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INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS USED IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENT

EXAMINATIONS

1. MAGNIFYING LENS Bank personnel and other peOple involved in currency


examinations usually use and ordinary hand-iens; the maximum diameter of
which is four inches, and this appears big with its wide frame it has a magnifying
power of two times the original only. Magnifying lenses of five times or more
magnifying power, with buiit-in-Iighting are more useful.
2. SHADOWGRAPH a pictorial image formed by casting a shadow, usually of the
hands, upon a rightful surface or screen.
3. STEREOSCOPIC BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE a tri-dimensionai (30)
enlargement is possible.
4. MEASURES AND TEST PLATES (TRANSPARENT GLASS) those used for
signatures and typewritings.
5. TABLE LAMPS WITH ADJUSTABLE SHADES (Goose Neck Lamps) used for
controlled illumination; needed in sidelight examination wherein light is placed at
a low-angie in a position oblique to plane or document.
6. TRANSMITTED LIGHT GADGET a device where light comes from beneath or
behind glass on document is placed.
7. ULTRA VIOLET LAMP this is usually used in the detection of counterfeited bills
but can actually be used to detect security features of qualified documents.
8. INFRARED VIEWER primarily used to decipher writings in a charred document.
9. COMPARISON MICROSCOPE similar to that of the bullet comparison
microscope.
10. VIDEO SPECTRAL COMPARATOR (VSC) it is used in the examination of
masked or obliterated text, watermarks, visible fluorescence, paper fluorescence
and oblique illumination of indented writing and embossing. It is a comprehensive
imaging device. it enables forensic document examiners to analyze, compare
and distinguish between different inks and papers, reveal alterations on a
document, identify obliterated entries, identify instances of page substitution, and
visualize hidden security printing features.
11. ELECTROSTATIC DETECTION APPARATUS (ESDA) indentations n is
indention/ indented writings that can records transparencies of any in _ a piece of
equipment commonly used in questioned document examination, to reveal
indented impressions on paper which may otherwise go unnoticed. It is a non-
destructive technique (will not damage the evidence in question) thus allowing
further test to be carried out. It is a sensitive technique, and has been known to
detect the presence of fresh fingerprints. It is used to detect and to assist in the
decipherment of indented impressions of handwriting on paper.