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# Department of Mathematics

## MTL107: Numerical Methods and Computations

Exercise Set 10: Numerical Integration-The Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, Closed
Newton-Cotes Formulas, Open Newton-Cotes Formulas, Composite Formulas, Adaptive

## 1. Approximate the following integrals using the Trapezoidal rule.

R1 R 0.5 2
a. 0.5
x4 dx b. 0 x−4
dx
R 1.5 R1
c. 1
x2 ln xdx d. 0
x2 e−x dx
R 1.6 2x
R 0.35 2
e. 1 x2 −4
dx f. 0 x2 −4
dx
R π/4 R π/4
g. 0
x sin xdx h. 0
e3x sin 2xdx

2. Find a bound for the error in the above Exercise using the error formula, and compare
this to the actual error.

## 6. Repeat Exercise 2 using Midpoint rule and the results of Exercise 5.

R2
7. The Trapezoidal rule applied to 0 f (x)dx gives the value 4, and Simpson’s rule gives the
value 2. What is f (1)?

## 8. Find the degree of precision of the quadrature formula

Z 1  √3   √3 
f (x)dx = f − +f .
−1 3 3
R1
9. The quadrature formula −1 f (x)dx = c0 f (−1)+c1 f (0)+c2 f (1) is exact for all polynomials
of degree less than or equal to 2. Determine c0 , c1 , and c2 .
R1
10. Find the constants c0 , c1 , and x1 so that the quadrature formula 0 f (x)dx = c0 f (0) +
c1 f (x1 ) has the highest possible degree of precision.

11. Approximate the following integrals using both Closed and Open Newton-Cotes formulas
Z x1
h h3 00
f (x)dx = [f (x0 ) + f (x1 )] − f (ξ),
x0 2 12
where x0 < ξ < x1 . (The Trapezoidal rule or Closed Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 1.)
x2
h5
Z
h
f (x)dx = [f (x0 ) + 4f (x1 ) + f (x2 )] − f (4) (ξ),
x0 3 90
where x0 < ξ < x2 . (Simpson’s rule or Closed Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 2.)
x3
3h5 (4)
Z
3h
f (x)dx = [f (x0 ) + 3f (x1 ) + 3f (x2 ) + f (x3 )] − f (ξ),
x0 8 80
where x0 < ξ < x3 . (Simpson’s Three-Eighths rule or Closed Newton-Cotes Formula with
n = 3.)
x4
8h7 (6)
Z
2h
f (x)dx = [7f (x0 ) + 32f (x1 ) + 12f (x2 ) + 32f (x3 ) + 7f (x3 )] − f (ξ),
x0 45 945
where x0 < ξ < x4 . (Closed Newton-Cotes formula with n = 4.)
x1
h3 00
Z
f (x)dx = 2hf (x0 ) + f (ξ),
x−1 3
where x−1 < ξ < x1 . (The Midpoint rule or Open Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 0.)
x2
3h3 00
Z
3h
f (x)dx = [f (x0 ) + f (x1 )] + f (ξ),
x−1 2 4
where x−1 < ξ < x2 . (Open Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 1.)
x3
14h5 (4)
Z
4h
f (x)dx = [2f (x0 ) − f (x1 ) + 2f (x2 )] + f (ξ),
x−1 3 45
where x−1 < ξ < x3 . (Open Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 2.)
x4
95h5 (4)
Z
5h
f (x)dx = [11f (x0 ) + f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + 11f (x3 )] + f (ξ),
x−1 24 144
where x−1 < ξ < x4 . (Open Newton-Cotes Formula with n = 3.)

Are the accuracies of the approximations consistent with the error formulas ? Which
of parts (d) and (e) give the better approximation?
R 0.1 √ R π/2
a. 0 1 + xdx b. 0 (sin x)2 dx
R 1.5 R 10 1
c. 1.1
ex dx d. 1 x
dx
R 5.5 1
R 10 1
R1
e. 1 x
dx + 5.5 x
dx f. 0
x1/3 dx

12. Use the Composite Trapezoidal rule with the indicated values of n to approximate the
following integrals.
R2 R2
a. 1
x ln xdx, n = 4 b. −2
x3 ex dx, n = 4
R2 2

c. 0 x2 +4
dx, n = 6 d. 0
x2 cos xdx, n = 6
R2 R3 x
e. 0
e2x sin 3xdx, n = 8 f. 1 x2 +4
dx, n=8
R5 R 3π/8
g. √ 1 dx, n=8 h. tan xdx, n = 8
3 x2 −4 0

13. Use the Composite Simpson’s rule to approximate the integrals in the above Exercise.

14. Use the Composite Midpoint rule with n + 2 subintervals to approximate the integrals in
Exercise 12.
R2
15. Approximate 0 x2 ln(x2 + 1)dx using h = 0.25. Use a. Composite Trapezoidal rule. b.
Composite Simpson’s rule. c. Composite Midpoint rule.

16. Suppose that f (0) = 1, f (0.5) = 2.5, f (1) = 2, and f (0.25) = f (0.75) = α. Find α if the
R1
Composite Trapezoidal rule with n = 4 gives the value 1.75 for 0 f (x)dx.

## 17. Determine the values of n and h required to approximate

Z 2
e2x sin 3xdx
0
−4
to within 10 . Use a. Composite Trapezoidal rule. b. Composite Simpson’s rule. c.
Composite Midpoint rule.

## 18. Determine the values of n and h required to approximate

Z 2
1
dx
0 x+4

to within 10−5 and compute the approximation. Use a. Composite Trapezoidal rule. b.
Composite Simpson’s rule. c. Composite Midpoint rule.

## 19. Let f be defined by

3
x + 1

 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1,
f (x) = 2 3
1.001 + 0.03(x − 0.1) + 0.3(x − 0.1) + 2(x − 0.1) 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2,

1.009 + 0.15(x − 0.2) + 0.9(x − 0.2)2 + 2(x − 0.2)3

0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.3.
a. Investigate the continuity of the derivatives of f.
R 0.3
b. Use the Composite Trapezoidal rule with n = 6 to approximate 0 f (x)dx, and esti-
mate the error using the error bound.
R 0.3
c. Use the Composite Simpson’s rule with n = 6 to approximate 0 f (x)dx. Are the
results more accurate than in part(b) ?
20. Determine to within 10−6 the length of the graph of the ellipse with equation 4x2 + 9y 2 =
36.

21. Compute the Simpson’s rule approximations S(a, b), S(a, (a + b)/2), and S((a + b)/2, b)
for the following integrals, and verify the estimate given in the approximation formula.
R 1.5 R1
a. 1
x2 ln xdx b. 0
x2 e−x dx
R 0.35 2
R π/4
c. 0 x2 −4
dx d. 0
x2 sin xdx
R π/4 R 1.6 2x
e. 0
e3x sin 2xdx f. 1 x2 −4
dx
R 3.5 R π/4
g. √ x dx h. (cos x)2 dx.
3 x2 −4 0

22. Use Adaptive quadrature to approximate for the following integrals to within 10−5 .
R3 R3
a. 1
e2x sin 3xdx b. 1
e3x sin 2xdx
R5 R5
c. 0
(2x cos(2x) − (x − 2)2 )dx d. 0
(4x cos(2x) − (x − 2)2 )dx.

23. Use Simpson’s Double Integral Algorithm with n = m = 4 to approximate the following
double integrals, and compare the results to the exact answers.
R 2.5 R 1.4 R 0.5 R 0.5
a. 2.1 1.2
xy 2 dydx b. 0 0
ey−x dydx
R 2.2 R 2x R 1.5 R x √
c. 2 x
(x2 + y 3 )dydx d. 1 0
(x2 + y)dydx

24. Use Simpson’s Double Integral Algorithm with (i) n = 4, m = 8, (ii) n = 8, m = 4, (iii)
n = m = 6to approximate the following double integrals, and compare the results to the
R π/4 R cos x ReRx
a. 0 sin x
(2y sin x + cosx )dydx b. 1 1
ln xydydx
R 1 R 2x R 1 R 2x
c. 0 x
(x2 + y 3 )dydx d. 0 x
(y 2 + x3 )dydx
RπRx RπRx
e. 0 0
cos xdydx f. 0 0
cos ydydx
R π/4 R sin x R 3π/2 R 2π
g. 0 0
√1 dydx h. −π 0
(y sin x + x cos y)dydx.
1−y 2

25. Use Gaussian Double Integral Algorithm with n = m = 2 to approximate the integrals in
Exercise 29, and compare the results to those obtained in Exercise 29.
26. Use Gaussian Double Integral Algorithm with (i) n = m = 3, (ii) n = 3, m = 4, (iii)
n = 4, m = 3 and (iv) n = m = 4 to approximate the integrals in Exercise 30.

27. Use Simpson’s Double Integral Algorithm with n = m = 14 and Gaussian Double Integral
Algorithm with n = m = 4 to approximate
ZZ
e−(x+y) dA,
R

for the region R in the plane bounded by the curves y = x2 and y = x.

28. The area of the surface described by z = f (x, y) for (x, y) in R is given by
ZZ q
[fx (x, y)]2 + [fy (x, y)]2 + 1dA.
S

## Use Simpson’s Double Integral Algorithm with n = m = 8 to find an approximation to

the area of the surface on the hemisphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, z ≥ 0 that lies above the region
in the plane described by R = {(x, y)|0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1}.

29. Use Gaussian Triple Integral Algorithm with n = m = p = 2 to approximate the following
triple integrals, and compare the results to the exact answers.
R 1 R 2 R 0.5 R1R1Ry
a. 0 1 0
ex+y+z dzdydx b. 0 x 0
y 2 z dzdydx
R 1 R x R x+y R 1 R x R x+y
c. 0 x2 x−y
y dzdydx d. 0 x2 x−y
z dzdydx
R π R x R xy 1
R 1 R 1 R xy 2 +y 2
e. 0 0 0 y
sin( yz ) dzdydx f. 0 0 −xy
ex dzdydx

## 31. Use Gaussian Triple Integral Algorithm with n = m = p = 5 to approximate

ZZZ
xyzdV,
S

where S is the region in the first octant bounded by the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 4, the sphere
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4, and the plane x + y + z = 8. How many functional evaluations are
required for the approximation ?

32. Use Simpson’s Composite rule and the given values of n to approximate the following
improper integrals.
R1 R1 e2x
a. 0
x−1/4 sin xdx, n = 4 b. 0 5 2 dx,

x
n=6
R2 ln x
R1 cos 2x
c. 1 (x−1)1/5
dx, n=8 d. 0 x1/3
, n=6
33. Use the transformation t = x−1 and then the Simpson’s Composite rule and the given
values of n to approximate the following improper integrals.
R∞ 1
R∞ 1
a. 1 x2 +9
dx, n = 4 b. 1 1+x4
dx, n=4
R∞ cos x
R∞ sin x
c. 1 x3
dx, n=6 d. 1 x4
. n = 6.

## Actual Error Error Bound

a. 0.071875 0.125
b. 7.943 ×10−4 9.718 ×10−4
c. 0.0358147 0.0396972
d. 0.0233369 1.6666667
(2)
e. 0.1326975 0.5617284
f. 9.443 ×10−4 1.0707 ×10−3
g. 0.0663431 0.0807455
h. 1.554631 2.298827

2.

4.

## e. -0.6753247 f. -0.1768200 g. 0.1180292 h. 1.8039148.

6.
Actual Error Error Bound
a. 2.604 ×10−4 2.6042 ×10−4
b. 7.14 ×10−7 9.92 ×10−7
c. 1.406 ×10−5 2.170 ×10−5
d. 1.7989 ×10−3 4.1667 ×10−4
(4)
e. 5.1361 ×10−3 0.063280
f. 1.549 ×10−6 2.095 ×10−6
g. 3.6381 ×10−4 4.1507 ×10−4
h. 4.9322 ×10−3 0.1302826

## Actual Error Error Bound

a. 0.0355469 0.0625
b. 3.961 ×10−4 4.859 ×10−4
c. 0.0179285 0.0198486
d. 8.9701 ×10−3 0.0833333
(6)
e. 0.0564448 0.2808642
f. 4.698 ×10−4 5.353 ×10−4
g. 0.0337172 0.0403728
h. 0.7847138 1.1494136

7. f (1) = 21 .

## 8. The degree of precision is 3.

9. c0 = 13 , c1 = 43 , c2 = 31 .

1
10. c0 = c1 = 2
gives the highest degree of precision, 1.

0.1024598.

## b. 0.7853982, 0.7853982, 0.7853982, 0.7853982, 0.7853982, 0.7853982, 0.7853982 and

0.7853982.
c. 1.497171, 1.477536, 1.477529, 1.477523, 1.467719, 1.470981, 1.477512 and 1.477515.

0.7593572.

## 15. a. 3.15947567 3.10933713 3.00906003.

16. α = 0.75.

17. a. The Composite Trapezoidal rule requires h < 0.000922295 and n ≥ 2168.

## c. The Composite Midpoint rule requires h < 0.00065216 and n ≥ 3066.

18. a. The Composite Trapezoidal rule requires h < 0.04382 and n ≥ 46. The approximate
is 0.405471
b. The Composite Simpson’s rule requires h < 0.44267 and n ≥ 6. The approximate
is 0.405466

c. The Composite Midpoint rule requires h < 0.03098 and n ≥ 64. The approximate
is 0.405460.

0 00
19. a. Because the right and left limits at 0.1 and 0.2 for f, f , f are the same, the function
are continuous
 on [0,0.3]. However,
6, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1

000
f (x)= 12, 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2

12, 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.3
is discontinuous at x = 0.1.

## b. We have 0.302506 with an error bound of 1.9 × 10−4 .

c. We have 0.302425, and the value of the actual integral is the same.

## 21. Simpson’s rule gives

a. S(1,1.5) = 0.19224530, S(1,1.25) = 0.03372434, S(1.25, 1.5) = 0.15288602, and the
actual value is 0.19225935.
b. S(0,1) = 0.16240168, S(0,0.5) = 0.028861071, S(0.5,1) = 0.13186140, and the actual
value is 0.16060279.
c. S(0,0.35)=-0.17682156, S(0,0.175)=-0.087724382, S(0.175,0.35)=-0.089095736, and the
actual value is -0.17682002.
d. S(0, π4 ) = 0.087995669, S(0, π8 ) = 0.0058315797, S( π8 , π4 ) = 0.082877624, and the actual
value is 0.088755285.
e. S(0, π4 ) = 2.5836964, S(0, π8 ) = 0.33088926, S( π8 , π4 ) = 2.2568121, and the actual value
is 2.5886286.
f. S(1,1.6) = -0.73910533, S(1,1.3) = -0.26141244, S(1.3, 1.6) = -0.47305351, and the
actual value is -0.73396917.
g. S(3,3.5) = 0.63623873, S(3,3.25) = 0.32567095, S(3.25, 3.5) = 0.31054412, and the
actual value is 0.63621334.
h. S(0, π4 ) = 0.64326905, S(0, π8 ) = 0.37315002, S( π8 , π4 ) = 0.26958270, and the actual
value is 0.64269908.

## 26. With n = m = 3, n = 3 and m = 4, n = 4 and m = 3 and n = m = 4 gives:

a. 0.5118655, 0.5118445, 0.5118655, 0.5118445, 2.1 ×10−5 , 1.3 ×10−7 , 2.1 ×10−5 , 1.3
×10−7 .

b. 1.718163, 1.718302, 1.718139, 1.718277, 1.2 ×10−4 , 2.0 ×10−5 , 1.4 ×10−4 , 4.8 ×10−6 .

## d. 0.7833333, 0.7833333, 0.7833333, 0.7833333, 0, 0, 0, 0.

e. -1.991878, -2.000124, -1.991878, -2.000124, 8.1 ×10−3 , 1.2 ×10−4 , 8.1 ×10−3 , 1.2 ×10−4 .

f. 2.001494, 2.000080, 2.001388, 1.999984 1.5 ×10−3 , 8.0 ×10−5 , 1.4 ×10−3 , 1.6 ×10−5 .

g. 0.3084151, 0.3084145, 0.3084246, 0.3084245, 10−5 , 5.5 ×10−7 , 1.1 ×10−5 , 6.4 ×10−7 .
h. -12.74790, -21.21539, -11.83624, -20.30373, 7.0, 1.5, 7.9, 0.564.

## 28. The area is approximately 1.0402528.

29. With n = m = p = 2 gives the first listed value. The second is the exact result.
1 1
a. 5.204036, e(e0.5 − 1)(e − 1)2 . b. 0.08429784, 12 . c. 0.08641975, 14 .

1
d. 0.09722222, 12
. e. 7.103932, 2 + 12 π 2 . f. 1.428074, 12 (e2 + 1) − e.

30. With n = m = p = 4 gives the first listed value. The second is with n = m = p = 5.
a. 5.206447, 5.206447. b. 0.08333333, 0.08333333 c. 0.07142857, 0.07142857