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UNIVERSITY OF MINDANAO

Tagum College

Department of Arts & Sciences Education


Language Discipline

Physically Distanced but Academically Engaged

Self-Instructional Manual (SIM) for Self-Directed Learning (SDL)

Course/Subject: GE 7 (ART APPPRECIATION)

Name of Teacher: LADY LOU C. PIDO, MALT

THIS SIM/SDL MANUAL IS A DRAFT VERSION ONLY; NOT FOR


REPRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE OF ITS INTENDED
USE. THIS IS INTENDED ONLY FOR THE USE OF THE STUDENTS
WHO ARE OFFICIALLY ENROLLED IN THE COURSE/SUBJECT.
EXPECT REVISIONS OF THE MANUAL.
DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM

Course Outline: GE-7 (Arts Appreciation)

Course Coordinator: LADY LOU C. PIDO, MALT


Email: pidoladylou@gmail.com
Student Consultation: By appointment
Mobile: 0907-3737962
Phone: (084) 216-1538
Effectivity Date: June 2020
Mode of Delivery: DED (Distance Education Delivery)
Time Frame: 54 Hours
Student Workload: Expected Self-Directed Learning
Requisites: None
Credit: 3
Attendance Requirements: A minimum of 95% attendance is required at all
scheduled Virtual or face to face sessions.

Course Outline Policy

Areas of Concern Details


Contact and Non-contact Hours This 3-unit course self-instructional manual is designed
for DED (Distance Education Delivery) with minimal
scheduled face to face or virtual sessions. The
expected number of hours will be 54 including the face
to face or virtual sessions. The online sessions shall
include the summative assessment tasks (exams)
since this course is crucial in the licensure examination
for teachers.
Assessment Task Submission Submission of assessment tasks shall be on 3 rd, 5th,7th
and 9th week of the term. The assessment paper shall
be attached with a cover page indicating the title of the
assessment task (if the task is performance), the
name of the course coordinator, date of submission and
name of the student. The document should be emailed
to the course coordinator. It is also expected that you
already paid your tuition and other fees before the
submission of the assessment task.

If the assessment task is done in real time through the


features in the Blackboard Learning Management
System, the schedule shall be arranged ahead of time
by the course coordinator.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM

Since this course is included in the licensure


examination for teachers, you will be required to take
the Multiple- Choice Question exam inside the
University. This should
be scheduled ahead of time by your course coordinator.
This is non-negotiable for all licensure-based programs.
Turnitin Submission To ensure honesty and authenticity, all assessment
(if necessary) tasks are required to be submitted through Turnitin
with a maximum similarity index of 30% allowed. This
means that if your paper goes beyond 30%, the
students will either opt to redo her/his paper or explain
in writing addressed to the course coordinator the
reasons for the similarity. In addition, if the paper has
reached more than 30% similarity index, the student
may be called for a disciplinary action in accordance
with the University’s OPM on Intellectual and Academic
Honesty.

Please note that academic dishonesty such as cheating


and commissioning other students or people to
complete the task for you have severe punishments
(reprimand, warning, expulsion).
Penalties for Late The score for an assessment item submitted after the
Assignments/Assessments designated time on the due date, without an approved
extension of time, will be reduced by 5% of the possible
maximum score for that assessment item for each day
or part day that the assessment item is late.

However, if the late submission of assessment paper


has a valid reason, a letter of explanation should be
submitted and approved by the course coordinator. If
necessary, you will also be required to present/attach
evidences.
Return of Assignments/ Assessment tasks will be returned to you two (2) weeks
Assessments after the submission. This will be returned by email or
via Blackboard portal.

For group assessment tasks, the course coordinator will


require some or few of the students for online or virtual
sessions to ask clarificatory questions to validate the
originality of the assessment task submitted and to
ensure that all the group members are involved.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
Assignment Resubmission You should request in writing addressed to the course
coordinator his/her intention to resubmit an assessment
task. The resubmission is premised on the student’s
failure to comply with the similarity index and other
reasonable grounds such as academic literacy
standards or other reasonable circumstances e.g.
illness, accidents financial constraints.
Re-marking of Assessment You should request in writing addressed to the program
Papers and Appeal coordinator your intention to appeal or contest the score
given to an assessment task. The letter should explicitly
explain the reasons/points to contest the grade. The
program coordinator shall communicate with the
students on the approval and disapproval of the
request.

If disapproved by the course coordinator, you can


elevate your case to the program head or the dean with
the original letter of request. The final decision will
come from the dean of the college.
Grading System All culled from Schoologyportal, traditional contact,
and Social Media platforms:
Course discussions/exercises – 40%
st rd
1 - 3 formative assessment –30%

All culled from off-campus/online session


(Final Exam for summer, SY 2020-2021):
Final exam – 30%
Submission of the final grades shall follow the usual
University system and procedures.

Preferred Referencing Style Depends on the discipline; if uncertain or inadequate,


use the general practice of the APA 6th Edition.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
Student Communication You are required to create an email account which is a
requirement to access the Schoology portal. Then, the
course coordinator shall instruct students to enroll in
the course using a specific access code(TBA).

Other communication formats includes emails, private


messenger, and cellphone. In case the course
coordinatorrequiresstudentstouse a specific virtual
communicationappfor video conferencing (i.e. Zoom
and other similar applications), you are
requiredtodownloadsuchapplication. However,
thecoursecoordinatorshallconsiderstudentswhohaveno
internet access.

You can personally call o rchat the course coordinator


to raise your issues and concerns.
Contact Details of the Dean Dr. Gina Fe G. Israel
Email:
deansofficetagum@umindanao.edu.
ph
Phone: 09158325092
Contact Details of the Prof. Lovely Mae R. Prieto, MEAL
Discipline Head Email:
lovelymaeprieto@umindanao.edu.ph
Phone: 09771712622/0995520303
Students with Special Needs Students with special needs shall communicate with the
course coordinator about the nature of his or her
special needs. Depending on the nature of the need,
the course coordinator with the approval of the program
coordinator may provide alternative assessment tasks
or extension of the deadline of submission of
assessment tasks. However, the alternative
assessment tasks should still be in the service of
achieving the desired course learning outcomes.
Online Tutorial Registration You are required to enroll in a specific tutorial time for
this course via the department website (to be
announced by the course coordinator) portal. Please
note that there is a deadline for enrollment to the
tutorial.
Help Desk Contact 09771712622
Library Contact lictagum@umindanao.edu.ph
0927-395-1639

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM

Course Information – see/download course syllabus in the Black Board LMS

CC’s Voice: Hello students! Welcome to this course GE-7: Arts Appreciation. Every
student in the new curriculum shall undergo this subject for it is deemed essential
regardless of the course you are taking. Hopefully, after this you would learn to
appreciate and value the different types of arts and contribute to the existing artistic
beauty as you reflect on their effects on individuals and society.

CO The course is primarily aimed at the understanding,


appreciation, and cultivation of the nature, history, and technical
aspects of art forms. It deals with the study of the visual and
performing arts for the purpose of giving students the
opportunity to acquire the necessary skills to understand their
talents in arts, evaluate exquisiteness towards artistry, create
arts through direct experience such as painting, sculpting and all
forms of art and demonstrate awareness of beauty in the world
and the universality of arts.

Let us begin!

Big Picture

Week 1-3: Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO): At the end of the unit, you are
expected to demonstrate deep knowledge and comprehension on the background
and importance of humanities. Other topics involve are the: Orientation to Art and
Society, Art, and Art Genres, which you can refer on the reference given in the
syllabus. You are also expected to thoroughly understand the concepts of arts.

Big Picture in Focus: ULOa. Orientation to Art, Society, Art and


Art Genres

Metalanguage

In this section, the most essential terms relevant to arts and to


demonstrate ULOa will be operationally defined to establish a common
frame of reference. You will encounter these terms
aswegothroughthestudyofarts.Pleaserefertothesedefinitionsincaseyouwill
encounter difficulty in the understanding concepts in arts.

Please proceed immediately to the “Essential Knowledge” part since


the first lesson is also definition of essential terms.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM

Essential Knowledge

To perform the aforesaid big picture (unit learning outcomes) for the
first three (3) weeks of the course, you need to fully understand the
following essential knowledge that will be laid down in the succeeding
pages. These terms are mainly adapted from the book Understanding,
Valuing, and Living Art by Rene B. Javellana, SJ. Please note that you are
not limited to exclusively refer to these resources. Thus, you are expected to
utilize other books, research articles and other resources that are available
in the university’s library e.g. ebrary, search.proquest.cometc.

Orientation to Art
Art, Nature, and the World. Arts begins with encountering something primarily
outside of us, applying human intervention, capturing it as a significant and
worthwhile encounter. But these encounters are not limited to the natural world.
There is the inner or intrapersonal world of our thoughts, imaginations, feelings and
desire (Javellana, 2018).
Intrapersonal refers to one-on-one encounters.
Example are Pop Songs whose main theme is love-sought, love longed
for, love lost and gone, love fulfilled-abound.
Societal Encounters a rerecorder in large-scale historical paintings or epic
movies involving cast of thousands.

Made by Human Hands

Design comes from the Italian word “designare” which means to draw or draw a
line; it also means to set boundaries. To our encounters, we set boundaries, we
frame our experience, we pick and choose. Unconsciously, we are framing,
designing.
It is also used in a narrow sense and is identified with commercial art to
sell a product.
Wayfinding is a design system that helps us navigate unfamiliar places. It uses
maps, directional arrows, and signages to assist us.

Thinking Like an Artist


Points to Remember:

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
 Good Artist is one who engages the whole brain and the body in thinking and
creating.
 Architecture and the visual arts appeal primarily to the sense of sight.
 Music appeals to the sense of hearing.
 Kinesthetic refers to a body in motion.
 Haptic refers to the body’s sense of touch.
 Cinema, film, or the movie builds upon dance and theatre and is likewise
totalizing. But in film, technology intervenes.
 Art’s lasting benefit is engaging the total self, not just the analytical brain, but
body and senses.

Philosophies and Theories of Art


Points to Remember:

 PHILOSOPY comes from two classical Greek words philowhich means love, and
sophiawhich means wisdom (a quest to know and spurred by the love of truth)
 Natural philosophy– the study of nature
 Philosophy is identified with metaphysics meaning what is beyond physical.
 Aesthetics – philosophical branch ofthe quest to answer the inquiry on the
nature of beauty
 A leading philosopher in this quest was Immanuel Kant whose reflections on
beauty are found in Part III of his work on reason, Critique of the Power of
Judgment. He places the search for beauty under the category of practical
reason.
 There are some culture and tradition that have not articulated the theory of
beauty.
- For example: China have rules to follow in order to paint properly
o Proper distance in painting
o Proper subjects in painting

What distinguishes the philosophical quest from the other quests?


 The difference of philosophical quest from the other quest is its reliance on the
human capacity to search, know, and understand.
 This reliance on mind came to a climax in the French Philosopher, René
Descartes, who said, “ Cogito ergo sum” (I think therefore I am)
- the proof of human existence is the human capacity to
think.
- self-knowledge is gained through self-scrutiny
 Contemporaries who are opposed to Descartes
- Baruch Spinoza focused on affects and feelings.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
- Blaise Pascal said that reason have limits when said, “The heart has
reasons, which even the reason does not know.”
 Philosophy for Truths
 Judeo-Christian and Islam said that human reason have limits in searching for
truth.
 Transcendence – from the Latin word trans meaning “across or beyond”, and
ascenderemeaning “to go up”.Transcendent philosophies are called theories.

 Philosophy of Art
 Plato proposed the concept of the World of Ideas or the World of Forms.
- what we see here on earth, what is visible as natural forms are copies of
the original in the World of Ideas.
 The Republic, a dialogue written by Plato. The central argument of this dialogue
is all about “what is the most ideal form of government and who should rule this
government”
 Plato’s“Allegory of the Cave” explains that most humans live in a world of
forms and shadows.
- where Plato identifies two distinct realms; [1] the visible realm (material
world), [2] and the invisible realm of the World of Ideas.
 eikesia( imagination )
 pistis( belief )
 noesis( mathematical )
 Daianoia( dialectal reasoning )
 For, Plato art is mimesis, that is, copying what we see in the World of Forms.
 Plato’s philosophy of art is called formalistic, because it speaks of form; and
idealistic, because it emphasizes ideas above all.
 AristotleHe posited that everything is composed of matter and form which he
labels as cause.
 Material cause refers to the elements out of which an object is made
 Formal cause is an expression of what an object is.
 Efficient cause is the means by which an object is made.
 Final cause refers to the end or purpose why an object is madeExample: the
statue of David by Michealangelo

 Injunction against idols


 Judaism, Deuteronomy “ You shall not have false gods before me”
 Islam and Judaism banned the visual arts that leads to idolatry.
- example: the golden calf worshipped by so many Hebrew people and
was destroyed by Moses
 Christianity’s breakaway of Judaism
 They portray Jesus Christ image by a set patterns of pose, gesture,

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
clothing and decoration.
 The icon – a face that like Greeks followed by geometric pattern followed based
on the three concentric rings.
 The clash between deuteronomic ban
 Iconoclasts – refers to people who criticized icons
 Iconodules – refers to people who favored Deuteronomic
- transcendental theory or theological theory
 - the theory about art from the Judeo-Christian religion and Islam

 Psychological theory
 Giorgio Vasaripopularized the idea that the artist is a genius.
 In his book Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects he said
that artists are influenced by the spirit of genius and were guided by genii or
divine spirits.
 Immanuel Kantbelieved that reason gave structure to the world we experience.
 Kant’s “four” momentsto aesthetic judgement
 The first moment. Aesthetic judgement is disinterested
 The second moment. Aesthetic judgement behaves universally
 The third moment. It is about purpose and purposiveness
 The fourth moment. Aesthetic judgement must pass the test of the necessary
 Art under the history of philosophy
 Georg Wilhelm believed that art varies from period to period.
 Art is the product of the human “spirit” as it evolves through history.
 Karl Marx on art
- Art is always created within a specific social and historical context, and
this will impact on the artwork itself.
 example:
- Richard Clarke’s insights into the nature and value of art, and its links to
political and economic realities.
 Postmodernism was a reaction against modernism.
 Postmodernism advocated that individual experience and interpretation of our
experience was more concrete than abstract principles.
 Postmodernism refused to recognize the authority of any single style or definition
of what art should be.

Society, Art, and Art Genres

Art, Audience, and History


 Appreciative audience understands and values art.

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
 Gadamer believes that if there is no audience, there is no artwork.
 According to him, there is no use of painting if it will be just kept in storage, same
thing with musical composition or script of a play if there is no one that will listen
or appreciate your masterpiece.
 When there is an appreciative audience, the people who understands and values
art, then the artist’s art arrives on its goal.
 Art history tells us about the tradition of art which interprets the works and past of
other cultures.
 Culture widens the audience (example: Japanese Manga being spread in the
west).
 History shows that art is full of innovation and experimentation.
 History tells us that art are based not only on long-standing practices but also on
its roots.

Artist’s Education
 Art education, we assume may involve training the art professional.
 Historically, the education of the artists is closely linked to the social definition of
the artist.
 Among the T’bolis in Lake Cebu, girls as young as grade school age already
exposed to the art of weaving.
 Art assumed a new role in the West toward at the end of the 18 th century as
monarchy was replaced by revolution and constitutionalism became popular.
 Establishment of the art académie.
 The favorite subject matter of the neoclassical artists were history scenes and
scenes based on Greece and Rome.
 The Spain’s Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Royal Academy
of Fine Arts in San Fernando), Russia’s Mariinsky Ballet, the salon.
 Today’s art educationis very much the descendant of the national art academies
of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The shaping of education resonates with
society’s perception.

Artist’ Mood
 Moody artist or any person for that matter becomes a problem.
 “Hard work trumps talent, when talent does not work.”- Liza Macuja
 Inspiration is found many times not at the beginning of an artwork but while doing
it.
 “Nulla dies, sine linea.” (No day without a line.) -Art Students League of New
York
 The artist that is driven by inner demon but who despite inner turmoil is able
tomake works original and astonishing.

Art and Power

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
 Art and power- two words that don’t seem to naturally fit together. Power conveys
a sense of influence, drama, action, and suggests a variety of intense images.
 In contrast, for many of us, art conjures images of contemplation in a quiet
museum, a flurried paint pattern of a contemporary work, or beautiful landscapes
dappled with soft pastel tones that comfortably immerse us into a relaxing place
or moment. And yet, throughout the annals of time and history two threads are
continually evident- the power and impact of the written word and the visual
image. Painting and art through the centuries have shown the persistent power to
impact and influence human emotions and perceptions and to directly impact or
influence a range of endeavors and events.

 The Power of the Cross Leonardo da Vinci, Annunciation, circa 1472-75


 Jacques-Louis David, Coronation of Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the
Empress Josephine in the Notre-Dame de Paris, December 2, 1804
 The Power of the Crown
 The Power of Patriotism Archibald MacNeal Willard, The Spirit of '76, 1875
 The Power of Illumination Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada, California,
1868 | Smithsonian American Art Museum
 The Power of Imagery on the Senses Edward Hopper, Night Windows,1928
 The Power of Beguilement and Curiosity Rene Magritte, The False
Mirror, 1928
 Art and Power … words that absolutely belong together!
( R e a d F u l l E s s a y B y R i c h a r d R e i t z e l l a t http://cmato.org/art-and-power)

Art and War and the War on Art

 World war II Posters from the American and the Japanese were spread in
the Philippines

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
 Hitler used DRAMA as a tool in his Massive Rallies

 Destructive Culture is another aspect of war. The word ‘culture’ is sometimes


used to refer to the highest intellectual endeavours and the pursuit of
perfection and beauty. As the poet and critic Matthew Arnold put it, culture is
'the best that has been thought and known in the world'. We now more
commonly think of culture as being about beliefs, customs, language and arts
of a particular society, group, place, or time and the symbols and expression
of shared values, traditions and customs.

 Four originally gilded bronze horses sent by Doge Enrico Dandolo are some
of the artwork which was part of the Venetian booty from conquering
Constantinople in 1204. It is used to display at the Hippodrome in
Constantinople until it was loot-sacked by the venetian army during the fourth
crusade. Also looted and sent to Venice was Portraits of the four tetrarchs, a
porphyry statue of the four rulers of later day roman empire.
 Looting of art and its deliberate destruction known as Iconoclasm, is a
recurrent event in the history of art. Behind the pilliage and damage is the
recognition of art’s value especially as it projects and expresses a culture.
Looting and destruction are ways of negating and taking apart the culture of
the looser and projecting the superiority of the winner.

Art as a Form of Protest


 Protest art is the creative works produced by activists and social movements. It
is a traditional means of communication, utilized by a cross section of collectives
and the state to inform and persuade citizens.
 Protest art helps arouse base emotions in their audiences, and in return may
increase the climate of tension and create new opportunities to dissent. Since art,

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
unlike other forms of dissent, take few financial resources, less financially able
groups and parties can rely more on performance art and street art as an
affordable tactic.
 Protest art acts as an important tool to form social consciousness, create
networks, operate accessibly, and be cost-effective. Social movements produce
such works as the signs, banners, posters, and other printed materials used to
convey a particular cause or message. Often, such art is used as part of
demonstrations or acts of civil disobedience. These works tend to be ephemeral,
characterized by their portability and disposability, and are frequently not
authored or owned by any one person. The various peace symbols, and
the raised fist are two examples that highlight the democratic ownership of these
signs.
 Protest art also includes (but is not limited to) performance, site-specific
installations, graffiti and street art, and crosses the boundaries of Visual arts
genres, media, and disciplines. While some protest art is associated with trained
and professional artists, an extensive knowledge of art is not required to take part
in protest art. Protest artists frequently bypass the art-world institutions and
commercial gallery system in an attempt to reach a wider audience. Furthermore,
protest art is not limited to one region or country, but is rather a method that is
used around the world.

Art and Technology


 Both art and technology define and continue to reshape the world we live in.
Re-imagining what we know as real or as a solid ground pushes our opinions and
understandings of nature to the limits. And with new inventions and
experiments, both the mind and the body, the language, and the world itself
seems to be making room for a different sphere and fresh rules. Governed by
the new aesthetics, the virtual, the scientific and the logic that is beyond
belief, technology in art challenges our perceptions and that is what creativity
and science are all about. If we are to understand that creative production
reflects the period of time we are all in, how are we to grasp the growing number
of young contemporary authors that base their practice on the presentation
of immaterial and ephemeral things?
 The change of artworks’ nature along with the shift in the public interaction and
the reshaping of the museums and exhibition spaces are making more room
today than ever before for some of the most amazing examples of art and
technology mix through digital art, kinetic pieces, and works that explore the
internet and online existence. The sci-fi mysteries of various movies that were
mind-blowing just a decade or so, today shape the face of our reality. This part of
the innovative computer-based face, the traditional paintings and sculpture
cannot capture to its fullest and that is why the fresh materials, such

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DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
as data, pixels, mathematical and engineer formulas are the tools number of
contemporary creatives reach for.

Self-Help: You can also refer to the sources below to help you further
understand the lesson:

 Art and Power ( R e a d F u l l E s s a y B y R i c h a r d R e i t z e l l a t


http://cmato.org/art-and-power)
 Art and Religion (watch a video clip
throughhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfITRYcnP84)
 Art and Technology (Read article in https://www.widewalls.ch/the-serious-
relationship-of-art-and-technology/)
 Read More About The Impact of Digital Technology on Art and Artists
by MohamedZaherhttp://www.midanmasr.com/en/article.aspx?articleID=200

Let’s Check

Activity1.Nowthatyouknowthemostessentialtermsinthestudyofarts, let us try


to check your understanding of these terms. In the space provided, write the
term/s being asked in the followingstatements:
1. Itrefers to one-on-one encounters. Example are Pop Songs whose main
theme is love-sought, love longed for, love lost and gone, love fulfilled-
abound.
2. This comes from the Italian word “designare” which means to draw or
draw a line; it also means to set boundaries.
3. It is a design system that helps us navigate unfamiliar places. It uses
maps, directional arrows, and signages to assist us.
4. It is philosophical branch ofthe quest to answer the inquiry on the nature of
beauty
5. It is the title of a dialogue written by Plato. The central argument of this
dialogue is all about “what is the most ideal form of government and who
should rule this government”
6. He posited that everything is composed of matter and form which he
labels as cause.
7. It was a reaction against modernism; it advocated that individual
experience and interpretation of our experience was more concrete than
abstract principles.
8. Postmodernism refused to recognize the authority of any single style or
definition of what art should be.

15
DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
LANGUAGE DISCIPLINE
Mabini Street, Tagum City
Telefax: (084) 655-9591/ Local 115
umUM
9. It shows that art is full of innovation and experimentation. It also tells us
that art are based not only on long-standing practices but also on its roots.
10. This pertain to the creative works produced by activists and social
movements. It is a traditional means of communication, utilized by a cross
section of collectives and the state to inform and persuade citizens.

Let’s Analyze

Activity 1. Getting acquainted with the essential terms in the study of arts is
not enough, what also matters is you should also be able to explain its inter-
relationships. Now, I will require you to explain thoroughly your answers.

1. What does this artwork


convey about art and power?
________________________
________________________
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2. What do you think is the message that


the artist is trying to express in this graffiti?
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3. How does the colors used by Edvard


Munch in “The Scream” affect the
emotions portrayed in his painting?
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17
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In a Nutshell

Activity 1. The study of art orientation, society and art genres is


indeed pre-requisite to becoming a more appreciative and well-rounded
individual.

Based from the definition of the most essential terms in the study of art
orientation, society and art genres
thatyouhavedone,pleasefeelfreetowriteyourargumentsorlessonslearnedbelo
w. I have indicated some of the arguments of lessonslearned.

1. Art is perceived by our senses as we observe the nature and things


around us. We also create or imitate art through our human hands.
2. Art is used to project power by both civil and religious institutions.

Your Turn

3.

4.

5.

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Week 4-5: Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO): At the end of the unit, you are
expected to demonstrate deep knowledge and comprehension on the topic Visual
Arts and Architectural Arts. You have to acquire deep understanding on the
history of visual and architecture arts and its evolution. In addition, you are to
name the different popular visual and architectural designs by the standard of its
own period. You are also expected to identify the different sculptures from the
different parts of the world as a symbol of their history, culture and traditions.

Big Picture in Focus: ULOb. Visual and Architectural Arts

Metalanguage
In this section, the most essential terms relevant to Visual and
Architectural Arts and to demonstrate ULObwill be operationally defined to
establish a common frame of
refence.Pleaserefertothesedefinitionsincaseyouwill encounter difficulty in the
understanding concepts in arts.

Please proceed immediately to the “Essential Knowledge” part since


the first lesson is also definition of essential terms.

Essential Knowledge

To perform the aforesaid big picture (unit learning outcomes) for the
th
4 to 5th weeks of the course, you need to fully understand the following
essential knowledgethat will be laid down in the succeeding pages. These
terms are mainly adapted from the book Understanding, Valuing, and Living
Art by Rene B. Javellana, SJ. Please note that you are not limited to

exclusively refer to these resources. Thus, you are expected to utilize other
books, research articles and other resources that are available in the
university’s library e.g. ebrary, search.proquest.cometc.

Visual Arts goes back in the period of prehistory, even before humans wrote down
accounts of events and stories of the past. Abstract figures were carved on walls of
caves, rocks or stony outrocks. Two common media were paintings and petroglyphs.
Natural pigments such as clay, mud, reddish iron ore and hematite were uses as paints.
While petroglyphs are incised onto a rock using a harder material than the rock surface.
They often consist of abstractions of human and animal forms and repetitive patterns
like whorls and waves (Javellana, 2018).

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Elements of the Visual Arts
Line is one of the most basic of the elements.
 Actual Lines are visible and clearly expressed.
 Implied Line is another type of line which we see in dotted or dashed
lines.
o Perspective Line- implied lines in a work that create the illusion of
depth
o Gesture Line- when lines come together to depict volume and
surface as well as express movement and emotions

Color a phenomenon that humans perceive visually


 Color reception is determined by the type of receptors in the human eye
 The human eye can see the spectrum of visible light are comprised of
these colors ROYGBIV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet)
 Hue is the property of color which is the pure state of color.
 Tint is when white is added to the hue.
o Example: Pink is a tint of red because when red is added with
white, pink is produced.
 Shade is when black is added to the hue.
o Example: Dark red is a shade of red because when red is added
with black, dark red is produced.
 Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a hue.
 Intensity or Chroma refers to the brightness or dullness of a color.

Color Wheel is the device used to understand the relationship among the colors.
Watch a video clip found in https://slideplayer.com/slide/7396707/ to know more
about properties of color.

 Complementary colors are the exact opposite of each other.


o Examples: violet and yellow, red and green, and blue and
orange.
 Analogous colors show primary, secondary, and tertiary colors side

20
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by side in a color wheel.
o Example: the colors red, red-orange, and orange are analogous
because they all use the same hue.

Texture and Pattern


 Texture represents the characteristics of a surface.
o Some things feel just as they appear; this is called real or actual
texture.
o Some things look like they are rough but are actually smooth.
Texture that is created to look like something it is not, is
called visual or implied texture.
 Pattern refers to repeated visual form.

 According to Artyfactory, the Visual Element of Pattern is constructed by


repeating or echoing the elements of an artwork to communicate a sense
of balance, harmony, contrast, rhythm or movement.
 Natural Pattern: Pattern in art is often based on the inspiration we get
from observing the natural patterns that occur in nature. We can see these
in the shape of a leaf and the branches of a tree, the structure of a crystal,
the spiral of a shell, the symmetry of a snowflake and the camouflage and
signalling patterns on animals, fish and insects.
 Man-Made Pattern: Pattern in art is used for both structural and
decorative purposes. For example, an artist may plan the basic structure
of an artwork by creating a compositional pattern of lines and shapes.
Within that composition he/she may develop its visual elements to create
a more decorative pattern of color, tone and texture across the work.
 Our selection of artworks illustrated below have been chosen because
they all use pattern in an inspirational manner. We have analyzed each of
these to demonstrate how great artists use this visual element as a
creative force in their work. (https://slideplayer.com/slide/7396707/)

Shape and Volume


 Shape refers to two-dimensional work.
o Regular Shape follow a geometric shaoe such as quadrilateral,
circle, triangle or polygon.
o Irregular Shape are complex shapes with no set pattern.
o Biomorphic or organic Shapes are nature-based shapes
which are irregular in form.

 Volume refers to three-dimensional work.

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Principles of Composition
 Composition- the putting together the elements of arts
 Balance- even distribution of the visual weight in the composition
o Visual Weight- refers to how much an element capture the viewer’s
attention
o Symmetrical- there is equal weight throughout the composition
 Example: Philippine flag where the red and blue fields are
equal in size, and the white triangular field is an equilateral
one
o Asymmetrical- visual weight is distributed but one-half of the
composition does not mirror the other
 Example: Japanese ikebana (flower arrangement)

© Shozo Sato, Sunamono Ikebana


https://japanobjects.com/features/ikebana

 Rhythm- refers to recurring motifs and designs separated by intervals


o Regular Rhythm- has symmetrically repeated parts separated by
equal intervals in-between
 Example: Parthenon

https://tanushreez.wordpress.com/tag/parthenon/

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o Alternating Rhythm- has different components separated by set


intervals
 Example: Ethnic Weaving
 Traditional Ifugao
Weaving Pattern

https://pixels.com/featured/ifugao-pattern-gp-
abrajano.html?product=beach-towel

o Eccentric Rhythm- irregular rhythm but the beats still connect

o Progressive Rhythm- visual beats move from fast to slow or slow


to fast

Proportion and Scale


 Proportion- the size of one part relative to another within an artwork
 Scale- the size of a component in relation to what we consider normal
o Public Monuments or Statues are usually more than life-size scale
 Emphasis- one of more focal points in a work

Unity and Variety


 Unity- gives coherence to a work or makes all the elements stick together
 Variety- variations of elements such as color, size, shape or material to
break monotony in an artwork

Art Processes
 Printing- a process of making multiples or copies of one image
o Printing press was introduced from China to Europe
o Johannes Gutenberg- German printer who modified the press by
using cast metal fonts that could be rearranged

 Engraving- cuts lines into a polished sheet


using a burin, a metal tool pushed by hand
into a surface to make a line

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 Etching- done using acids. The plate is coated with a ground or protective
layer which is usually resin, varnish or paint. Then, the ground is
scratched to create an image. The plate is put in an acid bath and then the
acid eats or bites the exposed part reproducing the lines of the etched
image.
 Lithography- uses a slab of polished limestone; an illusion using an oily
crayon is made on the limestone. Then a mixture of water and gum Arabic
is poured into the surface, which adheres to the parts that are not covered
by the oily drawing. When oil-based ink is applied, it adheres to the crayon
drawing only. From this inked drawing is a print made.
o invented by Alois in Bavaria in 1976.
o
 Screen Printing- also known as silk printing or serigraphy
o Done by attaching a stencil on a fabric mesh stretched over a
wooden frame, forming a screen.
https://www.withlocals.com/experience/the-old-art-of-silkscreen-
printing-private-workshop-96785469/

Subject Matter and Visual Art Forms


 Subject Matter- refers to what an artwork is all about.
o Landscape- artworks that show a scene usually from nature and
rural, pastoral, and idyllic places
o Seascape- also known as marine paintings depicts sea, boats,
boat docks, and piers
o Still Life-naturamorta “dead nature” refers to artworks whose
subject matter are natural objects and whose forms are arranged
deliberately
 Example: a basket of fruits, a porcelain cup, a textile with a

24
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bunch of flowers
o Portrait is a painting of the human figure. It refers to the face of the
person although a bust and full figures are also made. The full
figure may be seated, standing, kneeling or in motion. It may show
a single person or a group of people.
o Portraiture is one of the bread-and-butter works of artists whom
patrons commission to do their portraits.

o Genre- refers to artworks whose subject matter is everyday life,


usually showing rural scenes of planting, harvesting, feasting and
celebrating.
o History works- depict historical scenes, usually stylized and made
to look heroic. They celebrate victory in warm coronation of kings
and queens, and other important events that shaped the history of
a nation.
o Allegorical or symbolic scenes- depictions of Greco-Roman gods
who stood for ideals like love, desire, or violence.
o Religious Imagery- art in the service of religion. It symbolically or
allegorically depicts doctrines of a religion.

 Visual Art Forms concretizes subject matter just as it provides a system


of classification.
 Style refers to a specific choice and configuration of the elements of visual
arts in a composition which is used to express the work’s subject matter.

Architectural Arts
Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical
structures. A wider definition often includes the design of the total built environment
from the macro level of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the
micro level of construction details and, sometimes, furniture.
https://medium.com/@AAA_Publication/what-is-architecture-1b52f5339c2a

Elements of Architecture
 Light- directed in a structure to create areas of chiascuro which give life to
a surface.
o Involves placement of windows, skylights, transparent or
translucent transoms, stained glass
 Color- In architecture drive to a number of factors that we should know at
the moment of studying the realization of a work. We should understand
that color is an important feature of building design. Colour is actually
really needed in architecture.

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Architecture and colour should live in harmony in order to create a
common visual space, but which is the importance of colour in architecture
and colors on buildings.

 Space- is one of the elements of design of architecture, as space is


continuously studied for its usage. Architectural designs are created by
carving space out of space, creating space out of space, and
designing spaces by dividing this space using various tools, such as
geometry, colours, and shapes.

Principles of Composition
 Balance- Architectural balance this primarily means mass, but there are
other characteristics that come into play that can affect balance (Essley,
n.d).
 Rhythm in architecture means recurrence of elements such as lines,
shapes, forms or colors resulting on organized movement in space and
time (Thapa, 2017).

https://gharpedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/0102030014-05-Opera-House-
Sydney-_11707624_xxl-min-1024x686.jpg

 Proportion plays an important role as it provides guidelines for laying out


useful spaces, for designing structural systems, and for creating an
aesthetically pleasing environment. The proportions of a space can
dramatically change how visitors feel in it, and the proportions of a facade
design can affect whether a building appears welcoming threatening, or
impressive. (© 2012 Hong Kong Institute of Architects)

Environment and Architecture


Advances in alternative energy and eco-friendly building materials and structures
were developed through research and development because of the worldwide energy
crisis in the 1970’s. Thus, green building movement developed as the wider
environmental movement spread. This movement sought to reduce the carbon footprint
of a building of a building from its construction, completion and use.

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Ornamentation
Ornamentation is defined as visual components of a building not necessary for its
structure or structural integrity. It includes dressing, reliefs, and carvings, decorations on
corbels, doorway and doors, colors and finishes of ceilings, walls, floors and the like.

Architectural Forms
 PrivateSpaces are generally residences where people dwell for an
extended period of time. The spaces are human in scale and if the
residences are clustered as apartments on a high-rise building, we enter
personal space beyond common spaces.
o Vernacular Architecture refers to structures that have been made
without benefit of a professional architect, designer, or engineer.
 Examples: Balay, dampa or barong-barong,
bahaykubo, bahaynabato, tree houses

 Ethnic Dwelling refers to the structures built in


ethnolinguistic communities
 Folk Dwelling refers built in lowlands usually in rural farming
and fishing communities
 Public Buildings are generally large and commodious. It can take in
many people at one given time. Its occupants are transitory, staying in the
building to transact their business and leaving as soon that is soon as that
is done.
 Consist of government buildings and infrastructure
o Kapitolyo- provincial capitol, seat of the provincial government.
Few of these were built during the Spanish colonial area but under
the Americans
o Munisipyo refers to the town or city hall. It originated from the
Spanish era casa real and tribunal.
o Tulay or bridge. The vernacular bridge was built of wood planks
supported by tree trunks, coconut or bamboo as piers.
o Kutais a term derived from the precolonial era which refers to a
fortification of wood palisade
o Other Examples of Public Buildings are:
 Masjid is the Filipino term for mosque
 Simbahan or church
 Sementeryo, cemetery
 Commercial Buildings
 Sinehan, cinema houses
 Eskwelahanor schools
 Teatro or theater houses
 Theme Parks

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Pottery
Pottery is the first synthetic material ever created by humans. The term refers to
objects made of clay that have been fashioned into the desired shape, dried, and either
fired or baked to fix their form. Due to its abundance and durability, pottery is one of the
most common types of items found by archaeologists during excavations, and it has the
potential of providing valuable information about the human past (Violatti, 2014).

Sculpture is a three-dimensional art made by one of four basic processes: carving,


modelling, casting, constructing.
 Carving is a sculptural technique that involves using tools to shape a
form by cutting or scraping away from a solid material such as stone,
wood, ivory or bone.
 Casting involves making a mould and then pouring a liquid material, such
as molten metal, plastic, rubber or fibreglass into the mould. A cast is a
form made by this process. Many sculptures are produced by the artist

modelling a form (normally in clay, wax or plaster). This is then used to to


create a mould to cast from. A mould can be cast more than once,
allowing artists to create editions of an artwork.
 Modelling is an additive process. This means a soft material is worked by
the artist to build up a shape or form (rather than scraping or material
away as in carving). Also unlike carving, soft materials such as clay and
wax can be changed and reworked. Modelling a maquette can also often
be the first step in the creation of a finished sculpture.
 In the twentieth century a new way of making sculpture emerged with
the cubist constructions of Picasso. These were still life subjects made
from scrap (found) materials glued together. Constructed sculpture in
various forms became a major stream in modern art, including in
movements such as constructivism or techniques like assemblage.
Artists have used techniques including bending, folding, stitching,
welding, bolting, tying, weaving, and balancing to construct sculptures
from a wide variety of materials and found objects.
https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/s/sculpture

Self-Help: You can also refer to the sources below to help you further
understand the lesson:

 Watch Properties of Color at https://slideplayer.com/slide/7396707/


 Watch Print making: lithography at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S67Qqov0CdU

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 How to Make an Etchinghttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jzVjjRudfo
 The Importance of Colour In Architecturehttps://www.detea.es/en/the-
importance-of-colour-in-architecture/
 Architectural Balance by Joffrey Essleyhttps://www.house-design-
coffee.com/architectural-balance.html
 Rhythm in Architecture: an Aesthetic Appeal by Rena Thapa
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e850/b63898472700f79c17dd6879948dc
1afa4af.pdf
 Importance of Rhythm ion
Architecturehttps://gharpedia.com/blog/rhythm-in-architecture/
 Listen to Pottery in Antiquity by Cristian Violatti at
https://www.ancient.eu/pottery/

Let’s Check

Activity1.NowthatyouknowthemostessentialtermsinthestudyofVisual and
Architectural Arts, let us try to check your understanding of these terms. In
the spaces provided, write the letter of the correct answer.

Meanings CONCEPTS
1. A process of making multiples or copies of one image a) Value
2. Putting together the elements of the arts b) Proportion
3. Refers to a painting of the human figure c) Composition
4. Refers to the intensity of light and darkness in a reflective d) Rhythm
or non-light transmitting surface or medium
5. Even distribution of the art’s visual weight e) Still Life
6. Refers to a specific choice and configuration of the f) Pattern
elements of visual arts in a composition
7. A device used to understand the relationship among the g) Portrait
colors
8. The size of one part relative to another within an artwork h) Balance

9. Recurring motifs and designs separated by intervals i) Printing


10. Directed in a structure to create areas of chiaroscuro j) Color Wheel
which give life to a surface
11. Refers to the work whose subjects matter are natural k) Style
objects and whose forms are arranged deliberately
12. Includes dressing, reliefs, carving, decorations l) Light
13. Repeated visual form m) Color
14. Consist of government buildings and infrastructures n) Private Spaces

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15. Generally residences where people dwell for an extended o) Ornamentation
period of time
16. An expressive element in architecture that also affects p) Public Buildings
people psychologically
17. German printer who modified the printing process during q) Genre
the middle period and later known as the one who
pioneered the printing press
18. subject matter of visual art focuses its topic to everyday r) religious imagery
life of people and showing scenes of the life in the rural
areas
19. the National Artist that designed The Church of the Holy s) Johannes
Sacrifice (1955) in UP Gutenberg
20. Art works in temples and churches of some major religion t) Leandro Locsin
can associated to what subject matter of visual art

Let’s Analyze

Activity 1. Getting acquainted with the essential terms in the study of Visual
and Architectural Arts is not enough, what also matters is you should also
be able to explain its inter-relationships. Now, I will require you to explain
thoroughly your answers.

1. In what ways do Visual Arts help preserve History?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

2. How do the different architectural structures represent cultures?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

3. As an individual, how would you use, create or recreate a form of visual or


architectural art to impact the society?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

In a Nutshell

Activity 1. The study of Visual and Architectural Arts is indeed


important to every individual. Based from the definition of the most essential
terms in the study of curriculum and the learning
exercisesthatyouhavedone,pleasefeelfreetowriteyourargumentsorlessonslea
rnedbelow. I have indicated my arguments or lessonslearned.

1. Visual Arts does not only express the emotions of the artist, it also
convey his/her ideas about the society in general.
2. Architectural Arts is one of the most functional of all the art forms
since buildings are utilized by humans.

Your Turn

3.

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4.

5.

Big Picture

Week 6-7: Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO): At the end of the unit, you are
expected to have a deep knowledge and understanding on the elements of
Musical and Dance Arts. You are also expected to explain the reason why people
dance, discuss the different kinds of dance and its elements. In addition, you are
to acquire deep understanding as to how music and dance affect once culture and
history.

Big Picture in Focus: ULOc. Musical and Dance Arts

Metalanguage
In this section, the most essential terms relevant to Musical and
Dance Arts and to demonstrate ULOcwill be operationally defined to
establish a common frame of refence. You will encounter these terms
aswegothroughthestudyofArtsPleaserefertothesedefinitionsincaseyouwill
encounter difficulty in the understanding concepts in arts.

Please proceed immediately to the “Essential Knowledge” part since


the first lesson is also definition of essential terms.

Essential Knowledge
To perform the aforesaid big picture (unit learning outcomes) for the

32
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6th and 7th weeks of the course, you need to fully understand the following
essential knowledgethat will be laid down in the succeeding pages. These

terms are mainly adapted from the book Understanding, Valuing, and Living
Art by Rene B. Javellana, SJ. Please note that you are not limited to
exclusively refer to these resources. Thus, you are expected to utilize other
books, research articles and other resources that are available in the
university’s library e.g. ebrary, search.proquest.cometc.

The Musical Arts


Music is the first performance arts. It is a time-bound experience. It is annotated
in a written score and not music until it is performed. It exists within the duration of the
performance.

Elements of Music
 Rhythm is the time element in music. It is made up of beats, which is the
structural rhythmic or repetitive pulse of music.
o Syncopation off-the-beat accent that is an extra beat between the
recurring beats

 Dynamics refers to the relative loudness or softness of a sound. It is


indicated by the following Italian terms that describe dynamic sound
levels:
o Pianissimo- very soft
o Mezzo piano- moderately soft
o Piano- soft
o Forte- loud
o Mezzo forte- moderately loud
o Fortissimo- very loud
 Melody is the linear presentation of pitch.
o Pitch is used to describe a musical sound as high or low.
o Modes scales used by the chants from Middle Ages
o Chromatic and whole tone scale used in the popular and art-
music of the late 19tha and 20th centuries
o Pentatonic or the five-pitched scale is followed by Oriental music
o Conjunct- smooth and flowing and thus easy to sing or play
o Disjunct- jumpy and not smooth and thus difficult to sing and play
 Harmony has to do with melodies sung together at different pitches. Also
known as singing in parts.
o Dissonance is harsh sounding and is produced by discordant
combinations of notes

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o Consonance is smooth sounding
o Modality is the harmony of the Medieval and Renaissance modes.
o Tonality is harmony focused on a “home” key while atonality
avoids such key.
 Tone color or Timbre refers to the uniqueness of sound produced by an
instrument or the human voice because of the characteristics patterns of
the overtones.

 Texture refers to the number of individual melodies and their harmony


with one another
o Monophonic is the texture if there is a single line so that one note
is sounded at any given time. There is no harmony, no
accompaniment.
o Homophonic texture has two or more lines sounded at the same
time, but one melody in the upper register dominates. Homogenous
chords support the prominent melody.
o Polyphonic texture has two or more independent melodies
sounding at the same time.
 Tempo is the speed of a beat
o Largo- slowest tempo
o Adagio- slow
o Andante- steady but lively tempo
o Moderato- moderate
o Allegro- fast tempo
o Presto- very fast
o Ritardando- gradually slowing down the tempo
o Accelerando- gradually speeding up the tempo
o Rubato is making subtle changes in tempo, freely and expressively

 Duration is a measure of how long a sound lasts it may also refer to


silence between sounds
 Meter comprises beats organized in recurring and recognizable patterns
of accent.

Principles of Composition
 Form
o Strophic Form in vocal music has the same music for different
verses of a song. Verses 1, 2 and other succeeding verses are
sung in the same way. Its form is AAA.
o Through-composed form does not repeat or return to any large-
scale musical section. Its form is ABC etc

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o Binary Form has two parts in which both main sections are
repeated and represented in the musical annotation with the
repeated mark. Its form is ABAB
o Ternary Form has three parts in which there is a return to the initial
music after a contrasting balance, giving the piece harmony and
balance. Its form is ABA.

Subject Matter and Musical Art Forms


 According to Function
o Sacred Music- chants and hymns used in religious rites
o Secular Music- usually for entertainment

 According to Singing Style


o Monophony- singing with one melody
o Polyphony- singing with more than one melody
 Folk
Folk is a term used to describe all sorts of musical, oral and cultural
traditions from specific regions and societies around the world. Folk
comes from the German word ‘volk’ meaning ‘the people’ and folk music is
often thought of as being the music belonging to ‘the people’. It has been
historically used as a reflective term to distinguish certain types of music
from those associated with institutions such as royal courts, the church, or
Western classical music. (An Introduction to Folk Music
(https://www.makingmusic.org.uk/resource/introduction-folk-music)

 Popular
Pop music is the genre of popular music that produces the
most hits. A hit is a song that sells many copies, and the latest hits
are listed every week on the charts. To get on the charts, a song
must be
released as a single, although most singles are also released on
an album. Songs that become hits almost always share certain
features that are sometimes called the pop-music formula. They

have a good rhythm, a catchy melody, and are easy to remember


and sing along to. They usually have a chorus that's repeated
several times and two or more verses. Most pop songs are
between two and five minutes long, and the lyrics are usually about
the joys and problems of love and relationships. Pop songs are
produced by groups like the boy band One Direction and the girl
group Girls' Generation, and by pop singers like Justin Bieber and
Madonna. https://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/music-pop.htm

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 Classical Music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions
of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to
1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time
from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the
Classical period and various other periods.[1] The central norms of this
tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as
the common-practice period.

 According to Manner it is played


o Quartet- with four players
o Concerto- involves an entire orchestra where one or more
instruments, usually a violin, are featured or played solo)
o Symphony- involves an orchestra with no solo parts

Philippine Musical Forms


 Instrumental
o Solo Instrumental Music refers to a solo instrument played either
by itself or accompanied by an orchestra
o Concerto is Western instrumental music for a solo instrument, or a
group of solo instruments accompanied by an orchestra.
o Sonata is a work with many movements for a solo instrument like
piano or flute.
o Symphony is a work composed for an orchestra with no single
instrument taking precedence through a solo part.
o Chamber Music is instrumental music for a small ensemble where
one performer plays one instrument rather than many players
playing similar instruments as in an orchestra.
o Marcha/Marching Music is music with simple rhythm and regular
phrasing to accompany marching groups. It is played by a brass
band and lyre band with drums. It is used to be played in town
plazas.

o Dance Music
 Kumintang
 Balse/Waltz
 Jota
 Pandanggo

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 Polka
 Rigodon

Chamber Music
https://www.gsmd.ac.uk/music/news/view/article/guild
hall_school_presents_the_2019_guildhall_chamber_
music_festival/

Solo Instrumental
https://www.superprof.com.au/profess
ional-solo-instrumental-concert-artist-
giving-basic-correct-lessons-how-
Concerto
play-the-saxophone. html
https://www.limelightmagazine.com.au/reviews/simone-lamsma-
performs-beethovens-violin-concerto-sydney-symphony-
orchestra/

Marching Music
https://www.iup.edu/music/ensembles/marching-band/

 Vocal
o Chantcame from French “chanter”, from Latin cantare, "to sing"). It
is often the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds
primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones.
o Pasyon Chantis a Philippine epic narrative of the life of Jesus
Christ focusing on his Passion, Death, and Resurrection.
 five lines of eight syllables each are in each stanza

o Song debate is an indigenous song form usually done by male and


female singers alternating to outwit each other on various topics
usually about love, courtship, and marriage. It is usually
accompanied by instruments such as guitar, ukulele, harp,
xylophone, or violin.
o
 Combination
o Art song is a form of Western solo music in which instruments and
the human voice are often interwoven.
o Ballad, usually sung by a soloist, tells the tale of an important event
in a community.

o Choral Music is a Western type music for a group of singers.


Choral groups are found in schools, churches, or corporations both
in private and public.

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o Liturgical Music refers to music connected with church services. It
is usually accompanied by an organ.
o Opera was introduced to the Philippines by Italian troupes in the
19th century
o Protest Songs and Pinoy Pop
The Dance Arts
Dance is an intentional human movement that is rhythmic and sequenced to
follow music.
Elements of Dance
 Body extends to the dress or costume a dancer is wearing and, in many
dances even the props held are extensions of the dancer’s body.
 Movement happens in a certain locale, its size, whether wide or
constrained.
 Space refers to the locale which maybe as expansive as an open field
 Time pertains to the duration of a dance performance.
Rudolf von Laban
He is a dancer, choreographer, and dance movement theoretician who created a
system to annotate movement. He invented a system of dance notation.

Subject Matter and Dance Forms


 Participatory Dances refer to the dance where there is no distinction between
performer and audience, dancer or viewer. Whoever wants to dance joins, as on
disco or social dancing.
o Ethnic Dances refer to the dances or ethnolinguistics communities of the

Philippines while Folk Dances refer to the dances of rural folk.


o Balitawis a song and dance form where a man and woman
exchange love poems extemporeanously.
o Martial Dance
 Example: Maglalatik and sakuting
o Mimetic Dances imitate movements from nature
 Example: Tinikling
 Pantomina- also known as sinalampati and is danced at
weddings
o Song Dance is a dance acted out to the accompaniment of a song
 Example: Andardiof the Tagbanua of Palawan
andLunsayin Jolo, Sulu
o Country Dance could be attempted by anyone in a ball, is
preceded by court dance.
o Court Dance often for display and entertainment and required
dancers to train and rehearse.

38
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Balitaw Maglalatik Tinikling


https://www.negroschronicle.com/art-month- https://tradionaldances.wordpress.com/2018/ http://pinoyfolkdances.blogspot.com/2015/10/tinikling.
balak-balitaw-atbp/ 09/26/ang-maglalatik/ html

 Hispanic-Influenced Dance
o Balse- similar to Viennese waltz
o Escotis- Filipino term for Scottish and suggests the origins of the dance
consisting of running steps and hops.
o Habanera- a dance in 2/4 time named after Havana, Cuba
o Jota- a dance in ¾ tempo which came from Spain
o Kuratsa- a Filipino version of Mexican curacha and is a courtship dance
o Lanceros- a quadrille in 2/4 or 6/8 or in a combination; it is a ballroom
dance created by John Duval in 1817
o Mascota- a wedding dance performed by either the bride and groom, or
pairs of guests
o Mazurka- it is in ¾ time and came from Mazur in northeast Poland in the
16th century
o Pandanggo- a dance in ¾ or 6/8 time. And is a Zapotec dance which
came from Latin America to Europe in the 17th century
o Paseo- a Spanish dance in 2/4 or ¾ time that emulates the costume of
promenading
o Paso doble- also known as Spanish one-step. It is danced in 2/4 time with
one step to a beat.
o Pateado or zapateado- a dance adapted from the Flamenco and consists
of heel-tapping
o Polka- a Bohemian folk dance on 2/4 time adapted as ballroom dance in
Europe and in the Philippines
o Rigodon de honor - a formal square dance which follows strict formations
and figures
o Surtido- refers to dances which are an amalgam of steps generic to a
region

39
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PandanggosaIlaw
Paseo de Andaluz Balse Surtido
https://danceask.com/pandanggo-philippines/
http://www.ecddancecompany.com/por https://me.me/i/balse-music-of- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4eADa
tfolio-view/paseo-de-andaluz/ lowlands-of-luzon-2- PtGS8
9d963cf4889340c0a277e871fa525aca

Paso Doble Patadeo Polka Rigodon de Honor


https://www.nsdancing.com/dances-we- https://www.kaloobdance.com/Pateado.html https://www.dancetime.com/dance- http://www.pcfitampa.org/philfest-2017-
teach/latin-dance/pasodoble/ #41 styles/polka/ entertainment-schedule/rigodon-de-honor/

Habanera Botolena Jota


https://www.pinterest.ph/pin/360921357 https://www.facebook.com/EDC.Dance/phot Kuratsa Lanceros
632275401/ os/jota-dancethe-jota-is-a-spanish-folk- https://www.kaloobdance.com/Kur https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=2008
dance-originating-in-aragonin-the-north-of- atsa.html#0 659799192627&set=pcb.200866006252593
/882781015106781/ 4

Modern Dance
 Aerobic Dance is intended as physical exercise
 Ballroom Dance refers to various dances done inside specialized ballrooms
whose center has a dance floor

40
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 Disco
 Rock and Roll
 Hip-hop

 Cheer dance is a relatively new dance form that combines dance with
gymnastics, aerobics and acrobatics and is associated with basketball
competitions
 Street dance is almost obligatory feature of Philippine fiestas
o Examples: Ati-atihan, Sinulog, Panagbenga

Ballroom Dance Ati-atihan Street Dancing

http://www.ballroomguide.com/ http://www.lapiratravelandtours.com/2016/12/
ati-atihan-festival-2017-kalibo-aklan.html

Theatrical Dances are those with dancers who are professionals who dance on stage
or a dance floor while the audience watches.
 Ballet is the quintessential theatrical dance brought to the Philippines in the early
20th century.
 Flamenco is a Spanish dance with quick and fiery steps danced with castanets
and guitar; while being a theatrical dance, it has gained popularity as aerobic
dance, and is therefore participatory.
 Tango is a dance from Latin America and popular as a ballroom
 Variety Show refer to dances performed on stage and TV variety shows
 Bodabil was a variety show which had dance numbers in it that introduced
populare dances in the us
 Jazz originated from African-American and Caribbean dances
 Tap Dance is a theatrical dance where dancers tap their toes and heels using
special shoes

41
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Self-Help: You can also refer to the sources below to help you further
understand the lesson:

 Folk Music https://www.makingmusic.org.uk/resource/introduction-folk-music


 The Evolution of Popular Music
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.150081
 Popular Music Genres https://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/music-popular.htm
 Participatory Dance http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Participation_dance

 Modern Dance, History and Popularization


https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/modern_dance
 Modern Vs. Contemporary Dance by Victoria Looseleaf
https://www.dancemagazine.com/modern_vs_contemporary-2306900829.html
 Characteristics of Modern Dance by Treva Bedinghaushttps://www.liveabout.com/what-
is-modern-dance-1007279
 Understanding the Different Types of Theatrical Dances
https://houstondancetheatre.org/dance-101-understanding-the-different-types-of-
theatrical-dance/
 Philippine Theatrical Dance Forms
https://ncca.gov.ph/about-ncca-3/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-
sca/dance/philippine-theatrical-dance-forms/

Let’s Check

Activity1.Nowthatyouknowthemostessentialtermsinthestudyof Musical and


Dance Arts, let us try to check your understanding of these terms. Encircle
the letter of the correct answer.

1. Which of the following isa Spanish dance with quick and fiery steps danced with
castanets and guitar; while being a theatrical dance, it has gained popularity as
aerobic dance, and is therefore participatory.
a) Flamenco c) Bodabil
b) Tango d) Jazz

2. It refers to dances performed on stage and TV variety shows


a) Participatory Dance c) Variety Dance
b) Theatrical Dance d) Court Dance
3. What do you call the theatrical dance where dancers tap their toes and heels
using special shoes?
a) Aerobic Dance
b) Ballet

42
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c) Ballroom Dance
d) Tap Dance

4. Relatively, it is a new dance form that combines dance with gymnastics, aerobics
and acrobatics and is associated with basketball competitions.
a) Street dance c) Salsa
b) Cheerdance d) Balsa

5. Which of the following is a song and dance form where a man and woman
exchange love poems extemporeanously.
a) Balitaw c) Mimetic Dances
b) Martial Dance d) Song Dance

6. It pertains to a song usually sung by a soloist, tells the tale of an important event
in a community.
a) Country Dance c) Art song
b) Court Dance d) Ballad
7. Which of these Musical Forms refers to music connected with church services. It
is usually accompanied by an organ
a) Choral Music c) Opera
b) Liturgical Music d) Protest Songs

8. It is a work composed for an orchestra with no single instrument taking


precedence through a solo part.
a. Solo Instrumental Music c. Sonata
b. Concerto d. Symphony

9. Which of the following is the time element ofmusic made up of beats?


a. Dynamics c. Pitch
b. Melody d. Rhythm

10. Harmony has to do with melodies sung together at different pitches. Which of the
following is the harmony of the Medieval and Renaissance modes?
a. Dissonance c. Modality
b. Consonance d. Tonality

Let’s Analyze

Activity 1. Getting acquainted with the essential terms in the study of


Musical and Dance Arts is not enough, what also matters is you should also
be able to explain its inter-relationships. Now, I will require you to explain
thoroughly your answers.

43
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1. What do you think are the factors why dances and musical forms are
brought to or adapted from different cultures?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. Aside from entertainment, what are the other functions of dances and
music to the society?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. How can dance and music bring about societal change?


__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

In a Nutshell

Activity 1. The study of Musical and Dance Arts is very important for
an individual to appreciate and value his or her culture and its background.

Based from the definition of the most essential terms in the study of Musical
and Dance Artsand the learning
exercisesthatyouhavedone,pleasefeelfreetowriteyourargumentsorlessonslea
rnedbelow. I have indicated my arguments or lessonslearned.

3. Music started with the human’s discovery of sounds until eventually,


they discovered and invented different musical instruments to
accompany their singing.
4. Dance is one of the earliest forms of arts where humans use they
body to worship their deity.

Your Turn

3.

44
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4.

5.

Big Picture

Week 8-9: Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO): At the end of the unit, you are
expected to demonstrate deep knowledge and comprehension on the history of
humanities and concepts involved and most especially in drama, and cinema
topics.

Big Picture in Focus: ULOd. Theatrical and Cinematic Arts

Metalanguage

In this section, the most essential terms relevant to Theatrical and


Cinematic Arts and to demonstrate ULOdwill be operationally defined to
establish a common frame of refence. You will encounter these terms
aswegothroughthestudyofArts.Pleaserefertothesedefinitionsincaseyouwill
encounter difficulty in the understanding concepts in arts.

45
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Please proceed immediately to the “Essential Knowledge” part since


the first lesson is also definition of essential terms.

Essential Knowledge

To perform the aforesaid big picture (unit learning outcomes) for the
8th and 9th weeks of the course, you need to fully understand the following
essential knowledgethat will be laid down in the succeeding pages. These
terms are mainly adapted from the book Understanding, Valuing, and Living
Art by Rene B. Javellana, SJ. Please note that you are not limited to
exclusively refer to these resources. Thus, you are expected to utilize other
books, research articles and other resources that are available in the
university’s library e.g. ebrary, search.proquest.cometc.

The Theatrical Arts


Theater Arts is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to
present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific
place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through
combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance.

Elements of Theater Arts


Literary Elements
 Plot refers to the action in the theatrical piece. It can be called a story line.
o Preliminary Event
o Initial Incident
o Rising Action
o Climax
o Falling Action
o Denouement
 Theme refers to the meaning, subject matter or content of the play.
 Characters are the people created by the author who move the play forward.
They are brought to life by actors.
 Dialogue refers to what the characters say on stage. An actor can also use
action to move the play forward.
 Music often accompanies a theatrical production.

46
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o Rhythm refers to how the actors speak, whether fast or slow, smoothly or
hesitatingly.

Performance Elements
 Direction is the task of the director which is central to all productions. It sends a
play in a creative direction, which the scriptwriter or author may not have
conceived before.
 Character Creation. Actors under the director create characters; they interpret
the characters. Both director and actors discuss the play and then analyze the
character. It involves the knowledge of the actor towards the personality of the
character and he/she enters it.
 Vocal Expression refers to the nuances of delivering lines that express a
character.
 Action or nonverbal expression encompasses how an actor uses the body
o Example: Blocking, gestures and facial expressions
 Technical Elements
o Scenery and Props. Scenery creates the site of the dramatic action.
Props are moveable pieces in the scenery.
o Costume and Make Up refer to what the actors wear and use to define
the character.
o Style refers to the total visual look of the production
o Sound plays a principal and supportive element because it enhances the
production through setting the mood for a scene.

Principles of Composition
 Coherence is achieved when every part of a script links with other parts. All
parts can be placed within a story line.
 Emphasis is made when some elements of the play stand out above others. It is
also seen in highlighting some characters over others.
 Exposition is influenced by convention, type and audience.
o Convention refers to a set ways of doing things, developing characters
etc.
Subject Matter
o Tragedy is about a hero who meets disaster because of a flaw.
o Comedy refers to a light and humorous tale that ends happily.
o Melodrama Convention has qualities of both tragedy and comedy but
has a light theme, usually about love lost and regaines.
Basic Plots
 Overcoming the Monster
o Example: Star Wars, Ang Panday
 Rags to Riches Example: Cinderella
 The Quest

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o Example: IbongAdarna
 Voyage and Return
o Example: Odyssey
 Rebirth

Pastores
http://www.news-bulletin.com/news/features/los-pastores-script-and-music-to-be-
archived-at-unm-performance-to-be-held-at/article_30cdc588-bcb4-11e6-b1f5-
Philippine Theater Forms 17fca343b82d.html

 Ethnic Rituals refer to the many and varied rituals of the Philippine cultural
communities living mostly in the mountainous interior of the islands.
o Catholic Based on Liturgical Year
 Christmas
 Panunuluyan- reenacts the search of Mary and Joseph for
a place to stay in Bethlehem so that Jesus could be born
 Tatlong Hari- celebrated on the feast of the Epiphany,
dramatizes the visit of the magi to the child Jesus.
 Pastores- mostly a dance, is named after the shepherds
who visit the child Jesus in the manger because they heard
the angels announcing his birth.

Panunuluyan
https://www.facebook.com/sta.teresitadelninohesusd
esumapangbata/photos/p-a-n-u-n-u-l-u-y-a-nang-
panunuluyan-ay-tradisyonal-na-dula-sa-bisperas-ng- Tatlong Hari
pasko/1772539962858246/ https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fs3.thingpic.co
m%2Fimages%2Fvn%2FyAd65omqUkpdRYjnBCDBfsYv.jpeg&imgrefurl
=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thinglink.com%2Fscene%2F70642571542737
7154&tbnid=lbS5veb_nttVLM&vet=12ahUKEwiMuoKFuc7pAhVpy4sBHc
ddDd0QMygQegUIARCFAg..i&docid=PW1DtZ0gjDxuxM&w=290&h=218
&q=Panunuluyan&ved=2ahUKEwiMuoKFuc7pAhVpy4sBHcddDd0QMyg
 Lent/Holy Week QegUIARCFAg

 Osana- recalls the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusale,


 HulingHapunan- is held in the house of a sponsor family

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where a priest and twelve men dressed as apostles dine
together.
 Paghuhugas ng Paa- is a reenactment of the washing of
the disciples’ feet done by Jesus before the last Supper.
 Siete Palabras- Seven Last Words is a three-hour sermon
on the last words of Jesus as he hung on the cross.
Traditionally, at the end of the sermon, a crucifix with a body
of Jesus is brought down from the cross and placed on a
bier dresses as the dead Christ which is then brought in
procession outside the church.
 Senakulo- is a stage or street play about the life and
Passion of Jesus that takes place in many communities,
especially in Bulacan, Rizal and Pampanga provinces.1 An
outdoor Senakulo often parades a figure of Jesus carrying
the Cross through the streets, and emphasizes the violence
and brutality of Jesus’ persecutors.
 Hudasdramatizes the despairing Judas who hangs himself
 Soledad a procession done where the image of the
sorrowful virgin Mary dressed in black winds through the
streets on Good Friday night.
 Via Crusisis a devotion consisting of walking from one
image or station to another depicting 14 scenes from the
story of Jesus’ passion and death then stopping and praying
before each image,
 Moriones– a type of sinakulo of Marinduque

HulingHapunan
Senakulo https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fi.ytimg.com%2Fvi%2F
https://philnews.ph/2019/04/17/senakulo-passion-play- 9k2SPZJeERk%2Fmaxresdefault.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.
philippines-origin-history/ com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D9k2SPZJeERk&tbnid=SmIFRn3qDtQ9GM&vet=12ahUK
Ewj48YO3u87pAhVOXpQKHWUqCgMQMygCegUIARDZAQ..i&docid=vdMlKc_jv
_vp4M&w=1280&h=720&q=Huling%20hapunan%20play&ved=2ahUKEwj48YO3u
87pAhVOXpQKHWUqCgMQMygCegUIARDZAQ

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 Easter
 Salubongrecalls the meeting of Jesus and Mary in the first
Easter.

 Fiesta
 Flores de Mayo is a ritual consisting of prayers and floral
offerings to the virgin Mary. It is complemented by the
costumed procession Santacruzan where participants
personify the virtues of virgin Mary.
 Pangaluluwa literally means for the souls. It is performed
late night on the vigil of All Saints’ Day, impersonating souls
Flores de Mayo
in purgatory, men and women beg for alms so that masses
https://news.abs-cbn.com/life/05/02/19/tingnan- can be celebrated for them.
manila-hotel-ibinalik-ang-tradisyon-ng-flores-de-
mayo

 Theatrical Forms
o Drama- generic name for plays
 Dramatic Monologue- a modern type of play where ine actor
speaks and acts out thoughts and innermost feelings
 Realism
o Comedy
 Komedta
 Moros y christianos
o Short Films
 Mimetic dances- portray movements of plants, animals and
humans. Example: Itik-itik which imitates the movement of ducks
 Mimetic Games- are word games usually played to pass the time
away (during a wake). Example: Bulaklakan in Pampanga
 Mimetic Joust- is a debate usually accompanied by stylized
gestures
 Saynete- a short play performed as an intermission or an interlude
in a longer play

o Puppet Theater- common in Southeast Asia


 Shadow Theater
 Example: Carillo, WayangGolek (Indonesia)
o Musical Theater- refers to plays where music is integral
 Broadway- refers to American type musicals that have been
introduced to the Philippines through movies
 Opera- traces back to Renaissance and baroque Europe. Wjen
masters like Carlo Monteverde and Wolfganag Amadeus Mozart
composed operas. Operas were performed in the Philippines in the
19th century by visiting Italian troupes.
 Sarswela- a type of play that combines music and spoken lines

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o Other Forms
 Absurd refers to a type of theater influenced by the playwrights
Ionesco, beckett, and Genet. It presents ideas through stylized
characters that represent character types rather than individuals. It
exaggerates situations to drive a point.
 Brechtian theater is influenced by the ideal of German playwright
and director Bertolt Brecht. It uses form of theater like mime, music
and dance.
 Dula-Tula- became popular in the 1970s and 1980s and was used
as vehicle for political messages
 Political Theater refer to plays with political agenda and aims to
change, reform and improve existing institutions and systems of
government
 Example: TanikalangGinto by Juan Abad (1906) is an
allegorical play also known as DramatikoSimboliko
 Street Theater using streets as dramatic space.

The Cinematic Art


Cinema Art is a merging of many disciplines and crafts to create a powerful
emotional experience.
Elements of Film
 Literary Element includes the concept or ideas about the film, which then lead to
the development of the scripts
o Scripts include character sketches, descriptions of location of the story
plus additional background material. maybe an original work written for a
movie, an adaptation from a literary piece, or a remake of an older film.
o Storyline is a short narrative of what the film is about.

 Visual Element covers what is visible on screen or inside the frame of a film.
o Sets, props, costumes, prosthetics, make up, lighting, facial
expression, mannerism, and movement or performance
 Cinematography involves the use of camera- how it is placed; the angle in
relation to the subject, whether high or low or at eye level of the subject, near or
far, how the camera moves and the lens chosen for filming.
 Sound Element covers all the sound component in a film- music, sound effects,
ambient noises, and dialogue.

Composition
 Editing has to do with how shots in the film are sequenced.
 Sound editing involves the balancing of sound recorded live on the set, refining

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the sound, ad working with sound effects and music.
o Audio Bed refers to music that runs through a production to help establish
timing.

Film Grammar
 Single still image. Just as language begins with a single letter, so does film with
a single still image. By itself, the still image may have little or unclear meaning as
the image can be led to multiple possibilities.
 Shot is a single, continuous recording.
 Scene is a series of related shots and are separated by transitions.
 Sequence is a series of scenes that portray a major portion of the whole story.

Subject Matter and Film Forms


 Feature Films
o Drama films focus on conflicts, usually involving personal, familial, or
social problems. These films evoke emotions and sympathy for the
beleaguered protagonist and often lead the audience to tears,
o Telenovelas can be melodramatic, that is overly emotional where the
reactions of the actors and actresses are not commensurate to the cause,
and likewise the reaction of fans.
o Comedy aims to make the audience laugh.
 Slapstick Comedy depend on gags and the quirks of the
characters to elicit laughter
 Romantic Comedy is a love story with moments of laughter,
melodrama, music, song, and dance sequences.
o Action are films filled with fight scenes usually hand to hand.
o Fantasy happens in an imaginary world, in the past or future. Example:
Darna, Dyesebel.
o Historical films are based on historical events and real people. Example:
Heneral Luna (2015)
 Biopic is a type of historical movie which traces the life of a person
or a significant period in that person’s life. Example: Ignacio de
Loyola: Soldier, Sinner, Saint (2016)
o Period Movies refer to films, historical or fictional, whose setting is usually
in the past. Setting, costumes, props, and manners of a bygone era are
recreated.
o Epic is a movie type associated with historical narratives which employs
large sets, elaborate costumes and a cast of thousands or an apparent
thousand generated through CGI (Computer Generated Imagery)
o Horror seeks to evoke fear and terror in the viewer. It is a movie about
vampire, ghosts, elves, monsters, and the preternatural creatures of

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Philippine mythology.
o Musical Films feature romantic comedy with song and dance numbers.
Example: Ang Larawan (2017)
o Animation movies are made with illustrations or inanimate objects
brought to life using animation techniques.
o Bomba films depict nudity and sez, and has been castigated as soft porn.

o Alternative or Indie and Experimental Films break through conventional


barriers, types, stories, and techniques of movie making.
 Documentary Films use shots taken from actual life. Experts or interviewees
may appear on screen. To perk up the docu, re-enactments are made using
actors pr possibly the people themselves involved in the event.

Technical Considerations
Fil Technology has moved from analog to digital technology in its century-and-
a-quarter history.
 Analog technology in films refers to physical film strips of light-sensitive
celluloid that are developed chemically and then edited by the cut-and paste
method which literally involves cutting the film strip and sticking it to another strip
to an adhesice. This method is also called splicing.
 Asset Management
o Asset refer to video and audio content.
o Asset Management hardware and software assist in storing, organizing,
tracking, and maximizing the value of media assets.
 Audio recording, editing and mixing
o Hardware and software devices for these needs store sounds, manage
them, edit them for a project, and ensure that the sounds that will be used
for the final cut are well-balanced, with extraneous noise removed and
poor recording improved.
 Enhancement can involve correcting audio and video. It also involves special
video and sound effects.
 Broadcasting. The digital world has improved the possibility of broadcasting or
disseminating film. It can be distributed through cinema, television, recording
devices and the internet.
 Quality assurance software verifies captioning, video descriptions, and
languages

Videomaking and Filmmaking


 Lighting- natural or artificial- is an essential element in filmmaking. Various
techniques in lighting are applied to create an effect or atmosphere. The play of
light and shadow creates emphasis, rhythm, pattern, volume and evokes moods

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and feelings.
 Cameras, whether analog or digital, are used to record a film.
 Analog camera refers to a camera that uses a film strip to record an image. This
strip is light-sensitive and captures an image which appears once the strip is
developed using a chemical bath.
 Digital Camera uses CCD (charge coupled device), an integrated circuit in a
silicon matrix where light-sensitive elements called pixels generate a charge from
photons or participles.
 Lens Aperture controls the amount of light that is recorded digitally. The
aperture is increased or decreased by a device called the diaphragm.

Language of the Camera


 Camera angles refers to how an image is composed and the point of view from
which a shot is taken.
o Eye level shots refer to those taken at the eye-level of the
cinematographer directing the shot.
o High angle shots are taken from a point view above the subject being
taken.
o Low angle shots show a scene taken below eye level.
o Birds’-eye-view shots are taken from an extremely high angle.
o Dutch tilt or Dutch angle is a camera shot where the angle is tilted
extremely to one side. The angle evokes unease, disorientation, insanity,
insanity, drunkenness and the like.

Camera Movements
 Panning- refers to how the camera moves; involves to moving the camera
sideways from left to right or vice versa.
 Zoom makes an image appear nearer or farther from the camera.
 Tracking involves following the subject being filmed. This is done by mounting
the camera on a platform that runs on a rail or by mountain it on a vehicle.
Rules of Framing
 Rule of Thirds is a concept in video and film where a frame is divided into nine
imaginary sections, creating reference points that guide in framing an image.

Filmmaking Phases
 Preproduction is the preparation phrase.
 Production is the actual production
 Postproduction involves editing both the video and the audio content of the film.

The Filmmaking Team


 Producer- the person (or institution) responsible for getting the project started.
The producer is often the financier of the film but may also invite and organize

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other parties to finance the film project.
 Marketing is responsible for advertising and promoting the film to assure it an
audience. Marketing sells the film and helps the producer recoup costs.
 Creatives. Under the creatives are personnel who ensure that the film is done
and completed on time, with little loss of time, and within the project budget.
Creatives report to the executive producer.
 Executive Producer represents the producer and oversees the production of the
film. He/she protects the investment of the producer.
 Director. The main creative person who manages the work of the scriptwriter,
actors and actresses, and the technical crew. He/She also approves the design
of the film and the works with the audio and video editors for the final look of the
film.
 Cinematographer is responsible for creating the look that a director wants.

 Scriptwriter is responsible for writing the script, which is the guideline for making
making the film.
 Best Boy is the Hollywood term for the person in charge of lighting and grip.
o Gaffer is the head electrician.
 Crew (Costume, props, make up and special effects) are in charge of making
sure that the actors sure that the actors and the sets are ready for the shoot.
 Production assistants are all-around, on hang assistants who help the
creatives, the actors and the crew.
 Actors, actresses and extras are the people before the camera- they appear on
screen.

Professional Practice
Curatorship is the process of planning, designing, and displaying art. The
person in charge of the process is called curator.

10 Steps to Curating An Exhibition


1. Choosing
2. Researching
3. Selecting
4. Writing
5. Mounting
6. Designing
7. Marketing
8. Installing
9. Launching
10. Assessing

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Sotheby’s Follows Ten (10) Criteria for Establishing the Financial Value of an
Artwork
1. Authenticity
2. Physical state or condition
3. Rarity or scarcity
4. Provenance
5. Historical Importance
6. Size
7. Fashion
8. Subject Matter
9. Hierarchy of Materials
10. Quality

What Can You Do With an Art Degree?


 Professional artist
 Illustrator
 Photographer
 Animator
 Graphic designer
 Curator
 Printmaker
 Art teacher/university lecturer

Self-Help: You can also refer to the sources below to help you further
understand the lesson:

 Art of Cinema byBruce Block


https://lucasmuseum.org/collection/art-of-cinema
 10 Steps to Curating An Exhibition
https://medium.com/@politicscurator/10-steps-to-curating-an-exhibition-
cad585da471b
 The Advantages of Buying Art at Auction
https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-specialist-advantages-buying-art-auction
 Sotheby’s Follows Ten (10) Criteria for Establishing the Financial Value of
an Artwork
https://www.sothebys.com/en/series/the-value-of-art
 Crimes against Art: Forgery, Theft & Repatriation Issues: Introduction
https://guides.lib.ku.edu/artcrimes
 12 Important Art Prizes Given by Foundations and Biennials
https://www.widewalls.ch/art-prizes-foundations-biennials/

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https://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/what-can-you-do-art-
degree
 Careers in Art: Working as an Artist in the new Millennium
https://www.accreditedschoolsonline.org/art-schools/careers/

Let’s Check

Activity1.Nowthatyouknowthemostessentialtermsinthestudyof Theater and


Cinematic arts, let us try to check your understanding of these terms. In the
space provided, write the term/s being asked in the following statements.

__________ 1. It refers to the action in the theatrical piece. It can be called a story line.
__________ 2. This pertains to the meaning, subject matter or content of the play.
__________ 3. These are the people created by the author who move the play forward.
They are brought to life by actors.
__________ 4. It refers to what the characters say on stage.

__________ 5. It is the task of the director which is central to all productions. It sends a
play in a creative direction, which the scriptwriter or author may not have conceived
before.
__________ 6. This refers to the nuances of delivering lines that express a character.
__________ 7. It is a principle of theatric compositionthat is achieved when every part
of a script links with other parts. All parts can be placed within a story line.
__________8. It is a principle of theatric compositionEmphasis is made when some
elements of the play stand out above others. It is also seen in highlighting some
characters over others.
__________9. It is a principle of theatric composition is influenced by convention, type
and audience.
__________ 10. It is celebrated on the feast of the Epiphany and dramatizes the visit of
the magi to the child Jesus.
__________ 11. This is an element of film that includes the concept or ideas about the
film, which then lead to the development of the scripts
__________ 12. This is another element of film that involves the use of camera- how it
is placed; the angle in relation to the subject, whether high or low or at eye level of the
subject, near or far, how the camera moves and the lens chosen for filming.
__________ 13. It is an element of film that covers what is visible on screen or inside
the frame of a film.
__________ 14. It is an element of film that covers all the sound component in a film-
music, sound effects, ambient noises, and dialogue.
__________ 15. These films are based on historical events and real people.
__________ 16. This type of film seeks to evoke fear and terror in the viewer. It is a
movie about vampire, ghosts, elves, monsters, and the preternatural creatures of

57
DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES EDUCATION
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Philippine mythology.
__________ 17.It refers to physical film strips of light-sensitive celluloid that are
developed chemically and then edited by the cut-and paste method which literally
involves cutting the film strip and sticking it to another strip to an adhesive.
__________ 18. This refers to how the camera moves; involves to moving the camera
sideways from left to right or vice versa.
__________ 19.In the film making team, he/she is responsible for advertising and
promoting the film to assure it an audience.
__________ 20. It is the process of planning, designing, and displaying art.

Let’s Analyze

Activity 1. Getting acquainted with the essential terms in the study of


curriculum is not enough, what also matters is you should also be able to
explain its inter-relationships. Now, I will require you to explain thoroughly
your answers.

1. How did theater and film bring about change in the mode of entertainment of the
ancient society?
-
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2. What do you think makes a film a blockbuster? Why?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

3. Ang Huling El Bimbo was a hit musical theater performed by Filipino artists in
Resorts World Manila and is one of the modern theatrical piece that mirrors the
societal issues in the country.How do you think would an artistic performance like
this would impact its audience?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

In a Nutshell

Activity 1. The study of Theatrical, Cinematic and Curatorship Arts is


indeed essential for every individual to value since they are the emerging
arts in our century.

Based from the definition of the most essential terms in the study of
Theatrical, Cinematic and Curatorship Arts and the learning
exercisesthatyouhavedone,pleasefeelfreetowriteyourargumentsorlessonslea
rnedbelow. I have indicated my arguments or lessonslearned.

1. Theatrical and Cinematic Arts are closely related. The difference is


when and where they are performed or showed.
2. Curatorship is one of the ways to preserve, promote and protect
artworks.

Your Turn

3.

4.

5.

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