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158 Ansichten12 SeitenNowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a longer duration to return to its steady state value after the occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a significant role in maintaining the steady state current and voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The implementation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.

Jan 20, 2011

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Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a longer duration to return to its steady state value after the occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a significant role in maintaining the steady state current and voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The implementation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.

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158 Ansichten

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Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a longer duration to return to its steady state value after the occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a significant role in maintaining the steady state current and voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The implementation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.

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Parameters in HVDC Systems

Research Scholar Professor

JNT University, Hyderabad Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

srujanaphd@gmail.com Hyderabad

Abstract— Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC HVDC, so it has the advantage of providing more efficient

systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The long distance transmission [21]. System interconnection use of

major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a HVDC transmission link has not attracted much awareness

longer duration to return to its steady state value after the [4]. In power transmission systems, HVDC converters have

occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the the unique virtues of large capacity and fast controllability

current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI [18].

controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the

normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a In recent years, because of the development of power

significant role in maintaining the steady state current and electronics, an active role is played by HVDC transmission

voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique link based Voltage source converters (VSC), using self-

to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid commutated valves (IGBTs, IGCTs and GTOs) in improving

technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the the electricity transmission and distribution system [9]. VSC-

controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using HVDC system is one of the most modern HVDC technologies,

different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. and it incorporates two VSCs, one function as a rectifier and

To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy the other as an inverter [8].

gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural

network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By In power distribution and transmission systems, line to

experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method ground, line to line, double line to ground, and three-phase to

takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The ground are the possible faults [11]. The literature presents lot

implementation results show that the performance of the of fault detection techniques. The method based on the

proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self sequence components of the fundamental frequency of the

tuning techniques. post-fault current and voltage is an example for this [14]. A

general Fault Detection and Diagnostic scheme consists of two

Keywords- fuzzy logic; HVDC; neural network; fuzzy rules; phases, namely symptom generation and diagnosis [1]. So as

proportional and integral gain. to accomplish this, by executing modern control strategies the

I. INTRODUCTION power system must be maintained at the preferred operating

level [7]. Contemporary controls which are based on Artificial

Presently, due to economic, environmental, and political Neural Network, Fuzzy system and Genetic algorithm are

limitations which hinder the erection of large power plants and found to be quick, and reliable. Hence, they can be employed

high voltage lines, increasing the power system capacity is for protection against the line faults [13].

often difficult. Hence, to solve the above issues new solutions

are sought. One of the most promising solutions suggests the Generally, the controller is tuned adaptively to perform the

replacement of conventional HVAC transmission technologies controlling effectively. However, because a single technique is

by targeted deployment of HVDC (High Voltage Direct deployed for this purpose, the effectiveness remains a

Current) ones [1]. Of late, there has been a significant increase challenge as the necessity and complexity of HVDC system

in the HVDC systems that interconnect large power systems peaks. To overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose a

offering many technical and economic benefits [2]. hybrid technique by means of which the PI controller that

controls the HVDC system is self tuned whenever a fault

HVDC is a proven technology and the features presented occurs. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section

by it have made it more alluring than AC transmission for II reviews the related works briefly and section III details the

certain applications for example long submarine cable links proposed technique with sufficient mathematical models and

and interconnection of asynchronous systems [1]. Fixed gains illustrations. Section IV discusses implementation results and

PI controllers are commonly used by HVDC systems [3]. The Section V concludes the paper.

operating in which a HVDC system can be designed are

bipolar mode; mono-polar metallic return and mono-polar II. RELATED WORKS

ground return modes [5]. Charging the capacitance of a Chi-Hshiung Lin [22] has discussed the difference between

transmission line with alternating voltage is not necessary for two faults in an HVDC link. A misfire fault in the rectifier

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valve and inverter valve are the two faults that have been transmission capacity and enhanced stability of the AC

compared. A dynamic simulation analysis has disclosed that network, when it is linked to a very weak AC system.

the resultant phenomena are not the same. A misfire fault in

the rectifier valve creates a substantial torsional torque in a Bandarabadi et al. [9] have discussed the fault-ride through

turbine generator adjoining the inverter station whenever the capability improvement possibility through utilization of VSC-

natural torsional modes are disrupted by the power disturbance HVDC link to transmission network in connection of 160 MW

which it induces on the rectifier side of system frequency. wind farm. 80 individual 2 MW permanent magnet

Conversely, a misfire fault in an inverter valve attempts to synchronous generators that comprise the 160 MW wind farm

create commutation breakdown in converters which in turn has been divided into 4 groups with 40 MW nominal powers.

causes HVDC link failure. HVDC link failure if it happens At the time of wind speed fluctuations and after repairing the

radically affects the rectifier and inverter sides of the grid side faults the voltage at the transmission network

generator. terminal has to be re-instituted with reduced power losses.

Supporting the voltage of transmission network side has also

Vinod Kumar et al. [23] have presented a HVDC been vital for the VSC-HVDC at the time of short circuit

transmission system which operates with speed and precision faults in the main grid which is also called as fault ride-

in a weak ac system and they have analyzed the control through capability improvement. Both uneven speed

strategy and performance of this system, which has been operations in wind farm network and fault ride-through

controlled by employing fuzzy. Under oscillations and huge capability improvement in transmission network have been

deviations of the input power, the system has been capable of stressed by the proposed technique. By means of simulation

feeding a weak or even dead network. The competence of the carried out in the PSCAD/EMTDC software, the behavior of

link under a variety of disturbances was optimized with the the wind farm, transmission voltage and dc voltage for diverse

help of the fuzzy logic-based control of the system. changes in wind speed and three-phase short circuit fault have

Fundamental building blocks that exist in a typical HVDC been studied. The simulation results have proved the

system have been made available by the proposed model for performance of the connection method and the improvement

use by individual users to build their own models. For in the fault ride- through capability.

synchronizing the firing pulses to the HVDC converter, the

DQ-type of phase-locked-loop presented has been a specific Khatir Mohamed et al. [26] have presented the steady-state

contribution of the proposed method. Supplying a clean and dynamic performances obtained during step changes of

sinusoidal synchronizing voltage from a contaminated and the active and reactive powers, balanced and unbalanced faults

harmonic imprecise commutation voltage has been made in a HVDC transmission system that is based on VSC. It has

possible by this gate-firing unit. The capability of the proposed been shown that fast and satisfactory dynamic responses of the

fuzzy logic based HVDC system to operate steadily and proposed system have been provided by the proposed control

recover steadily in case of short circuit faults, and its obvious strategies in all cases. It has been evident from the simulation,

merits have been proved by PSCAD/EMTDC based that the VSC-HVDC is capable of performing fast and bi-

simulations. directional power transfer. It has also been evident that, except

for a small fluctuation, the transmitted power can be kept

Mohamed Khatir et al. [24] have discussed that the relative constant at the time of a single-phase fault. Conversely, at the

strength of the AC system which connects a HVDC link time of a three-phase fault, the power flow by the DC link has

considerably affects its functioning. Yet, the relative strength been significantly reduced by the voltage at the converter

of the AC system compared to the capacity of the DC link has terminals. There has been a quick recovery to usual operation

a major effect on the interaction between the AC and DC after the fault has been cleared.

systems and the problems connected with it. In an HVDC

inverter following AC system fault in line commutated Lidong zhang et al.[27] have presented a control method of

thyristor inverter feeding a weak AC system, the effect of the grid-connected voltage-source converters (VSCs). This

DC control on recovery from AC system fault produced method has been expected to be of most significance in high-

commutation failures has been investigated by the proposed voltage dc (HVDC) applications, though it can be usually

method. The study system has been subjected to the AC applied for all grid-connected VSCs. The proposed method

has made use of the internal synchronization mechanism in ac

system fault known as Single phase ground fault. Using

MATLAB Simulink, simulation studies have been performed. systems, in principle, similar to the operation of a synchronous

machine which is different from the preceding control

Mohamed Khatir et al. [25] have discussed that HVDC methods. By employing this type of power-synchronization

converter topology type capacitor commutated converter control the instability due to a standard phase-locked loop in a

(CCC) are suitable for utilization in long distance transmission weak ac-system connection has been prevented by the VSC.

via cables. The proposed method has the potential to be Furthermore, a VSC terminal has been capable of providing

employed in HVDC transmission across large bodies of water. strong voltage support to weak ac system like a normal

The proposed technology of the Capacitor Commutated synchronous machine. By analytical models and time

Converters (CCC) has been presented and its advantages in simulations the control method has been proved.

high power transmission have been illustrated. By employing

PSCAD/EMTDC the transient performance evaluations has III. NEURO-FUZZY SELF TUNING PI CONTROLLER IN HVDC

been presented. From the primary CIGRE HVDC Benchmark In this paper, for tuning PI controller parameters in HVDC

model the system has been derived. The results have revealed system both normal and abnormal conditions are considered.

the enhanced performance of a CCC link in terms of increased During normal condition the current remains at its reference

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value and when a fault occurs in the system, the current value integral gain as the output. By using this proportional and

increases and at that moment the PI controller parameters are integral gain, the controller parameters are adjusted and makes

tuned and this makes the current to remain at its reference current to remain stable.

value. Here we use a hybrid technique to tune the PI controller

parameters in HVDC. First the error and rate values are A. System Model

calculated from the current value and they are given as input HVDC system model considered in our method is shown

to the fuzzy logic and the fuzzy logic produces a combined in Figure 1. HVDC systems are commonly used for long

gain as the output. The fuzzy gain is given as the input to the distance transmission and its major problem is due to the fault

neural network which in turn gives the proportional and that occurs in the system.

The faults considered in our system are where, I ref is the reference current, I m is the measured

i. Single Line to Ground fault current, ∆T is the sampling rate, ∆I pv is the previous value

ii. Line to Line fault of error, and G1 , G 2 are the gains for normalization.

i. Single line to Ground fault By using the formulas the error and rate are calculated and

The single line to ground fault is a very common fault in these calculated values are given as input to the fuzzy logic.

HVDC systems. During this fault the current value gets

increased and the corresponding voltage decreases. B. Obtaining Fuzzy Gain

ii. Line to Line fault The fuzzy logic is used here, to obtain the combined gain.

The line to line fault occurs between two transmission The current error and rate are the inputs given to the fuzzy

lines. This fault is one of the common faults that occur in logic for rectifier pole controller and inverter controller and its

overhead transmission lines. output is the combined gain.

When a fault occurs in the system the current value The error and rate are given as input to the fuzzy logic and

increases and due to this increased current more problems the combined gain is obtained as its output. For obtaining this

occur in the system. To control this current we used a hybrid fuzzy logic, the generation of fuzzy rules and training are

technique which is a combination of fuzzy logic and neural important processes and these processes are explained in

network. The fuzzy logic is trained by giving error and rate section III.E and III.F respectively. By giving any value of

values are given as its input. error and rate as input to the fuzzy the related combined gain

can be got as its output. When the current value changes the

The error and rate values always depend on the current. If combined gain also changes accordingly. Then, the fuzzy

the current value is normal then the error is zero and if current output is given as an input to the neural network and the

increases the error also increases. The error and rate are proportional and integral gain are obtained from the neural

calculated by using the equations given below. network as outputs. Based on the change in the combined gain

that is given as input to the neural network, the proportional

∆ I dc = I ref − I m (1) and integral gain values will change.

• (∆I dc − ∆I pv ) C. Obtaining PI Controller Parameters from Neural Network

∆ Ι dc = (2) Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are excellent tools for

∆T complex manufacturing processes that have many variables

E = G1 ⋅ (∆I dc ) (3) and complex interactions. Basically, neural network consists

R = G 2 ⋅ (∆I&dc ) (4) of three layers, namely input layer, hidden layer and output

layer. In our model, input layer has one variable, hidden layer

has n variables and output layer has two variables.

The configuration of the network used is shown in Figure

2.

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inverter sides of the HVDC system are considered. In inverter

side the maximum fault current for line to ground fault is 2

KA and in line to line fault maximum fault current value is

2.5KA. In rectifier side the maximum fault current value is 1.5

KA for both single line to ground fault and line to line fault.

When a fault occurs in the system the current reaches its

maximum value and voltage becomes value. For maintaining

the current at its normal value the current value must be

reduced and voltage value must be increased. By using our

technique K p and K i values are adjusted, to make the

current reach its normal value. By using this method, when a

fault occurs in the system the current can be made to return to

its normal value within a fraction of a second.

Figure 2. Single input and two output neural networks to obtain proportional

and integral gain E. Generation of Fuzzy Rules

For training the fuzzy logic, training data set and fuzzy

The input to the neural network is the fuzzy gain and its

rules are generated. The faults which are considered for

outputs are proportional and integral gain. For operation, the

training fuzzy logic are line to line fault and line to ground

neural network must be trained using a training data set. The

fault in both rectifier and inverter side. By considering these

training of neural network is explained in section III.F. Once

faults the input variables are selected and based on that the

the network is trained a general model is created for the

training data set for fuzzy logic is generated. Inputs are

relationship between its input and output. So, when the

fuzzified in to three sets i.e.; large, medium and small and

combined gain value is given as an input to the network the

outputs are very large, large, medium, small and very small.

related proportional and integral gain will be got as the output.

The membership grades are taken as triangular and

By using this technique, the PI controller parameters are symmetrical. Fuzzy rules are generated by considering both

tuned automatically and the current is made to remain stable, normal and abnormal conditions.

even if any fault occurs in the system it returns to its stable

For different combination of input variables the generated

value in a short time.

fuzzy rules are shown in table I. After generating fuzzy rules

D. Fault Clearance the next step is to train the fuzzy logic.

During normal condition, current will remain in its steady

TABLE 1. FUZZY RULES

state value and so when the function checks the value, it

decides that no change is necessary in the system. When a Sl.no Fuzzy rules

fault occurs in the system the current will increase suddenly. 1 if, E=large and R=large, then G=very large

This time when the function checks the current value, it 2 if, E=large and R=medium, then G=large

identifies the increase in current and calls our technique. By 3 if, E=large and R=small, then G=small

using our technique, the error and rate values are calculated 4 if, E=medium and R=large, then G=large

from the current value and they are given as input to the fuzzy

5 if, E=medium and R=medium, then

logic. By giving error and rate values as an input to the fuzzy

G=medium

logic we get fuzzy gain as the output. This gain value is given

as input to the neural network and the neural network gives 6 if, E=medium and R=small, then G=large

proportional and integral gain as output. By using the 7 if, E=small and R=large, then G=small

proportional and integral gain from the neural network the 8 if, E=small and R=medium, then G=large

current values are calculated using the equation given below. 9 if, E=small and R=small, then G=very small

I out = K p e + K I ∫0edt (5) training data set. This training data set is generated by

calculating error and rate values for different current values.

To perform the process, a current dataset I is generated within

where, I out is the output of the PI controller. After the current limit [ I max , I min ] . The elements of current

calculating the current values the function checks whether the dataset are given by

steady state value of current is reached or not. If the current

I = {I min , I min + I T , I min + 2 I T , L , I max } where, I T is a

has reached the steady state value then the function stops its

process. If the current has not reached the steady state value threshold to generate elements in a periodic interval. For every

then the function will repeat the process by calculating the current value the error and rate values are calculated. By using

error and rate values again and give them as input to the fuzzy. the calculated values fuzzy data set is generated. By using the

This process continues until the current reaches the steady generated data set the fuzzy logic training process is

state values i.e., until error value reaches zero. performed.

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The first process for training the neural network is the Step 3: Determine the output at the output layer of the

generation of training data set. Training dataset is generated network.

for training neural network with different combinations of

fuzzy gain, proportional and integral gain. For generating Step 4: Determine the value of and using the actual

training dataset set of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and output of the network.

integral gain are selected and this dataset is used for training

the neural network. After generating the training data set, the Step 5: Repeat the iteration process till the output reaches

network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. its least value.

The neural network is trained using generated data set. For Once the training is completed, the network is ready to

training neural network back propagation algorithm is used tune the control parameters of PI controller and when fuzzy

and steps for training neural network are explained below in gain changes the network output also changes to maintain the

detail. current within the normal range.

The training steps are given as follows: IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Step 1: Initialize the input weight of each neuron. The proposed technique was implemented in the working

platform of MATLAB 7.10 and its operation was simulated.

1.a 1.b

1.c

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2.a 2.b

2.c

3.a 3.b

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3.c

Figure 3. Performance comparison between (1) conventional, (2) the fuzzy-based and (3) the hybrid PI controller self tuning technique in clearing single line to

ground fault at inverter.

1.a 1.b

1.c

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2.a 2.b

2.c

3.a 3.b

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3.c

Figure 4. Performance comparison between (1) conventional, (2) the fuzzy-based and (3) the hybrid PI controller self tuning technique in clearing line-to-line fault

at inverter.

1.a 1.b

2.a 2.b

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3.a 3.b

Figure 5. Performance comparison between (1) conventional, (2) the fuzzy-based and (3) the hybrid PI controller self tuning technique in clearing single line-to-

ground fault at rectifier.

1.a 1.b

2.a 2.b

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3.a 3.b

Figure 6. Performance comparison between (1) conventional, (2) the fuzzy-based and (3) the hybrid PI controller self tuning technique in clearing dc line-to-line

fault at rectifier.

Only the technique was implemented by MATLAB coding HVDC Transmiissiion Systems: An example from NE India", Journal

and the model and its operation were considered from [28]. Earth Science India, Vol.2, No.4, pp.249 - 257, Oct.2009.

[6] C.Srinivasa Rao, Z.Naghizadeh and S.Mahdavi, ”Improvement of

The performance of the proposed technique was compared dynamic performance of hydrothermal system under open market

with the conventional self tuning technique and fuzzy-based scenario using asynchronous tie-lines”, World Journal of Modeling and

self tuning technique. From the results, it is evident that the Simulation, Vol.4, No.2, pp.153-160, 2008.

proposed technique takes considerably less time to stabilize [7] S.Ramesh and A.Krishnan, "Fuzzy Rule Based Load Frequency Control

in a Parallel AC – DC Interconnected Power Systems through HVDC

the system than the other existing techniques with which it Link", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.1, No.4, pp.

was compared. 62-69, 2010.

[8] Mohamed Khatir,Sid Ahmed Zidi, Samir Hadjeri ,Mohammed Karim

V. CONCLUSION Fellah, ”Dynamic Performance Of a Back–To–Back HVDC Station

Based on Voltage Source Converters”, Journal of Electrical Engineering,

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the parameters of the PI controller in a HVDC system, was [9] Hanif. Livani, Mohsen. Bandarabadi, Yosef. Alinejad, Saeed. Lesan and

proposed. Faults which are considered in our system are line Hossein. Karimi-Davijani, "Improvement of Fault Ride-Through

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[10] Uma Vani M, "Damping effects of Supplementary Control Signals for

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low compared to conventional methods and fuzzy based self [12] Alberto Borghtti,Mauro Bosetti,Mauro Disilvestro,Carlo Alberto

tuning methods. Thus it was proved the proposed technique Nucci,Mario Pauloni,Lorenzo Peretto,Elisa Scalla and Roberto

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[13] Ioana Fagarasan and S.St.Iliescu, "Applications of Fault Detection

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of Magnetotellluriic Technique in selection of Earth Electrode Sites for

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

[18] S.Todd, A.R.Wood and P.S.Bodger, "An s-domain model of an HVDC Receiving AC Network”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 60,

converter", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, No.4, pp.209–214, 2009.

pp.1723-1729, Oct. 1997. [26] Khatir Mohamed, Zidi Sid Ahmed, Hadjeri Samir, Fellah Mohammed

[19] S.Ganapathy and S.Velusami, "Design of MOEA based Decentralized Karim and Amiri Rabie, “Performance Analysis of a Voltage Source

Load-Frequency Controllers for Interconnected Power Systems with Converter (VSC) based HVDC Transmission System under Faulted

AC-DC Parallel Tie-lines", International Journal of Recent Trends in Conditions”, Leonardo Journal of Sciences, Vol.8, No.15, pp.33-46,

Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp.357-361, Nov 2009. July-December 2009.

[20] S. B. Warkad,Dr. M. K. Khedkar and Dr. G. M. Dhole, "Impact of

HVDC Transmission on Optimal Electricity Nodal Prices: A study in [27] Lidong zhang, Lennart Harnefors and Hans-Peter Nee, "Power-

India", International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, Synchronization Control of Grid-Connected Voltage-Source

No.1, March 2009. Converters", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.25, No.2,

pp.809-820, May 2010.

[21] Asplund, "Sustainable energy systems with HVDC transmission", in

proceedings of IEEE General Meeting of Power Engineering Society, [28] Aurobinda Routray, P. K. Dash, and Sanjeev K. Panda, “A Fuzzy Self-

Vol.2, pp.2299-2303, June 2004. Tuning PI Controller for HVDC Links”, IEEE Transactions on Power

Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 5, p.p. 669-679, 1996.

[22] Chi-Hshiung Lin, “Phenomena Caused by a Misfire Fault in an HVDC

Converter Valve and the Impact on a Turbine Generator”, Journal of

Technology, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 93-100, 2008. A.Srujana received the B.Tech Degree in Electrical Engineering from

[23] Vinod Kumar, Joshi, Garg and Bansal, “Intelligent Controller Based Kakatiya University ,Warangal,India in 1998.She received her M.Tech Degree

Improved Fault Ride- through Capability of HVDC System Connected in Electrical Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

to Weak ac Grid”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Hyderabad in 2002 .Currently she is persuing Ph.D from the same University

Technology, Vol.4, No.3, pp.203-211, March 2008 under the guidance of Dr S.V.Jayaram Kumar. Her research interests include

Power Electronics and HVDC.

[24] Mohamed Khatir, Sid Ahmed Zidi, Samir Hadjeri and Mohammed

Karim Fellah, “Analysis Of Recovery from Commutation Failures in an

HVDC Inverter Connected to a Weak Receiving ac System”, Acta Dr S.V.Jayaram Kumar received the M.E degree in Electrical Engineering

Electrotechnica et Informatica, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 44–50, 2008. from Andhra University ,Vishakapatnam ,India in 1979.He received the Ph.D

[25] Mohamed Khatir, Sid-Ahmed Zidi, Mohammed-Karim Fellah, Samir degree in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology ,Kanpur

Hadjeri and Rabie Amiri, “Performance Evaluation of an HVDC Link ,in 2000Currently ,he is a Professor at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological

with a Capacitor Commutated Inverter Connected to a Very Weak University Hyderabad .His research interests include FACTS & Power System

Dynamics.

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