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 Geographers use 2- and

3- dimensional tools to
learn about the earth.
 Geographers use
computer assisted
technology to study the
Globes Help Geographers study the world.

What are some advantages/disadvantages of

using globes?
 Globes provide a
proportional view of the
earth as it travels
through space.
 They are not easily
 You can only see half of
it at a time.
 Cartographers make maps, which are two-
dimensional representations of earth.

 What are some advantages and disadvantages

of maps?
 Easily portable
 Can be drawn to any scale needed
 Distortion occurs as maps are flattened
 A map projection is a way of drawing the
earth’s surface that reduces distortion
caused by presenting a round earth on flat
 Size of scale is determined by detail.
 Large scale maps are needed to show many
 Small scale maps are needed when fewer
details are shown. SMALL SCALE = SMALL
 What are some examples of places that
would need a large scale?
 What are some examples of places that
would need a small scale?
 1. General Reference
- (Political, Physical, Topographic)
 2. Thematic
 3. Navigational
 General Reference
maps are used for
people to acquire
 Physical maps help you
see the types of
landforms and bodies
of water in a specific
 P. 20 in book
 Political maps show
features on the earth’s
surface that humans
 Cities, states,
provinces, territories,
or countries may be on
a political map.
 P. 21
Topographic maps are types of general
reference maps. They show natural and
man-made features on earth.
 Thematic maps focus on specific types of
information. (ex: population density,
vegetation, weather maps, resources,
 Use colors, symbols, dots, or lines to
help you see a pattern.
 Surveying

• Surveyors observe,
measure, record what
they see in a specific
They use remote sensing
(gathering data from a
distance) to do this.
• Remote sensing includes:
- aerial photography
- satellite imaging
 Geographers use Landsat
and Geostationary
Operational Environment
Satellite (GOES) to
gather geographic data.
 Landsat is a series of
satellites that can scan
the entire planet in 16
 GOES orbits the earth
and gathers atmospheric
information used for
forecasting weather.
 GIS stores geographic
info in a database.
 Geographers use GIS
to solve problems.
 GIS provides maps,
aerial photographs,
satellite images, and
other data.
 Can you think of an
example of a GIS?
 Originally developed for
military reasons.
 Uses 24 satellites to
show exact location on
 Who might use GPS?