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Spielvogel, chapter 15 State Building—Review List

Witchcraft craze—why?- Witchcraft trials were held in England, Scotland, Switzerland,


Germany, and France. They weren’t a new phenomenon, but when medieval churches
began to connect witches to the activities of the devil, then they became widespread.
100,000 people were prosecuted throughout Europe on charges of witchcraft. They
would get accused and would eventually admit to it after they were tortured. Reasons
why their was so many accusations were religion, PROTESTANT REGIONS.
“Malleus Maleficarum”—Handbook on witchcraft
Who was accused? Why women? Because people thought that women had natural
inferiority.
Impact of social conditions on the frequency of accusations? People stopped working
together, and were very selfish. This made it very easy to accuse people that were
defenseless like an old woman or something.
1609—Twelve Years’ Truce
United Provinces: “Protestant Union” a league of german protestant states led by
Frederick IV. “Catholic League of German States” was organized by Duke Maximillian
of Bavaria.
Thirty Years’ War (1618:1648): Militant Catholicism v. militant Calvinism. Thirty
Years' War
Much of the fighting in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) took place in Germany,
although it was a European-wide struggle. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought an
end to the religious warfare between German Catholics and Lutherans. The treaty,
however, did not recognize the rights of Calvinists and a number of German states had
adopted Calvinism. By 1609, Germany was divided into two armed camps of Catholics
and Protestants. The war began in 1618 when Protestant nobles rebelled again a Catholic
prince in Bohemia who intended to reinstitute Catholicism. For the next thirty years, the
Swedes, French, Germans, and Spanish carried on war. The war ended in 1648 with the
Peace of Westphalia. By its terms, all German states were free to determine their own
religion.

“Last of the Religious Wars”


Causes:
1) France—threatened by surrounding Habsburg lands
2) Spain—determined to regain the Netherlands
3) Austrian Habsburgs—wanted to consolidate holdings and stamp out
Protestantism
4) Holy Roman Emperor—wanted to regain real control over the German
states
5) German princes—wanted their “German liberties”
6) Religion—Catholics vs Calvinists and Lutherans
Protestant League—the Protestant Union- organized by the Calvinist ruler of
Palatinate, Elector Frederick IV.
Catholic League of German States- Duke Maximilian of Bavaria.
Four Phases of the War
I. Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)- The Bohemian estates accepted the Habsburg
Archduke Ferdinand as their king, but were soon unhappy with their choice. Most nobles
were Calvinist, and Ferdinand was a devout Catholic. When he began to try to convert
Bohemia back to Catholicism and strengthen royal power in 1618, the Protestant nobles
rebelled against Ferdinand.
--“Defenestration of Prague”: The rebels threw two of the Hapsburg governors
and a secretary out of a 70-foot-high window of the royal castle of Prague, the seat of
Bohemian government. They fell in manure to escape death.
--Frederick V—Elector of the Palatinate: Head of Protestant Union, and was
chosen by the Bohemian rebels to rule after they reconquered Bohemia.
--Battle of White Mountain, 1620: Meanwhile Ferdinand had been elected Holy
Roman Emperor. Aided by the Catholic League, he defeated Fredrick and the Bohemian
nobles at this battle outside of Prague Frederick fled into exile in the United Provinces.
Spanish took control of western part of Palatinate, and Duke Maximilian took the rest.
Ferdinand declared Bohemia apart of Habsburg rule and made it a catholic region.
II. Danish Phase (1625-1629): began when king Christian IV of Denmark, a
Lutheran, intervened on behalf of the Protestant cause by leading an army into Northern
Germany. Christian made an Anti-Habsburg and Anti-Catholic alliance with the United
Provinces and England.
--Edict of Restitution, 1629: prohibited Calvinist worship and restored to the
Catholic Church all property taken by Protestant princes or cities during the past 75
years. This frightened many German princes.
--Cardinal Richelieu: the chief minister of king Louis XIII of France. He gets the
French to enter directly into the 30 Years' War
--Albrecht von Wallenstein: Ferdinand’s new commander of imperial forces.
Brilliant commander. His forces defeated a Protestant army at Dessau.

III. Swedish Phase (1630-1635): Swedish victory guaranteed for South Germany
to stay Catholic.
--Gustavus Adolphus: Lutheran King of Sweden. He was responsible for making
Sweden a great Baltic power. Died in battle during the war.
IV. Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648): Catholic French were now supporting
the Protestant Swedes against the Catholic Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain, signaling
the end of religion's role as a motive in warfare.
Peace of Westphalia, 1648: war in Germany was officially ended by this. This ensured
that all German states were free to determine their own religion.
Peace of the Pyrenees, 1659: the war between France and Spain was ended by this.

A Military Revolution? This meant that the French were the new dominate nation.

Decline of Cavalry; rise of infantry: people didn’t use the medieval styles any longer
Use of squadrons (or battalions): cavalry was less effective because the use of firearms
was more prevalent in infantry. Gustavus Adolphus was the first one who used a great
standing army.
Musketeers, pikemen: equal number of both and
Salvo: all rows of infantry fired at once.
Disciplined, standing army: all the changes, needed more disciplined armies.
Increased use of firearms, and cannon:
Flexibility and mobility in tactics: these changes could only be maintained by levying
higher taxes (due to increased training requirements), making war an economic burden.
Frequency of peasant rebellions: governments increased taxes and created hardships
that common people rose in opposition to. The most famous war was the civil war in
England which was the English revolution.
Population growth across Europe:
1500—60 million
1600—85 million
Paris—500,000
London—250,000

Absolutism: sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a
king who claimed to rule by divine right. Sovereign power consisted of the authority to
make laws, tax, administer justice, control states administrative system, and determine
foreign policy.
Divine right monarchy:
Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet: French theorist who expressed his ideas in a book
titled Politics Drawn From the Very Words of Holy Scripture. Bossuet argued that the
government was divinely ordained so that humans could live in an organized society.
God established kingship and through kings He reigned over all the peoples of the world.
Since kinds received their power from god, their power was absolute. They were
responsible to no one except God.
Henry IV, Marie de Medici: – Bourbon Dynasty; tried to reorganize a war-torn
France…started by recollecting war-debts and trying to solve a lack of revenue… more
efficiently administering taxes; raised, gabelle, tax on salt; by the end of his reign half of
debts paid and economy stimulated; increased central authority of monarch… took trips
to country side to exercise power in areas;
ADVISORS INCLUDE: Sully, Richelieu
Louis XIII: Age nine when came to the throne. Regent is Marie de Medici, who bribes
and gives positions of power to nobles to stop them from rebelling. Main danger to royal
authority is the Huguenot minority.

Cardinal Richelieu: Controls king’s council and strengthens the power of the monarchy.
Has two motives: 1) To make an absolute monarchy or 2) To increase his own power and
stay in control. He has a network of spies to thwart plots by nobles, issues edicts against
private dueling as it instigated rebellions. His policies are not very financially efficient
and the corruption is rampant.
Rebellion of La Rochelle: fortified city of the Huguenots that rebels and is eventually
crushed, leads Richelieu to issue the Peace of Ales/Alais.
Peace of Alais/Ales: Huguenots keep religion freedom but they cannot keep private
armies, formed Huguenots into reliable subjects.
Intendants: royal officials that would execute the royal orders of the central government.
Gabelle, taille: Tallie was a tax on land, and Gabelle was a tax on salt.
Louis XIV:
He was four when he came to the throne; regent was his mother Anne of Austria; once in
power established a constant routine from which he seldom derived; created a grand court
at Versailles; set the standard for courts around Europe; at this time France was not
completely centralized and each region had its own set of rules. Louis’s success relied on
his modernization of administration machinery, created the centralized royal court…
serves three purposes… personal household of the king, local of central government
machinery, place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices and rival
factions jostled for power, removed royal princes from the royal council and enticed them
to his own court where he kept them occupied; relied on his ministers from new
aristocratic families. Ministers were subservient, had control of central policy making,
foreign policy, war, peace, secular power of crown against religious authority, and taxes;
did not always have full control over internal workings of kingdom. Carefully bribed
people to work on his side.
Cardinal Mazarin: Richelieu’s trained successor, and was an Italian that dominated the
government when Louis XIV was very young.
Fronde: viewed as the last serious attempt to limit the growing power of the crown until
the French Revolution.
Parlement of Paris: opposed the new taxes levied by the government to pay off the costs
of the Thirty Years' War.
“One King, One law, One faith”: Louis didn’t allow Huguenots to practice faith in
Catholic France, he felt that the presence of minority undermined his authority. French
anti:Protestant campaigns started with rewards for conversion to forced conversion.
Edict of Fountainbleau, 1685: revoked the Edict of Nantes, and allowed for the
destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of protestant schools. This forced
Huguenots to leave france and increased hatred for france in Europe.
Palace of Versailles: an enormous palace that housed thousands of people, residence of
the king, a reception hall for state affairs; an office building of the kings government,
symbol of the French absolutist state and the power of the Sun king (Louis XIV); symbol
of wealth; royal princes also were housed here and here they wer ekept busy and kepy
away from exercising actual power.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert: Controller General of finances for Louis XIV. He wanted to
increase France wealth by using mercantilism.
Mercantilism: polices of government regulation to benefit the state; increase exports and
decrease imports; expand and improve France’s manufactured goods; new luxury
industries; improved transportation; did not change corrupt tax system; some historians
claming that his regulations were not effective and his high tariffs caused foreign
aggression; policies were aimed at making the king more powerful but the king used
them at a really fast rate and taxes placed a huge burden on the peasants
Tax farming: tax collectors keep part of the taxes they collect
Court “etiquette”: people of quality, how Louis kept nobles from gaining too much
power and interfering in affairs; nobles arranged in rows of seniority and made to follow
rules; example where you could sit was a big deal.
Wars of Louis XIV: army transformed into a large standing army now under the
monarch's command rather than small forces under the nobles. Francois Michel Le
Tellier developed a 100,000 standing peace time army and 400,000 in war time. Using
conscription to fill armies, Louis wanted constant expansion and glory.
1) War of Devolution (1667) : Franche-Comte: Louis’ first war where he invaded
Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comite; triple alliance of the Dutch, English, and
Swedes forced Louis to sue for peace in 1668.
2) He never forgives the Dutch and invades the United Provinces again and then is
stopped by a combination of Bradenburg, Hapsburgs (Holy Roman Empire), and Spain
and signs a truce.
3) League of Augsburg: Spain, Holy Roman Empire, United Provinces, Sweden, and
England, led Louis to his third war. This consisted of an 8 year struggle that brought
economic depression and famine to France. The Treaty of Ryswick ended the war
forcing Louis to give up most of his own conquests in the empire, although he was
allowed to keep Stasbourg and part of Alsace.
3) War of the Spanish Succession: Charles II left the throne of Spain to Louis XIV's
grandson. Fear in Europe of combination of Spanish and French power would destroy
the power balance in Europe. Coalition of England, UP, Habsburg Austria, and German
states opposed France in a war that took place in Europe and the colonies, At Belenheims
John Churchill's English forces defeat French.
• French: Duke of Anjou
• Habsburgs: Charles III
Results: Independence of the United Provinces under the stadholders of the House
of Orange

Philip of Anjou (Philip V of Spain): Peace of Utrecht granted him the Spanish crown,
and make a Spanish Bourbon dynasty.
Peace of Utrecht, 1713:
• Ends war; confirms Philip V as the Spanish ruler
• Affirmed thrones of Spain and France were separate
• English received Gibraltar, England emerges and a naval power
• English gain Asiento (exclusive right to slave trade)
• When Louis XIV dies he leaves a very weak kingdom.
Gibraltar- English

Decline of Spain:The treasury was empty, Philip II went bankrupt from excessive
expenditures on war, and his successor Philip III did the same thing on his court.
The Spanish monarchy lost the Spanish Netherlands, had too many monks and
priests, suppressed the peasantry, had an out of date army, and had nobles too
accustomed to lives of luxury.
Phillip III allows his greedy uncle, the duke of Lerma to run the country, tried to
obtain power and wealth only for his family, gave important offices to relatives, left
important issues unresolved, expelled all Moriscos (Catholics converted from Islam, who
were vital to the economy) from the country, and brought economic disaster. Problems
within the economy include a lack of middle class, wider class gaps, and an over-
population of church leaders that hurt the economy.
Philip IV’s rule is dominated by his minister Gasper de Guzman who was a
clever, hardworking statesman. De Guzman tried to curtail the influence of the church,
attempted political reform to centralize the government, although reforms didn’t limit the
power of the aristocrats due to their large numbers. His efforts also undermined by
pursuits of imperial glory and a series of internal revolts, involvement in the 30 years war
depressed the economy and damaged the economy, population overtaxed.
King John IV—House of Braganza: ensured the independence of Portugal
Charles II (Spain): (1665-1700) Suffered from mental problems. He was of importance
because he had no heir when he died the Spanish succession soon followed.
Eastern Europe—three new powers:
Prussia, Austria, and Russia
Hohenzollern dynasty: developed the Brandenburg state into a power, which by the
seventeenth century Brandenburg-Prussia consisted of three discontinuous masses in
western, central and eastern Germany. Their short term goal was to establish a strong
rule in these places and then long term rule to connect them. Each population did not
have anything in common culturally, other than the rulers being Hohenzollern. These
states were very vulnerable
Frederick William, the Great Elector: laid the foundation for the Prussian state, came
to power during the 30 years war, realized they were vulnerable so he built an efficient
standing army.
General War Commisariat: Frederick William breaks the power of the estates in his
territory and taxes the people to support his army. William excepted nobles from paying
taxes and gave them all power over their peasants and important positions in the army; in
response, nobles allowed to bind peasants as serfs, followed mercantilists policies, and
encouraged other people such as Huguenots to come to Frederick William's provinces.
Frederick III (Elector, son of Frederick William) became King Frederick I
(following War of Spanish Succession): built palaces, university, etc. and trying to
intimate Louis XIV court in reward for aiding the HRE in the Spanish succession he
received the title of the King of Prussia (not electorate), 18th century Prussia becomes a
power
Serfdom in Eastern Europe:
Hereditary Austria: Habsburgs; never became a centralized state since it combined so
many different ethnic groups. It had serfdom and great potential military strength
Siege of Vienna, 1683: Leopol I of Austria tries to expand eastward towards Ottoman
empire; they fight back and siege Vienna; only by a combined effort with nations in the
region are the Austrians able to defeat them; group of European forces counterattack and
defeat Turks.
Treaty of Karlowitz, 1699: Austrian empire created in southeastern europe
Austrian control of Italy, 1713: Emperor Charles V defeats French army and gains
control of Italy, at first allowed local rulers to rule, but in 1740 he gives duchy of Milan
to his son and gives the rest of his Spanish possessions to spain
Muscovy: helps emerge a new Russian state in the 15th century
Peter the Great: pushes Russia westward and makes it a power. Very tall and loved
ship building and could drink a lot. He admired European technology and gadgets and
desired to put this in Rusisan society. He first reorganized the army, and created a navy.
Ivan III: first czar
Ivan IV, “the Terrible:” Expands eastward after blocked by European powers,
expanded power of czar and crushed nobles (boyars)
Time of Troubles:
Zemsky Sobor (landed assembly)
Romanov: Elected by boyars (1613)
Duma (council of boyars): council bodies that assisters were just under the tsar.
Peter’s Westernization of Russia: seized power at 17 from regent, with his constant
purpose to make Russia a military power. Created a navy and conscripted 210,000
peasants for 25 years periods as a standing army. Hoped to create a civic sense of duty
but instead created fear; sought to gain control over the Russian Orthodox church;
establishment of book of etiquette to teach western manners…anyone who failed to
conform was beaten without mercy; women are given more freedom and benefit; women
could marry on their own will.
Senate: created this to supervise the administrative machinery of the state while he was
away on military campaigns. Senate became a ruling council, but there ineffectiveness
caused for peter to do what others had done.
Table of Ranks: instituted this to create opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state
and join the nobility.
**Reforms of Nikon (Schism)
**Old Believers
**New Believers
Holy Synod
Peter’s social changes: changed the etiquette of Russia. He wanted them to be more like
Europeans like not spit on the floor or scratch oneself at the table. Russians cut beards
and also shortened their coats. Women benefited from Peters rule.
Great Northern War: Due to his goal of “open a window to the west” Peter decided that
he had to attack the Baltic coast which was controlled by Sweden. With support of
Poland and Denmark he attacked the young king of Sweden, Charles XII because he
thought the Swedish could be defeated easily.
Charles proved to be an excellent general. He destroyed the Swedes, Poles. And
Russians at the Battle of Narva. Peter fought back and won the battle at Poltava.
Peace of Nystadt, 1721: ends the war but Russian gains Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia on
the coast and now has a port on the coast.
St. Petersburg: built this new city as his “window on the west” and a symbol that Russia
was looking westward to Europe. It costs the lives of thousands of peasnts. Peter may
have made Russia a power house country, but the westernization only worked for the
upperclass. The real object of reform, the military,was a burden on the Russian people.
Scandinavia: Denmark and Sweden in constant rivalry.
Christian IV—Denmark – Denmark seemed like a likely candidate for conquest, but it
proved not to be. The system of electing monarchs forced the kings to share their power
with the nobility;their chance of ruling the Baltic was lost when they lost the 30 Years
War and the northern war with Sweden; Danish military losses led to a constitutional
crisis in which a meeting of Denmark’s estates brought to pass a bloodless revolution in
1660. The power of the nobility was curtailed, and a new hereditary monarchy was
reestablished, ad a new absolutist constitution was proclaimed in 1665. Under Christian
V, a centralized administration was instituted with the nobility as the chief officeholders.
Gustavus Adolphus—Sweden: Sweden traditionally had a weak economy and a clash
for power between nobles and king; Gustavus creates the “first estate” for nobles to hold
offices in and expands his administration in order to create stability but then is killed in
30 Years War; after his death Sweden had severe political crisis p. 548
Ottoman power—the Balkans: conquered Constantinople in 1453; then try to conquer
the rest of Balkans. Took some of the Romanian territory of Wallachia in 1476, the
resistance of the Hungarians kept them from advancing up into the Danube Valley.
Stopped by Hungarians and internal conflict at the time; second half of 17th century they
try to invade Europe again but are repulsed by an army composed of many European
nations and never return to the same amount of power;
Battle of Lepanto, 1571: The Turks extended their power into western Mediterranean,
threatening to turn it into a Turkish lake until a large Turkish fleet was destroyed by the
Spanish at Lepanto, crippling the Ottoman Empire.
Constantinople: Capital of Ottoman empire that possessed a population far larger than
that of any European city. Ottoman politics became very bloody.
Suleiman, the Magnificent: extends Turkish power up the Danube…. But is stopped at
Vienna; extended power into western Mediterranean… almost turned into a large Turkish
lake but are stopped by Spanish at Lepanto
Janissaries: Christian boys who had been taken from their parents, converted to Muslim
faith, and subjected to rigid military discipline to form an elite ore of 8000 troops
personally loyal to the sultan.
Limits of Absolutism: control over everything is inefficient and is not possible; most
successful governments secured power over taxation, foreign policy, church, and then
creating administrations to deal with other sectors; p.550; no guarantee that local
governments would ever follow kings policies and kings did not really affect individuals;
most successful rulers used the old system to their advantage.
Limited Monarchy: aristocracy controls a virtually powerless king; examples… Polish,
Dutch, English
Polish Monarchy: Swede Sigismund III creates goal of creating a vast and powerful
Polish empire but fails and Poland becomes extremely weak by end of 17th century and
decentralized; polish monarch elected and this made it weak. The Sejm, or polish dieet,
was a two chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few
townspeople and lawyer who were also members.
Liberum veto: the meetings of the Sejm could be stopped by a single dissenting
members, reduced government to virtual chaos.
Sejm—Polish diet: two chamber assembly of landowners dominated; when polish
monarch elected he had to agree to share power with the Sejm; most of its members aim
is to limit the power of the monarch.
Dutch Republic: Golden age was the 17th century,
Stadholder: person who was responsible or leading the army and maintaining order.
Beginning with William of Orange and his heirs, the house of Orange occupied the
Stadholderate in most of the seven provinces and favored the development of a
centralized government with themselves as hereditary monarchs.
Dutch religious toleration: mainly Calvinist and other religious groups were tolertated
as long as they practiced in privacy… other groups felt pretty free.
Impact of War on Dutch government: warfare was disastrous to the Dutch ;Wars with
France and England placed heavy burdens on Dutch finances and manpower. English
shipping began to challenge what had been Dutch commercial supremacy, an by 1715,
the dutch were experiencing a serious economic decline.
17th century Amsterdam (growth and development)
-economic development: commercial and financial capital of europe. Vast flee
of ships… herring catch and carrying goods from other countries, turned raw goods into
finished goods
-physical growth of the city: almost triples the size of the city and build canals;
this helps boom population and economic growth.
-population growth: population doubles
Dutch financial success: exchange bank f Amsterdam
-West and East India trading companies
-financial center—banking – wealthy refugees, religious plight ; exchange bank
of Amsterdam, long the greatest public bank in europe
Social divisions in Dutch Republic: beggars, unskilled workers, and poor immigrants
were at the bottom of the class system, upper class feared the poor, military forces stood
ready to crush any new revolts; next was laborers and artisans, large number of widows
working; next lawyers, teachers, bureaucrats, next wealthy landed nobles who
intermarried; top was the prosperous manufacturers and traders who controlled the Dutch
Republic’s Estates General
England’s constitutional monarchy: victory of parliament
Stuart dynasty: Tutor dynasty ended; mary queen of scots son james I chosen to be king
after Elizabeth dies.
James I: he espoused the divine right of kings. He felt that he was divenly chosen by
god; knew little about laws; divine right policy alienated parliament; parliament used its
power to deny him tax and raise more money to stop him from growing in power.
Parliament’s power of the purse: Trump card in its relationship with the king
Puritans: Protestants in the Anglican church inspired by Calvinist theology, wanted
James to eliminate the Episcopal system of church organization used in the church of
England in favor of a Presbyterian model. They wanted to get rid of bishops, but Hames
denied it because bishops were a major supporter of monarchial authority; many well off
landowners had become puritans and opposed the king… large part of house of
commons, not smart to alienate them.
“No bishop, no king”:
Charles I:
Petition of Right: the king was supposed to accept before granted any tax revenues.
This prohibited taxation without parliaments consent, arbitrary imprisonment, the
quartering of soldiers in private houses, and the declaration of martial law in peacetime.
Ship money: tax on coastal towns that made them pay for defense, used for others too
Queen Henrietta Maria: charles marries to catholic sister of king louis VIV of france;
aroused suspicions over his religious inclinations
William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury:
Bishops’ War, 1637
Long Parliament, 1640-1660: places severe restrictions on king’s power, elimination of
arbitrary courts, taxes that king could impose by himself.
Triennial Act, 1641: parliament must meet once every 3 years with or without kings
consent.
English Civil War: Side of parliament that wants to restrict King’s power further and
side that wants to stop and side with King; Parliament victorious in the first part of the
war…aided by scots… creation of New Model Army by Oliver Cromwell; Parliament
ends the first phase of the war by capturing Charles I; now a split occurs in the
Parliaments forces… one side wants to form a Presbyterian church, restore Charles as
King, and disband the army… the other side made up of mostly Independents opposed
the establishment of a Presbyterian Church… marched on London and began negotiations
with the King… Charles takes advantage of the split and flees to seek help from the
Scots… Cromwell and army are angered and engage in second civil war and that ends
with Cromwell’s capture of the King;
Oliver Cromwell:
New Model Army: composed of exteme puritans that thought they were fighting for god,
; very disciplined and well trained army
Execution of Charles I
Rump Parliament: after Cromwell wins second half of civil war he is determined to
achieve victory from the army’s point of view and he purges all of the Presbyterian
members of parliament; leaving a rump parliament with 53 members; House of commons
then condemns Charles on Treason and beheads him;
Interregnum and the Commonwealth: after the death of the king England proclaimed
as a commonwealth. Cromwell as commander in chief has to crush an uprising in
Ireland… he suppressed Catholic uprising with brutality… deal with uprising in
Scotland; challenged by Levellers who advocated freedom of speech etc… but he crushes
them; Cromwell then becomes angry at rump parliament and dispersed it by force
Instrument of Government: created by army… England’s first and last written
constitution; executive power in Lord Protector… Legislative power in Parliament…
failed to work… dissolves parliament because it wants Presbyterian church… creates 11
regions with military governors;
Restoration of Charles II: after death of Cromwell military government fails and
Charles II put on throne; monarchy and house of lords reestablished but parliament keeps
its new power; Charles wants to make England Catholic but Parliament and England
want to stay protestant… Whigs against King… Tories for him
Test Act, 1673: anti catholic; only angilcans can hold military positions and civil offices,
passed y parliament.
**Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
**Whigs and Tories
James II: open and devout Catholic and this created problems… named Catholics to
high positions… issued a Declaration of Indulgence, which allowed Catholics to hold
positions… parliaments outcries did not result in rebellions because they knew he was
old and going to die
“Glorious Revolution” William (III) and Mary (1II) oust James; end of struggle between
and king; destroyed divine-right to rule
William and Mary William of Orange and Mary, James’ daughter, organize army to
prevent Catholic monarchy;
English Bill of Rights, 1689 standing armies could only be raised with the consent of
Parliament; elections and discussions in parliament had to be free; fashioned a foundation
for a constitutional monarchy;
Toleration Act, 1689 Granted Puritan Dissenters freedom to worship

1 Mary was technically Mary II, although she did not rule as a sole ruler and therefore did not become
Mary II
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651 alarmed by revolutionary upheavals in England;
believed in absolutist power; human life before organized society was brutal, poor,
solitary, nasty; civil war would bring this back; humans guided by animalistic instincts;
rebels must be suppressed
John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, 1690 absolute rule of one man; humans
naturally lived in a state of equality; rights to life, liberty, and property; government to
protect these rights;
**right of rebellion
Mercantilism
Bullionism
Favorable balance of trade
Colonies
Cultural accomplishments
Mannerism
El Greco—“View of Toledo”
French classicism emphasis on clarity, balance, harmony, return from chaos to order in
society, grandeur and rejection of emotionalism
Nicholas Poussin: French classicism; scenes from classical mythology, and orderly
landscapes; brown tones;
Dutch Realism portraits of themselves; realistic portraits of everyday life; turned away
form religious themes;
Rembrandt Van Rijn grandeur scenes but turned away from materialistic goods and
died poor;
Racine’s tragedies three unities of time place and action were closely followed;
Molière’s comedies

Chapters 16 and beyond...


England in the 18th and 19th centuries; Hanover dynasties
• Left much power in the hands of prime