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Speed, distance, time

1. Instantaneous speed- speed at any point of its descent

b. Average speed: the average of the instantaneous speeds over a particular time.
c. Average speed between two times D/T d2- d1/ t2-t1
2. a. Scalar quantities- quantities that only have a magnitude and not have a direction eg.
b. Vector quantity- quantities that have a magnitude and a direction eg, displacement
3. Velocity is the speed in direction i.e vector quantity while speed is a scalar quantity.
Average velocity= displacement/time
4. Distance is scalar quantity that refers to how much ground an object has covered during its
motion. While, displacement is a vector quantity that refers to how far out of place an
object is; the objects overall change in position.
5. The displacement can be 0 if the object in motion comes back to its starting place.
6. Acceleration is the change of velocity of a moving object. Can be an increase in velocity or
decrease in velocity
Acceleration= final-initial velocity/time = v-u/t
7. When an object is changing by a constant amount over time this is called constant
acceleration. An object with constant positive acceleration will be going faster and faster.
It’s velocity will be increasing constantly.
8. Deceleration/ negative acceleration is when the velocity of an object decreases. The
direction or vector of acceleration is pointing in the opposite direction of the movement of
the object.
Newton’s laws of motion
1. First law of motion- A body at rest rest will stay at rest unless an outside force acts on it and,
a body in motion will stay in motion at a constant speed in a straight line unless an outside
force act on it.
2. Inertia- the tendency of an object to remain or continue at a constant speed unless acted
upon by an outside force. When a car crash occurs and the driver hits the brakes, the car
stops but the the riders continue moving forward with most of their original speed and fall
forward because of their inertia.
3. Second law of motion- The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object
times its acceleration. Force required is affected by mass and acceleration. If the car
decelerates more quickly, the force experienced by the vehicle and and its occupants will be
more meaning more destruction.
4. Third law of motion- to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The rocket
exerts a force on the gases downwards and so the gases exert a force on the rocket
upwards. With rockets, the action is the expelling of gas out of the engine. The reaction is
the movement of the rocket in the opposite direction. The thrust propels the rocket upward.
5. a. Crumple zones- crumple zones are areas of a vehicle that are designed to deform and
crumple in collision. This absorbs some of the energy of the impact, preventing it from being
transmitted to the occupants.
b. Seat belts- Seat belts stop you tumbling around inside the car if there is a collision. Upon
sensing a collision the seat belts lock in place. When the car crashes, there is no outside
force acting on them so they continue forward (Newton's First Law). The person moves
against the seat belt, exerting a force on it. The seat belt then exerts a force back on the
person (Newton's Third Law). This causes a controlled deceleration of the person.
c. Head rests- If a car hit from behind a person head can fly backwards as the car is jolted
forward. There head has inertia. Car seats have a headrests to reduce the whiplash caused
by inertia.
d. 40km/hr zones near schools- They slow the cars as the car has less speed, the force
hitting the child will be less, it also gives the driver more time to process possible obstacles.

Chemical reactions
1. a. Physical changes- Change in state, No new substance formed, easily reversible
b. Chemical changes- several changes in temperature, new substance formed, not easily
2. Common compounds and common households’ chemicals: table salt= NaCl.
HCl= Hydrochloric acid, HNO3 = nitric acid, H2SO4= sulfuric acid water, ammonia= NH3
glucose= C6H12O6 vinegar= CH3COOH sucrose= C12H22O11 rust= Fe2O3 baking soda= NaHCo3
caustic soda= NaOH, slaked lime= CaO limewater= Ca(OH)2
3. a. Acids- acids contain the element hydrogen in combination with other non- metals
elements. Some properties of acids include, contain hydrogen, corrosive, sour taste, turn
blue litmus red, and conduct electricity in aqueous solutions. Sources:
b. Bases- bases are the opposite of acids. Bases that dissolve in water are called alkalis. In
water they from hydroxyl as OH. Some properties of bases include, caustic, bitter, have a
soapy feeling and turn red litmus blue. Eg, sodium hydroxide- caustic soda-making soaps,
sodium hydrogen carbonate- Baking soda- cooking, sodium carbonate- washing soda-
washing powder.
c. Salts- when acids combine with bases, salts are formed. They are solid at room
temperature, have crystals and maybe coloured. They are named after the acid used to
make the salt.
4. pH and indicators- pH scale is a scale that goes from 0-14. It is used to measure how acidic
or basic a substance is. Neutral substances are pH of 7, acidic are below 7 and basic are
above 7. Indicators are chemicals that indicate whether substances are acidic or basic by
changing colour. Litmus is an indicator that is red in acids and blue in basics.
5. A. Combustion/burning- Always involve fuel which combines with oxygen to from oxide
compounds. Element + oxygen = elemental oxide. – burning wood
B. Corrosion- when one substance eats away another substance, normally happens when
metals come in contact with air or water. Iron+oxygen = iron oxide - rusting of water pipes.
At home, for example, doors, pipes, and buildings are damaged by corrosion, which affects
aesthetically, economically and mostly leads to accidents that can have serious
C. Precipitation- reactions that produce a solid from the mixing of two solutions.
D. Decomposition- when a single compound breaks down into two or more substances.
E. Neutralisation- when an acid reacts with an alkali it produces salt and water.
F. Acids on metals- when an acid reacts with a metal it produces salt and hydrogen gas.
G. Acids on carbonates- when an acid reacts with a carbonate it produces salt water and
carbon dioxide. Acid+carbonate=water+salt+carbon dioxide

6. A. Photosynthesis- used by plant to convert carbon dioxide and water into food (glucose)
and oxygen. It is the most important reaction because this is how plants produce food for
themselves and animals convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.

6Co2 + 6H2O + light= C6H12O6 + 6O2

B. Aerobic respiration- When energy molecules are combined with oxygen we breath to
release energy needed by our cells plus carbon dioxide and water. Energy used by cells
in chemical energy in the form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
C6H12O6 + 6Co2= 6H2O + energy (36 ATPs)

C. Anaerobic respiration- A set of chemical reactions that allows you to gain energy from
complex molecules with out oxygen. Our muscles perform anaerobic respiration
whenever you exhaust the oxygen being delivered to them, such as during intense or
prolonged exercise. Respiration by yeast and bacteria is harnessed for fermentation to
produce things like ethanol, carbon dioxide and other chemicals that make cheese, wine
beer, yogurt and many other common products.
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5 + 2Co2 + energy

D. Digestion- As soon as we put food in our mouth, an enzyme in our saliva called amylase
starts to break down sugars and other carbs into simpler forms your body can absorb.
Starch + Amylase = Sugar
Hydrochloric acid in our stomach reacts with food to further break it down, while
enzymes breakdown protein and fats so they can be absorbed into your body.

7. Endothermic reactions- In endothermic reactions energy must be supplied to break

chemical bonds, so if more energy is provided than released then, it is an endothermic
reaction. Energy is taken in and temperature of the substance drops. Eg, Photosynthesis is
an endothermic reaction because it requires energy input from the sun.

Exothermic reaction- A reaction is exothermic if more energy is released then than supplied.
In this reaction, energy is released when new chemical bonds are made. Heat is given off and
the temperature of the substance rises. Eg, combustion of fuels.

8. How chemical reactions can be controlled:

Temperature- Increasing the temperature increases the reaction rate as the particles have
more energy to collide with one another at a much greater rate. Chemical bonds are more
easily broken, and the atoms can rearrange themselves in a shorter period of time to from
Concentration- when the concentration is increased there is more particles to collide and so
the rate of reaction increases.
Agitation- Stirring keeps reactant particles in motion increasing the chances of collision and
increasing the rate of reaction.
Surface area- Smaller reactant particles provide a greater surface area which increases the
chances for particle collisions so the reaction rate increases.
Catalyst and enzymes- A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction, without being consumed by
the reaction. It increases the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy for a reaction.