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DIPLOMACIA 360

   
 
21/12/2016
LÍNGUA  INGLESA

ANSWERS KEYS for exercises WEEKS 08, 09 & 10

ANSWER KEYS for translations WEEKS 07 & 08

GLOSSARY for week 10

WEEK 08: AULA PRINCIPAL

1. Mr Trump is indeed unpredictable. Since the election he has signalled a contempt for climate science by appointing a
climate-change denier, Myron Ebell, to plan his takeover of the EPA, through which Mr Obama, in the absence of
congressional support for environmental law-making, has issued much new green regulation. In the New York Times
interview, however, Mr Trump suggested that he accepted the reality of anthropogenic warming and might not seek to
withdraw from the Paris accord. He has now taken just about every position on climate change imaginable. As well as calling
it a hoax—by the Chinese, with the aim of harming American manufacturing—he has said the world is warming but humans
have nothing to do with it, that human activity plays a “minor” role in warming, donated money to a group lobbying for action to
avert climate change and, in 2009, signed a public letter calling for cuts to America’s emissions, thereby creating “new energy
jobs”. [The Economist, 26/11/2016]

2. “Not just leadership and motivation would be in shorter supply, but also money for green schemes. By 2020, $100bn a year
is supposed to be available, most of it for cutting greenhouse-gas emissions and the rest for helping countries to adapt to
climate change. Rich countries are supposed to pay almost all of it; the rest of them may balk if America fails to do its bit.”
[The Economist, 26/11/2016]

3. “But some think large transfers from rich countries to poor ones are in any case becoming less important to international
environmental efforts. Droughts, heatwaves and other extreme events are already more likely because of global warming, and
the link between climate change and such disasters is becoming more widely accepted. Negotiations about paying for
mitigation and adaptation efforts used to resemble talks between hostage-takers and those trying to free them, says Hal
Harvey, an energy consultant: poor countries would demand money from rich ones in return for not exploiting their own
ecosystems.” [The Economist, 26/11/2016]

4. “Some perspective is in order. Comparisons with the 1930s are fatuous. Totalitarian nationalism is extinct except in North
Korea, where the ruling family preaches a weird mixture of Marxism and racial purity, enforced with slave-labour camps for
dissidents. And perhaps you could add Eritrea, a hideous but tiny dictatorship. Nonetheless, it is clear that an exclusive, often
ethnically based, form of nationalism is on the march. In rich democracies, it is a potent vote-winner. In autocracies, rulers
espouse it to distract people from their lack of freedom and, sometimes, food. The question is: where is it surging, and why?
[The Economist, 19/11/2016]

5. “Britain’s vote in June to leave the EU was also the result of a nationalist turn. Campaign posters for “Brexit” depicted
hordes of Middle Eastern migrants clamouring to come in. Activists railed against bankers, migrants and rootless experts; one
of their slogans was “We want our country back”. After the vote David Cameron, a cosmopolitan prime minister, resigned and
was replaced by Theresa May, who says: ‘If you believe you’re a citizen of the world, you’re a citizen of nowhere. You don’t
understand what the very word ‘citizenship’ means.’” [The Economist, 19/11/2016]

6. “It is troubling, then, how many countries are shifting from the universal, civic nationalism towards the blood-and-soil, ethnic
sort. As positive patriotism warps into negative nationalism, solidarity is mutating into distrust of minorities, who are present in
growing numbers (see chart 1). A benign love of one’s country—the spirit that impels Americans to salute the Stars and
Stripes, Nigerians to cheer the Super Eagles and Britons to buy Duchess of Cambridge teacups—is being replaced by an
urge to look on the world with mistrust.” [The Economist, 19/11/2016]

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
7. “As politicians pore over the disarray in Seattle, they might look to citizens' groups for advice. The non-governmental
organisations (NGOs) that descended on Seattle were a model of everything the trade negotiators were not. They were well
organised. They built unusual coalitions (environmentalists and labour groups, for instance, bridged old gulfs to jeer the WTO
together). They had a clear agenda—to derail the talks. And they were masterly users of the media.” [The Economist,
09/12/1999]

8. “Over the past decade, NGOs and their memberships have grown hugely. Although organisations like these have existed
for generations (in the early 1800s, the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society played a powerful part in abolishing slavery
laws), the social and economic shifts of this decade have given them new life. The end of communism, the spread of
democracy in poor countries, technological change and economic integration—globalisation, in short—have created fertile soil
for the rise of NGOs. Globalisation itself has exacerbated a host of worries: over the environment, labour rights, human rights,
consumer rights and so on. Democratisation and technological progress have revolutionised the way in which citizens can
unite to express their disquiet.” [The Economist, 09/12/1999]

9. “In 2009 efforts to revive the Doha round at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) will fail. The European Union—the
foremost champion of international governance—will be unable to revive its moribund Lisbon treaty. The Nuclear Non-
Proliferation Treaty will come under further pressure. The International Criminal Court will fail to make progress with its most
high-profile prosecutions. The United Nations will continue to lose prestige, as it suffers from the combination of a weak
secretary-general and a deadlocked Security Council. And to round the year off, the attempt to achieve a global climate-
change agreement will fail at a mega-summit in Copenhagen.” [The Economist, 19/11/2008]

10. “The most glaring source of global scepticism towards American affection for international law can be summed up in one
word: Iraq. America's 2003 decision to invade Iraq without any clear authorisation from the UN Security Council is a black
mark, not least because the war's legacy remains so fraught. At the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague in March, Mr
Obama called Russia's annexation of Crimea a threat to the global order; when he tried to contrast Russian behaviour to that
of America in Iraq, I noticed an audible groan run through the room. The differences between Iraq and Crimea are real
enough, but America simply lacks the credibility to make this case.” [The Economist, 23/05/2014]

PART II. READING COMPREHENSION

13.
A. R B. W C. W D. W

14.
A. R B. R C. W D. R

15.
A. W B. W C. R D. W

16.
A. R B. R C. R D. W

17.
A

18.
C

19.
A. R B. W C. W D. R

20.

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
A. R B. R C. W D. R

21.
A. R B. W C. R D. R

WEEK 08: AULA COMPLEMENTAR

1) B
2) A
3) C
4) B
5) C
6) B
7) C
8) C
9) C
10) A
11) C
12) A
13) B
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) A
18) AS A CONSEQUENCE
19) IN ORDER TO
20) DUE TO
21) ON ACCOUNT OF
22) AS A RESULT OF
23) When the Leave campaign talks of scrapping rules, they may well mean regulations that protect workers; something they
don’t mention for fear of alienating their working-class support.
24) In fact, so strong was the culture that the two men even put together an internally published list of things that should not
change when Mr. Brabeck took the reins.
25) Reformists in China have long argued that the party should be more open about what happened in order that lessons be
learned from the near civil war it led to.
26) Economic growth will remain relatively weak owing to policy and political uncertainties as well as an adverse external
context.
27) An obvious way [...] bust. In order not to stifle legitimate restructuring, plans can be submitted to the regulator for
clearance.

WEEK 09: AULA PRINCIPAL

1. STRONGLY
2. GRIM
3. STEADY
4. GREAT
5. READY
6. MAKE

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
7. PUT OFF
8. ENTIRELY
9. BROKE OUT
10. ACCEPTED
11. OPINION
12. WITHSTAND
13. DREW UP
14. DIED DOWN
15. IDLE
16. MOUNTING
17. STAGED or WENT ON
18. GRASPED
19. RE-AWAKENED
20. “Do not expect Iran’s DISMAL record on human rights to improve”. [The Economist, 05/03/2016]
21. RUSHED

PART III. READING COMPREHENSION

24. A. R B. W C. W D. R
25. A
26. A. W B. R C. R D. R
27. A. R B. W C. R D. R
28. A. R B. W C. R D. R
29. A. R B. W C. W D. W

WEEK 09: AULA COMPLEMENTAR

1) D
2) A
3) B
4) A
5) B
6) B
7) A
8) A
9) B
10) A
11) A
12) D
13) A
14) C
15) A [STATIONARY/REBUILDING]
16) A
17) B
18) B
19) A
20) B
21) B

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
22) B
23) B
24) C [CEREMONIOUS/OF BRIDGING]

WEEK 10: AULA PRINCIPAL

1. HOTLY
2. WHOLEHEARTEDLY
3. STRICTLY
4. VIVIDLY
5. ACCURATELY
6. DELIBERATELY
7. METICULOUSLY
8. VERBATIM
9. CONTENTIOUS
10. IMPARTIAL
11. BLURRED
12. AS
13. INCULCATED
14. IMBUED
15. UNDER
16. SEEK/FIND/GAIN
17. UNDERWENT
18. PROMINENTLY
19. IN
20. WATERED DOWN

PART II.
23. A. W B. W C. R D. R
24. A. R B. W C. W D. W
25. A. W (“THE SHOW”) B. R C. W (“THIS OPPOSITION”) D. ANULADA (MAIS DE UM PRONOME “IT”)
26. A. R B. R C. W D. R
27. A. R B. R C. W D. W
28. A. R B. W C. R D. R

WEEK 10: AULA COMPLEMENTAR

1. B
2. A
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. A&C
7. A
8. B
9. C
10. B

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
11. A
12. A
13. The discussion of new asylum and refugee policies resulted in Switzerland’s having a rise in religious coercion of the
Muslim minorities.
14. Widespread religious persecution and increasingly violent anti-Jewish riots in 14th and 15th century Spain resulted in
Spanish Jews’ losing the freedom to practice their faith.
15. The dramatic expansion of Charismatic churches and new forms of Pentecostalism over the global South is based on
priests and pastors’ having invested time in developing inclusive answers to the dilemmas of ordinary men and
women.
16. Pope Francis has realized that, at the era of social media, a pope’s actions are responsible for the Catholic Church’s
losing or winning popularity.
17. Apart from the political service the text renders, Hamid Dabashi criticizes the cover of the book for the ‘iconic
burglary’ it performs. The cover of the book shows two young veiled women (...)
18. (...) For instance, FDR’s policies, including the famous New Deal (...)
19. (...) the board of the National Association of Evangelicals, an umbrela organization (...)
20. One has to reach the top of the Wangbur mountain (...)

TRADUÇÃO SEMANA 07 – GABARITO-MESTRE

21. Focas da destruição/do juízo final


Tuberculose foi primeiramente trazida à América por pinípedes

Uma hipótese sobre a origem da tuberculose do Novo Mundo é que os primeiros americanos trouxeram realmente
uma versão da doença com eles, mas que a cepa*/estirpe/variedade era tão branda que foi posteriormente
suplantada pela forma virulenta endêmica na Europa. Os doutores Stone e Krause rapidamente desacreditaram
essa ideia. Suas amostras guardam pouca semelhança com outras cepas/estirpes/variedades humanas. Eles têm,
no entanto, 76 mutações que correspondem àquelas encontradas em uma forma de tuberculose que
infecta/contamina* focas e leões marinhos. Isto encaixa bem com a constatação de que a maioria das provas/dos
indícios de tuberculose na América pré-Colombiana parecem, como estes três esqueletos, vir das costas do Peru
e do norte do Chile, onde focas são abundantes/existem em grandes quantidades e eram caçadas pelos nativos.
Onde as próprias focas contraíram/”pegaram”/”apanharam”** tuberculose ainda não foi determinado. A
cepa/estirpe desses animais se assemelha a uma encontrada em camundongos/ratos, e infecção cruzada direta
entre roedores avessos à água e pinípedes aquáticos parece improvável. Mas não, talvez, impossível. Focas
sofrem muito de outra infecção terrestre que veio de outra espécie/outra infecção terrestre de transmissão inter-
espécies: a cinomose canina. Realmente, os caminhos das doenças são intrincados/complicados.

*melhor tradução
**opções mais coloquiais

22. Então este é um golpe de sorte em vias de formação para fabricantes de vacinas? No curto prazo, a resposta
é sim, especialmente porque governo estão injetando dinheiro*/distribuindo largas somas de dinheiro para os
produtores de vacinas para estimular uma expansão de capacidade. Isto é especialmente verdade nos EUA, que
não são um enorme/imenso/gigantesco importador líquido de vacinas. Isto deixa em alerta os profissionais de
saúde norte-americanos, porque governos tipicamente forçam estes fabricantes a vender toda a sua produção
internamente/no mercado doméstico em tempos de crise.

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
Porém, há razões para cautela, apesar dos presságios favoráveis. Ainda mais do que com remédios
convencionais, levar novas vacinas do laboratório para o consultório tem tradicionalmente implicado*/envolvido
longos tempos de espera e investimentos elevados de capital. Outro empecilho potencial é o excesso de oferta.
Algumas semanas atrás, um estudo concluiu que pacientes precisam de apenas uma dose da vacina contra a
gripe suína, e não duas, conforme previamente se pensava. Profissionais de saúde vibraram, mas fabricantes de
vacinas repentinamente viram metade de suas vendas potenciais a preço cheio/preço total descer pelo ralo*/ir
pelo ralo abaixo (quaisquer vacinas sobressalentes agora vão beneficiar os necessitados em países pobres, que
pagam preços mais baixos). Também parece que a gripe suína sofre mutações lentamente, então injeções anuais
podem não ser necessárias.

*melhor tradução

TRADUÇÃO SEMANA 08 – GABARITO-MESTRE

11. Chegamos de fato ao fim da história? Há, em outras palavras, “contradições” fundamentais na vida humana
que não podem ser resolvidas no contexto do liberalismo moderno que seriam solucionáveis por uma estrutura
político-econômica alternativa? Se aceitarmos as premissas idealistas acima enunciadas*/dispostas/expressas,
devemos buscar uma resposta para esta questão no domínio da ideologia e da consciência. Nossa tarefa/função
não é responder exaustivamente aos desafios ao liberalismo promovidos por cada messias excêntrico ao redor do
mundo, mas apenas àqueles que estão incorporados*/consubstanciados em forças e movimentos sociais e
políticos importantes e que não são, portanto, parte da história mundial. Para os nossos objetivos, importa muito
pouco quais pensamentos estranhos ocorrem a pessoas na Albânia ou em Burkina Faso, pois estamos
interessados no que se poderia em certo sentido chamar herança ideológica comum da humanidade.

12. Eu nunca teria imaginado que leria um ensaio de Francis Fukuyama 20 anos depois sobre a atual direção da
história mundial, e concordaria veementemente com cada palavra do mesmo. O artigo de Fukuyama no Financial
Times de ontem, intitulado ‘Democracia dos Estados Unidos tem pouco a ensinar à China’*, é brilhante. Não é a
primeira vez que alguém expressa essas ideias, mas Fukuyama as combina**/as agrupa de uma forma que está
perto da perfeição. Conforme ele escreve, a América ‘conseguiu dissipar’ o imenso capital moral que possuía em
2000 com uma rapidez considerável, devido a erros de política externa como a invasão do Iraque e,
posteriormente, a crise financeira global centrada nos EUA. (Não ajudou que funcionários do Tesouro e do Banco
Central americanos, os quais meses antes estiveram repreendendo a China sobre a necessidade de diminuir o
envolvimento do Estado no setor financeiro, encontraram-se freneticamente fazendo exatamente aquilo que os
funcionários chineses faziam – canalizando**/direcionando dinheiro para empresas respaldadas pelo Estado,
intimidando grandes bancos a cortar lucros e a emprestar mais – mas com menos sucesso) Enquanto isso, a
China está voando alto, cada vez mais confiante de que não tem nada a aprender com a América.

*Neste caso, o título deve ser traduzido porque o autor comentará sobre o artigo e porque não há um uso célebre
da versão original no Brasil.
**Melhor tradução

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
GLOSSARY Week 10
Religioni

1. afterlife 42. commandment 83. destiny


2. Agnostic 43. commitment 84. devil
3. aid 44. communal 85. devotee
4. animism 45. communion 86. devotion
5. anthem 46. community 87. devout
6. apostle 47. compassion 88. diaspora
7. archbishop 48. conclave 89. diocese
8. asceticism 49. confession 90. disciple
9. Atheist 50. confidence 91. discipline
10. attendance 51. confirmation 92. discussion
11. awe 52. conflict 93. divine
12. balance 53. confrontation 94. divinity
13. ban 54. Confucius 95. doctrine
14. belief 55. congregation 96. dogma
15. believer 56. connection 97. doubt
16. benediction 57. conquest 98. duty
17. Bible 58. conscience 99. ecclesiastical
18. bishop 59. controversial 100. embodiment
19. blessing 60. convent 101. emotion
20. bliss 61. conviction 102. empathy
21. born-again 62. convocation 103. ephemeral
22. Buddhism 63. core 104. epiphany
23. burden 64. cosmogony 105. epistle
24. canon 65. counsel 106. essence
25. caste 66. courage 107. eternal
26. caste system 67. Covenant 108. ethics
27. cathedral 68. creative 109. eucharist
28. celestial 69. Creator 110. evangelical
29. ceremony 70. credibility 111. evangelical
30. chancel 71. credo religions
31. chapel 72. creed 112. everlasting
32. chaplain 73. cross 113. evidence
33. charity 74. crusade 114. exaltation
34. choice 75. darkness 115. faith
35. choir 76. decision 116. faithful
36. chorus 77. dedication 117. family
37. Christianity 78. deism 118. fasting
38. church 79. deity 119. fate
39. church-going 80. deliverance 120. forgiveness
40. clergy 81. demagogue 121. fundamental
41. cloister 82. denomination 122. gift
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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
123. glory 166. mosque 210. refuge
124. God 167. Muslim 211. reincarnation
125. goodness 168. mystical 212. repente
126. gospel 169. observance 213. resentment
127. grace 170. omnipotente 214. reverente
128. gratitude 171. oracle 215. revile
129. guru 172. oracle 216. righteous
130. habit 173. order 217. rites
131. hallow 174. Orthodox 218. rites
132. halo 175. pagan 219. ritual
133. healing 176. parish 220. rosary
134. heaven 177. pastor 221. sacrament
135. heresy 178. pastoral 222. sage
136. hierarchical 179. patron saint 223. sanctity
religion 180. penance 224. sanctuary
137. honor 181. penchant 225. savior
138. humility 182. perseverance 226. scandal
139. hymn 183. petition 227. scripture(s)
140. idols 184. piety 228. sect
141. idyllic 185. pilgrim 229. sect.
142. imortal 186. pilgrimage 230. sectarian
143. indulgence 187. polytheism 231. Sephardim
144. infidel 188. pontiff 232. serve
145. inspiration 189. postlude 233. service
146. interfaith 190. prelude 234. Sharia law
147. invocation 191. premonition 235. shepherd
148. jesuit 192. priest 236. shrine
149. jihad 193. principle 237. Sikh
150. joyful 194. priory 238. sinful
151. joyful 195. privacy 239. skeptical
152. Judaism 196. profound 240. solace
153. judgment 197. program 241. sorrow
154. justice 198. proof 242. soul
155. karma 199. prophet 243. source
156. keystone 200. psalm 244. spirit
157. laity 201. psalter 245. suffering
158. lay person 202. pulpit 246. sustenance
159. mega-church 203. query 247. synagogue
160. messiah 204. quest 248. syncretism
161. minaret 205. quiet 249. tabernacle
162. minister 206. quintessence 250. Talmud
163. missionary 207. radiante 251. Taoism
164. monastic 208. rally 252. theologian
165. monotheism 209. reciprocal 253. timelessness
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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
254. to abide 270. to proclaim 286. unction
255. to affect 271. to proselytize 287. understanding
256. to bestow 272. to reveal 288. untouchables
257. to bless 273. to trespass 289. upturned
258. to compel 274. to uplift 290. valor
259. to consecrate 275. to watch 291. veil
260. to contemplate 276. to zeal 292. vesper
261. to elevate 277. Torah 293. vicar
262. to endorse 278. tradition 294. vicissitudes
263. to enligthen 279. traditional 295. volunteering
264. to exalt 280. tranquility 296. wisdow
265. to expiate 281. transcendence 297. worthiness
266. to kneel 282. transgression 298. zealot
267. to observe 283. tribute 299. zealous
268. to pray 284. trust 300. zenith
269. to preach 285. trust 301. Zoroastrianism

Idioms about religion [check the answers hereii]

Act of God

Adam’s ale

as patient as Job

as poor as a church mouse

as ugly as sin

baptism of fire

bear one’s cross

better the devil you know

between the devil and the deep blue sea

by the grace of good

cold day in hell

come hell or high water

crux of the matter

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DIPLOMACIA 360    
 
devil-may-care

eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth

fall from grace

get religion

go to hell in a handbasket

God forbid

God knows

high man on a totem pole

in God’s name

low man on the totem pole

Mecca for someone or something

not have a snowball’s chance in hell

poverty is no sin

preach to the choir

religious about doing something

speak of the devil

until hell freezes over

                                                                                                                       
i Main source: https://myvocabulary.com/word-list/religion-spiritual-inspiration-vocabulary/

ii
 http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/vocabulary-lesson-idioms-categories.php?category=religion      

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