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FOREWORD

The purpose of this manual is to serve as a guide


to both degree candidates and faculty members in the
preparation and final production of the capstone project
that meets criteria of a scholarly work in the field of
Information Technology (IT). While the excellence of the
content of the capstone project is the responsibility of
the Oral Examination Committee (OrEC), DMMMSU
prescribes the actual format of the capstone project
documentation. This is done to establish a University
standard of presentation and to satisfy other
specifications placed upon the university in terms of
publishing the final document. The specifications herein
are designed for internal consistency as a measure of
reliability. Degree candidates preparing a capstone
project are strongly advised to read and follow the style
and format of this manual carefully.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

A capstone project is a culminating activity that


generates an output useful in the development of
Information Technology (IT) solutions. This may be but
not limited to application development that focuses on
software engineering processes or application design
that focuses on effective testing procedure or a study
on application development processes. The Capstone
Project is required for candidates for graduation in the
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology and the
Master in Information Technology programs as indicated
in CMO # 53, s. 2006 or the “Revised Policies and
Standards for IT Education” for the undergraduate
program and CMO # 7, s. 2010 or the “Revised Policies,
Standards and Guidelines for Graduate Program in
Information Technology Education (ITE)” for the
master’s program. The capstone project is a terminal
project requirement that would not only demonstrate a
student’s comprehensive knowledge of the area of
study and research methods used but also allow them
to apply the concepts and methods to a specific
problem in his/her area of specialization. Both BS
Information Technology and Master in Information
Technology students must complete a capstone project
in the form of an IT application, a Multimedia System
development, or an IT Management project. (CMO # 53
s. 2006 & CMO # 7 s. 2010)

This Capstone Project Manual aims to standardize


the process of conducting capstone project in the
University particularly in the field of Information
Technology, and thereby improving the quality of
capstone project output submitted by students as well
as faculty researchers.

This manual specifically aims:


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1. To come up with a uniform format of writing
the documentation of an capstone project in the
undergraduate and graduate programs as well as
faculty researches or projects;

2. To establish guidelines in the evaluation of


capstone projects;

3. To ensure a quality output from our students


both in undergraduate and graduate programs; and

4. To serve as a guide for faculty members doing


capstone project advising.

CAPSTONE PROJECT

A Capstone Project is an undertaking appropriate


to a professional field. It should significantly
address an existing problem or need.

An Information Technology Capstone Project focuses on


the infrastructure, application, or processes involved in
introducing a Computing solution to a problem.

Scope of the Capstone Project


The Capstone Project should integrate the different
courses, knowledge, and competencies learned in the
curriculum. Students are encouraged to produce
innovative results, generate new knowledge or theories,
or explore new frontiers of knowledge or application
areas. The recommended infrastructure and its
implications on other system should be clearly specified
in the final report with the introduction of the project.

The capstone project adviser should determine the


appropriate complexity level of the specific problem

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being addressed and the proposed solution, considering
the duration of the project, the composition of the team,
and the resources available.

Suggested Areas of study for Capstone Project in


Information Technology
Following is a list of suggested areas of study.

3.1.1 Software Development


• Software Customization
• Information System Development for an
actual client (with pilot testing)
• Web Applications Development (with at least
alpha testing on live servers)
• Mobile Computing Systems

3.1.1 Multimedia Systems


• Game Development
• e-Learning Systems
• Interactive Systems
• Information Kiosks

3.1.1 Network Design and Implementation and Server


Farm Configuration and Management

3.1.2 IT Management
• IT Strategic Plan for sufficiently complex
enterprises
• IT Security Analysis, Planning and
Implementation

CAPSTONE PROJECT DURATION


The students should be given ample time to finish their
project. The curriculum should prescribe at least one (1)
term to a maximum of three (3) terms or semesters for
students to complete their capstone projects both in the
undergraduate and master programs.

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COMPOSITION OF CAPSTONE PROJECT GROUPS
Students should preferably work in teams of two (2) to
four (4) members depending on the complexity of the
project for the undergraduate program. For the
master’s program, it is an individual work. The adviser
should be able to determine whether the team can
complete the project on time.

THE ORAL EXAMINATION COMMITTEE (OrEC)


All individuals involved in the development and
approval of a capstone project is referred to as the Oral
Examination Committee (OrEC).

The OrEC shall be responsible for the conduct and


evaluation of the capstone project proposal and final
oral examination of the project.

The OrEC shall be organized during the research/project


study subject enrolled by the students or as soon as the
student is prepared for the project proposal
examination. Membership shall be recommended from
the College Pool of Faculty by the student(s) and their
adviser. Membership to the OrEC shall be approved by
the College Dean upon recommendation by the
Department Chairman.

The OrEC shall be composed of four (4) members


composing of the adviser, two (2) of the members will
be chosen from the College Pool of Faculty and an
external member to be determined by the student(s)
candidate(s) and their adviser who is an expert in the
area or field of the project to be examined. The external
member as much as possible is a representative from
the organization for which the project is intended.

The chair of the OrEC shall be determined on a collegial


basis.

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OrEC members should have a degree in a computing or
allied programs, or must be domain experts in the area
of study. At least one of the members must have a
master’s degree in Computing (preferably in the same
filed as the project) or allied program. It is also required
that at least one of the members should have industry
experience.

A member’s inability to attend an oral examination and


non-submission of evaluation of the capstone project
will warrant a reconstitution of the OrEC membership.
The OrEC member shall notify the College Dean of his
inability to attend at least four (4) days before the
scheduled oral examination shall submit a written
evaluation of the project.

As part of administrative responsibility, the College


Dean or his duly authorized representative, if not an
OrEC member, may sit during the oral examination.
Compliance to appropriate administrative procedures in
the development, completion and approval of the
project study is a responsibility of the College Dean. It is
also the responsibility of the College Dean to monitor
standard of scholarly work of the capstone project.

The adviser shall be chosen on the basis of his/her


expertise in the area of the project study. The
student(s) in consultation with the Department
Chairman shall recommend at least three (3) members
from which an adviser will be chosen and appointed as
his/her/their project study adviser by the College Dean.
In the graduate program, the adviser should be at least
a master’s degree in a computing or allied program.

The adviser must have completed a computing project


successfully beyond the bachelor’s degree project. As
much as possible, the adviser should be a full-time

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faculty member of the College. Otherwise a full-time
faculty co-adviser is required.

Faculty advisers should handle at most ten projects at


one time. Panel members may participate in at most
twenty projects in one semester.

CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTATION


A capstone project is a culminating activity that
generates an output useful in the development of
Information Technology (IT) solutions. This may be but
not limited to application development that focuses on
software engineering processes or application design
that focuses on effective testing procedure or a study
on application development processes.

The capstone project should be pilot tested and the


result of the research and development must be
presented in a national or international public form in
the case of the master’s program. (Sec. 10.1.1 CMO # 7
s.2010)

A school-based colloquium may be organized for this


purpose that would suffice to satisfy this requirement of
presentation. Other options could be presentation in the
Philippine Society of Information Technology Education
(PSITE) Regional Congresses, the National Conference
on IT Education (NCITE) of PSITE, or the Philippine
Computing Science Congress (PCSC) of the Computing
Society of the Philippines (CSP).

For the undergraduate program, the result is not


required to be presented in a national forum but it is
highly encouraged.

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Chapter 2
DISTRIBUTION, FORMAT AND STYLE

The purpose of this is to acquaint students with


the guidelines for capstone project format established
by the University. The requirements described in this
manual must be met in order to receive the approval of
the Office of the College Dean.

A. Number of Copies and Distribution of the


Document
Copies of the approved capstone project shall be
submitted to the Office of the College Dean in the
following forms: five (5) hard bound and four (4) CD-RW
and a softbound copy.

Copies hall be distributed to the following:


• 1 HB – Student (optional for undergraduate
students)
• 1 HB – Adviser (optional for undergraduate
students)
• 1 HB & 1 CD-RW – College Dean’s Office
• 1 HB & 1 CD-RW – Graduate School Office/Library
(not required for undergraduate students)
• 1 HB & 2 CD-RW – College Library
• 1 SB – Research Unit of the College

All copies of the hard bound and softcopy in CD should


be submitted not later than two (2) days before the
meeting of the College Academic Council. The approval
sheet should be signed by those concerned before
acceptance of the Office of the College Dean. (See
Appendix A, Approval Sheet)
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A. Paper, Ink and Duplication
1. The paper required must conform to the following
requirements:
• Color: White
• Size: 8 ½ by 11 inches
• Substance 20 or higher gsm

1. Text, tables and figures must be presented in black ink


only. Use line types symbols, shading, and patterns to
distinguish between data. If color is essential to the
content, all copies must contain original color
presentations printed in the highest quality, permanent
ink, or presented as photographic prints.

2. Duplication Processes and Materials. All computer


typing must be of letter quality. The letters must be
appearing fully formed and the font type must be
legible and unambiguous. Photocopying may be done
on any good quality photocopy machine using paper
meeting the requirements of this manual.

A. Cover page and Spine


1. Text in the cover page should include: Title of the
capstone project (in inverted pyramid), Name of the
proponent(s), Name of the University, and, month and
year of graduation. (See Appendix B)

2. Contents of Spine should include the following: Name of


the proponent(s) (Last, First and Middle Initial), Title of
the Project, Name of the university (DMMMSU) and Year
of publication. (See Appendix C)

A. Margins
For every page, the left margin should be four (4)
centimeters or 1 ½ inches. Margins on other sides shall
be two and a half centimeters or one inch. Margin

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specifications are meant to facilitate binding and
trimming. All information including page numbers
should be within the text area. The margin regulations
must be met on all pages used in the capstone project
document including pages with figures, tables, or
illustrations.

B. Preparation of Manuscript
1. Text
a. Original signatures on the approval page must be
in black ink. The document must be signed by the
Chairman of the OrEC, the members of the OrEC,
the Adviser, the College Dean, and the Campus
Chancellor. For the undergraduate program,
signatories would only be up to the level of the
College Dean.
b. Printing must be done in ink jet or laser printers.
c. The general text shall be encoded using any word
processing software such as Microsoft Word or
OpenOffice Writer, in a standard serif font type.
Acceptable serif type font style is Bookman Old
Style.
d. The general text shall be in a font size of 12 point.
All symbols shall be from an acceptable font. Text
in figures and in tables must be readable, and the
font size shall not be smaller than 9 point.
e. Corrections: The following should be strictly
observed.
• Strikeovers, interlineations or crossing-out of
letters or words are unacceptable.
• No erasures.
• The use of liquid paper and of transparent
tape for patching is not acceptable in any
form.
f. Materials must be printed on one side of the paper
only.
g. Text is justified on both sides.

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1. Spacing, Paragraphing and Indentions
a. The general text of the manuscript shall be double
spaced.
b. Single-space should be used in tables with more
than ten (10) rows, quotations with more than ten
(10), line captions with more than ten (10), line
captions with more than 2 lines and bibliographic
entries.
c. Paragraph indentions shall be five (5) spaces.

2. Page Numbering
a. The preliminary pages are numbered in
consecutive lower case Roman numerals. These
should be centered at the bottom.
b. The text and all reference pages, including the
Appendices, are numbered consecutively in Arabic
numbers, beginning with 1 on the first page of the
text.
c. Every page on which any typing or drawing
appears has a number.
d. The title page segregating each chapter and major
sections are counted but not numbered.
e. Inserted pages numbered 10a, 10b, 10c, etc., are
not acceptable.
f. The position of the page number is not altered by
horizontal or vertical placement of the Table or
Figure.

3. Multi-Volume Documents
a. If the bulk of the document necessitates two or
more binders, the separation into volumes should
come at the end of major divisions of the
document.
b. The title page is repeated in each volume and all
are identical, except for the words “Volume I” and
“Volume II”, etc., just below the title.
c. The title pages of Volumes I, II, III, etc., are neither
counted nor numbered.

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d. All other preliminaries are in Volume I.
e. In numbering the text and the pages of Reference
Material, numbering is continuous from Volume I to
the end of the last Volume.

A. Tables, Figures and Plates


1. Definitions
a. “Table” is a tool generally used to designate
tabulated numerical data or text in the body of
the document and in the Appendices. (See
Appendix E)
b. “Figure” is generally used to designate other
non-verbal material (such as graph or
illustrations) included in the body of the
document and in the Appendices. (See Appendix
E)
c. “Plate” refers to any kind of photographic
representation or illustration. (See Appendix F)

1. Preparation of Tables
a. Every table should be given a number and should
be cited in the text by that number, either
directly or parenthetically.
b. Numeration of tables should be chronologically
continues through the text or the whole book.
Arabic numerals are used.
c. The table number should be typed flushed left
together with the title.
d. The title or caption set above the body of the
table should identify the table briefly.
e. Title of the table should be based on the specific
problem or objective.
f. There should only be two rows or three rows, and
one column within the table, double line for the
first and last lines. (see Appendix E)
g. Give each row and column a heading so the
reader knows to what it refers.

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h. A table may be placed sideways (landscape) on
the page. Place the table caption sideways also
so that all parts can be conveniently read
together.
i. The first letter of a variable/factor inside the table
should be capitalized.
j. Legend should be placed below the table where
the symbol or acronym was first used, in ten (10)
point font size, italicized and single-spaced.
k. Symbols should be used for level of significance.
l. A period is placed after the “Table No”.
m. All tables must be referred to in the text by
number.

1. Preparation of Figures and Plates


a. Numeration of figures and plates should be
chronologically continued throughout the text or
whole book. Arabic numerals are used.
b. Title or caption is set below the figure or plate.
c. Define abbreviations and symbols used in each
figure or plate.
d. All figures and plates must be placed
immediately after the page where a particular
figure or plate number is mentioned.
e. All figures and plates must be well explained in
the text.
f. The word “figure” or “plate” should be spelled
out.
g. A period follows after the number of the figure
and plate.
h. Figures and plates should be oriented vertically
whenever possible.
i. Photographic illustrations to be used in the
document must wither original photographs or
high quality reproductions.

1. Placement

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a. All tables, figures and plates are placed either at
the top or bottom portion of the page.
Sandwiching the table, figure or plate is not
allowed.
b. Tables, figures, and plates must first be
introduced in textual form before its
presentation.

A. Oversize Pages
1. Sheets up to 8.5 by 13 inches or larger are
acceptable for exceptional cases.

A. Binding
1. Five (5) hard bound copies are required for
submission.
2. The color of the hard bound cover of the
capstone project document for the bachelor’s
program is royal blue while grass green for the
master’s program.
3. All letters in the cover shall be in gold, font 14
using Bookman Old Style, and all capital letters.

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Chapter 3
ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS

Below is the list of parts, optional and necessary, that


must be followed. It is already arranged in chronological
order for easy reference.

A. Preliminaries
1. Blank Sheet. This serves as the flyleaf.

2. Title Page. This page contains the title of the


research, name of proponents and statement
regarding the qualification for which the research is
submitted. It also contains the name of the
institution, to which the research is being submitted,
and the month and year of submission.

3. Approval Sheet. This page bears the name of the


proponents/s and the title of the research, together
with the signature of the adviser, the Director and
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members of the oral defense panel. This page
certifies that the research has been duly approved,
and must bear the date of approval. (See Appendix
B)

4. Acknowledgement. This section recognizes


persons and organizations who/which assisted the
proponents in the completion of the research.
Acknowledgements should be expressed simply an
tactfully.

5. Dedication Page. This page is optional. If used,


make it brief and centered in one page. No heading
is necessary.

6. Abstract. This is a brief and concise descriptive


summary of study containing the statement of the
problem, methodology, major findings and
conclusions.

The first paragraph must be single-spaced. It must


contain the candidate’s name as it appears on the
title page, but with the last name first, the
abbreviation of the degree, the date (last month of
the semester in which the student completes the
degree), title of the document (wording exactly to
agree with the Title page), and name of the adviser.
(See Appendix H)

The abstract should not be more than 150 words,


and should be typed single-spaced and preferably on
a single page. Normally the abstract does not
include any reference to the literature.

7. Table of Contents. A sequential listing of all major


parts of the research with corresponding page
numbers. Included in the table of contents are titles
of chapters, sections and subsections, bibliography
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and appendices. Also included are titles of the
preliminary pages as well as the required forms.

All materials following the Table of contents are


listed.

The title of parts, sections, or chapters and their


principal subdivisions should be listed and must be
worded exactly as they appear in the body of the
document.

8. List of Tables/Figures/Plates
The heading LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES and PLATES
in capital letters, are centered without punctuation;
the listing begins at the left margin on the fourth line
below the heading.

The list of Tables/Figures/Plates uses exactly the


same numbers and title of the Tables/Figures/Plates
in the text and in the Appendices.

A. Main Body
This is the main text of the capstone project
document, divided into chapters and sub-topics. It
normally starts with the “Introduction” and ends with
the “Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations”.

1. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
a. This chapter serves as a backgrounder for
readers to have an overview of the study even
without prior reference to other publications
on the topic.
b. The introductory pages are important because
they create the first and perhaps lasting
impression on the examiner. Use flow
diagrams, headings, sub-headings etc., to
create and sustain interest. Lead the reader

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from the known to the unknown. Parts of the
introduction re the following:
i. Situation Analysis
• Situation Analysis should be presented
from macro to micro underscoring
existing scenario or situation.
• It includes information necessary to
justify the existence of a problem
situation/need/gap like statistical data
from authoritative source(s).
• There should be a clinching statement
to link the situation analysis to project
problem.

i. Project/Research Framework
• It is advisable to use either theoretical
or conceptual framework. If both
theories and concepts are used, then
the title Theoretical Framework should
be adopted since theory always
includes constructs or concepts.
• Theoretical Framework
• Link the study with existing theories
that are useful devise for interpreting,
criticizing and unifying established
scientific laws or facts that serve as
guide in discovering new
generalizations.
• Be explicit as to whether an existing
theory will be verified or another theory
will be developed or proposed;
• Always indicate the title/name of the
theory/theories including its author,
what the theory is all about and
indicate applicability to the study
• This part is optional for
biological/physical sciences,
technology, agriculture and forestry

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because this is presented as part of the
Review of Literature.

Conceptual Framework
• Present specific and well-defined
constructs, assumptions, expectations
and beliefs that support the research
study.

Research/Project Paradigm
• A diagram that illustrates the
relationship of the variables of the
study
• This may take the form of (1) input-
process-output; (2) the true system
approach; (3) flow chart system

ii.Statement of Objectives
• Present a perplexing
situation/phenomenon that challenges
a solution of a felt need which can
reflect contribution to knowledge,
discipline and/or theory and within the
proponent’s skills and competence,
interest and resources as to time,
budget and workability.
• Indicate the direction/guideline of the
study and answer the what, where,
when and from whom the data will be
gathered in the general problem to
establish delimitation.
• Present the sub-objectives in a logical
sequence from factual to analytical
along mutually exclusive dimensions
(no overlaps) with the exclusion of the
overview, expected conclusions,
implications and recommendations of
the project.

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i. Importance of the Study
• Describe general contribution of the
project to new knowledge, society and
or to development in general.
• Cite significance of the project to
specific groups, programs, projects,
beneficiaries in the specific
performance.

i. Definition of Terms
• Only important terms from the title,
statement of the problem or objectives
and paradigm should be defined.
• Define terms operationally or how you
use such term in the project.

1. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


The Review of Literature showcases previous
studies and publications relevant to the project.
This chapter gives light as to what motivated the
proponent/s in pursuing the specific field of
study.

a. Include a combination of literature and studies


within the last 10 years except for theories.
b. Organize thematically to conform to the
variables of the specific problems.
c. Follow proper documentation using
parenthetical citation with author and date
d. Only articles with dates are allowed as e-
references.
e. Secondary sources should be limited to at
most 15.
f. Highlight major findings and how one’s project
would fit in the body of knowledge on the
subject matter and make a critique per topic

21
as to whether the results cohere or differ from
each other.
g. The last part should be a clinching paragraph
to show how the literature has assisted the
project proponent in the present study.

1. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY
a. Project Design. Specify, describe and justify
the appropriate project design congruent with
the purpose of the study.

b. Population and Locale of the Study


b.1Population/Participants.
• Describe the population of the respondents
or participants of the study. If there are
two groups or more, present it in a tabular
form.
• If applicable, describe the basis of the
sample specifically what formula, specific
sampling procedure and what probability
level. Lynch formula for sampling is
suggested.

a.1Locale of the Study.


• Describe the place or location where the
study is conducted and rationale of the
choice.

a. Data Instrumentation
a.1Identify and describe the instrument or
approach to used for each descriptive
problem, cite sources, to whom it will be
administered, how it will be administered
and how to interpret.
a.2Validity. Identify and describe the process
of measuring and proving the validity of
the instrument.

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a.3Reliability. Identify and describe the
process of measuring and proving the
reliability of the instrument. If the
instrument is made by the project
proponent, a pilot test should be done with
the respondents whose characteristics are
parallel to those of the main respondents.
If the instrument is adopted, acknowledge
the source and present/describe the level
of reliability.
a.4Only data collected two (2) years
immediately before the final examination
are considered valid.
a.5Give details of instruction given to
assistants if persons other than the
researcher gathered data.
a.6State qualifications of informants if used in
the study.

b. Data Analysis
b.1Identify and justify the statistical treatment
per objective.
b.2Present and justify the scale of values used
and the descriptive equivalent ratings, if
any.
b.3In case of the IT project, e.g.
software/systems development, present
and discuss the software/systems
development process used. Include
justification why such is used.

1. Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


a. Order of discussion is based on the
chronology of the statement of the
problem/objectives.
b. First give the reader a feel of the data through
descriptive presentation followed by data
presentation in tables or graphs. Presentation

23
of data is from general to specific, macro to
micro is better for clarity of presentation.
c. Let the table speak for itself.
d. State statistical descriptions in declarative
sentences, e.g. in studies involving
comparison – state the obtained statistical
results, indicate the level of significance of the
differences then make a decision.
e. Interpretation should include the following:
a. Trends, patterns, linkages, integrations
and generalizations of data in the context
of the study;
b. Check for indicators whether the
hypothesis is supported by the findings;
c. Interconnections between and among
data;
d. Link present findings with previous
literature/theories/concepts presented in
the framework;
e. Parallel observation with contemporary
events to give credence to what were
presented in the situation analysis;
f. Implications of the findings to prevailing
condition in one’s own field of
specialization, on-going programs, current
thrusts of the government, existing
national policies and current public
attitudes and opinions.
f. For the presentation of the IT project and its
discussions, the following may be used:
a. In the case of an IS Plan, the IS Plan may
follow any of the established frameworks,
such as that of the National Computer
Center.
b. For software systems development,
discussion shall include but not limited to:
• Description of the Project

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• Requirements (Functional and Non-
functional)
• Design of Software, Systems, Product,
and/or Processes encapsulated using any
appropriate CASE tools
• Development and Testing, where
applicable
• Implementation Plan
(Infrastructure/Deployment) where
needed
• Implementation Results, where
applicable

1. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS
This is the last chapter of the capstone project
manuscript and the most important part because
it is here where the findings, and the whole
project for that matter, are summarized;
generalizations in the form of conclusions are
made; and the recommendations for the solution
of problems discovered in the study are
addressed.

a. Summary. This part includes the statement of


the problem/objectives on a paragraph form;
synthesized methodology and salient findings
for each of the specific problems/objectives
presented in paragraph form.
b. Conclusions. These are generalized
statements from a micro to a macro level
based on the answers to the general problem
and each of the specific problems/objectives.
General inferences are presented which are
applicable to a wider and similar population.
c. Recommendations. These should be based on
the findings and conclusions.
Recommendations should be feasible,

25
workable, flexible and adaptable in a non-
technical language and may include
suggestions for further studies.

A. Reference Materials
Bibliography
This is a list of works cited, as well as works
consulted but not cited in the construction of the
capstone project.

Categorize references as published and unpublished.


Under published materials are references from and
sub-categorized as books, encyclopedia, dictionary,
magazines, newspapers, journals, electronic
downloads and under unpublished materials are
thesis and dissertations.

The list of references is numbered and arranged


alphabetically and single-spaced, but separated by
blank line. Type the first line of an entry from the left
but indent the succeeding lines by four letters.
Underline name of books, periodicals, and volume
numbers.

Books
Format:
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication
date). Book title. Additional information. City
of publication: Publishing company.

Examples:
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the


heroes of the imagination. New York: Random
House.

26
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your
findings: A practical guide for creating tables.
Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association.

Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader's guide to


science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New


York: Norton.

Note: If there are more than three (3) authors cite


the first three authors in your
references/bibliography, but use “et.al.”, which
means “and others” after the name of the third
author. In your citations within the text, you may cite
only the first author followed by et al. (not italicized
and with a period after “al”)

Encyclopedia & Dictionary


Format:
Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of
Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages).
City of publication: Publishing company.

Examples:
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new
encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th


ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and


Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-
155). Chicago: World Book.

27
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia
americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library
Publishing.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles


Format:
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date).
Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue
number if available), inclusive pages.

Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks.


Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes
a volume number, italicize it and then give the
page range (in regular type) without "pp." If the
periodical does not use volume numbers, as in
newspapers, use p. or pp. for page
numbers. Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp.
precedes page numbers for a newspaper
reference in APA style.

Examples:
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing
psychology journal articles. Journal of
Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55,
893-896.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in


today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts


town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.

Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books


lately? Time, 113, 71-72.

Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture


shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.

28
Website or Webpage
Format:
Online periodical:
Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of
article. Title of Periodical, volume number,
Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Online document:
Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of work.
Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the


specific website document. If a document is
undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after
the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to
another line after a slash or before a period.
Continually check your references to online
documents. There is no period following a URL. If you
cannot find some of this information, cite what is
available.

Examples:
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at
music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January
23, 2002, from
http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html

Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The


Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998,
from Alderman Library, University of Virginia
website:
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html

Note: If a document is contained within a large and


complex website (such as that for a university or a
government agency), identify the host organization
and the relevant program or department before

29
giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the
URL with a colon.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating


positive emotions to optimize health and well-
being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a.
Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre00
30001a.html

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved


August 8, 2000, from
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/surve
y1997-10/

Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of


genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March
22, 2005, from http://www.hc-
sc.gc.ca/english/protection/biologics_genetics/ge
n_mod_foods/genmodebk.html

Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their


emotions, most people flunk out. New York
Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from
http://www.nytimes.com

B. Appendices
An appendix or appendices, if any, should be after
the References. Appendices include original data,
preliminary tests, tabulations, questionnaires, tables
that contain data of lesser importance, very lengthy
quotations, forms and documents, computer
printouts and other pertinent documents such as
transcript of interview (if interview was used) among
others. Appendices should be arranged
chronologically as they are cited in the main text.

30
Use capital letters of the English alphabet to track
appendices.

A single appendix is labeled “APPENDIX” on the


contents page, with or without a title. (if using a title,
it should be written as “APPENDIX: TITLE”) The first
page of the appendix itself is labeled by the word
“APPENDIX” (centered) and a title capitalized and
centered after a skip line. Several appendices are
labeled “APPENDICES” on the contents page, with
subsequent lines each containing n indented
alphabetic identifier and title such as “A: SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE”; other lines (labeled B, C etc.)
follow as needed. The appendices proper are then
each labeled as “APPENDIX A” (centered) followed
after a skip line by the title centered and capitalized.
Appendix pages should be numbered as continuation
of the text.

31
Chapter 4
RULES GOVERNING ORAL EXAMINATION

A. Perspective
1. The capstone project is a terminal project
requirement both in the undergraduate and
graduate programs that would not only
demonstrate a student’s comprehensive
knowledge of the area of study but also allow
them to apply the concepts and methods to a
specific problem in his/her area of specialization.
2. The oral examination of a capstone project is a
new and unique event for students. It is usually
the first time a major piece of work by the
student(s) will be examined.
3. The oral examination is geared towards the
improvement of the capstone project.

A. Preparing for the Examination


1. The examination of the capstone project is done
orally before members of the OrEC. It is a two-
stage examination. The first stage is the proposal
examination and the second being the final
examination of the capstone project.
32
2. To be ready for oral examination (proposal and
final), the capstone project must be in final form,
complete and fully formatted. An incomplete and
improperly formatted will not be allowed for
examination. It is the duty of the adviser to check
whether or not the capstone project is ready for
oral examination.
3. When the project proponent(s) and the adviser
agree that the capstone project is ready for oral
examination, a tentative date for the examination
may be set on the mutual consent of all involved.
No date shall be approved without the conforme
of the OrEC members.
4. The project proponent(s) shall secure an
application for examination and approval of such
by members of the OrEC and concerned
authorities. In the case of the graduate program,
payment of the oral examination fee is required.
No capstone project is allowed to be orally
examined (proposal and final) without the
payment of the required fee.
5. The date of examination is announced publicly
and the examination may be open to the
university community.
6. A copy of the capstone project manuscript should
be provided to each OrEC member at least five
(5) working days prior to approved date of
examination. For the final examination, the
capstone project manuscript copy should be
complete as certified by the adviser.

A. Examination Proper
1. The Department Chairman is responsible for
bringing the signed and approved proposal as a
basis of the project problems/objectives.
2. Certification of statistician should be presented
regarding the appropriateness of the data

33
analysis and its interpretation before the final
examination is calendared.
3. While the capstone project topic will be
emphasized in the oral examination, other
related topics may be addressed. The
examination may last for a minimum of one (1)
hour to a maximum to three (3) hours.
4. At the opening of the examination, the project
proponent(s) will present a brief executive
summary of the capstone project. This itself may
engender some questions and discussion. The
committee members may then by turn ask
questions based on the content of the capstone
project or base on the on-going discussion. The
questions will include matters of detail, matters
involving fundamental principles and major
conclusions and logical structure.
5. It shall be the duty of the adviser to take note of
the proceedings of the examination. This includes
the listing of suggestions and/or
recommendations of the OrEC members for the
improvement of the study. This should be
encapsulated in a compliance matrix in tabular
format containing the suggestion and/or
recommendations, actions taken by the
proponent(s) and remark. It shall be the duty of
the adviser to see to it that the compliance
matrix is prepared and contents therein are
complied with.
6. After the oral examination, the student is
requested to leave the room so that the
committee may discuss and make its decision.
After this, the student is invited back into the
session to hear the decision. The project
proponent(s) may be asked to one of the
following:
a. Revise the capstone project, without a second
defense.

34
b. Substantially rewrite the capstone project,
and make a second defense.

NOTE: A student asked to revise the capstone


project but not to defend it a second time, will be
considered to have passed the oral examination.
A student asked to make a second oral
examination will be considered to have failed the
first oral examination.

A. Post Final Oral Examination


1. After the oral examination, in cases when the
OrEC decides that revisions on the capstone
project are necessary, it shall be the
responsibility of the project proponent(s) and
adviser concerned to incorporate such revisions
before it can be approved and accepted by the
OrEC members.
2. The adviser shall ensure the quality of the
capstone project manuscript produced by the
project proponent(s) by seeing to it that herein
guidelines are adhered to.
3. The compliance matrix will be presented to each
OrEC member proving compliance to their
suggestions and/or recommendations before the
approval of the project.
4. To qualify for graduation, the project
proponent(s) shall submit five (5) hardbound and
one (1) softbound copy duly signed and four (4)
soft copies of the capstone project in CD-RW for
official endorsement to the Academic Council
(College, Campus and the University) and finally
confirmed by the Board of Regents as graduate
of their respective degrees.

A. Criteria for Evaluating the Capstone Project


1. Capstone project as submitted/written during the
oral examination (50%)

35
1.1.Mechanics (10%)
1.1.1. General Appearance
1.1.2. Sentence Structure
1.1.3. Semantics/rhetoric
1.1.4. Referencing/appendices

1.2.Organization (10%)
1.2.1. Coherence/consistency
1.2.2. Clarity
1.2.3. Emphasis
1.2.4. Unity of Structure
1.2.5. Logical presentation

1.3.Quality of Capstone Project (20%)


1.3.1. Originality
1.3.2. Appropriateness of the use of
presentation materials
1.3.3. Relevance of the project to national
and regional development
1.3.4. Appropriateness of statistical
treatment
1.3.5. Soundness and depth of the
interpretation of findings
1.3.6. Relevance of conclusions and
recommendations
1.3.7. Objectivity of presentation

1.4.Contribution to Science and Technology


(10%)

2. Capstone project as presented/defended during


the oral examination (50%)
2.1.Mastery of the content of the project
2.2.Knowledge of the problem and allied field
2.3.Clarity and comprehensiveness of the
presentation of the capstone project report
2.4.Ability to orally communicate ideas well and
comprehend and respond well to questions

36
2.5.Ability to keep discussion on the main issues
2.6.Ability to demonstrate a professional attitude
towards suggestions and revisions

Chapter 5
WRITING CONVENTION AND OTHER
CONSIDERATIONS

The craft of writing good English.


Writing good English is a craft. It has to be learned by
careful reading and even more careful writing. It helps
to read books devoted to the subject, but it helps even
more to read examples of good writing.

Read what you have written, slowly and carefully. If you


find yourself backtracking for any reason, revise what
you have written. This may be because of bad sentence
structure, poor punctuation, excessive sentence length,
poorly expressed ideas, or an unfortunate choice of
words. Whatever the cause, take the trouble to revise it.
37
If you yourself stumble on your own writing, your reader
is bound to stumble too. The least courtesy you can do
to your reader is to revise your writing.

Verbs are words of actions. They infuse life and


meaning to your writing. A long catalogue of nouns is
lifeless; throw in a verb to add some sparkle!

Ambiguity has its place. Scientific writing, however,


must be unambiguous. It must communicate clearly,
precisely and briefly. Say what was done; how it was
done; why it was done.

Precision distinguishes science as a field of intellectual


endeavor. It is vital in quantitative work. Precision
allows your work to be repeated by others for
verification and extension. Vagueness hides in
expression like “quite small”, “a considerable length”,
etc.

Each of us is faced with more information than we can


cope, let alone digest. The reader of your manuscript is
no exception. As a courtesy to your reader, be brief.
Repetition frustrates the able reader. However, brevity
must not be at the expense of clarity or precision. Avoid
saying the same thing twice except by choice.

Good punctuations make reading easily. The simplest


way to find out where to punctuate is to read aloud
what you have written. Each time you pause, you
should add a punctuation symbol. There are four major
pause symbols: comma, semi colon, colon and period.
The readability of your writing will improve greatly if
you take the trouble to learn the basic rules of
punctuation.

Numbers

38
Spell out numbers less than ten unless they are
attached to units of measurements (e.g. 5kg, 10ml).
Use figure for numbers equal to or more than 10. If a
sentence begins with a number, write the number is
words even if it is more than 10.

If a series of figures is to be used, use numerals


regardless of the value; example:
-In the room were 4 chairs, 12 boxes, 13 books, 10 files
9 umbrellas and 8 pairs of shoes.

Units of measure
Whenever applicable use the SI unit of measurement.
Always used internationally recognized abbreviations
for unit of measures, and do not place a period after
them.

Direct Quotations
Direct quotations must be copied accurately, word for
word, and they must be placed in quotation marks
unless they have been formally set off from the rest of
the text.

Direct quotations must be minimized at all costs.


Extensive use of direct quotations might be irritating to
the reader. Students should learn to synthesize and
paraphrase concepts in their own words and style.

Citation
References must be cited properly, both in the text as
well as in the reference list at the end of the thesis.

Grammatical Tenses
As a rule of thumb, use the present tense when
referring to previously published work and the past
tense when referring to present results of the study.

39
Most of the abstract should be in the past tense
because present results are being described. On the
other hand, chapter 1 should be in the present tense
because this chapter usually refers to previously
published works.

Some Simple ABCs for Effective Writing


a. One main idea per paragraph and watch sentence
length.
b. Use “active” not “passive” sentences when possible.
c. Don’t make nouns out of strong verbs.
d. Be concise. Never use three words where one will
do.
e. Avoid complex, compound sentences.
f. Use punctuation skillfully.
g. Avoid repeating words or sections unless you need
to loop back to clarify what you are talking about.
h. Match subject and verb: both singular and both
plural.
i. Speak words aloud to improve your writing. If you
find it hard to put your thoughts into words, try
explaining that difficult idea is someone who does
not understand it before writing.

References

CHED Memorandum Order No. 7 Series of 2010.

Thesis Handbook.

40
Appendix A

41
Appendix B

42
Appendix C

43
Appendix D

44
Appendix E

45
Appendix F

46
Appendix G

47