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Reg. No.



Sub: Electrical Machines Sub. Code: EI 2201

Branch: Common to EIE&ICE Semester : III
Duration: 3 Hours Max.Marks: 100
Note: Answer All Questions

Part A 10x2=20 MARKS

1. Define back emf.

When a motor rotates, the conductors housed in the armature also rotate
and cut the magnetic lines of force. So an emf is induced in the armature
conductors and this induced emf opposes the supply voltage as per Lenz’s
law. This induced emf is called back emf (or) counter emf.

2. What is the purpose of yoke in a d.c machine?

 It acts as a protecting cover for the whole machine and provides
mechanical support for the poles.
 It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles. The flux per pole
divides at the yoke so that; the yoke carries only half the flux produced
by each pole.

3. Why transformer rating is expressed in terms of kVA?

Copper loss depends on current and iron loss depends upon voltage.
Hence the total loss in a transformer depends upon volt-ampere(VA) only and
not on the phase angle between voltage and current i.e, it is independent of
load power factor.

4. Define regulation and efficiency of transformer.

The regulation of a transformer is defined as reduction in magnitude of the
terminal voltage due to load, with respect to no load terminal voltage.
5. What is mean by hunting in synchronous motor?
To reduce hunting, damping grids are employed. Damper windings are
short circuited, copper bars are placed in the pole faces of the field poles of
the motor.

6. What is synchronous condenser?

An over excited synchronous motor running without any mechanical load
used specifically for power factor correction is known as synchronous

7. Why the slots on the rotor of induction motors are usually skewed?
The slots on the rotor of an induction motor are usually skewed in order
to obtain a uniform torque, reduce the magnetic locking of the stator and rotor
and reduce the magnetic humming noise while running.

8. Why airgap length is minimum in an induction motor?

 To reduce the magnetizing current which s required to set up the flux.
 To improve the power factor.

9. Mention the application of hysteresis motor.

Due to quiet operation and ability to drive high inertia loads, hysteresis
motors are used for driving i. electric clocks, ii. timing devices, iii. tape recorder
and other precision equipment.

10.List the various methods of speed control of universal motor.

 Resistance method
 Tapping field method
 Centrifugal Mechanism

Part B 5x16=80 MARKS

11. a. Draw and explain the construction of DC motor. (16 Marks)

b. Draw and explain characteristics of DC machines. (16 Marks)
Series Generator Shunt Generator
Compound Generator

Series Motor

Shunt Motor

Compound Motor
12. a.i. With neat sketch explain the construction of transformer.
(8 Marks)
ii. Derive the approximate equivalent circuit of transformer.
(8 Marks)

Z01 Z02
b. Find the approximate equivalent circuit of a single phase
400/4400V transformer having the following test readings.
O.C. test: 400V, 5.2A, 600 W on LV side
S.C. test: 155V, 50A, 1850W on HV side. (16 Marks)

13. a. Find the no load phase and line voltages of a star connected 3
phase, 6 pole alternator which runs at 1200rpm having flux per
pole of 0.1wb sinusoidally distributed. The stator has 54 slots
having double layer winding. Each coil has 8 turns and the coil
is chorded by one slot. (16 Marks)
b.i. Derive the induced emf equation of synchronous machines.
(8 Marks)
ii. Explain the different types of torque in synchronous motor.
(8 Marks)
1. Starting torque
2. Running torque
3. Pull-in torque
4. Pull-out torque

14. a. Explain the various speed control methods of three phase

induction motor. (16 Marks)
Speed control from stator side:
1.stator voltage control
2.stator frequency control
3.pole changing method
Speed control from rotor side:
1.Adding external resistance in the rotor circuit
2.cascade control
3.slip power recovery scheme
i. Kramer system
ii. Scherbius system

Rotor rheostat control

Cascade or concatenation or tandem operation

Scherbius system
Kramer system
b. i. Draw the diagram of an auto transformer starter used for
three phase induction motor and explain its operation.
(8 Marks)

Auto transformer starter

ii. With neat sketch, explain the constructional details of three

phase induction motor. (8 Marks)


Slip ring rotor

Squirrel-cage rotor
15. a.i. Explain the double revolving field theory for operation of single
phase induction motor. (8 Marks)
ii. Describe the construction and working of capacitor start
capacitor run induction motor. (8 Marks)

 High starting torque
 High efficiency
 High power factor
It is mainly used for low noise and high starting torque applications, such as
 Compressors
 Pumps
 Conveyors
 Refrigerators

b. Explain the various methods of repulsion type motor.
(16 Marks)
The repulsion type motor can be classified as follows,

1. Repulsion Motor: It consists of one stator winding, one rotor which is wound
like a d.c armature, commutator and a set of brushes. It operates continuously on
the repulsion principle. No short circuiting mechanism is required for this type of
2. Compensated Repulsion Motor: It is similar to repulsion motor except it carries
an additional stator winding called compensated winding and there is another set
of two brushes which are placed in between the usual short circuited brush set.
The compensated winding and this added set are connected in series.

3. Repulsion Start Induction Motor: This motor starts as a repulsion motor but run
normally as an induction motor with constant speed characteristics. It consists of
one stator winding, one rotor which is similar to the wire wound d.c armature, a
commutator and a centrifugal mechanism which short circuits all the commutator
bars when the motor reaches nearly 75% of full speed.

4. Repulsion Induction Motor: It works on the combined principle of repulsion

and induction. It consists of stator winding, two rotor windings i.e, one squirrel
cage and other usual d.c winding connected to the commutator and a short
circuited set of two brushes.