Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM

S.No. CONTENTS Page

1. Reproduction in organism-I 1
2. Exercise 8
3. Reproduction in organism-II 9
4. Exercise 13

N
0
-2
E
19
20
LL
n
io
ss
Se
A

E
NEET SYLLABUS
REPRODUCTION : Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation
of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation,
budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
A
Se
LL
ss
io
E n
20 N
19
-2
0
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM-I
• The period from birth to the natural death of an organism represents its life span.

• Life spans of organisms are not necessarily correlated with their sizes; the sizes of crows and parrots are not
very different yet their life spans show a wide difference.

• Similarly, a mango tree has a much shorter life span as compared to a peepal tree. Whatever be the life span,
death of every individual organism is a certainty, i.e., no individual is immortal, except single-celled organisms.

N
Elephant (65-90 years)
Rose (5-7 years)

0
-2
E
19
Dog (20-30 years) Butter fly (1-2 weeks) Crow (15 years)

20
LL
n
io

Banana tree (20-25 years) Cow (15-25 years) Parrot (140 years)
ss
Se
A
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

Crocodile (60 years) Horse (62 years) Fruit fly (about 20-30 days)

Rice plant (3-4 months) Tortoise (100-150 years) Banyan tree (200-300 years)
Approximate life spans of some organisms

E 1
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
• Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offspring) similar
to itself. The offspring grow, mature and in turn produce new offspring. Thus, there is a cycle of birth, growth
and death.
• Reproduction enables the continuity of the species, generation after generation.
• The organism’s habitat, its internal physiology and several other factors are collectively responsible for how it
reproduces.
• When offspring is produced by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation, the
reproduction is asexual. When two parents (opposite sex) participate in the reproductive process and also involve
fusion of male and female gametes, it is called sexual reproduction.
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

• In this method, a single individual (parent) is capable of producing offspring. As a result, the offspring that are
produced are not only identical to one another but are also exact copies of their parent.
Are these offspring likely to be genetically identical or different? Answer will be genetically identical.
• The term clone is used to morphologically and genetically similar individuals

N
• Many single-celled organisms (monerans and protists) reproduce by binary fission.
• Member of kingdom fungi and algae reproduce through special asexual reproductive structures called zoospores.

0
• Conidia (Penicillum) buds (Hydra) and gemmules (sponge) are other common asexual reprodutive structures.

-2
E Eyes Germinating eye bud
Nodes

19
Young plant Buds

Roots
20
LL
n
Adventitious
Root
io

(a) Potato
(b) Ginger
ss
Se

Adventitious buds
A

Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

Offset

(d) Bryophyllum (e) Eichhornia

(c) Agave

Vegetative propagules in angiosperms : (a) Eyes of potato; (b) Rhizome of ginger;


(c) Bulbil of Agave; (d) Leaf buds of Bryophyllum; (e) Offset of water hyacinth (Eichhornia)

2 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
• The fleshy bud which produces new plants in hydrophytes is called Turion.

• Is vegetative reproduction also a type of asexual reproduction? Answer will be yes.


• Is the term clone applicable to the offspring formed by vegetative reproduction? Answer will be yes.

• While in animals and other simple organisms the term asexual is used unambiguously, in plants, the term
vegetative reproduction is frequently used.

• In plants, the units of vegetative propagation such as runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb are all
capable of giving rise to new offspring. These structures are called vegetative propagules.

• ‘Water hyacinth’ (Terror of Bengal) which is one of the most invasive weeds found growing wherever there
is standing water. It drains oxygen from the water, which leads to death of fishes.
• This plant was introduced in India because of its beautiful flowers and shape of leaves. Since it can propagate
vegetatively at a phenomenal rate and spread all over the water body in a short period of time, it is very difficult
to get rid off them.

N
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

• Sexual reproduction involves formation of the male and female gametes, either by the same individual or by

0
different individuals of the opposite sex. These gametes fuse to form the zygote which develops to form the

-2
new organism. It is an elaborate, complex and slow process as compared to asexual reproduction.
E
19
• Because of the fusion of male and female gametes, sexual reproduction results in offspring that are not identical
to the parents or amongst themselves.

• 20
A study of diverse organisms–plants, animals or fungi–show that though they differ so greatly in external
morphology, internal structure and physiology, when it comes to sexual mode of reproduction, surprisingly, they
LL
share a similar pattern. Let us first discuss what features are common to these diverse organisms.
n
• All organisms have to reach a certain stage of growth and maturity in their life, before they can reproduce sexually.
io

That period of growth is called the Juvenile phase. It is known as vegetative phase in plants. This phase
is of variable durations in different organisms.
ss

• In some plants, where flowering occurs more than once, what would you call the inter-flowering period – juvenile
or mature? Answer will be mature.
Se
A

• Plants–the annual and biennial types, show clear cut vegetative, reproductive and senescent phases,
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

but in the perennial species it is very difficult to clearly define these phases.

• A few plants exhibit unusual flowering phenomenon; some of them such as bamboo species flower only once
in their life time, generally after 50-100 years, produce large number of fruits and die.

• Another plant, Strobilanthus kunthiana (neelakuranji), flowers once in 12 years. As many of you would
know, this plant flowered during September-October 2006. Its mass flowering transformed large tracks of hilly
areas in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu into blue stretches and attracted a large number of tourists.

• The end of reproductive phase can be considered as one of the parameters of senescence or old age.

• There are concomitant changes in the body (like slowing of metabolism, etc.) during this last phase of life span.
Old age ultimately leads to death.

E 3
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
• In both plants and animals, hormones are responsible for the transitions between the three phases.
Interaction between hormones and certain environmental factors regulate the reproductive processes and the
associated behavioural expressions of organisms.

• Events in sexual reproduction : After attainment of maturity, all sexually reproducing organisms exhibit events
and processes that have remarkable fundamental similarity, even though the structures associated with sexual
reproduction are indeed very different.

• The events of sexual reproduction though elaborate and complex, follow a regular sequence.
Gametogenesis
• PRE-FERTILISATION EVENTS
Gamete transfer
• Gametogenesis
Gametogenesis refers to the process of formation of the two types of gametes – male and female. Gametes
are haploid cells.
• In some algae the two gametes are so similar in appearance that it is not possible to categorise them into male
and female gametes.

N
• They are hence called homogametes (isogametes). However, in a majority of sexually reproducing organisms
the gametes produced are of two morphologically distinct types (heterogametes).

0
-2
E
19
20
LL
n
(a) (b) (c)
io

Types of gametes: (a) Isogametes of Cladophora (an alga); (b) Heterogametes of Fucus (an alga);
(c) Heterogametes of Homo sapiens (Human beings)
ss

• Sexual reproduction in organisms generally involves the fusion of gametes from two different individuals. But
Se

this is not always true.


A

• In several fungi and plants, terms such as homothallic and monoecious are used to denote the bisexual
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

condition and heterothallic and dioecious are the terms used to describe unisexual condition.
• In flowering plants, the unisexual male flower is staminate, i.e., bearing stamens, while the female is pistillate
or bearing pistils.
• In some flowering plants, both male and female flowers may be present on the same individual (monoecious)
or on separate individuals (dioecious).
• Some examples of monoecious plants are cucurbits and coconuts and of dioecious plants are papaya
and date palm.
Special point :-
• A haploid parent produces gametes by mitotic division.
• Several organisms belonging to monera, fungi, algae and bryophytes have haploid plant body, but in organisms
belonging to pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms and most of the animals including human beings, the
parental body is diploid.
4 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN

Oogonium (nucule)
(female sex organ)

Antheridium (Globule)
(male sex organ)
(a)

Antheridiophore
Archegoniophore
Stamen

N
Carpel

0
-2
E (c)

19
Female thallus (b) Male thallus

20
Diversity of sexuality in organisms (a) Monoecious plant (Chara);
LL
(b) Dioecious plant (Marchantia); (c) Bisexual flower (sweet potato)
n
Table : Chromosome Numbers in Meiocytes (diploid, 2n) and Gametes (haploid, n) of Some Organisms.
io

Name of organism Chromosome number in meiocyte (2n) Chromosome number in gamete (n)
ss

Human beings 46 23
House fly 12* 6
Se

Rat 42 21
A

Dog 78 39
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

Cat 38 19
Fruit fly 8* 4
Ophioglossum (a fern) 1260 630
Apple 34 17
Rice 24 12
Maize 20 10
Potato 48 24
Butterfly 380* 190
Onion 16 8

E 5
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
Gamete transfer :

• In a majority of organisms, male gamete is motile and the female gamete is stationary.

• In angiosperms and in red algae both male and female gametes are non-motile.

• In several simple plants like algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes, water is the medium through which this
gamete transfer takes place. A large number of the male gametes, however, fail to reach the female gametes.
To compensate this loss of male gametes during transport, the number of male gametes produced is several
thousand times the number of female gametes.

• In bisexual, self-fertilising plants, e.g., peas, transfer of pollen grains to the stigma is relatively easy as
anthers and stigma are located close to each other; pollen grains soon after they are shed, come in
contact with the stigma. But in cross pollinating plants (including dioecious plants), a specialised event called
pollination facilitates transfer of pollen grains to the stigma. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma and the pollen
tubes carrying the male gametes reach the ovule and discharge male gametes near the egg.

FERTILISATION

N
• The most vital event of sexual reproduction is perhaps the fusion of gametes. This process called syngamy
results in the formation of a diploid zygote. The term fertilisation is also often used for this process. The terms
syngamy and fertilisation are frequently used though, interchangeably.

0
• Where does syngamy occur? In most aquatic organisms, such as a majority of algae and fishes as well as amphibians,

-2
syngamy occurs in the external medium (water), i.e., outside the body of the organism. This type of gametic
E
fusion is called external fertilisation.

19
• In many terrestrial organisms, belonging to fungi, higher animals such as reptiles, birds, mammals and in a majority
of plants (bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms), syngamy occurs inside the body
of the organism, hence the process is called internal fertilisation. In all these organisms, egg is formed
inside the female body where they fuse with the male gamete.
20
LL
• In organisms (eg. bryophytes and pteriodphytes) exhibiting internal fertilisation, the male gamete is motile and
has to reach the egg in order to fuse with it. In these even though the number of sperms produced is very large,
n
there is a significant reduction in the number of eggs produced.
io

• In seed plants, however, the non-motile male gametes are carried to non-motile female gamete by
ss

pollen tubes.

• The female gamete undergoes development to form new organism without fertilisation this phenomenon is called
Se

parthenogenesis.
A

Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

POST FERTILIZATION EVENTS :-

Events in sexual reproduction after the formation of zygote are caused post fertilization events.

The Zygote :-

• Formation of the diploid zygote is universal in all sexually reproducing organisms. In organisms with
external fertilisation, zygote is formed in the external medium (usually water), whereas in those exhibiting internal
fertilisation, zygote is formed inside the body of the organism.

• In organisms belonging to fungi and algae, zygote develops a thick wall that is resistant to
dessication and damage. It undergoes a period of rest before germination.

• Zygote is the vital link that ensures continuity of species between organisms of one generation and the next.

6 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
EMBRYOGENESIS

• Embryogenesis refers to the process of development of embryo from the zygote. During embryogenesis,
zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) and cell differentiation. While cell divisions increase the number of
cells in the developing embryo; cell differentiation helps groups of cells to undergo certain modifications to form
specialised tissues and organs to form an organism.

• In flowering plants, the zygote is formed inside the ovule. After fertilisation the sepals, petals and stamens
of the flower wither and fall off. The pistil however, remain attached to the plant. The zygote develops
into the embryo and the ovules develop into the seed. The ovary develops into the fruit.

N
P
S S
P S P

0
P

-2
E
19
A few kinds of fruit showing seeds (S) and protective pericarp(P)
20
LL
n
io
ss
Se
A
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

E 7
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
EXERCISE-I (Conceptual Questions) Build Up Your Understanding
1. Cell division is itself a mode of reproduction in :- 6. Water hyacinth or Eichhornia is one of the
problematic weed of static water in India. Which of
(1) Protista & all fungi
the following statement is incorrect about it :-
(2) Protista only (1) It also known as 'Terror of Bengal'
(3) Monera fungi & higher plants (2) It is native plant of India
(4) Protista & Monera (3) It increases biological oxygen demand of water
body
2. Most common special asexual reproductive
structure seen in member of algae is :- (4) It spread rapidly through vegetative reproduction.
7. Select the odd one out with respect to life span
(1) Zoospore (2) Conidia
(1) Life span of organism are not correlated with
(3) Sporangia spore (4) Gemmule their size
3. Short horizontal branch which is one internode long (2) Crows and parrots show wide difference in their
and produces a cluster of leaves above and cluster life span
of roots below is called :- (3) Life span of rice is 3-4 weeks

N
(1) Stoton (2) Offset (4) It is the period between birth and natural death
(3) Rhizome (4) Bulbil of an organism.
8. Write down the name of fleshy bud that produces

0
4. Find out the incorrect statement :-
new plant in Agave
(1) Period from birth to natural death is called life

-2
span (1) Bulbil (2) Bulb (3) Rhizome (4) Offset
E
(2) Life span of an organism are necessarily 9. Match the following

19
correlated with their size Column-I Column-II
(3) Except single celled organism all other are mortal Plant Vegitative
(4) Reproduction enable the species generation after
generation (a) Turmeric
20 (i)
reproduction by
Stolon
LL
5. Regarding the reproduction which of the following (b) Crocus (ii) Rhizome
statement is correct :-
n
(c) Vallisneria (iii) Aerial shoot
(1) Asexual reproduction is common among
(d) Opuntia (iv) Corm
io

multicellular plants & animals


(1) a-(i), b-(iv), c-(iii), d-(ii) (2) a-(ii), b-(iv), c-(i), d-(iii)
(2) In monerans cell division itself a mode of
ss

reproduction (3) a-(iv), b-(ii), c-(iii), d-(i) (4) a-(ii), b-(i), c-(iv), d-(iii)
(3) Yeast undergo equal type cell division to produce 10. The fleshy bud which produces new plants in
hydrophytes is known as
Se

bud
(4) In fungi fission is most common method of asexual (1) Bulbil (2) Sucker (3) Turion (4) Runner
A

reproduction 11. Select the incorrect match :-


Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

(1) Asexual reproduction - Somatogenic reproduction


(2) Sexual reproduction - Fusion of gametes
(3) Vegetative propagation - Rhizome
(4) Clone - Morphologically similar, genetically
dissimilar

ANSWER KEY
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Ans. 4 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 4
8 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM-II
Life Span :-
Each and every organism can live only for a certain period of time.

* The period from birth to the natural death of an organism represents its life span.
* It may be as short as a few days or as long as a few thousand years.
* The life spans of organisms are not necessarily correlated with their sizes.

Reproduction :-
* It is a biological process in which an organism give rise to young ones (offspring) similar to itself.
* Reproduction enables the continuity of the species, generation after generation.

* The reproduction is of two types :


(A) Asexual (B) Sexual

N
(A) Asexual Reproduction :

* The production of offsprings by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation.

0
* The offsprings produced by asexual reproduction are identical and are also exact copies of their parent.

-2
* A group of genetically identical offspring produced from single parent is called clone.
E
19
Types :-
(i) Binary Fission : eg : Amoeba, Paramecium

20
LL
n
Daughter
cells
io

Nucleus
ss

(Binary fission in Amoeba)

(ii) Budding : eg : Hydra


Se
A

Hypostome Tentacles
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

Fully formed
bud
Bud

Rudimentary
tentacles

(Budding in Hydra)

E 9
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
(iii) Gemmule Formation : eg : Sponges

(Gemmule formation in Spong)


(B) Sexual Reproduction :-
* Sexual reproduction involves formation of the male and female gametes either by the same individual or by
different individuals of the opposite sex.

N
* These gametes fuse to form the zygote which develops to form the new organism.
* Because of the fusion of male and female gametes, sexual reproduction results in offspring that are not identical

0
to the parents or amongst themselves.

-2
* Different phases of life in sexual reproducing animals :
E
(a) Juvenile Phase :

19
* All organisms have to reach a certain stage of growth maturity in their life, before they can reproduce sexually.
* In animals, this period of growth is called the Juvenile phase, while in plants it is known as vegetative phase.
* This phase is of variable durations in different organisms. 20
LL
(b) Reproductive Phase :
* The end of juvenile phase is marked by the beginning of the next phase called reproductive phase.
n
* In animals, the juvenile phase is followed by morphological and physiological changes prior to active reproductive
io

behaviour.
* In several animals, including human beings, the reproductive maturity is marked by a number of changes that
ss

occur in their bodies.


* The reproductive phase is also of variable duration in different organisms.
Se

Breeding Seasons :-
A

* In most of animals do not breed throughout the year, instead they are seasonal breeders.
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

For instance; birds living in nature lays eggs only seasonally.


However, birds in captivity (as in poultry farms) can be made to lay eggs throughout the years by hormonal
treatment. In this case, egg laying is not related to reproduction but is a commercial exploitation for human
welfare.
* During reproductive phase, the females of placental mammals exhibit cyclical changes in the activities of
ovaries and accessory ducts as well as secretion of hormones.
* In non-primate mammals like cows, sheeps, rats, deers, dogs, tigers, etc. such cyclical changes during reproduction
are called Oestrus cycle where as in primates (monkeys, apes and humans) it is called menstrual cycle.
* Many mammals are reproductively active throughout their reproductive phase and hence are called continuous
breeders.

10 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
(c) Senescence (Aging) Phase :
* After reproductive maturity all organisms enter into a senescent phase.
* Senescence may be defined as the period between reproductive maturity and death of the organism.
* In both plants and animals, hormones are responsible for the transitions between the three phases.
* Interaction between hormones and certain environmental factors regulate the reproductive processes and the
associated behavioural expressions of organisms.
Events in sexual reproduction :
* Sexual reproduction is characterised by the fusion (or fertilisation) of the male and female gametes, the formation
of zygote and embryogenesis.
* For convenience these sequential events may be grouped into three distinct stages namely the pre-fertilisation;
fertilsation and the post-fertilisation events.
(1) Pre-fertilisation Events :
* The two main pre-fertilisation events are gametogenesis and gamete transfer.

N
(a) Gametogenesis :
* The process of formation of the two types of gametes-male and female.

0
* Gametes are haploid cells.

-2
Homogametes or isogametes :-
*
E
In some algae, the two gametes are so similar in appearance that it is not possible to categorise them into male

19
and female gametes, called homogamgetes or isogametes.
Heterogametes :-
*
20
In a majority of sexually reproducing organisms the gametes produced are of two morphologically distinct types.
LL
* In majority of animal species, the individuals are either male or female such animals are called unisexual.
n
eg : Human, Monkey, Cockroach etc.
io

* Some animal species possess both male and female reproductive organs such animals are termed bisexual
or hermaphrodites.
ss

eg : Sponges, tapeworm, earthworm, leech.


* In diploid organisms, specialised cells called meiocytes (gamete mother cells) undergo meiosis and form gamete.
Se

(b) Gamete Transfer :


A

* After their formation, male and female gametes must be physically brought together to facilitate their fusion
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

(fertilisation).
(2) Fertilisation (Syngamy) :-
The most vital event of sexual reproduction is perhaps the fusion of gametes. This process is called syngamy
results in the formation of diploid Zygote.
External fertilisation :-
In most aquatic organisms, such as a majority of fishes as well as amphibians, syngamy occurs in the external
medium (water), i.e., outside the body of organism. This type of gametic fusion is called external fertilisation.
Internal fertilisation :-
In many terrestrial organisms such as reptiles, birds, mammals, syngamy occurs inside the body of the organisms,
hence the process is called internal fertilisation.
E 11
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
(3) Post-fertilisation Events :-
* Events in sexual reproduction after the formation of zygote are called post-fertilisation events.
* Zygote is the vital link that ensures continuity of species between organisms of one generation and the next.
* Every sexually reproducing organism, including human beings begin life as a single cell "the zygote".
Embryogenesis :-
* Embryogenesis refers to the process of development of embryo from the zygote.
* During ermbryogenesis, zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) and cell differentiation.
* While cell divisions increase the number of cells in the developing embryo, cell differentiation help groups of
cells to undergo certain modifications to form specialised tissue and organs to form an organism.
* Animals are categorised into oviparous and viviparous based on whether the development of the zygote takes
place outside the body of the female parent or inside, i.e. whether they lay fertilised/unfertilised eggs or give
birth to young ones.
* In oviparous animals like reptiles and birds the fertilised eggs covered by hard calcareous shell are laid in a
safe places in the environment; after a period of incubation young ones hatch out.

N
* On other hand, in viviparous animals (Majority of mammals including human beings), the zygote develops into
a young one in side the body of the female organism. Because of proper embryonic care and protection, the

0
chances of survival of young ones is greater in viviparous organisms.

-2
E
19
20
LL
n
io
ss
Se
A

Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

12 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
EXERCISE-I (Conceptual Questions) Build Up Your Understanding
1. The continuity of life is maintained by the process 11. Which one has the more chromosome number in
of meiocyte as compared to others ?
(1) Respiration (2) Reproduction (1) Cat (2) Dog
(3) Photosynthesis (4) Adaptation (3) Rat (4) Fruitfly
2. The offspring produced through which of the fol- 12. Which of the following event is post fertilisation
lowing process are not exactly similar to their
event?
parents ?
(1) Gametogenesis
(1) Asexual reproduction (2) Sexual reproduction
(2) Gamete transfer
(3) Parthenogenesis (4) Ameiotic thelytoky
(3) Fertilisation
3. Reproduction is essential for
(4) Embryogenesis
(1) Producing young ones
(2) Adaptations 13. Match the column-A with column-B

N
(3) Variations Column-A Column-B

(4) Continuity of a species (i) Budding (a) Cockroach

0
4. Estrus cycle is found in (ii) Binary fission (b) Hydra

-2
(1) Gibbon (2) Gorilla (iii) Gemmule (c) Amoeba

(3) Cow
E (4) Monkey (iv) Gamete formation (d) Sponge

19
5. Meiocytes are (1) (i)-b, (ii)-c, (iii)-a, (iv)-d

(1) Spermatids (2) Gamete mother cells (2) (i)-b, (ii)-c, (iii)-d, (iv)-a

(3) Bone marrow cells (4) Oocytes


20
(3) (i)-d, (ii)-a, (iii)-c, (iv)-b
LL
6. Which of the following animal is bisexual ? (4) (i)-d, (ii)-b, (iii)-c, (iv)-a
n
(1) Cockroach (2) Leech 14. Which of the following statement incorrect ?
io

(3) Monkey (4) Honey bee (1) Asexual reproduction is a rapid mode of repro-
7. External fertilisation occurs in duction.
ss

(1) Mammals (2) Birds (2) Embryogenesis involves cell division and cell
differentiation.
(3) Reptiles (4) Bony fishes
Se

(3) The life spans of organisms correlated with their


8. Which of the following organism has longest life
A

sizes.
span?
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

(4) Animals are either unisexual or bisexual.


(1) Elephant (2) Horse
15. Arrange these animals in the increasing order of their
(3) Crocodile (4) Parrot
life span :
9. Which of the following animals are seasonal
Crow, Horse, Parrot, Elephant
breeder?
(1) Horse, Parrot, Crow, Elephant
(1) Monkey (2) Human
(2) Crow, Parrot, Horse, Elephant
(3) Bird (4) Apes
10. The process refers to development of embryo is (3) Crow, Parrot, Elephant, Horse
known as (4) Crow, Horse, Elephant, Parrot
(1) Gametogenesis (2) Embryogenesis
(3) Parthenogenesis (4) Oogenesis

E 13
Pre-Medical : Biology
ALLEN
16. Read the following four statements (A-D) :
(A) In asexual reproduction, offspring produced with
or without involvement of gametes
(B) In asexual reproduction, clones are formed
(C) Asexual reproduction is very common in single
celled organisms
(D) Budding in Hydra is a mode of sexual reproduc-
tion
How many of the above statements are correct
(1) Four (2) Three
(3) Two (4) One

N
0
-2
E
19
20
LL
n
io
ss
Se
A

Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_1\01-REPRODUCTION\02-REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM.P65

ANSWER KEY
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Ans. 2 2 4 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 4 2 3 4 2
14 E