by a deflector and a Delta radio command-
guidance system in the tail section, just as in the earlier Kh-23M missile. The latest
version of the Kh-25 missile is the Kh-25MTP with a thermal-imaging guidance head.
Specifications
Version Kh-25 Kh-25ML
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 3.57 m
Diameter 0.275 m 0.275 m;
Wingspan
300 kg (Kh-25MP 320
Weight 320 kg
kg)
Warhead Weight 136 kg 89.6 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective range 10 km (Kh-25MP
range 40 km)
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Raduga Kh-58 (AS-11 Kilter)
The Kh-58U missile (Article 112, alias D7) was built to replace the Kh-28, first of all for
Su-24M aircraft, and was then used as basic weapon of MiG-25BM and other aircraft.
Target indication and guidance head programming prior to the launch are done by either
an on-board (Su-24M) "Fantazmagoria" [Phantasmagoria] set or a "Vyyuga"
[Snowstorm] set suspended in a container. The probability of hit within a 20 m radius
around an operating radar station is 80 percent. The Kh-58 version was equipped with an
active radar head.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 4.80 m
Diameter 0.38m
Wingspan 1.17 m
Weight 640 kg
Warhead Weight 149 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed Mach 3.6
Maximum effective
120 km
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
80%
probability
Zvezda Kh-25MP / Kh-27PS (AS-12
Kegler)
One of the most important tasks of a tactical air-to-ground missile is breaking through the
enemy air defense system by destroying its radar stations. No wonder then that in 1972,
immediately after completing both Kh-23 and Kh-25 missiles, the "Zvezda" OKB began
working on the Kh-27PS (Article 72) missile of the same family with a passive-radar
head. An antiradar missile must have a long range so as to be able to reach radar stations
from beyond the range of the air defense artillery. The Kh-27PS was therefore equipped
with a two-range engine so its range could be extended to 60 km by reducing its speed
during the initial flight stage.
The passive-radar head of this missile was equipped with two antennas tuned to the radar
frequencies of two most popular Western air defense systems: Hawk and Nike Hercules
respectively. The missile was also equipped with an autopilot enabling it to perform the
"hump" maneuver during the final flight stage so as to hit the target at a 20-30[DEG]
angle and thus improve the effectiveness of warhead. The Kh-27PS missile worked with
the airborne "Vyyuga" [Snowstorm] set programming the warhead prior to the launch.
The missile was arming Su-17 and MiG-27 aircraft. Government Qualification tests on an
MiG-27 aircraft were conducted during the 1975-77 period.
Raduga Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) and
Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo)
The Kh-59 missile (Article D9) was for the first time publicly displayed in November
1991, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates). This missile is guided by television and
propelled by a powder-fuel engine, with a powder- fuel accelerator in the tail. Its folding
stabilizers are located at the front, while its cantilever wings with rudders are located in
the rear.
The Kh-59M missile differs from the original model by having a twice as large warhead
and by another propulsion system. Under the missile body has been suspended a small
turbojet engine, the RDK-300 designed by the "Soyuz" [Union] OKB. The missile is
brought up to speed by a powder-fuel accelerator located in the tail section and then
continues flying propelled by that turbojet engine. Equipped with such a propulsion
system, the missile has a three times longer range than the Kh-59.
Because television guidance has the drawback that the target must be "seen" by the
missile, which limits the missile's range of action, the Kh-59M has a dual guidance
system. After having been fired, the missile is guided by an inertial navigation system
into the vicinity of the target and then the television camera is turned on for transmission
of images to the receiver on board the missile's carrier aircraft. The transmitter of flight-
correcting radio commands (APK-8 for MiG-27K aircraft or APK-9 for Su-24M/30M
and newer aircraft) is mounted in a container which hangs under the aircraft. The
armament consisting of a Kh-59M missile with such guidance is called Owad [Insect]-M.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service 1982
Total length 5.695 m (Kh-59 5,368 m)
Diameter 0.38 m
Wingspan 1.26 m
Weight 930 kg (Kh-59 760 kg)
315 kg with penetrating ammunition or
Warhead Weight 280 kg with fragmenting ammunition
(Kh-59 147 kg)
Propulsion
Maximum Speed 285 m/s
Maximum effective
115 km (Kh-59 40 km)
range
7 m above water or
Altitude
100, 600, 1000 m above ground
Guidance mode TV-guide
Carried by Su-24M, Su-34
Molniya (AS-14 Kedge)
This is the only missile of the air-to-ground class which has been designed by Matus
Bisnovat's "Molniya" [Lightning] Design Bureau, which specializes in air-to-air missiles.
It was developed in the middle nineteen seventies for MiG-27, Su-17, and Su-24 (Fencer)
aircraft. It was later also installed on other aircraft. It is used chiefly against heavily
reinforced targets (almost half its weight is the warhead). It is supported on AKU-58
launcher pylons, from which it is dropped down before its engine starts. The Kh-29L
(Article 63) is an improved version of the Kh-29, with semiactive laser guidance. A target
can be illuminated from the delivery aircraft or from another aircraft or from the ground.
The Kh-29T (Article 64) has a television head with automatic optical homing to a
distinguishable object indicated by the pilot in the cockpit. The Kh-29D version with a
thermal- imaging head is also on the list of Russian export items.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service 1980
Total length 3.875 m
Diameter 0.38 m
Wingspan 0.78 m
Weight 657 kg (Kh-29T 680 kg)
Warhead Weight 317 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed 600 m/s
Maximum effective
8-10 km
range
Kh-29L (Article 63)semiactive laser
Guidance mode Kh-29T (Article 64) television
Kh-29D thermal-imaging
Su-17M3, Su-25T, MiG-27M, Su-24M, Su-34, MiG-
Platform
33, Su-35
Kh-55 Granat
AS-15 Kent
SS-N-21 Sampson
SSC-4 Slingshot
The Kh-55 strategic cruise missile is used for destroying targets whose coordinates are
known. Its guidance system combines inertial-Doppler navigation and position correction
based on comparison of terrain in the assigned regions with images stored in the memory
of an on-board computer. The propulsion system is a dual-flow engine located
underneath the missile's tail. The missile carries a 200 kt nuclear warhead.

The first tests of this missile were conducted in 1978 and a few units were installed on
Tu-95MS aircraft in 1984. Three aircraft versions of this missile are known: Kh-55
(Article 120, alias RKV-500, NATO's AS-15a), Kh-55-OK (article 124), Kh-55SM
(Article 125, alias RKV-500B, NATO's AS-15b). In addition the land version RK-55
(SSC-X-4) was destroyed in compliance with INF disarmament negotiations. The sea
version SS-N-21 Sampson is reportedly deployed on the Akula, Victor III, Yankee
Notch, and Sierra class SSN submarines. However, since the SSC-4 coastal defense
variant is carried in a 25.6-in (650-mm) diameter canister, some analysts have suggested
that the sub- launched variant is probably for launch only from 650-mm diameter torpedo
tubes.

Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced in January 1992 that he would end the
manufacture of all sea- and air- launched cruise missiles. In March 2000 it was reported
that the Russian Air Force had tested a new cruise missile with a conventional warhead. It
was said to be a Kh-555 missile, which was developed from the Kh-55, with a range of
2000 - 3000 km.

Raduga Kh-65
The Kh-65 missile is a tactical modification of the strategic Kh-55. According to the first
available information (on data sheets at the 1992 Moscow Air Show), its range was to be
500-600 km. The reason for shortening its range was that, according to terms of the
SALT-2 Treaty, any aircraft carrying missiles with a range longer than 600 km will be
regarded as a strategic one and the number of such aircraft is strictly limited. A full-sized
versio of the Kh-65SE was displayed for the first time in 1993 (February in Abu Dabi,
then September 1993 in Zhukovskiy and Nizhniy Novgorod). The missiles shown at the
exhibitions did not differ from the earlier versions except for their range, quoted as 250
km when launched from low altitude and 280 km when launched from high altitude. The
Kh-65 was intended for use against large targets with a larger than 300 m2 effective
reflecting surface area, particularly warships, under conditions of strong electronic
interference. It approaches the target guided by an inertial navigation system while flying
at a low altitude. Having reached the region where the target is located, it rises to a higher
altitude and its active-radar target seeking system turns on.

Specifications
Version Kh-55SM Kh-65SE
Raduga OKB
Contractor M. I. Kalinin Machine
Building Plant
Entered Service
Total length 8.09 m 6.04 m / 19 ft, 6 in
Diameter 0.77 m; (Kh-55 0.514 m) 0.514 m
Wingspan 3.10 m 3.10 m / 10 ft, 1 in
Weight 1700 kg 1250 kg
Warhead 200-kt nuclear 410 kg HE
Propulsion
Speed Mach 0.48-0.77 Mach 0.48-0.77
Maximum effective 3000 km (Kh-55 2500
250-280 km
range km)
Flight Altitude 40-110 m
Guidance mode
AS 15 Mod A AS 15 Mod B
RKV-500A RKV-500B
ALCM ALCM
Raduga Kh-15 (AS-16 Kickback)
The Kh-15 short-range attack missile is analogous to the the American AGM-69 SRAM.
Its basic version is the Kh-15P (Article 115) antiradiation missile used for breaking
through air defenses. Its Kh-15A anti-ship version (exhibited in Abu Dabi 1993 as the
Kh-15S) has an inertial navigation system for the initial flight stage and a millimetric-
wave active-radar self-homing system for the final flight stage. During its initial flight
stage the Kh-15 missile, using a solid-fuel, rises to an altitude of about 40,000 m,
whereupon the target seeking radar turns on. Having been zeroed in on the target, the
missile dives while accelerating to a speed of Mach 5.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 4.78 m
Diameter 0.455 m
Wingspan 0.92 m
Weight 1200 kg
Warhead Weight 150 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed Mach 5
Maximum effective
150 km
range
flight altitude 40 km
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Zvezda Kh-31 (AS-17 Krypton)
New air defense weapon systems of the American Patriot kind have raised the
requirements which antiradar missiles must meet. These include first of all higher speed
and longer range, then also high interference immunity and radar turn-off when attacked.
For the special purpose of meeting these requirements, the "Zvezda" group under the
direction of V. Bugayskiy began in 1977 working on the Kh-31 missile (Article) 77P).
The first launchings of this missile took place in 1982.
The most interesting component of the Kh-31P is its dual propulsion system designed by
the "Soyuz" Design Bureau in Turayevo near Moscow (note: there are several "Soyuz"
engineering groups in Russia). First the missile is accelerated by its solid-fuel rocket
engine to a speed of Mach 1.8, then the engine is discarded and the interior of the missile
is converted into the combustion chamber of the missile's jet engine. The latter
accelerates the missile to a speed of almost Mach 4.5, while four air intake holes on the
sides of the missile body open up. On the basis of the Kh-31P antiradar missile were
developed the Kh-31A missile (Article 77A) with an active-radar guidance head and also
an M-31 flying target for air defense training exercises. The Kh-31 was for the first time
publicly displayed in November 1991, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates).
The State Scientific Production Center Zvezda-Strela has upgraded the air-to-surface
supersonic ASM Kh-31A NATO: AS-17 Krypton). Recently a variant of the air-to-air
class based on the Kh-31 was made available, equipped with a hybrid active-passive
guidance head for use against nonmaneuvering airborne targets such as AWACS (passive
guidance) from far distances. The range of this missile is 200 km. The unofficial
designation of this missile is 'mini-Moskit'. The Kh-31A missile has been developed from
the technologies of the 1970-80s.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 5.232 m
Diameter 0.36 m
Wingspan 0.779 m
Weight 600 kg
Warhead Weight 90 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed 1000 m/s
Maximum effective
70 km (Kh-31P 110 km)
range
Guidance mode Active Radarhoming
Carried by
P-750 Grom
BL-10
AS-19 KOALA
SS-N-24 SCORPION
SSC-5
The P-750 Grom supersonic winged cruise missile with a range of 3000-4000 km was
developed for replacing the Kh-55 [AS-15 KENT]. The AS-X-19 Koala was an air-
launched land-attack version derived from the SS-NX-24 Scorpion submarine-launched
missile. A pair of AS-19 missiles was expected to arm the Tu-142 Bear-H bomber. The
missile carried two warheads independently guided to hit two targets 100 km apart. The
letters BL in its American designation refer to the firing range in Barnaul, where it was
tested; its Russian industrial index designation is not known. Work on the program was
suspended in 1992.

Specifications
Contractor Chelomey
Entered Service cancelled
Total length 7 meters
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight 2,000 kg
Warhead 2 x 200 kt nuclear
Propulsion turbojet or rocket/ramjet
Maximum Speed supersonic
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode 3000-4000 km
Zvezda Kh-35
AS-20 Kayak
SS-N-25 Switchblade
SSC-6 Switchblade
In 1972 the Zvezda-Strela State Scientific-Industrial Center (GNPTs) group began
working on the Uran (Western SS-N-25) anti-ship missile system - also commonly called
Kharpunskiy because of its similarity to the American Harpoon - for ships of various
classes. The Kh-35 antiship cruise missile can be used by surface ships and motor boats,
coastal reconnaissance/strike systems, naval helicopters and also by Air Force planes.
The Uran missile systems comprise 16 Kh-35 missiles - 4x4 launchers with pressurised
transport-launching containers. The Uran system now serves as armament of Project
1149.8 missile equipped gun boats and other vessels. A coastal defense variant and, more
recently, an antiaircraft variant were later developed on the basis of this missile.
The Kh-35 missile has a normal aerodynamic design and an aluminium-alloy airframe.
The missile's power plant consists of a solid-fuel booster and a turbojet powerplant. The
missile's take-off weight is 750 kilograms, the warhead weighs 150 kilograms with a
range of up to 130 kilometres. The Kh-35U anti-ship aircraft missile (Article 78U),
propelled by a turbojet engine, flies toward its target at a speed of about the 300 m/s at an
extremely low altitude. Owing to its high-precision radio-altimeter, the missile can skim
the sea waves at an altitude of 3-5 metres at the terminal phase of trajectory. Its guidance
system combines inertial guidance for during the initial flight stage and active-radar
guidance during the remaining flight stage. The missile has a folding wing and a folding
tail fin.
For use by coastal or shipborne launchers the missile is equipped with a rocket starter-
accelerator, a container-type launcher having room for four missiles.
The air-launched AS-20 Kayak version was scheduled to become part of ordnance in
1994. The Kh-35U is intended to serve as weapon of practically all tactical naval aircraft,
also of ZOP on the Tu-142 long-range aircraft (eight missiles on two positions, four per
position, under the wings) and carrier-based Ka-27 helicopters (four missiles).
Also available is an IC-35 flying target simulator for training a ship's air defense team in
destroying missiles of this class. The "Zvezda" product line includes a variant of the Kh-
35 missile which operates with thermal-imaging rather than radar guidance during the
final flight stage.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service 1983
Total length 3.75 m
Diameter 0.42 m
Wingspan 0.93 m
Weight 480 kg [630 kg with booster]
Warhead Weight 145 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed 300 m/s
Maximum effective
130 km
range
Guidance mode Active Radarhoming
Platforms Ka-28, MiG-33, Yak-141
AFM-L Alfa
3M-51 Alfa P-900
The P-900 Alfa [industrial code 3M-51 ] is a version of the Granat [SS-N-19
SHIPWRECK] carrying a supersonic [Mach 2.5] final attack stage. There is some
confusion as to whether the SS-N-27 designation applies to this missile, or to the Klub
[industrial code 3M-54, also known as Alfa] , although the best evidence suggests that the
3M-54 Alfa is the SS-N-27, rather than the 3M-51 Alfa.

The first information about the Alfa or officially AFM-L air-to-water missile built by the
Scientific-Industrial Association "Mashinostroyeniye" [Machine Construction] (formerly
V. Chelomey's Special Design Bureau since 1984 directed by G. Yefremov) was given at
the Abu Dabi exhibition in February 1993, and in August 1993 a full-size model of this
new missile was displayed in Zhukovskiy. It has a folding wing and four stabilizers aft.
During the first flight stage, covering about 200 km, the missile is propelled by a turbojet
engine and flies at a subsonic speed of 220-240 m/s approaching the target, whereupon a
rocket engine kicks in which accelerates it to 700 m/s.

NPO Mashinostroenie continues the development of the Alfa universal supersonic cruise
missile that can be adopted for service in five to six years. The missile is being developed
in submarine, ship, air and coastal-launched variants. As an airborne variant, Alfa will
first join the armament options for the Su-34 or Su-32FN (NATO: Flanker) attack
aircraft. The ship, submarine and coastal-launched variants of the Alfa have take-off
weight of 2,600 kg (5,730 lb.) and warhead weight of 300 kg. (661 lb.). The Alfa air-
launched variant has take-off weight of 1,600 kg. (3,527 lb.). With the exception of the
airborne variant, the missile is fired from a standard transport-launching container (TLC).

Specifications
Contractor NPO Mashinostroyeniye
Entered Service Under Development
Total length 8.0 m
Diameter
Wingspan
2,600 kg (5,730 lb.) ship, submarine and coastal-
Weight launched variants
1,600 kg. (3,527 lb.) air-launched variant
Warhead Weight 300 kg. (661 lb.)
Propulsion Turbojet + Rocket
Maximum Speed Cruise Subsonic,
Attack Mach 2.5 - 700 m/s
Maximum effective
250 km
range
Guidance mode Active Radar
Single-shot hit
probability
Moskit
SS-N-22 Sunburn
Moskit is the aircraft variant of the naval missile 3M80 (SS-N-22 Sunburn, the
designation 3M80 apparently referring to the Mach 3 speed of 1980 weapons) used on
"Sovremennyy" destroyers (eight missiles on each) and on "Tarantul [Tarantula] III
patrol ships (four missiles on each). The 3M82 "Mosquito" missiles have the fastest
flying speed among all antiship missiles in today's world. It reaches Mach 3 at a high
altitude and its maximum low-altitude speed is M2.2, triple the speed of the American
Harpoon. When slower missiles, like the French Exocet are used, the maximum
theoretical response time for the defending ship is 150-120 seconds. This provides time to
launch countermeasures and employ jamming before deploying "hard" defense tactics
such as launching missiles and using quick-firing artillery. But the 3M82 "Mosquito"
missiles are extremely fast and give the defending side a maximum theoretical response
time of merely 25-30 seconds, rendering it extremely difficult employ jamming and
countermeasures, let alone fire missiles and quick-firing artillery.

The aircraft version, officially called ASM-MMS and apparently also Kh-4, is intended
specially for Su-27K (Su-33) carrier-based fighter aircraft. It was for the first time shown
to the CIS leaders in February 1992 in Machulishche and then to the public in August
1992 at the Moscow Air Show in Zhukovskiy.

The missile is propelled by a dual (rocket-jet) engine operating by the same principle as
the Kh-31 engine. The missile, suspended under the aircraft, has a folding wing. The
missile is guided by an autopilot during the initial fight stage, with possible correction by
the aircraft pilot, and by active radar during the final flight stage.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 9.745 m
Diameter
Wingspan 2.10 m
Weight 4500 kg
Warhead Weight 320 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed Mach 3
Maximum effective
250 km
range
Flight Altitude 20 meters above sea level
Guidance mode active radar
Single-shot hit
probability
3M55 Oniks
P-800 Yakhont
P-800 Bolid
SSN-X-26
The supersonic P-800 Yakhont (Gem) is a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr [SS-N-7
Starbright]. The ship, submarine and coastal-launched Yakhont is launched from the
unified ampoule-shaped transport-launching container (TLC). The container is 9 m long,
is 0.71 m in diameter. The firing range reaches 300 km (162 nmi.) when flying along a
combined trajectory and 120 kg (265 lb.) when following only a low-altitude trajectory.
Flight speed varying over the range from M=2.0 to M=2.5 is provided by the kerosene-
fueled multi-mode liquid-fuel ramjet. The P-800 Bolid is the encapsulated, submarine
launched version of Yakhont. An air-launched version of the missile with the take-off
weight of 2,500 kg (5,507 lb.) is also being developed. The closest American
counterparts, the Tomahawk and Harpoon missiles, are subsonic; the best French antiship
missile, the Exocet, has a range of only 45 miles.

Specifications
Country of Origin Russia
Builder Beriev
Role Amphibious anti-submarine patrol aircraft
300 km mixed trajectory
Range
120 km low trajectory
Speed Mach 2 to 2.5
Flight altitude 5 to 15 meters, final phase
Weight of warhead 200 kg [about]
Guidance active-passive, radar seeker head
Minimum target
50 km in active mode
detection range
Maximum seeker 45 degrees
head search angle
solid propellant booster stage
Propulsion
liquid-propellant ramjet sustainre motor
Launcher type underwater, surface ship, land
Launch method from closed bottom launch-container
Launch angle range 15 to 90 degrees
3,000 kg launch
Weight 3,900 kg in launch-container
Launch-container 8.9 meters length
dimensions 0.7 meters diameter
FROG-1 3R-1, Filin
The Russian The FROG-1 [ Free Rocket Over Ground] and FROG-2 were the earliest of
the Soviet large free rockets. FROG-1 can be distinguished by its large, bulbous nose and
by the large transporter-launch vehicle based on the JS heavy tank chassis. FROG-2 is a
smaller rocket, also with a bulbous nose, but transported by and launched from a light-
tracked vehicle derived from the PT-76 tank chassis. Both FROG-1 and FROG-2 are
considered obsolete today and are no longer in first line units.
FROG-2 3R-2, Mars
The Russian The FROG-1 [ Free Rocket Over Ground] and FROG-2 were the earliest of
the Soviet large free rockets. FROG-1 can be distinguished by its large, bulbous nose and
by the large transporter-launch vehicle based on the JS heavy tank chassis. FROG-2 is a
smaller rocket, also with a bulbous nose, but transported by and launched from a light-
tracked vehicle derived from the PT-76 tank chassis. Both FROG-1 and FROG-2 are
considered obsolete today and are no longer in first line units.
FROG-3 R-9, Luna
FROG-4 Luna
FROG-5 3R-10, Luna-1
The Russian FROG-3 [Free Rocket Over Ground], FROG-4, and FROG-5 are three
variants of a single unguided, spin stabilized, solid fuel rocket. The system requires about
30-40 minutes to prepare missile for firing and about 60-70 minutes to reload. The
rockets are transported on and launched from the same basic light-tracked chassis derived
from the PT-76 tank. This chassis can be distinguished from that of the FROG-2
transport-launch vehicle by the presence of track support rollers. The rockets are
identical, differing only in the size and shape of the warheads. Although still encountered
in some armies, this series of FROG'S was replaced by FROG-7 which is carried on and
launched from a wheeled vehicle.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight Up to 800lbs
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
10,000 to 61,000 m
range
Guidance mode unguided, spin stabilized
FROG-3

FROG-4
FROG-5
FROG-6
The Russian FROG-6 [Free Rocket Over Ground] is a dummy rocket used for training
purposes. It is transported on a specialty modified ZIL-157 (6?6) truck chassis.
FROG-7A (3R-11, 9K21, 9M21, R-65)
FROG-7B (9K52, 9M52, R-70), Luna-M
The FROG-7 is the latest addition to the "Free Rocket Over Ground" family of unguided,
spin-stabilized, short-range (battlefield support) artillery rockets. The rocket is of
conventional single-stage design, with a cylindrical warhead of the same diameter as the
rocket body, giving it a cleaner, more modern appearance than its predecessors. The
FROG-7 has a range of 70 km and a 550 kg warhead, and an impact area of
approximately 2.8 km long by 1.8 km wide. The FROG-7 is capable of delivering HE,
nuclear, or chemical warheads. The FROG-7 gave the Soviet division commander a deep
interdiction/penetration nuclear threat.

The FROG-7A was first introduced in 1965 as a replacement for earlier FROG variants,
some of which had been in service since the mid-1950s. The FROG-1 and -2 are
obsolete. The FROG-3, -4, and -5 variants, mounted on a non-amphibious version of the
PT-76 light tank chassis, are obsolete in the USSR, but were still found in other Warsaw
Pact armies at the end of the Cold War. The FROG-5 is still used as a training rocket, and
the FROG-6 is a dummy rocket used for training purposes only. The FROG-7B,
introduced in 1968, is essentially the same rocket as the FROG-7A but with a longer
warhead section.

The FROG-7 was replaced by the SS-21 tactical ballistic missile which has greater range
(120 km) as well as probable improvements in reaction time, missile reliability, accuracy,
and handling characteristics. Since the SS-21 is mounted on a six-wheeled TEL similar to
the SA-8/GECKO SAM system, it has improved cross-country capability and is probably
amphibious. Like the SA-8, it probably has an air filtration and overpressure system for-
collective chemical and biological protection. The SS-21 was first deployed in 1976 in
the USSR and was reported in GSFG in 1981.

During the Cold War the most prominent short-range nuclear force [SNF] system at at the
division level was the unguided free-rocket-over-ground (FROG), which in the Soviet
Army was deployed in a battalion of four launchers. As of 1987 the Soviets were
replacing FROGs with the more accurate, longer range SS-21s in some divisions opposite
NATO. About 500 FROG and SS-21 launchers were opposite NATO. Another 215
FROG launchers were opposite China and in the Far East; some 100 were opposite
Southwest Asia and eastern Turkey; and about 75 were in strategic reserve. Non-nuclear
versions of the FROG-7 have been exported to both Warsaw Pact and some non-Warsaw
Pact nations. The FROG-7 is deployed by Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North
Korea, Syria, and Yemen. Laith, an Iraqi improved version of the FROG-7, has a 90 km
range.

The FROG-7 (9K52 Luna), the final version of the FROG family, is an unguided, spin-
stabilized, short-range, battlefield support artillery rocket. The range of the FROG-7A
rocket is 70 km with a CEP of 500 to 700 meters. It is fitted with either a 450 kg HE, 450
kg nuclear, or 36 kg chemical warheads. The improved FROG-7B carries a cargo
warhead for delivering bomblets or mines.

In addition to improvements in the rocket which give it greater range, a new transport-
launch vehicle using a wheeled chassis has been developed based on the ZIL-135 [BAZ-
135] 8x8 truck. This wheeled transporter erector launcher (TEL) carries one rocket and a
crane. It incorporates a number of improvements in rocket handling such as the on-board
crane. Reload missiles are placed on the TEL by that vehicle’s own hydraulically
operated crane on the right side of the launcher rail. A very similar vehicle is also used
with the FROG-7 system to transport the reserve rockets. The earlier FROG'S used
semitrailers towed by ZIL-157V tractor trucks, and needed crane trucks for reloading of
the transport-launch vehicles. Preparation for firing can take 15 to 30 minutes depending
on the situation. A typical FROG-7 battalion is equipped with two firing batteries each
with two TELs and a D-band RMS (END TRAY) long-range meteorological radar. The
cruising range of the transporter-erector-launcher vehicle is 400 km. The FROG-7 TEL
vehicle provides no NBC protection for the crew. The single-rail launcher has limited
traverse.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight 550 kg
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 70 km
range
Guidance mode ballistic
145 It has an impact area of approximately 2.8 km
Accuracy
long by 1.8 km wide
CIS, Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea,
Users Syria, Yemen
SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka)
The SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka) single-stage, short-range, tactical-ballistic missile is
transported and fired from the 9P129 6x6 wheeled transporter erector launcher. It is
supported by a tactical transloader (9T218) and a 9T238 missile transporter trailer towed
by a ZIL-131 truck. The 9P129 TEL crew compartment is in the forward section and the
missile compartment behind. During transport the missile is enclosed with the warhead in
a temperature-controlled casing.

The SS-21 SCARAB missile (9M79) has a maximum range of 70 km and a CEP of 160
meters, while the improved composite propellant 9M79-1 (Tochka-U) has a maximum
range of 120 km. The basic warhead is the 9N123F HE-Frag warhead which has 120 kg
of high explosives. The 9N123K submunition warhead can probably carry either
bomblets or mines. The SS-21 can also carry the AA60 tactical nuclear warhead. Other
warheads are believed to include chemical, terminally guided warhead, and a smart-
munition bomblet warhead. In 1981, the SS-21, a guided missile (providing improvement
in both range and accuracy), began replacing the FROG in forward-deployed divisions,
and 140 are were deployed as of 1988. Division-level SS-21 battalions were being
consolidated into brigades in Soviet armies in East Germany.

On 21 October 1999 US satellites [reportedly the Defense Support Program] tracked two
Russian short-range ballistic missile launched from the Russian city of Mozdok some 60
miles northeast of Grozny. The missiles slammed into a crowded Grozny marketplace
and a maternity ward, killing at least 143 persons, according to reports from the region.
The missiles are believed by intelligence analysts to have been SS-21s.

Specifications
USA Code Name SS-21
Nato Code Name: Scarab
Russian Designation: 9K79
Range: 120 Km
Stages: 1
Fuel: Solid
Inservice: Current System
Notes: Replacement for FROG -7 System. Very Mobile
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
SS-N-2 Styx
HY-1 / SY-1
CSS-C-2 SILKWORM
FL-1 Flying Dragon
CSS-N-1 SCRUBBRUSH
China acquired the Russian SS-N-2 Styx missile technology in 1959, and production
began in 1974. The Russian SS-N-2 was used in 1967 against Israel by Egypt, in 1971 by
India against Pakistan, and by Iran during its 1980-88 war with Iraq. Chinese copies of
the Styx design (CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker) coastal defence missiles
and the ship launched CSS-N-1 and CSS-N-2 were used by both sides in the Iraq-Iran
War

Technological improvements to the C-801/SARDINE and the C-802/ SACCADE are


providing a gradual upgrade to China's current force of antiquated first generation CSS-
N-1 SCRUBBRUSH ASCMs. It was reported in 1996 that Iran had begun indigenous
production of a medium-range antiship missile, the FL-10, based on the Chinese FL-2 or
FL7 and developed with Chinese technical assistance.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 5.8 meters
Diameter o.76 meters
Wingspan 2.4 meters
Weight 2,300 kg
Warhead Weight 454kg HE hollow charge
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 80 km
range
Guidance mode Auto pilot, Active radar
Single-shot hit
probability
P-350 Bazalt 4K-77
P-500 Bazalt 4K-80
SS-N-12 Sandbox
SS-N-12 Sandbox is a Russian supersonic speed cruise missile with a range of 550 km
carrying a payload of 1,000 kg. The P-350 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-77] was the
successor to the P-35 Bazalt, which was started in 1963 and subsequently cancelled. It
evolved into the P-500 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-80] which was the production version
of the original P-350 Bazalt. Developed to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock anti- ship
missile, it was initially deployed on Kiev-class aircraft carriers in the mid-1970s. The
Slava-class cruisers carry an advanced version with an improved sophisticated guidance
system, an autopilot that can be programmed for mid-course maneuvers, and an enhanced
engine. The P-700 Granat [SSN-19 Shipwreck] was developed as a more successful
turbojet alternative to the SSN-12 Sandbox, from which it was derived.

Specifications
Contractor Chelomey
Entered Service 1973
Total length 11.70 meters
Diameter 0.90 meters
Wingspan 2.60 meters
Weight 5,000 kg
1,000 kg high-explosive or
Warhead
350 kiloton nuclear
liquid-fueled rocket
Propulsion
[turbojet according to some sources]
Maximum Speed Mach 2.5
Maximum effective
550 km
range
mid-course missile guidance radar on lamuch
Guidance mode platform
active or passive terminal homing
Circular Error
300-700 m
Probable (CEP)
SS-N-14 Silex
RPK-3 Metel / RPK-4 Musson
SS-N-14 Silex is a Russian anti-submarine weapon. It was initially and incorrectly given
the SS-N-10 designation. There is also an ASuW(SSM) version where a homing head is
mounted on the nose of the carrier and the torpedo is replaced by a warhead- the whole
missile is then guided onto the target. it uses UPRK-3, UPRK-4 or UPK-5 missiles.

Specifications
USA Code Name SS-N-14
Nato Code Name Silex
Russian Designation RPK-3 Metel / RPK-4 Musson
Range 55 Km
Propulsion Solid Rocket
Speed Subsonic
In-service: Yes
Guidance Command
SS-N-15 Starfish
RPK-2 Viyoga
The SS-N-15 (Starfish) is a Russian 533 mm calibre anti-ship missile capable of being
fitted with a 10-20 kT warhead or a Type 40 torpedo, and has a range of 37-45
kilometers. The SS-N-15 Starfish ASW has a range of 45-50 kilometers. This non
strategic weapon was deployed in 1973. It uses the 82R torpedo or 90R nuclear depth
charge missile.

Specifications
USA Code Name SS-N-15
Nato Code Name Starfish
Russian Designation Tsakra / RPK-2 Viyoga
Range 45 Km
Design Bureau Novator
Propulsion Solid Rocket
Speed Subsonic
In-service: Yes
SS-N-16 Stallion
The SS-N-16 (Stallion) is a Russian 650mm calibre anti-ship missile capable of being
fitted with a 10-20 kT warhead or a Type 40 torpedo. The SS-N-16 Stallion ASW system
was deployed in 1979-1981. This non strategic weapon has a range variously estimated at
between 50 kilometers and 100-120 kilometers. The SS-N-16 concept is a unique antiship
cruise missile that can carry alternatively a high-explosive charge to destroy surface ships
or a torpedo for use against submarines. This type of weapon can be used by surface
ships or submarines, as with the American AGM-84 Harpoon, although they are not
equivalent. The diameter of this type of missiles is so large that it must be launched from
650 mm tubes, and cannot be carried in the standard 533 mm torpedo tubes. The RPK-6
Vodopod is the surface ship system, firing the 83R torpedo carrying or 86R nuclear depth
charge, while the RPK-7 Vodopei is the submarine system.

Specifications
SS-N-16A - Torpedo Warhead
USA Code Name
SS-N-16B - Nuclear Depth Charge
Nato Code Name Stallion
RU-100 Veter ( Torpedo Warhead - Type 40)
Russian Designation RU-100 Vodopod ( Nuclear Depth Charge -
200kT)
Design Bureau Novator
Range 100 Km
Propulsion Solid Rocket
Speed N/A
In-service: Yes
P-700 3M-45 Granat
SS-N-19 SHIPWRECK
The P-700 Granat [SSN-19 Shipwreck] was developed as a more successful turbojet
alternative to the SSN-12 Sandbox, from which it was derived. Developed in the 1970's,
the Shipwreck's initial employment was on the battle cruiser Kirov (later renamed
Admiral Ushakov). The Shipwreck was subsequently deployed on the nuclear powered
cruiser Peter the Great. It is also deployed on submarines, which can launch the missile
while submerged.

Specifications
Contractor Chelomey
Entered Service
Total length 10 meters
Diameter 0.85 meters
Wingspan
Weight 7,000 kg
750 kg conventional high explosive or
Warhead
500 kiloton nuclear warhead
2 solid-fuel boosters
Propulsion
1 turbojet sustainer engine
Maximum Speed supersonic
Maximum effective
625 km
range
inertial with command update, active radar/IR and
Guidance mode anti-radar homing
Single-shot hit
probability
3M-54 Klub
SS-N-27
The Novator Design Bureau developed the Club anti-sub/ship cruise missile system
[sometimes referred to as the Klub, Biryuza and Alpha/Alfa]. There is some confusion as
to whether the SS-N-27 designation applies to this missile, or to the P-900 Alfa
[industrial code 3M-51 ] , although the best evidence suggests that the 3M-54 Alfa is the
SS-N-27, rather than the 3M-51 Alfa.

The Club missile system is designed to destroy submarine and surface vessels and also
engage static/slow-moving targets, whose co-ordinates are known in advance, even if
these targets are protected by active defences and electronic countermeasures.

There are two 'known' modifications of the system; Club-S (for submarines) and Club-N
(for surface vessels). The Club-N can be installed in vertical launch cells or in angled
missile boxes. Both systems are based on common hardware, the only difference being
the design of the missile launchers and missile transport-launching containers.

Five types of missiles - 3M-54E, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1 and 91RE2 - have been
developed for the Club ASCM. The Club-S can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1
anti-ship missile, 3M-14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE1 anti-submarine
torpedo. The Club-N can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile, 3M-
14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE2 anti-submarine torpedo.

The missile is 6.2 meters long, which is the same as the length of the standard torpedo
tubes used by Western navies. It is designed according to the double-stage cruise scheme.
The first solid-fuel stage ensures the missile's launch from a universal vertical launcher of
a surface craft or from a submarine torpedo tube with a diameter of 0.533 meters.

The 3M-54E missile has a range of 300 km. For the majority of its trajectory it flies at a
high subsonic speed. The first stage drops off when the missile reaches the prescribed
altitude and its second stage sustainer engine goes into action. This is the time when the
missile's wing and tail assembly unfold. The altitude of its flight goes down to 10-15
metres above the sea surface and the missile heads towards the target in accordance with
the target designations, fed before the start into the memory of its board guidance system.
The targeting on the cruise sector of the trajectory is effected by an inertia navigation
system. The end sector of the missile's flight with the homing head active proceeds only
five metres above the water surface. At 60 km from its target the third, solid-fuel stage
separates from the missile, accelerates to supersonic speed and overcomes the defence
zone of the target vessel

In spite of its relatively small launch weight of 1,570 kilograms, the missile has a range
of 300 kilometres and a powerful 450-kilogram warhead, which can blow up very large
surface craft. The missile's moderate weight allows even warships with a small
displacement to take aboard quite a few of such deadly weapons.

India is making substantial purchases of the Novator 3M-54 Alfa missile to equip Kilo
class submarines and its new frigates. The first two Indian 877YeKM submarines (Kilo
class, according to NATO classification) will be armed with the latest Russian 3M-54E
antiship cruise missiles. These missiles will also be fitted onto three frigates which are
being built to order for the Indian navy at the Baltic shipyard in St Petersburg. Each of
the frigates will carry eight antiship missiles which will be launched from vertical launch
containers on the bow of the ship.

It is believed that an air-launched variant will be purchased to arm the Tu-142s currently
in service and the six to eight additional aircraft being sought by the Navy. If an air-
launched version of the Alfa is procured, it is anticipated that India's Tu-22M3s will
eventually be equipped to fire them.

Specifications
- 3M-54E 3M-54E1 3M-14E 91RE1 91RE2
Length [m] 8.22 6.2 6.2 8.0 6.5
Diameter [m] 0.533 0.533 0.533 0.533 0.533
Launch 2,300 1,780 1,780 2,050 1,300
Weight [kg]
Maximum 220 300 300 50 40
Range [km]
Speed [Mach] Depends 0.6 - 0.8 0.6 - 0.8 2.5 2.0
on flight Terminal Terminal Ballistic Ballistic
mode Stage Stage Stage Stage
Subsonic Speed for Speed for Speed for Speed for
Mode: the 3M- the 3M- the 91RE1 the 91RE2
Mach 0.6 - 54E1 14E
0.8,
Supersonic
Mode:
Mach 2.9
Warhead 200 400 400 76 76
Weight [kg]
Control Inertial + Inertial + Inertial Inertial Inertial
System Active Active
Radar Radar
Homing Homing
Flight Path Low- Low- Ballistic Ballistic Ballistic
Flying Flying
RPK-9 Medvedka
SS-N-29
The RPK-9 Medvedka [SS-N-29] is similar to the American ASROC-like torpedo
carrying rocket for small ships. The MEDVEDKA Missile System is intended to engage
hostile submarines and can be installed at surface ships. It has no analogies in terms of
potential installation on small ships. The system can be used in shallow water. The
system comprises missiles each with the small torpedo as the warhead, launchers*
intended for single and ripple missile launches, the fire control system to provide target
movement parameters, data for single and ripple firing, output and transmission of launch
and flight data, and ground support facilities to store and maintain the system at depots,
bases, arsenals, and mobile basing posts. The system can be modified and suited for
installation on customer's operational ships to provide inclined or vertical launch on
request. The basic variant of the system comprises two four-tube launcher modules.
Modular design makes it possible to install one/two/four launcher modules to configure
customised system variants comprising from one to eight launchers at customer's request.

Specifications
Nato Code Name
Russian Designation
0- 20,000 meter
Range
15-500 meters Target engagement depth
Design Bureau
Propulsion Solid Rocket
Speed Subsonic
In-service: Yes
12,000 kg shipboard system with four missiles
Total weight 19,400 kg Total weight of system with eight
missiles
Missile weight 800 kg
length 5.5 meters
calibre 400 mm
VA-111 Shkval underwater rocket
In 1995 it was revealed that Russia had developed an exceptionally high-speed unguided
underwater missile which has no equivalent in the West. Code-named the Shkval
(Squall), the new weapon travels at a velocity that would give a targeted vessel very little
chance to perform evasive action. The missile has been characterized as a "revenge"
weapon, which would be fired along the bearing of an incoming enemy torpedo. The
Shkval may be considered a follow-on to the Russian BGT class of evasion torpedoes,
which are fired in the direction of an incoming torpedo to try to force an attacking to
evade (and hopefully snap the torpedo's guidance wires). The weapon was deployed in
the early 1990s, and had been in service for years when the fact of its existence was
disclosed.
Development begain in the 1960s, when the Research Institute NII-24 (Chief Designer
Mikhail Merkulov) involved in the artillery ammunition research was instructed to launch
the development of underwater high-speed missile to fight nuclear-powered submarines.
On 14 May 1969, pursuant to a government resolution, NII-24 and GSKB-47 merged into
the Research Institute of Applied Hydromechanics (NII PGM), which formed the basis of
the present day 'Region' Scientific Production Association. Advances in the development
of jet engines and fuel technologies, as well as outstanding results in the research of body
motion under cavitation made it possible to design a unique missile with a dived speed
much greater than that of conventional torpedoes.

When the suction on the low-pressure side of the propeller blade dips below ambient
pressure [atmospheric plus hydrostatic head] the propeller blade cavitates -- a vacuum
cavity forms. There is water vapor in the cavity, and the pressure is not a true vacuum,
but equal to the vapor pressure of the water. High-speed propellers are often designed to
operate in a fully-cavitating (supercavitating) mode. A high speed supercavitating
projectile, while moving in the forward direction, rotates inside the cavity. This rotation
leads to a series of impacts between the projectile tail and the cavity wall. The impacts
affect the trajectory as well as the stability of motion of the projectile. The present paper
discusses the in-flight dynamics of such a projectile. Despite the impacts with the cavity
wall, the projectile nearly follows a straight line path. The frequency of the impacts
between the projectile tail and cavity boundary increases initially, reaches a maximum,
and then decreases gradually. The frequency of impacts decreases with the projectile's
moment of inertia.

Apparently fired from standard 533mm torpedo tubes, Shkval has a range of about 7,500
yards. The weapon clears the tube at fifty knots, upon which its rocket fires, propelling
the missile through the water at 360 kph [about 100 m/sec / 230 mph / 200-knots], three
or four times as fast as conventional torpedoes. The solid-rocket propelled "torpedo"
achieves high speeds by producing a high-pressure stream of bubbles from its nose and
skin, which coats the torpedo in a thin layer of gas and forms a local "envelope" of
supercavitating bubbles. Carrying a tactical nuclear warhead initiated by a timer, it would
destroy the hostile submarine and the torpedo it fired. The Shkval high-speed underwater
missile is guided by an auto-pilot rather than by a homing head as on most torpedoes.
There are no evident countermeasures to such a weapon, its employment could put
adversary naval forces as a considerable disadvantage. One such scenario is a rapid attack
situation wherein a sudden detection of a threat submarine is made, perhaps at relatively
short range, requiring an immediate response to achieve weapon on target and to ensure
survival. Apparently guidance is a problem, and the initial version of the Shkval was
unguided However, the Russians have been advertising a homing version, which runs out
at very high speed, then slows to search.
A prototype of the modernised "Shkval", which was exhibited at the 1995 international
armaments show in Abu Dhabi, was discarded. An improved model was designed with a
conventional (non-nuclear) warhead and a guided targeting system, which substantially
enhances its combat effectiveness. The first tests of the modernised Shkval torpedo were
held by the Russian Pacific Fleet in the spring of 1998.
The 'Region' Scientific Production Association has developed developed an export
modification of the missile, 'Shkval-E'. Russia began marketing this conventionally
armed version of the Shkval high-speed underwater rocket at the IDEX 99 exhibition in
Abu Dhabi in early 1999. The concept of operations for this missile requires the crew of a
submarine, ship or the coast guard define the target's parameters -- speed, distance and
vector -- and feeds the data to the missile's automatic pilot. The missile is fired, achieves
its optimum depth and switches on its engines. The missile does not have a homing
warhead and follows a computer-generated program.
On 05 April 2000 the Russian Federal Security Service [FSB] in Moscow arrested an
American businessman, Edmond Pope, and a Russian accomplice, on charges of stealing
scientific secrets. A FSB statement said it confiscated "technical drawings of various
equipment, recordings of his conversations with Russian citizens relating to their work in
the Russian defense industry, and receipts for American dollars received by them." Pope,
a retired US Navy captain who spent much of his career working in naval intelligence,
was at the time of his arrest the head of a private security firm. On 20 April 2000 the FSB
revealed that Pope had been seeking plans the Shkval underwater missile. Pope was
detained during an informal contact with a Russian scientist who had participated in the
Shkval's creation.
The arrest of Daniel Howard Kiely, deputy head of the Applied Research Laboratory at
Pennsylvania State University, came almost simultaneously. The laboratory led by Mr.
Kiely has for many years been developing torpedoes for US warships and submarines.
Professor Kiely had joined Pope in Moscow to offer technical advice and determine the
tasks for Pope's further activity. Kiely was interrogated as a witness. His testimony and
objects confiscated during the search proved his involvement in Pope's activities. Later
the 68-year-old professor was released and allowed to return to the United States.

The objective of the High-Speed Undersea Weaponry project at the US Office of Naval
Research is to develop the vehicle guidance, control and maneuvering capabilities for the
quick reaction weapons. High-speed weapons could offer an advantage for Anti
Submarine Warfare (ASW) "close encounter" scenarios. The overall system response of a
high-speed weapon for breaking off engagements with enemy submarines would be
measured in seconds, rather than minutes. The High-Speed Undersea Weapons project
has three tasks; Vehicle Guidance, Vehicle Control, and Test Bed Development. Vehicle
Guidance deals with homing sensors, signal processing, waveform design, and autopilot
commands that are used to guide (either autonomously or with external interaction) the
weapon to its target. Vehicle control deals with control and maneuvering of the high-
speed weapon with emphasis on stabilizing the supercavitating bubble cavity, and
optimizing the flow for low drag. Technical issues include instability due to vehicle
planing and tail slap, interaction between cavity with propulsion exhaust, and propulsion
system transients, including startup. Test Bed Development is an ongoing effort that
develops a test platform to test and evaluate S&T candidate systems such as homing
systems, vehicle control, and propulsion systems.
AT-1 SNAPPER
The first antitank guided missile to be used in the Warsaw Pact forces was the AT-1
"SNAPPER" which was launched from a UAZ-69 jeep. Although by the mid-1970s this
launcher was rarely encountered with Soviet troops, it was still used in other countries of
the Pact and has been exported to Yugoslavia and the Middle East.

The AT-1 "SNAPPER" is a wire guided missile with a HEAT warhead. Officially it is
known to the Soviets as the 3M6, with a nickname of "Shmet", meaning bumblebee. The
AT-1 has a warhead capable of penetrating 380mm of armor and a range of 2,000 meters.
The AT-1 is easily recognized by its wide wing span and pointed nose.

The UAZ-69 launch vehicle has a very distinctive appearance since the quadruple
launcher with the missiles is rotated to the vertical position during travel. Both the
missiles and launcher are covered with a canvas top which give the vehicle the
appearance of a baby carriage. For firing the canvas ton is towered to the rear and the
launcher is rotated downward to the rear of the vehicle. Since the UAZ-69 is a small
vehicle no reserve rounds are carried. The two-man crew of the launcher is located in the
forward compartment of the vehicle where the on-board fire control equipment is located.
Off-vehicle remote control is also provided for.

The "SNAPPER" is also launched from a modified BRDM amohibious scout car. This
launch vehicle carries a triple launcher which is raised for firing, with the armor plates
moving to the side. As in the case of the UAZ-69 off-vehicle remote control is provided
for, although the two-man crew normally operates from the forward compartment of the
vehicle. This BRDM launch vehicle wass still used in a number of Warsaw Pact armies in
the 1970s.

Specifications
USA Code AT-1
Nato Name Snapper
Fuel Solid
Guidance Wire MCLOS
Range 2 Km
Launcher Rail
Inservice OOS = Out Of Service
Notes Used from Tank Destroyers
AT - 2 SWATTER Anti-Tank Guided
Missile
The SWATTER is a radio-guided antitank guided missile with a HEAT (High Explosive,
Anti Tank) warhead. The SWATTERs with manual command to line of sight (MCLOS)
guidance have the disadvantage that the operator must track target and missile
simultaneously and manually guide the missile to the target. The slow flight speed makes
evasive action an effective countermeasure, especially at long ranges.

The SWATTER was introduced into service in 1960 specifically for use with the BRDM
reconnaissance vehicles. The SWATTER is mounted on BRDM/BRDM-2 scout vehicles
with four launch rails on a traversable mount. When the launcher is raised for firing,
armor plates on the BRDM move to the sides, while the launcher on the BRDM-2 is
attached to the underside of a flat, retractable, armored cover. The Mi-8/HIP E can mount
four SWATTERs above its outboard weapons racks, and the Mi-24/HIND A and D
mount four SWATTERs on wingtip launch rails. BRDM/BRDM-2 SWATTERs are
sometimes found in the antitank battery of motorized rifle regiments although this role is
more likely filled by the AT-3 or AT-5. The BRDM-mounted SWATTERs with MCLOS
guidance were replaced by the new AT-5/SPANDREL.

The Mi-24 helicopter was equipped with the heavy 9M17 Skorpion (AT-2 Swatter)
missile of the Falanga [Phalanx] family (Vertoletnaya Falanga-V helicopter version). Its
older version, the 9M17M, was guided manually by commands from the pilot tracking its
flight. Its 9M17P version is guided semiautomatically by an on-board Raduga-F set, the
operator's sole task being to keep the target within field of view of the sight eyepiece.
Signals are transmitted to the missile over radio. The appearance of the helicopter-
mounted SWATTER C, retrofitted with a semiautomatic IR/radio guidance system and
IR terminal homing, was apparently an interim measure pending the full deployment of
the longer-range, second-generation missile AT-6/SPIRAL. SWATTERs are currently
seeing limited use, however the AT-2c uprated version, are still in wide use as helicopter-
mounted missiles.

The SWATTER-A has a maximum range of 2500 meters and a minimum range of 500
meters. It has manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) guidance. This means that the
missile operator literally flies the missile onto the target using a small joystick. The
missile has a flare in its tail that helps the operator fly the missile down his line of sight to
the target. Unlike later ATGM's which use a wire to transmit commands from the
operator to the missile, the SWATTER uses radio. The SWATTER B also has MCLOS
guidance but the maximum range was extended to 3500 m. The SWATTER C was
designed as an interim between the SWATTER B and the AT-6 SPIRAL for use by
helicopters. The C version uses semi-automatic command line of sight (SACLOS)
guidance instead of MCLOS guidance. The difference is that instead of manually flying
the missile with a joystick, the operator simply keeps the cross hairs of his sight on the
target and the missile flies itself there. In addition the missile has terminal IR guidance
and a maximum range of 4000 m.

The 9M17P SWATTER missile's length is 1160 mm, its body diameter is 132 mm, and
its launch weight is 31.5 kg. The SWATTER's HEAT warhead weighs 5.4 kg, and can
pierce 500 mm thick steel armor. The SWATTER A can engage targets at ranges
between 500 and 2,500 meters. SWATTER B and C have maximum ranges of 3,500
meters and 4,000 meters respectively. All versions have a flight speed of 150-170 meters
per second, resulting in a flight time of 17 seconds to 2,500 meters (SWATTER A), 23
seconds to 3,500 meters (SWATTER B) or 26 to 27 seconds to 4,000 meters (SWATTER
C). Armor penetration is over 500 mm, and the probability of first-round hit is 67 percent
for SWATTER A and B and over 90 percent for the SWATTER C.

Variants
The initial version of the missile was the SWATTER-A, but two upgrades were
introduced in the 1970s, designated SWATTER-B and SWATTER-C. The SWATTER A
was introduced in the early 1960s, and the SWATTER B was in service before 1973
when it was first displayed in the Red Square parade. All versions are 1,1 60 mm long
and 148 mm in diameter. The SWATTER A and B, both with manual command-to-line-
of-sight (MCLOS) guidance, differ in weight (27 kg and 29 kg respectively). However,
the AT-2c/SWATTER C has semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight (SACLOS)
guidance with IR terminal homing.

Specifications
27.0 kg (A)
Weight 29.0 kg (B,C)
Length 1.2 meters
500 - 2500 m (A)
Range 500-3500 m (B)
4000 (C)
Warhead High Explosive Anti-tank
Warhead weight 5.4 kg
Armor Penetration 500+ mm
BRDM/BRDM-2
Launching Platforms Mi-8 Hip
Mi-24 Hind
Former Soviet Republics, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Cuba,
Using Nations: Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Hungary, Libya, Poland,
Romania, Syria, Vietnam, Yemen.
AT-3 SAGGER Anti-Tank Guided Missile
Hongjian (Red Arrow)-73
The wire-guided 9M14M Malutka [Tiny or Little Baby] SAGGER, also known by the US
designation AT-3, was first seen in 1961. The SAGGER is a wire-guided antitank guided
missile with a shaped-charge HEAT warhead. It is more compact than the earlier AT-1
/SNAPPER and AT-2/SWATTER ATGMs, but carries an equally powerful warhead.
Antiarmor missiles are used, above all, as helicopter weapons on Mi-2 and Mi-8
helicopters and thus are modifications of army missiles. Introduced in 1961, the
SAGGER was smaller but just as effective as its predecessors the AT- 2 SWATTER and
AT-1 SNAPPER. It has now been withdrawn from ordnance.

The SAGGER may be employed as a man-packed missile, on vehicles, and from rotary-
wing aircraft. AT-3 is classed by weight as portable (21-40 kg), rather than manportable
(<21 kg). The launcher is also a missile carry case.

The manpack version is carried in a fiberglass "suitcase", is launched from a rail


attached to the lid of the case on a hinged support, and is fired and guided by a
control box with firm button, periscope sight, and control stick.

On BRDM/BRDM-2 scout vehicles launch rails are mounted on the underside of


the retractable armored cover, with eight additional missiles carried inside the
vehicle. The BMP and BMD combat vehicles both have a single launch rail
mounted above the 73-mm main gun and carry a total of four and three missiles
respectively. The retractable launcher on the BRDM-2 vehicle has the ability to
traverse 70 degrees to the left or right with elevation varying from 3.5 to 17
degrees.

The Mi-2/HOPLITE helicopter can carry four SAGGERs on the sides of its cabin.
The Mi-8/HIP F carries six SAGGERs, and some export models of the Mi-
24/HIND carry four SAGGERs on wingtip launchers.

The 9M14M missile weighs 10.9 kg, is 860 mm long, has a body diameter of 125 mm
and a wing span of 393 mm. Its maximum range is 3000 m and its minimum firing
distance is 500 mm. With an average speed being 120 m/s, the missile is slow, taking 25
seconds to reach its maximum range of 3000 meters.

The SAGGER is capable of engaging targets at ranges of 500 to 3,000 meters and can
penetrate over 400 mm of armor. As with the SWATTER, the SAGGER uses manual
command to line of sight (MCLOS) guidance system in which the operator must observe
both missile and target and guide the one towards the other. The improved SAGGER-C
was fitted with semi-automatic command line of sight (SACLOS) guidance to serve as an
interim until the AT-5 SPANDREL and AT-6 SPIRAL entered service. The guidance
panel can be located up to 15 meters from the launcher, and can control up to four
launchers. If a target is <1,000 meters from launcher, the operator can joystick the missile
to target without using optics. The guidance elevation (°) is -5/ +10. Because the module
is small and can be shifted, elevation and field of view are operationally unlimited.
Improved versions can be used on older launchers, but in the MCLOS mode.

The SAGGER A or B gunner must visually track target and missile simultaneously,
which requires extensive training and constant practice. Although the missile leaves the
launcher armed and can detonate and kill at very short range, it can be captured by the
gunner only at ranges of 500 to 800 meters. Under combat conditions, however, most
gunners probably will be able to engage targets successfully only between 1,000 and
3,000 meters. The missile has a very long flight time to the target (12.5 seconds to 1,500
meters; 25 seconds to 3,000 meters), and evasive action is effective against it, especially
at long ranges. Although a SAGGER launching gives off a cloud of gray smoke and a
loud roar, this signature is difficult to detect on the battlefield. The wire-guided missile is
invulnerable to electronic countermeasures and has a very small percentage of
malfunctions.

The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped motorized rifle battalion (MRB) has two ATGM
squads with two manpack SAGGER firing teams (two missiles each). In each three-man
team, the gunner carries a suitcase containing the control box, and two assistant gunners
each carry one missile in a suitcase. One of the assistant gunners is also an RPG-7
gunner. One missile can be set up, checked out, and fired in five minutes (1 2 to 1 5
minutes for all four missiles). Using a tour-position selector switch on the control box,
each gunner can fire up to four missiles consecutively. Both gunners can remotely fire
missiles from positions up to 15 meters from the launchers. For targets at less than 1,000
meters, the missile can be guided by eye; for longer ranges, the 8x magnifying periscopic
sight must be used. The RPG-7 gunner usually is deployed 1 50 to 200 meters in front of
the SAGGER position to cover targets inside the minimum SAGGER range of 500
meters. The antitank platoon also has two SPG-9s which may be employed with the
manpack SAGGERs.

BRDM/BRDM-2 SAGGERs are found in the antitank battery of motorized rifle


regiments, in the antitank battalion of motorized rifle and tank divisions, and in the
antitank regiment of artillery divisions. The BRDM/BRDM-2 vehicles have a reaction
time of one minute to fire from a completely buttoned-up mode. Six missiles can be fired
without reloading, and eight additional missiles are carried inside the vehicle. Successive
missiles can be fired and tracked within five seconds of the previous missile's impact.
The gunner can operate either from within the vehicle or from a remote position up to 80
meters away. The two-man crew (commander/gunner and driver) also has assault rifles
and an RPG-7 antitank grenade launcher.

SAGGERs are also found in airborne units. The manpack version is found in the antitank
platoon of a non-BMD-equipped parachute company and also in the antitank battery of a
non-BMD-equipped airborne battalion. BRDM/BRDM-2 SAGGERs are found in the
ATGM battery of the BMD-equipped airborne regiment.
VARIANTS
Some SAGGER systems, designated AT-3c, were retrofitted with semiautomatic IR/wire
guidance systems. Only the vehicle-and helicopter-mounted missiles were so retrofitted,
obviously an interim measure pending the full deployment of longer-range, second-
generation AT-5/SPANDREL and AT-6/SPIRAL missiles. Manpack SAGGERs were
replaced by the AT-4/SPIGOT, as were the SAGGERs. The AT-3c/SAGGER C variant
employs semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight (SACLOS) guidance. It is primarily
mounted on the BRDM-2, but may also be mounted on the HIP F and HOPLITE
helicopters. These hellebore systems provide greater flexibility to the ground command
but at a greater vulnerability cost to the launch platform.

Copies include North Korean Susong-Po, Taiwanese Kun Wu, and the Chinese copy, Red
Arrow-73/HJ-73, with indigenous guidance. The "Hongjian (Red Arrow)-73," China's
first-generation anti-tank missile developed in the mid-1980s, had an estimated hit
probability of 70 percent. POLK is a Slovenian Portable Anti-armor Launching Set that
includes a new launcher, guidance panel with binocular sight, and 3 ATGMs similar to
AT-3C Improved (nose probes and lower smoke signature). With a nose probe and
improved propellant, the MCLOS-guided ATGM can reach maximum range in 25 sec
and penetrate 580 mm. A Russian AT-3c/Improved (SACLOS) has similar capabilities.

Iran makes a copy of the Russian AT-3 9M14M (Sagger or Ra’ad) anti-tank guided
missile. An improved version of RAAD missile, RAAD-T missile, incorporates a tandem
warhead armament system and due to new airframe, its maneuverability increased
considerably. Irrespective of the year and place of production, all versions of RAAD
missiles can be upgraded to the new version. The RAAD-T weapon system is a portable
anti-tank guided missile, which is used to attack any armored fighting vehicle including
those with Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA). In field operations, only by one ground
guidance equipment, up to four missiles on their launchers can be shot, each in every 30
seconds. The system Safety and Arming Device (SAD) provides a high level of safety
during the transportation and handling besides a reliable arming in operation. It is
transported in new packing and tested with new equipment. By impacting the target, even
at high angles of attack, explosion of the front charge, will remove the Explosive
Reactive Armor (ERA) and after a delay time, the main charge will be exploded and the
tank distrusted.

The Slovenian Iskra TS-M thermal sight is available, with detection at 3,000 meters and
recognition at 1,800 meters. Any AT-3 can be modernized to Malyutka-2 with
replacement of warhead and or replacement of specific warhead and motor components.

Specifications
Alternative Malyutka Complex
Designations
Manpack
Launching Platforms
BMD
BMP
BRDM/BRDM-2
Mi-8 Hip
Mi-24 Hind
Date of Introduction 1963
At least 45 countries, including: Former Soviet
Republics, Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Iraq,
Proliferation India, North Korea, Libya, Mozambique, Poland,
Romania, Syria, Uganda, Vietnam, Yugoslavia,
Zambia.
Description
Crew 3
Primary Mount Ground mount on "suitcase" launcher
Alternate Mounts Rail on BMP-1, BMD-1, BRDM, BRDM-2 etc.
Weight Overall,
Excluding Missile 30.5 launcher + guidance
(kg)
Length Overall in 0.86 with AT-3/a/b/c
Firing Position (m) 1.02 with Malyutka-2
Height Overall In
INA
Firing Position (m)
Width Overall In
INA
Firing Position (m)
ARMAMENT
Launcher Name 9P111 Case launcher
Launch Method Rail on case
Elevation (°) Fixed for launcher
Rate of Launch 2
(missiles/min)
Reaction Time (sec) INA
Emplacement Time 1.7 POLK set
(min)
Displacement Time INA
(min)
Ready/Stowed
4/0, 3/0 POLK set
Missiles
FIRE CONTROL
FCS Name 9S415/9S415M/9S415M1 guidance panel
Guidance MCLOS (9S415/-M panel), SACLOS
Command Link Wire
Beacon Type Incandescent infrared bulb (SACLOS)
Tracker Type N/A for MCLOS, flare tracker for SACLOS
Susceptible To EO jammers, smoke, counterfire
Countermeasures
Counter-
Offset guidance panel, laser filters
countermeasures
Rangefinder INA
Frequency INA
Counter-
INA
countermeasures
Sights
w/Magnification
Gunner
Day 9Sh16, 8x
Field of View (°) 22.5
Acquisition Range 4000
(m)
Night Available
Field of View (°) N/A
Acquisition Range N/A
(m)
AMMUNITION
Antitank Guided
Missiles
Name AT-3, -3a, -3b/SAGGER
Alternative
Malyutka, Malyutka-M
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 10.9
Warhead Type Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration 400
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum
500/3,000
Range (m)
Probability of Hit 70 against moving tanks
(%)
Average Velocity
115
(m/s)
Time of Flight to
26
Max Range (sec)
Name AT-3c/SAGGER
Alternative
Malyutka-P
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 11.4
Warhead Type Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration
520
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum 500/3,000
Range (m)
Probability of Hit
90 (SACLOS)
(%)
Average Velocity
115
(m/s)
Time of Flight to 26
Max Range (sec)
Name Malyutka-2
Alternative
Malyutka (Modernized)
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 12.5
Warhead Type Tandem Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration 800
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum
500/3,00
Range (m)
Probability of Hit
90 (SACLOS)
(%)
Average Velocity 130
(m/s)
Time of Flight to
23
Max Range (sec)
Other Missiles Malyutka (Modernized) HE, AT-3c Imp, POLK
AT-4 SPIGOT Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The first concrete evidence of the existence of second-generation Soviet ATGMs was a
1975 report in a Yugoslav military periodical that an ATGM called FAGOT had recently
appeared in the Warsaw Pact forces. Subsequently, it was reported that the FAGOT first
entered service in 1972. The man-portable FAGOT system has now been given the
NATO nickname SPIGOT and the US designation AT-4. The BRDM-mounted AT-
5/SPANDREL was at one time misidentified as the FAGOT, and the missiles are indeed
quite similar.

Introduced in the mid-1970s, the SPIGOT was designed primarily to replace AT- 3
SAGGER man-packed missiles. The SPIGOT has a number of improvements over the
SAGGER including a smaller but more lethal warhead, SACLOS guidance that gives a
90 percent probability of a first round hit, a speed of 183 meters per second that propels
the missile to its maximum range in just 11 seconds, and minimum range of only 70
meters. While meant to be a primarily a man-pack missile, the SPIGOT may be mounted
on the BMP and BMD in place of the SAGGER.

Because of its weight, the Russians categorize the AT-4/4B system as portable (21-40 kg)
rather than manportable. For dismounted carry load is divided among three packs. Due to
the greater weight, AT-5/-5B fits into the "heavy" class (40+ kg), and should only be
carried short distances from vehicles (<500 meters). For crews using both ATGM classes
and operating near vehicles, combat load is 8 (4 stowed in the vehicle).

The AT-4/SPIGOT is a tube-launched, semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight


(SACLOS), antitank guided missile system with a HEAT warhead. The SPIGOT launch
tube, in which the missile is stored and carried, is 1,200 mm long, 134 mm in diameter,
and weighs 5 kg. The missile itself is estimated to have slightly smaller dimensions and a
weight of 7 kg. This tripod-mounted, wire-guided ATGM, similar in many respects to the
US TOW system, was deployed as a direct replacement for the man-portable SAGGER,
and to replace SAGGERs on the BMP and BMD as well.

The SPIGOT has a minimum range of only 70 meters and a maximum range of 2,000
meters. Missile speed is estimated at 185 meters per second, with a maximum flight time
of 11 seconds. The warhead, which is probably smaller than that of the SAGGER, has an
armor penetration capability of 500 to 600 mm. Probability of first-round hit should be at
least the same as for the AT-3c semiautomatic SAGGER (90 percent).

The SACLOS guidance system increases accuracy and reduces operator training
requirements, since it is no longer necessary for the operator to track target and missile
simultaneously. The operator keeps his sight trained on the target while the missile is
tracked automatically. The deviation between the missile's path and the operator's line-of-
sight is measured by an IR tracking apparatus, the IR source being in the tail of the
missile. An apparatus at the control site then generates guidance commands which are
transmitted to the missile by wire, causing the missile to eliminate the deviation.
The requirement that the missile launcher of a SACLOS system be collocated with the
aiming and tracking assembly (i.e., the operator) eliminates the possibility of moving the
operator to a remote position for safety.

The antitank platoon of a BTR-equipped motorized rifle battalion has two ATGM squads.
Each squad has two SPIGOT firing teams. In each three-man team, the gunner carries the
launcher and tripod as a backpack, and the two bearers each carry two launch tubes as
backpacks. All three men carry an assault rifle, but no RPG-16, since the SPIGOT does
not have the 500-meter deadspace of the SAGGER.

The AT-4B/Factoria is an upgrade ATGM with a 2,500 meter range, 550-mm


penetration, and a velocity of 180 m/s (13.2 - 14.0 sec TOF). Russian firms have
developed counter-countermeasures, such as encoded-pulse beacons for ATGMs and
counter-dazzler adjustments to the 9S451M1 guidance box. Filters can be mounted in
front of reticles. TPVP/1PN65 thermal sight is available, with the range approximately
2,500 meters. Weight is 13 kg. Slovenian TS-F sight and Russian 1PN86-1/1PN86/Mulat
have a 3,600 meter detection range.

Currently, the Russian Army employs the BRDM-2/AT-5 ATGM variant carrying either
SPIGOT (normally for the AT-4 system) or longer-ranged SPANDREL missiles. This
system is antiquated by modern standards, and lacks the mobility, armor protection, and
effectiveness needed on the modern battlefield. The Russian Army is faced with the
option of purchasing the BMP-3 mounted AT-14 Kornet system, which is a follow-on to
the AT-5, or the more expensive AT-15 Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of
engaging more targets at greater ranges.

Specifications
Alternative
9P135M Firing Post, Fagot/Fagot-M
Designations
Date of Introduction 1973
At least 25 countries, including : former Soviet
Proliferation Republics, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Syria.
Description
Crew 3
Primary Mount Ground mount on folding tripod
Alternate Mounts Pintel (post) on BMP-1P, BTR-D, UAZ-469, etc.
Weight Overall,
Excluding Missile 22.5
(kg)
Length Overall in
1.1/1.3 AT-4/5 tube
Firing Position (m)
Height Overall In INA
Firing Position (m)
Width Overall In
INA
Firing Position (m)
ARMAMENT
9P135 (AT-4 only), 9P135M (AT-4/AT-5), -M1, -M2, -
Launcher Name M3
Launch Method Tube-launched
Elevation (°) (-/+) INA
Rate of Launch
2-3, depending on range
(missiles/min)
Reaction Time (sec) INA
Emplacement Time
INA
(min)
Displacement Time
INA
(min)
Ready/Stowed 4/0 full dismount, 4/4 on or near vehicle
Missiles
FIRE CONTROL
FCS Name 9S451M1 Guidance control box
Guidance SACLOS
Command Link Wire
Beacon Type Incandescent infrared bulb
Tracker Type IR, 9S451M1
Susceptible To
EO jammers, smoke, counterfire
Countermeasures
Counter-
EO jamming alarm
countermeasures
Rangefinder INA
Sights
w/Magnification
Gunner
Day 9Sh119M1, 4x
Field of View (°) 4.5
Acquisition Range INA
(m)
Night Available
AMMUNITION
Antitank Guided
Missiles

Name AT-4/SPIGOT
Alternative
Fagot
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 13.0 (in tube)
Warhead Type Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration 480
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum
70/2,000
Range (m)
Probability of Hit
90
(%)
Average Velocity 186
(m/s)
Time of Flight to
11
Max Range (sec)
Other Missiles AT-4B/Factoria
AT-5 SPANDREL Anti-Tank Guided
Missile
Introduced in 1977, the SPANDREL is equivalent to the American TOW missile. The
first of the second-generation Soviet ATGMs to be seen in public was the BRDM-
mounted model displayed in the Red Square parade of November 1977. This model, at
one time misidentified as the FAGOT (AT-4/SPIGOT) eventually was designated the
AT-5/SPANDREL. The SPANDREL is similar to the SPIGOT in most respects. The
SPANDREL has a maximum range of 4,000 meters and a minimum range of 100 meters.
Other capabilities are essentially the same as for the AT-4/SPIGOT, except for weight,
and maximum range and the time of flight which are twice that of the SPIGOT.

The AT-5/SPANDREL is a wire-guided, SACLOS antitank guided missile system


mounted on the BRDM-2 scout vehicle. The dimensions and shape of the launch tube are
similar to those of the AT-4/SPIGOT, but the SPANDREL missile is considerably
heavier. The SPANDREL launch tube has a blow-out cap at the front and is flared at the
rear. Five SPANDREL missiles are carried on a traversable mount just behind the two
front cupolas of the BRDM-2. A bowed hatch in the vehicle roof immediately behind the
launcher is possibly used to allow the mount to be folded backwards into the hull for
reloading under armor protection. An additional 10 reload missiles are estimated to be
carried inside the vehicle. A rotatable optical sighting/tracking periscope, similar in
appearance to the periscope on the AT-4/SPIGOT launch apparatus, is mounted atop the
gunner's hatch on the right front of the vehicle roof.

Unlike the SPIGOT the SPANDREL is intended for use on vehicles only. The
SPANDREL was supposed to replace all vehicle-mounted SWATTER and SAGGER
missiles, but with the collapse of the USSR this did not become a reality. It has also been
mounted atop the turret of the BMP M1981 variant. Currently, the Russian Army
employs the BRDM-2/AT-5 ATGM variant carrying either SPIGOT (normally for the
AT-4 system) or longer-ranged SPANDREL missiles. This system is antiquated by
modern standards, and lacks the mobility, armor protection, and effectiveness needed on
the modern battlefield. The Russian Army is faced with the option of purchasing the
BMP-3 mounted AT-14 Kornet system, which is a follow-on to the AT-5, or the more
expensive AT-15 Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of engaging more targets
at greater ranges.

VARIANTS
 9 P135M3 -- Konkurs-M Complex. Launcher with 1PN65 thermal sight and AT-
5B/Konkurs-M missiles. Night range is 2,500m.
Specifications
Alternative 9P135M Firing Post, Fagot/Fagot-M
Designations
Date of Introduction 1973
At least 25 countries, including : Former Soviet
Proliferation
Republics, Czechoslovakia, Poland.
BRDM
Launching Platforms
BMP-2
Description
Crew 3
Primary Mount Ground mount on folding tripod
Alternate Mounts Pintel (post) on BMP-1P, BTR-D, UAZ-469, etc.
Weight Overall,
Excluding Missile 22.5
(kg)
Length Overall in
1.1/1.3 AT-4/5 tube
Firing Position (m)
Height Overall In
INA
Firing Position (m)
Width Overall In INA
Firing Position (m)
ARMAMENT
Launcher Name 9P135M (AT-4/AT-5), -M1, -M2, -M3
Launch Method Tube-launched
Elevation (°) (-/+) INA
Rate of Launch
2-3, depending on range
(missiles/min)
Reaction Time (sec) INA
Emplacement Time INA
(min)
Displacement Time
INA
(min)
Ready/Stowed
4/0 full dismount, 4/4 on or near vehicle
Missiles
FIRE CONTROL
FCS Name 9S451M1 Guidance control box
Guidance SACLOS
Command Link Wire
Beacon Type Incandescent infrared bulb
Tracker Type IR, 9S451M1
Susceptible To EO jammers, smoke, counterfire
Countermeasures
Counter-
EO jamming alarm
countermeasures
Rangefinder INA
Sights
w/Magnification
Gunner
Day 9Sh119M1, 4x
Field of View (°) 4.5
Acquisition Range INA
(m)
Night Available
AMMUNITION
Antitank Guided
Missiles
Name AT-5B/SPANDREL-B
Alternative Konkurs-M
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 26.5 (in tube)
Warhead Type Tandem Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration
925
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum
75/4,000
Range (m)
Probability of Hit 90
(%)
Average Velocity 208
(m/s)
Time of Flight to
19
Max Range (sec)
Name AT-5/SPANDREL
Alternative
Konkurs
Designations
Missile Weight (kg) 25.2 (in tube)
Warhead Type Shaped Charge (HEAT)
Armor Penetration
650
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum 75/4,000
Range (m)
Probability of Hit
90
(%)
Average Velocity
200
(m/s)
Time of Flight to 20
Max Range (sec)
AT - 6 SPIRAL Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The SPIRAL is much larger than previous Soviet ATGMs. The AT-6/SPIRAL is a tube-
launched, SACLOS antitank guided missile mounted on the Mi-24/HIND E helicopter as
a replacement for the heliborne AT-2/SWATTER variant found on previous HIND
models. There are attachment points for two SPIRAL launch tubes on each wing tip of
the HIND E. The 9M1114 Kokon [Cocoon] missile of the Shturm [Assault]-V (AT-6
Spiral system was adapted for the Mi-24V helicopter, later also used on Mi-28 and Ka-29
helicopters. The weight of the Kokon missile is 31.8 kg, which includes a warhead
weighing 6 kg, its length is 1840 mm and its caliber is 130 mm. The missile is fired from
a horn launcher.

Introduced in 1978 as a long-range stand-off weapon for the Hind attack helicopter, the
SPIRAL is often incorrectly said to be a laser-guided weapon similar to the American
Hellfire. The SPIRAL has often been erroneously assessed as a laser-guided weapon, and
credited with an unrealistic range of 7,000 to 10,000 meters.

Unlike the AT-4/SPIGOT and AT-5/SPANDREL, this new missile is not wire-guided.
The SACLOS system with IR missile tracking and radio guidance (similar to the AT-2c
uprated SWATTER) operates the same as the SPIGOT and SPANDREL, except for the
fact that the SPIRAL is not wire-guided. The SPIRAL uses radio instead of wire to
transmit commands from the operator to the missile. Probability of first-round hit should
be a least the same as for the AT-2c (90 percent).

The missile's speed (estimated at 450 meters per second) pushes the missile out to 5000
meters, during which time the helicopter must maintain the target in its sight. During the
flight time of the SPIRAL to the target (estimated at approx. 11 seconds at maximum
range), the target has an opportunity to take evasive action, but the helicopter launch
platform has limited ability to take evasive action itself since the SPIRAL operator must
keep the target in his sight. The warhead is believed to contain two tandem HEAT
charges that will punch through 600-700 mm of rolled homogenous steel armor.

Specifications
Weight 30 kg
warhead weight up to 10 kg
Length 1.8 meters
Range 5000 m
Warhead High Explosive Anti-tank
Armor Penetration 600-700 mm
Launching Platforms Mi-8
Mi-24
Using Nations Former Soviet Republics,
Users
Czechoslovakia, Poland.
AT-7 Metis Saxhorn
AT-13 Metis-M
The Russians characterize the AT-7 ATGM complex as light or manportable (5-20 kg),
permitting long-distance carry by dismounted infantry. Although the AT-13 complex
slightly exceeds 20 kg, it is close enough to fit into the category. Guidance elevation has
a 15° span. Because the module is small and can be quickly corrected by shifting,
elevation and field of view are operationally unlimited, and permit use against hovering
or stationary helicopters. The Russian 1PN86V/Mulat-115 thermal sight is available for
use on the launcher, with detection at 3,200 meters and recognition beyond the missile's
1,500 meter range. Field of view is 4.6°.

Specifications
Name AT-7/Saxhorn AT-13
Alternative Metis-M (often mislabeled
Metis
Designations Metis-2)
Date of Introduction 1978 1992
Proliferation At least 5 countries
Missile Weight (kg) 6.3 (in tube) 13.8 (in tube)
Shaped Charge Tandem Shaped Charge
Warhead Type
(HEAT) (HEAT)
Armor Penetration 460 1,000/900 behind ERA
(mm)
Minimum/Maximum
40/1,000 80/1500
Range (m)
Probability of Hit
90 90
(%)
Average Velocity 180 287
(m/s)
Time of Flight to 6.2 8
Max Range (sec)
Launcher
9P151 Firing Post
Designations
Crew 2
Primary mount Ground mount on tripod
Alternate mounts Shoulder for launch, UAZ-469 pintel mount
Weight Overall,
Excluding Missile 10.2
(kg)
Length Overall in
0.78 with AT-7/Metis 0.98 with AT-13/Metis-M
Firing Position (m)
Height Overall In
0.72 with AT-7/Metis
Firing Position (m)
Width Overall In INA
Firing Position (m)
Launcher Name 9P151 Firing Post
Launch Method Tube
Elevation (°) -5/+10
Rate of Launch
3-5, depending on range
(missiles/min)
Reaction Time (sec) INA
Emplacement Time
0.20
(min)
Displacement Time
0.33
(min)
Ready/Stowed 4/0 (1 on launcher )
Missiles
FIRE CONTROL
9S816 Guidance system
Name
Guidance SACLOS
Command Link Wire
Beacon Type INA
Tracker Type IR
Susceptible To
EO jammers, smoke, counterfire
Countermeasures
Counter- INA
countermeasures
Rangefinder
INA
Frequency
Counter-
INA
countermeasures
Gunner Field of View INA
(°)
Acquisition Range
INA
(m)
Night Sights Available
AT-8 (Songster) Anti-Tank Guided Missile
The AT-8 (Songster) is a Russian ATGM. It was designed to be fired from the 125 mm
smooth-bore gun. It uses radio for guidance from the gunner. The AT-8 has a flight speed
of 250m/s and a range of 4000m. It can penetrate 550 mm of flat steel and 445 mm of
sloped steel armour.

Specifications
Weight 30 kg
Length meters
Range 4000 m
Warhead High Explosive Anti-tank
Warhead weight Not available
Armor Penetration 445-550 mm

Launching Platforms
Mi-24
Vikhr (AT-9)
The latest aircraft antiarmor missile is the 9A4172 of the Vikhr (AT-9) family for Ka-50
helicopters and Su-25T aircraft. It was built in Tula by A. Shipunov's group
(Priborostroyeniye Design Bureau), builder of aircraft guns. The missile is fired from
launchers containing a 6-8 pack. Its guidance system combines radio-command guidance
during the initial flight stage followed by laser-beam guidance afterwards. The missile is
a supersonic one with a 8-10 km range, its caliber is 125 mm, and its weight together
with the launcher is 60 kg. The two-stage shaped-charge warhead is capable of piercing
armor of equivalent to 900 mm thickness. With the switch set in the appropriate position
on the pilot's panel in the cockpit, the Vikhr operates as an air-to-air missile with a radar
turn-on for approach navigation. It is effective against airborne targets flying at speeds up
to 800 km/h (600 km/h during rendezvous tacks).
AT-10 STABBER
The 9K116 Bastion (AT-10 STABBER) is a laser-beam riding, antitank missile launched
from the main gun of a T-55AM2B main battle tank, BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle,
and the MT-12 antitank gun. The 9K116 system uses beam-riding laser guidance for the
9M117 missile.
AT-11 SNIPER
The AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided ATGM, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to
4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability to engage other MBTs, vehicle ATGMs, and even
most helicopters before they can engage the T-90.
AT-12 SWINGER
The 9K118 Sheksna (AT-12 SWINGER) is a laser-beam riding, antitank missile
launched from the main gun of a an improved T-62 main battle tank. The 9K118 system
is essentially a 9K116 system modified to be fired through the 115-mm gun of the T-62
instead of the 100-mm of the T-55.
Kornet (AT-14)
In October 1994, the KPB Instrument Design Bureau introduced the Kornet (AT-14)
ATGM system. The Kornet was developed introducing a laser beam-riding missile with
automatic command-to-line of sight (SACLOS) guidance. The operator simply has to
keep the sight on the target to ensure a hit. The laser beam-riding system is also less
vulnerable to countermeasures. The Kornet was specifically designed to replace the
Konkurs, which has been in service with the former Soviet and Russian armies for over
twenty years.

The Kornet, which has a claimed ability to penetrate 1100 to 1200 millimeters of steel
armor protected by explosive armor, provided a formidable antitank weapon system.
However, even with the improved capabilities the Kornet has over earlier systems, an
ATGM with all-weather, day or night, immunity to countermeasures, and fire and forget
capabilities was still highly desired.
AT-15 Khrizantema
The development of the Khrizantema missile system provides the Russian Army with a
weapon system that will significantly upgrade its antitank capability. Even with the
improved capabilities the AT-14 Kornet has over earlier systems, an ATGM with all-
weather, day or night, immunity to countermeasures, and fire and forget capabilities was
still highly desired. In July 1996, Russia's KBM Engineering Design Bureau revealed a
dual-guidance missile system with the desired capabilities. A new long-range ATGM, the
Khrizantema (9M123), capable of firing six-kilometer-range supersonic missiles,
incorporating both radar and laser command guidance receivers, is in its last stage of
testing. KBM expects production to begin in 1998. The key role of the Khrizantema
(Russian for "chrysanthemum") is to destroy armored vehicles at long range. In addition,
it could be used to destroy bunkers, and to engage slow- or low-flying helicopters. The
Khrizantema missile system is mounted on a modified BMP-3 infantry combat vehicle
chassis. The chassis is designated the 9M157-2, and has the amphibious capability of the
BMP-3.
Two models of the 9M123 missile have been developed. One has a tandem high-
explosive antitank (HEAT) warhead; designated the 9M123-2, it apparently can penetrate
over 1000 millimeters of steel armor protected by explosive reactive armor (ERA). The
second model, the 9M123-F-2, has a high explosive warhead. The maximum range of the
missile is 6000 meters with a maximum speed of 400 meters per second; thus it is
supersonic. The missile has two movable control surfaces at its rear, with four wrap-
around wings about three-quarters of the way down its body toward the rear.
For the first time in the world, an automatic radar target detection and tracking system,
with simultaneous missile control during its guidance to the target, was developed for the
Khrizantema ATGM. The unique feature of the missile is that it has two modes of
guidance: automatic, where it is guided by a roof-mounted radar; and by a semi-
automatic laser beam rider, using the sight mounted in the front of the hull on the right
side. There is no known comparable missile in the West under development or in service
with a similar guidance system.

The Russian Army is now faced with the option of purchasing the less expensive BMP-3
mounted Kornet system, which is a follow-on to the AT-5, or the more expensive
Khrizantema, a more powerful system capable of engaging more targets at greater ranges,
possibly employing the Kornet at regimental level and the Khrizantema at division level.
Regardless of its placement in the Russian Army, many nations may find it desirable and
allocate a portion of their budgets to purchase the extremely capable Khrizantema missile
system.
Ataka-V VIKhR 9M120 (AT-16)
A modification of the Shturm-V family is the Ataka-V family of missiles used on Mi-28
helicopters and on the latest Ka-50 helicopter. The Vikhr antitank missile is also the main
weapon of the Su-39. The aircraft is armed with 16 such missiles The Ataka-V family
includes several versions, the basic one being the 9M120 with a shaped-charge warhead
against armored targets and its improved version being the 9M220. Addition of a second
warhead, a demolition warhead, has created the Fugasnaya [High-Explosive] 9M120F.
Another version used against airborne targets is the 9A2200 with a rod warhead. All
these missiles of the Ataka-V family have semiautomatic radio command guidance and a
6000 m range, the producer quoting a 0.95 probability of a hit. Missiles of the Malutka-
Falanga-Shturm-Ataka families were built by the "Mashinostroyenie" Design Bureau in
Izhevsk, which had been established by Boris Shavyrin and is now directed by Sergey
Niepobiedimyy.

Specifications
Contractor NPO Mashinostroyenie
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight HEAT
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
10,000 m
Maximum effective
Effective against ground & air targets at converging
range
speeds to 800 km/h.
Penetration 900 mm
Guidance mode Laser Beam Rider SACLOS
Single-shot hit
0.95 probability claimed
probability