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Probalility of an outcomes

#1.The mean and standard deviation of the tax value of all vehicles registered in a certain city are µ= Php
13,525 and σ=Php 4,180. Suppose random samples of size 100 are drawn from the population of
vehicles. What are the mean µ x and standard deviation σ x of the sample mean x̅ ?
Solutions:
since n=100, the formulas yield
σ
and the mean µ x =µ=Php 13,525 and    σx =
√n
σ Php 4,180
    σx = =    σx = Php 418
√n √ 100
#2 A population consists of the five numbers 2,3,6,8,11. Consider all possible samples of size two which can be
drawn with replacements from this population. Find the following:
a.mean of the population
b.standard deviation of the population
c.mean of the sampling distribution of means
d.standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means, i.e.the standard error of means.
Solutions:
2+ 3+6+8+ 11
a. µ= =6
5
(2-6)2 +(3-6)2 +(6-6)2 + (8-6)2 +(11-6) 2
b. σ2 =
5
.
2 16+9+0+4+25
σ = =10.8 and σ=3.29
5
c. There are 5(5)=25 samples of size two which can be drawn with replacement (since any one of five numbers
on the first draw can be associated with any of five numbers on the second draw). These are as follows:
(2,2) (2,3) (2,6) (2,8) (2,11)
(3,2) (3,3) (3,6) (3,8) (3,11)
(6,2) (6,3) (6,6) (6,8) (6,11)
(8,2) (8,3) (8,6) (8,8) (8,11)
(11,2) (11,3) (11,6) (11,8) (11,11)
The corresponding sample means are
2 2.5 4 5 6.5
2.5 3 4.5 5.5 7
4 4.5 6 7 8.5
5 5.5 7 8 9.5
6.5 7 8.5 9.5 11

and the mean of the sampling distribution of means is

µx=
∑ of all the sample means above
25
150
µx= = 6 illustrating the fact that µx= µ
25
d. The variance of the sampling distribution of means is obtained by:

X-M ( X −M )2 X-M ( X −M )2

2-6 16 7-6 1
2.5-6 12.25 8.5-6 6.25
4-6 4 5-6 1
5-6 1 5.5-6 0.25
6.5-6 0.25 7-6 1
2.5-6 12.25 8-6 4
3-6 9 9.5-6 12.25
4.5-6 2.25 6.5-6 0.25
5.5-6 0.25 7-6 1
7-6 1 8.5-6 6.25
4-6 4 9.5-6 12.25
4.5-6 2.25 11-6 25
6-6 0 ∑ .(X−M )2 135

2 135
d.σ x = =5.40
25
so that σ x = √ 5.40 =2.32
therefore this illustrates the fact for finite population involving sampling with replacement (or infinite populations),
2 σ 2. 10.8
σ x = since the right hand side is = 5.40 agreeing with the above value.
N 2

Use sample problem 3 in case sampling is without replacement


 Find the:
a. Mean of the population
b. Standard deviation of the population
c. Mean of the sampling distribution of means
d. Standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means, i.e. the standard error of means.
Solutions:
a. µ= 6
b. σ = 3.29
c. There are 5C2 = 10 sample size two which can be drawn without replacement (this means that
we draw one number and then another number different from the first) from the population ,
namely
(2,3), (2,6), (2,8),(2,11),(3,6),(3,8),(3,11), (6,8), (6,11), (8,11) the selection (2,3) is the same as (3,2). The
corresponding sample means are
2.5, 4, 5, 6.5, 4.5, 7, 5.5, 7, 8.5, 9.5
And the mean of sampling distribution of means is……………
2.5+4 +5+6.5+ 4.5+5.5+7+7+ 8.5+9.5
 µx= = 6
10
Illustrating the fact that µx = µ
d. Variance of sampling distribution of means is

2 (2.5-6)2 +(4-6)2 +(5-6)2 + (6.5-6)2 + .. . …+ (9.5-6)2


σ =
x
10
σ 2x =4.05 and σ=2.01

σ2 Np−N
This illustrates σ 2x = ( ) since the right side equals
N Np−1
10.8
¿ ) =4.05 as obtained above
2
Practice exercise 3.3
1.A population consists of the four numbers 3,7,11,15. Consider all possible samples of size two which can be
drawn with replacement from this population. Find the:
a. Population mean
b. Population standard deviation
c. Mean of sampling distribution of means
d. Standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means
2. Solve problem number 1 if the sampling is without replacement

Prepared by:
EMMANUEL D. PERALTA
11 TVL C ADVISER