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k¿»¡wnl ¢hhlZ

BiÉ¿¹l£Z ¢Xi¡Cpx
j¡c¡l ®h¡XÑ x
L¢ÇfEV¡ll phQu …l¦aÅf§ZÑ LÇf¡e¾V qµR ®jCeh¡XÑ h¡ j¡c¡l ®h¡XÑz H¢V Hje HL p¡¢LÑV ®h¡XÑ
®kM¡e L¢ÇfEV¡ll ¢h¢iæ k¿»¡wn…m¡ ®kje x ®fÐppl, q¡XÑ¢Xú XÊ¡Ci, lÉ¡j, ¢XpfÔL¡XÑ, p¡EäL¡XÑ, gÓ
¢f XÊ¡Ci, ®eVJu¡LÑ L¡XÑ CaÉ¡¢c k¤š² Ll¡ quz
p¡d¡lZa c¤ dlZl j¡c¡lh¡XÑ luRz ®kje x AT & ATX.
-AT (Pentium)
-ATX (Pentium II, III, IX)
EõMÉ ®k, AT & ATX Hl SeÉ fÐppl, lÉ¡j, H¢S¢f, ¢iæ ¢iæ luRz HSeÉ ®L¡e j¡c¡lh¡XÑl ®L¡e fÐppl fÐu¡Se a¡
S¡e¡ Sl¦l£z

AT f¡Ju¡l p¡fÔ¡C L¡eƒl j¡c¡lh¡XÑ (Pentium)


f§hÑhaÑ£ j¡c¡lh¡XÑ j§ma x AT f¡Ju¡l p¡fÔ¡C L¡eƒl j¡c¡lh¡XÑ k¡L (Pentium)
hm¡ quz H¢V ¢Qe¡l Ef¡u qµR (6+6)=12 ¢fel qu b¡L
Hl SeÉ ¢ed¡Ñ¢la fÐppl pLV qµR x
Socket-7: HC pÔV¢V Pentium. Cyrix M. AMD K6-2/3/6 fÐppll SeÉ °a¢l Ll¡ quRz Hl ¢fe pwMÉ¡-321z
Simm Slot: H¢V p¡d¡lZa c¤C dlZl quz HL¢V 30 ¢fel k¡ AeL f§hÑ 386 ®j¢ne hÉhq¡l quz
ISA Slot: HC pÔV¢Va p¡d¡lZa Sound Card, jXj m¡N¡e¡ quz
PS/2 Port: k¢c L¢ÇfEV¡l AT dlZl L¡eƒl b¡L ah Hrœ AT/PS/2 dlZl Lei¡VÑ¡l clL¡l qhz

ATX f¡Ju¡l p¡fÔ¡C L¡eƒl j¡c¡lh¡XÑx


( Pentium II, III, IV)

haÑj¡e j¡c¡l ®h¡XÑ…m¡ j§ma x ATX f¡Ju¡l p¡fÔ¡C L¡eƒl j¡c¡lh¡XÑ (®f¢¾Vu¡j-2,3,4) H¢V (10+10)=20 ¢fel
qu b¡Lz
¢edÑ¡¢la fÐpplx
Slot-1: H¢V ®f¢¾Vu¡j 2/3 j¡c¡lh¡XÑl SeÉ ¢ed¡Ñ¢laz
Socket-370: H¢V öd¤ ®f¢¾Vu¡j-3 j¡c¡lh¡XÑ hÉhq¡l quz
Socket-423: ®f¢¾Vu¡j-4 Hl SeÉ H pLV hÉhq¡l quz
Slot-A: AMD Athlon/Duron fÐppll SeÉ “Slot-A” H pLV qµR ¢edÑ¡¢laz
¢ed¡Ñ¢la lÉ¡jx
Ram Socket- H¢V DIMM (168 Pin) H¢V ®f¢¾Vu¡j 2/3 Hhw AMD Athlon/Duron Hl ®rœ ¢edÑ¡¢la lÉ¡jz
RIMM (168 Pin) H¢V ®f¢¾Vu¡j-4 Hl SeÉ ¢edÑ¡¢la lÉ¡jz

fÐpplx
L¢ÇfEV¡ll ®k ¢Xi¡Cp¢V Bj¡cl N¢ajua¡ h¡¢su ¢cuR r¤â¡Lª¢al H k¿»¢Vl e¡j fÐpplz j¡Cœ²¡fÐppl qµR Hje
HL¢V C¢¾VNËVX ¢Qf k¡L ®L¾cÐ Ll Ns EWR j¡Cœ²¡ L¢ÇfEV¡lz fСL-j¡Cœ²¡ L¢ÇfEV¡ll k¤N ®jCeéj,
¢j¢e J p¤f¡l L¢ÇfEV¡l abÉ fТœ²u¡LlZl SeÉ hÉhq²a quRz fÐQ¤l ¢Qfl pjeÄu Hhw hýL¡XÑl pw¢jnÐe pª¢ø
®p¾VÌ¡m fÐp¢pw CE¢eV (¢p.¢f.CE)z HL¢V fÐppl AeL…m¡ ¢Qf J L¡XÑl pjeÄu ¯a¢l qu¢Rmz haÑj¡e
®jCeéj, ¢j¢e h¡ p¤f¡l L¢ÇfEV¡l HLC f¿Û¡u °a¢l qmJ ¢LR¤V¡ a¡lajÉ luRz AeÉ¢cL HL¢V j¡œ j¡Cœ²¡fÐppl
¢cu ¯a¢l L¢ÇfEV¡lL j¡Cœ²¡ L¢ÇfEV¡l e¡j BMÉ¡¢ua Ll¡ qu b¡Lz (ah p¡i¡Ñl ®rœ Hl hÉ¢aœ²j luR) HM¡e E-
õMÉ ®k, ¢p. ¢f. CE Hl pLm L¡kÑrja¡ j¡Cœ²¡ fÐppll A¿¹iѤš² Ll¡ quRz gm AeL HL ¢p. ¢f. CE e¡j
BMÉ¡¢ua Ll b¡Lz ®kqa¤ pLm abÉ fТœ²u¡LlZ r¤â H k¿»¢Va pÇfæ qu, ®pqa¤ HL L¢ÇfEV¡ll j¢Ù¹ú
hm¡ quz ¢hnÄl phQu hªqv fÐppl ®L¡Çf¡e£ C¾Vm 1993 p¡m ®f¢¾Vu¡j fÐppl hÉhq¡l Llz

fÐppll °h¢nøÉ ¢ejÀl¦fx


 ®f¢¾Vu¡j-4 fÐppl 1.3 ¢NN¡q¡SÑ qa 1.7 ¢NN¡q¡SÑ LÓL ¢ØfXl qu b¡Lz
 C¾Vm B¢LÑVLQ¡l ¢h¢nø haÑj¡e fÐQ¢ma pgVJuÉ¡l…m¡l p¡b pÇf§ZÑl¦f L¢ÇfVhmz
 C¾V¡leVl SeÉ SIMD H„Venez
 C¾Vm Hj. Hj. H„ ¢j¢Xu¡ h¢dÑaLlZ ®VLe¡m¢Sz
 C¾Vm 0.18 j¡Cœ²e jÉ¡e¤gÉ¡LQ¡¢lw fÐp¢pw H °a¢lz
 256 ®mim V¤ AÉ¡Xi¡¾p VÊ¡¾pg¡l LÉ¡nz
 q¡Cf¡l f¡Cfm¡Ce ®VLe¡m¢S p¤¢hd¡z

haÑj¡e hÉhq²a ®k ph fÐppl a¡ qµR x


1. Pentium II 6. AMD K-6
2. Pentium III 7. AMD Athlon
3. Pentium MMX 8. Duron
4. Pentium Pro 9. IBM-Cyrix
5. AMD K-2 10. Celeron

Celeron
C¾Vml ®pmle fÐppl¢V °ce¢¾ce L¡Sl ®rœ Efk¡N£ fÐpplz Hl ¢hno °h¢nøÉ qµRx 128 ¢L.h¡. mim V¤
LÉ¡nz
AMD K-6
1997 p¡m h¡S¡lS¡az VÊ¡e¢SØVl 8.8 ¢j¢muez 32 ¢L.h¡. Hm 1 LÉ¡n fkÑ¡uœ²j Hl N¢a 200, 233, 266, 300,
350, 400, 450, 500 ®jNq¡SÑlz
Pentium MMX
MMX fÐppl HL¢V jÉ¡b ®L¡-fÐppl ¢hÒV-Ce b¡L k¡L Floating Point Unit hmz H¢Va 16n Pipelined Hhw Write
Back Cache b¡L¡u H¢Vl N¢a AeL…m ®hs k¡uz 486 fÐppll a¤me¡u H¢V HLC pju c¤¢V Lj¡ä L¡kÑLl Lla f¡l,
k¡ 484 f¡l 1¢V Lj¡äz
Pentium II
¯h¢nøÉx
®l¢SØVÌ¡l p¡CS-32 ¢hV, ®XV¡ h¡p 64 ¢hV, HÉ¡XÊp h¡p 32 ¢hV, Ha 7.5 ¢j¢mue VÊ¡e¢SØVl b¡Lz
Pentium III
®f¢¾Vu¡j-2 Hl ph ¢gQ¡l luR, A¢dL¿º Business Media Communication, Internet LÉ¡f¡h¢m¢V hª¢Ü Ll¡ quRz H fÐ-
ppll SeÉ pgVJuÉ¡l pj¤q j¡¢ÒV¢j¢Xu¡l f§ZÑ¡‰ p¤¢hd¡ ®cu¡ quRz
Cyrix
C¾Vm J HHj¢X Hl flC p¡C¢l„l AhÙÛ¡ez

RAM
lÉ¡j ®k-®L¡e L¢ÇfEV¡l ¢pØVjl HL¢V …l¦aÅf§ZÑ J Af¢lq¡kÑ Ef¡c¡ez lÉ¡jl f¤l¡ e¡j qµRx Random Access
Memory. lÉ¡j j§max HL dlZl ®h¢pL ®jj¡¢l CE¢eV, k¡ L¢ÇfEV¡ll ¢h¢iæ Af¡lne âa N¢aa Hhw p¢WLi¡h pÇfæ
Lla pq¡ua¡ Llz HLV¡ Lb¡ je l¡Ma qh, lÉ¡j m¡N¡m L¢ÇfEV¡ll N¢a cʤa hª¢Ü f¡u, HV¡ i¤m d¡lZ¡z L¡lZ, L
¢ÇfEV¡l ¢pØVjl ¢ØfX ¢eiÑl Ll fÐppl, j¡c¡lh¡XÑl ¢QfpV, NË¢g„ L¡XÑ, lÉ¡j, q¡XÑ¢X„ Hcl ph¡l pj¢eÄa L¡-
Sl Eflz
H SeÉ AeÉ¡eÉ ¢Xi¡Cp Hl Le¢gN¡lne q¡C e¡ qm Akb¡ ®h¢n lÉ¡j m¡N¡e¡ E¢Qa euz ah k¢c C¾Vm ®f
¢¾Vu¡j V¤/®f¢¾Vu¡j ¢bË/ HHj¢X ®L-6/®L-6V¤ Hbme Hph fÐppl k¤š² q¡C Le¢gN¡lnel ®j¢ne ®bL b¡L,
Hhw lÉ¡jl f¢lj¡Z 128 ®j.h¡. b¡L; a¡qm kMe H ®j¢ne hÉhq¡l Ll q¡C ®L¡u¡¢m¢V ¢XS¡Ce, H¢ejne, ¢i¢XJ H
¢X¢Vw fÐiª¢a fÐgne¡m L¡S Lla Q¡Che, a¡Me Bfe¡L AhnÉC ®h¢n lÉ¡j m¡¢Nu ¢ea qhz
p¡d¡lZax ¢ae dlZl lÉ¡j f¡Ju¡ k¡uz ®kjex
1. SIMM RAM : H¢V ®f¢¾Vu¡j fÐppll SeÉ ¢ed¡Ñ¢la lÉ¡jz
2. DIMM RAM : ®f¢¾Vu¡j 2/3 AMD Athlon, Duron Hl ®rœ hÉhq²a quz
3. RIMM RAM : ®f¢¾Vu¡j-4 Hl SeÉ ¢ed¡Ñ¢la lÉ¡jz

¢XpfÔ L¡XÑx
j¢eVl cªnÉj¡e Ll¡l SeÉ ®k L¡XÑ¢V fÐu¡Se a¡C ¢XpfÔ L¡XÑz ¢h¢iæ dlZl ¢XpfÔ L¡XÑ luRz H ¢hou ¢ejÀ
h¢ZÑa qm x
V.G.A Card- haÑj¡e hým hÉhq²a L¡XÑ qµR V.G.A Card 15 ¢fe pjªÜ H L¡XÑ ¢ae p¡¢l ¢h¢nøz Hl ®lS¤mne
800¬600 p¡f¡VÑ Llz 1 ®bL 4 ®jN¡h¡CV fkÑ¿¹ V RAM Hl SeÉ hÉhq²a quz Hl V RAM ka ®hn£ qh L¡m¡l J
®lS¤mne aa i¡m qhz haÑj¡e hÉhq²a V.G.A Card pj¤q VIDEO Connector, Edge Connector, BIOS, DRAM, Oscillator,
Crystal, VEDIO CHIP CaÉ¡¢c Awn ¢hcÉj¡e b¡Lz HL¢V Standard VGA Card 800¬600 ®lS¤mne Qm Hhw 16-256
L¡m¡l fÐcnÑe Llz
A.G.P CARD : h¡S¡l ea¤e Bp¡ H NË¡¢g„ L¡XÑ¢V …eNa j¡e Ap¡d¡lZz H¢V PCI pÔV m¡N¡e¡ k¡u e¡z
Bm¡c¡ pÔV H L¡XÑ m¡N¡e¡ quz Ha 2D/3D fСNË¡jl L¡S…m¡ p¤Q¡l l¦f pÇfæ Ll¡ k¡uz ®j¡V Lb¡ HL¢V Bd¤
¢eL ¢f¢pl SeÉ ®hV¡l j¡el NË¡¢g„ L¡XÑ qµR A.G.P CARD.
q¡XÑ¢Xú x
abÉl i¡ä¡l ¢qph f¢l¢Qa nš² jÉ¡Ne¢VL ¢XúL q¡XÑ¢Xú hm¡ quz q¡XÑ¢Xú gÓ¢f ¢Xú Afr¡ A¢gL rja¡ pÇfæ
Hhw ®VLpC quz q¡XÑ¢Xú AeL…m¡ nš² ¢Xú HL¢V cä ÙÛ¡u£i¡h flfl p¡S¡e¡ b¡Lz fТa¢V ¢Xúl Efl J e£Q
¢lX/l¡CV ®qX b¡L Hhw Hl¡ ¢Xúl ®k ®L¡e VÊ¡L L¡S Lla f¡lz ¢j¢eV 1000 ®bL 3600 h¡l Abh¡ a¡l Efl O¤sa
f¡lz
q¡XÑ¢Xú ¢h¢iæ dlZl qu b¡Lz ®kje x
-R 11
-M F M
-E S D I
-S C S I
q¡XÑ¢Xú ¢h¢iæ rja¡ pÇfæ qu b¡L z ®kje x -40,80 CaÉ¡¢c ¢NN¡h¡CVz

R 11: R 11 V¡Cf q¡XÑ¢Xúl VÊ¡¾pg¡l ®lV 250/350 ®L.¢h. HC q¡XÑ¢Xú pe/xt Ges Pe/St ®a ®hn£ hÉhq²a
qaz
MEM : H¢V phQu f¤l¡ae q¡XÑ¢Xúz k¡l VÊ¡¾pg¡l ®lV qµR-125/250 ®L.¢hz
IDE : haÑj¡e HC V¡Cfl q¡XÑ¢Xú ®hn£ hÉhq²a qµRz Hl VÊ¡¾pg¡l ®lV qµR 850 ®L.¢hz H¢V f§hÑ
PC/AT ®a hÉhq²a qa¡z haÑj¡e EIDE e¡j ®f¢¾Vu¡j Hhw ®f¢¾Vu¡j-2 ®a hÉhq²a quz
SCSI : HC V¡Cfl q¡XÑ¢Xú haÑj¡e phQu ®hn£ hÉhq²a quz Hl VÊ¡¾pg¡l ®lV qµR 1.5-40 ®jN¡h¡CV/®p-
Läz
c¤¢V q¡XÑ¢Xú Q¡m¡e¡ x
q¡XÑ¢Xúl S¡Çf¡l ®p¢Vw f¢lhaÑel j¡dÉj ¢ejÀ¡š² f¿Û¡u c¤¢V q¡XÑ¢Xú Q¡m¡e¡ k¡uz
1. ¢p¢fCEa ®k q¡XÑ¢Xú¢V m¡N¡e¡ b¡Lh a¡ Master ¢qp¡h ¢hh¢Qa qhz AeÉ¢V Slave ¢qp¡h NeÉ qhz
2. Slave Ll¡l ¢euj qm q¡XÑ¢Xúl X¡V¡ LÉ¡hm pwk¡Sel pLVl f¡nÄÑ ®R¡V HL¢V S¡Çf¡l b¡L a¡ M¤-
m ®gm¡z
3. Hrœ Slave q¡XÑ¢Xú¢V kMe f¤el¡u a¡l ¢eSü ®L¢pw H pwk¡Se Ll¡ qh a¡Me f¤el¡u Eš² S¡Çf¡l
pwk¤š² Ll Master Ll ®gma qhz ea¤h¡ q¡XÑ¢Xú L¡S Llh e¡z

gÓ¢f XÊ¡Cix
®k k¿»¢V X¡V¡pj¤q q¡XÑ¢Xú L¢f Ll¡l p¤k¡N fÐc¡e Lll a¡C gÓ¢f ¢Xúz HC gÓ¢f ¢Xú ®k XÊ¡Ci hÉhq¡l
Ll¡ qu a¡C gÓ¢f XÊ¡Cil Awn pj¤ql f¢lQu fÐcš qm x
1) Head Acchutor
2) Head Control Cirkit
3) Speed Control Cirkit
4) Steper Motor
5) Splinder Motor
6) Sensor
7) Drive Indecator
8) Power Connector
q¡XÑ¢Xú f¡¢VÑne J gljÉ¡V
i¤¢jL¡ x HL¢V ea¤e q¡XÑ¢Xú hÉhq¡ll SeÉ f¡¢VÑne J gljÉ¡V Af¢lq¡kÑz HR¡s¡ fÐu¡Sel a¡¢Nc AeL pju
f¤l¡ae q¡XÑ¢XúJ f¡¢VÑne fÐu¡Se quz fСb¢jLi¡h q¡XÑ¢Xú ®m¡ ®mim gljÉ¡VX AhÙÛ¡u b¡L f¡l HL
f¡¢VÑne J gljÉ¡V Lla quz
F DISK : F DISK qµR q¡XÑ¢Xú f¡¢VÑnel HL¢V hým hÉhq²a CE¢V¢m¢Vz F DISK j§ma ØV¡VÑBf ¢Xú
(gÓ¢f) h¡ h¤Vhm ¢p¢XaC b¡Lz
F DISK hÉhq¡l Ll f¡¢VÑnex je L¢l HL¢V 6¢N.h¡. q¡XÑ¢XúL f¡¢VÑne J gljÉ¡V Lla Q¡C, ®p ®rœ
¢ejÀl¦f fcrf ¢eez
Step-1x fСCj¡l£ f¡¢VÑne
1. HL¢V h¤Vhm ¢Xú Abh¡ ¢p¢X-Hl p¡q¡kÉ L¢ÇfEV¡lL h¤V Lla qhz Lj¡ä fÐjV-H Fdisk V¡Cf Lla qhz
fÐbjC Fdisk S¡ea Q¡Cm Bf¢e FAT 16 e¡ FAT 32 Lla Q¡ez p¡d¡lZa Fdisk 16 Lla Q¡uz FAT 32 Lla
Q¡Cm ®pM¡e hm ¢ca quz ah hs q¡XÑ¢Xúl SeÉ FAT 32 Ll¡C ®nÐuz L¡lZ FAT 16 2.1 GB- Hl ®Qu
hs q¡XÑ¢Xú p¡f¡VÑ Ll e¡z
Fdisk V¡Cf Ll H¾V¡l ¢cm ¢ejÀ¡š² ®jpS Bph-
Do you wish to enable large disk support (y/n.........?) [(y) H¾V¡l h¡ y ¢mM H¾V¡l ¢cm ¢ejÀl û£e Bp-
hz

Microsoft Windows 98
Copyright Microsoft corp. 1983-1998
F DISK options
Current fixed disk drive:1
Choose one of the following:
1. Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive.
2. Set active Partition.
3. Delete Partition or Logical DOS Drive.
4. Display Partition information.
Enter Choice: [1]
Press Esc to Exit F DISK
1. Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive ¢pmØV Ll AbÑ¡v 1 ¢mM Enter Hlfl ¢eQl û£e¢V
Bph

Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive.


Current Fixed disk drive : 1
Choose one of the following:
1. Create Primary DOS partition.
2. Create Extended DOS partition
3. Create Logical DOS Drive (S) in the Extended DOS Patition.

f¡¢VÑne p¡d¡lZa c¤C dlZl quz HL¢V fСCj¡¢l f¡¢VÑne Hhw Afl¢V H„VeXX f¡¢VÑnez fСCj¡¢l
f¡¢VÑne q¡XÑ¢Xúl fÐd¡e f¡¢VÑne Hhw HL XÊ¡Ci ®mV¡l “C” ¢cu ¢Q¢q²a Ll¡ quz fСCj¡¢l
f¡¢VÑne R¡s¡J Bfe¡l q¡XÑ¢Xúl k¢c BlJ f¡¢VÑnel fÐu¡Se fs a¡h a¡ H„VeXX f¡¢VÑne ¢qph ¢hh¢Qa
quz Bl H„VeXX f¡¢VÑneL i¡N Ll¡l gm ®k f¡¢VÑne…m¡ f¡Ju¡ k¡u ®p…m¡L m¢SLÉ¡m Xp XÊ¡Ci
hmz AbÑ¡v x dl¦e Bfe¡l fСCj¡¢l f¡¢VÑne “C” qu ®NR Hhw BlJ c¤¢V f¡¢VÑnl “D”& “E” clL¡lz ah
®pC “D”& “E” XÊ¡Ci c¤¢V H„VeXX f¡¢VÑnel Awn ¢qph ¢hh¢Qa qhz AbÑ¡v fСCj¡¢l f¡¢VÑne
R¡s¡ Bl ph f¡¢VÑneC H„VeXX f¡¢VÑnel Awn Hhw HM¡e “D”& “E” H„VeXX f¡¢VÑnel m¢SLÉ¡m
Xp XÊ¡Ciz

2z fÐbjC Bjl¡ fÐd¡e XÊ¡Ci C : °a¢l Llhz H SeÉ Creat Primary Dos partition ¢eh¡ÑQel SeÉ 1 ¢mM
H¾V¡l ¢cm FDISK C¢¾V¢NË¢V k¡Q¡C Llhz

3z Aaxfl Do you wish to use the maximum available size for a primary DOS partition and make the
partition active (Y/N).....? (Y) ®mM¡¢V Bphz

HM¡e k¢c 1¢V f¡¢VÑne Lla qu Ab¡Ñv q¡XÑ¢Xú k¢c ®R¡V qu a h “Y” ¢mM H¾V¡l ¢ca qhz
pÇf§ZÑ q¡XÑ¢Xú¢V ¢p‰m f¡¢VÑnel BJa¡u fshz Esc ®Qf ®hl qu f¤el¡u L¢ÇfEV¡l h¤V Ll q¡XÑ
¢Xú¢V gljÉ¡V Llm XÊ¡Ci¢V ‘C’ à¡l¡ p§¢Qa qhz

4z HL¡¢dL f¡¢VÑne Lla Q¡Cm Eš² ®jpS Hl [Y] hСLV ‘N’ ¢mM H¾V¡l ¢cm AV¡j¢VL C¢¾V¢NË¢V
k¡Q¡C Ll pÇf§ZÑ ¢Xúl p¡CS ®cM¡hz
5z HM¡e fСCj¡l£ f¡¢VÑnel SeÉ kaV¤L¤ S¡uN¡ l¡Ma Q¡C a¡ EõM Ll ¢ca qhz ®kjex 2000 ¢mM H¾V¡l
Abh¡ f¡lp¾V ¢ca f¡¢lz ®kjex (30%) q¡XÑ¢Xú Bfe¡L S¡e¡h f¡¢VÑne qu ®NR Hhw H¢V XÊ¡Ci
®mV¡l ‘C’ à¡l¡ p§¢Qa qhz

6z Esc Q¡fm e£Ql û£e Bphz

F DISK options
Current fixed disk drive : 1
Choose one of the following :
1. Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive.
2. Set active partition
3. Delete partition or logical DOS Drive.
4. Display Partition information.
Enter Choice: [2]

7z 2 ¢mM H¾Vl Q¡f¤e (®kqa¤ Set Active Partition Afnel p¡q¡kÉ f¡¢VÑneL HÉ¡L¢Vi Lla qh)

8z 1 ¢mM H¾V¡l Q¡f¤ez FDISK Bfe¡L S¡e¡h f¡¢VÑne HÉ¡L¢Vi quRz (Partition 1 made active)

9z Esc ®Qf ®je¤a ¢gl Bp¤ez

Step-2 : Extended partition


H fhÑ Hp AeÉ¡eÉ XÊ¡Ci °a¢l Lla qhz
10z Create DOS Partition on logical Dos Drive ¢pmƒ Lla ‘1’ ¢mM H¾V¡l Q¡fm e£Ql û£e Bph

Create DOS partition or logical DOS Drive


Current fixed disk drive:1
Choose one of the following:
1. Create Primary DOS partition.
2. Create Extended DOS partition.
3. Create Logical DOS drive (s) in the Extended DOS partition.
Enter Choice: [1]
Press Esc to Return to F DISK options

11z ‘2’ ¢mM H¾V¡l Q¡f¤ez


12z ¢LR¤rZ Afr¡ Ll f¤el¡u H¾V¡l Q¡fm e£Ql û£e Bphz

Create Extended DOS Partition


Current fixed disk drive:1
Partition Status Type Volume label Mbytes System Usage
C: 1 A P R I DOS Unknown
2 EXT. DOS Unknown

13z Esc Q¡f¤ez ¢LR¤rZ flC FDISK m¢SLÉ¡m XÊ¡Ci °a¢ll SeÉ Ae¤fС¢Za Llhz
14z hÉ¡L-®Øfp ®Qf ®mM¡ j¤R 2000 V¡Cf Ll¦e Abh¡ % ¢cu H¾V¡l Q¡f¤ez k¡ XÊ¡Ci
®mV¡l D: à¡l¡ p§¢Qa qhz
15z Aaxfl flhaÑ£ XÊ¡Cil SeÉ f¤el¡u 2000 V¡Cf Ll H¾V¡l Q¡f¤ez k¡ XÊ¡Ci ®mV¡l E:
à¡l¡ p§¢Qa qhz
16z Esc ®Qf ®je¤a ¢gl Bp¤ez
17z ph…m¡ f¡¢VÑne qu ®Nm HL¢V jÉ¡pS Bph- ‘All Available space in the extended dos
partition is assiged to logical drives’ aMe L¢ÇfEV¡l Re-start Ll¡l SeÉ Ctrl+Alt+Del
L£-pj§q HLœ Q¡f¤ez

f¡¢VÑne j¤R gm¡


¢l-f¡¢VÑn¢ew
¢lf¡¢VÑn¢ew-Hl AbÑ HL¢V f¡¢VÑn¢ew Ll¡ q¡XÑ¢XúL Bh¡l ¢h¢iæ f¡¢VÑne ¢hiš² Ll¡z
¢lf¡¢VÑn¢ew HL¢V AXÑ¡l ®je Qmz Bl ®p¢V qµR fÐbj m¢SLÉ¡m XÊ¡Ci…m¡L ¢X¢mV
Ll¡z Hlfl H„VeXX f¡¢VÑneL Hhw phno fСCj¡¢l f¡¢VÑneL ¢X¢mV Ll¡z Ab¡Ñv,
f¡¢VÑne °al£a ®ki¡h H…a qu j¤R¡l SeÉ ¢WL EÒV¡i¡h H…a qhz

1. Fdisk V¡Cf Ll H¾V¡l Q¡f¤ez

“Do you wish to enable large disk support (y/n.......?) [y] H¾V¡l h¡ y ¢mM H¾V¡l ¢cm ¢e-
jÀl û£e Bhpz
Microsoft Windows 98
Copyright Microsoft corp. 1983-1998
F DISK options
Current fixed disk drive:1
Choose one of the following:
1. Create DOS Partition or logical DOS Drive.
2. Set active Partition.
3. Delete Partition or Logical DOS Drive.
4. Display Partition information.
Enter Choice: [1]
Press Esc to Exit F DISK

2. Delete Partition or logical DOS Drive ¢pmƒ Ll Ab¡Ñv 3 ¢mM Enter Q¡fa qhz Hlfl
¢eQl û£e¢V Bph-
Delete Dos Partition or loge and Dos Drive
Current fixed disk drive :1
Choose one of the following:
1. Delete Primary Dos Partition.
2. Delete Extended Dos Partition.
3. Delete Logical Dos Drive (s) in the Extended Dos Partition.
4. Delete Non-Partition
Enter Choice [ ]

3. Delete logical DOS drive (s) in the Extended Dos partition ¢pmƒ Ll Ab¡Ñv 3 ¢mM
Enter.
4 Hlfl Last-H k Drive bLh a¡l e¡j ¢mM Enter.
5 Hlfl Enter.
[¢hxâx Volume label .........?] (Bph k¢c Last Drive Hl ®L¡e e¡j b¡L a¡ qm a¡l e¡j
¢mMa qh AeÉb¡u Enter ¢ca qhz)
6. Hl fl Are you sure (y/n). . . . . .? [N] Bpm Y ¢mM Enter ¢ca qhz
Efl¡š² ¢euj AeÉ¡eÉ Drive …m¡ f¡k¡Ñuœ²j Delete Lla qhz
[¢hxâx Last Drive F b¡Lm Hlfl Delete Lla E a¡lfl D Hi¡h Delete Lla qhz]
Hlfl C Drive h¡c AeÉ¡eÉ Drive …m¡ Delete qm ¢ejÀl û£e¢V Bphz

Delete logical Dos drive (s) in the Extended Dos partition.


Drs volume label Mbytes system usage.
D: Drive Deleted
E: Drive Deleted
F: Drive Deleted
All logical drives deleted in Extended DOS partition.
Press Esc to Continue

7. Hlfl Esc Q¡fa qhz a¡lfl ¢ejÀl û£e¢V Bph-


Delete logical Dos drive (s) in the Extended Dos partition
No logical drives define.
Drive letter have been changed or deleted
Press Esc to continue
8. Gici Avevi Esc †P‡c cÖ_g †gby‡Z Avm‡Z n‡e|
9. GLb C Drive Delete Ki‡Z n‡e| 3 wj‡L Enter w`‡Z n‡e| Gici cybivq Av‡Mi QK
Avm‡e|
10. Gici Delete Extended Dos partition wm‡j± K‡i A_©vr 2 wj‡L Enter w`‡Z n‡e|
11. Gici Y wj‡L Enter w`‡Z n‡e|
12. Gici Esc ‡P‡c cÖ_g †gby‡Z Avm‡Z n‡e|
13. 3 wj‡L Enter Qvc‡j Av‡Mi QK Avm‡e|
14. Delete primary DOS partition wm‡j± K‡i A_©vr 1 wj‡L Enter.
15. Gici 1 wj‡L Enter w`‡Z n‡e|
16. Enter voume lable . . . . . . . . . ? [ ] G C Drive Gi bvg _vK‡j wjL‡Z n‡e bZzev
Enter w`‡Z n‡e|
17. Are you sure (Y/N) . . . . . . .? Avm‡j Y wj‡L Enter.
18. Esc ‡P‡c cÖ_‡g †gby‡Z Avm‡Z n‡e|:
19. mg¯— Drive Gi cvwU©kb wWwjU n‡q‡Q wKbv Zv †`Lvi Rb¨ 4. Display
partition information wm‡j± K‡i A_©vr 4 wj‡L Enter Gici wb‡Pi ¯ŒxYwU
Avm‡e
Display partition information
Current fixed disk drive:1
No partition defined

nvW©wW¯‹ dig¨vU
nvW©wW¯‹ cvwU©k‡bi c‡i Avgv‡`i mg¯— WªvBf‡e dig¨vU Ki‡Z n‡e| G Rb¨
Kw¤úDUvi‡K wi-÷vU© K‡i Wm cÖgU Avm‡j –Format c: UvBc K‡i G›Uvi Pvcyb|
†g‡mR w`‡e “WARNING, ALL DATA . . . . PROCED WITH FORMAT (Y/N)? “Y” ‡P‡c
G›Uvi Pvc‡j dig¨vU cÖwµqv Avi¤¢ n‡e| 100% †kl n‡j †h †g‡mR Avm‡e †mLv‡b G›Uvi
Pvcyb| GKB cÖwµqvq Ab¨vb¨ WªvBf¸‡jv dig¨vU Ki‡Z cv‡ib A_ev DB‡ÛvR Bb÷j K‡i
DB‡Ûv‡R wM‡q Ab¨vb¨ WªvBf dig¨vU Ki‡Z cv‡ib| (DB‡ÛvR cvUd‡g© dig¨vU Aa¨v‡q
†`Lyb)|
we:`ª: DB‡ÛvR cvUd‡g© dig¨vU Lye `ª“ZMwZ‡Z n‡q|
ev‡qvm †mU Avc
f~wgKv
Kw¤úDUv‡ii Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~b© Ges e¨vwmK K‡¤úv‡b›U¸‡jvi GKwU n‡”Q wm‡÷g
ev‡qvm | hvi A_© njt Basic input/output System. Bios n‡”Q GKwU ¶z`ª mdUIq¨vi hv
cÖwZwU Kw¤úDUvi wP‡ci g‡a¨B †óvi Kiv _v‡K| †h †Kvb Kw¯úDUvi Pvjy Ki‡j
Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g †jvW nevi Av‡MB Bios ivb K‡i Ges GwU Kw¤úDUv‡ii wewfbœ
nvW©Iq¨vi wVKgZ KvR Ki‡Q wK bv Zv cix¶v K‡i †`‡L| eZ©gv‡b Bios ¸‡jv meB cvM ÎÛ
†c Kw¤ú‡Uej, A_©vr G¸‡jv A‡Uv‡gwUK¨vwj bZzb mshy³ nvW©Iq¨vi wW‡U± Ki‡Z m¶g|

ev‡qv‡mi cÖ‡e‡ki wbqg


ev‡qv‡m cª‡e‡ki Rb¨ wewfbœ gv`vi‡ev‡W© wewfbœ key e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| †hgbt Del, F1,
F2A ev A1, Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy n‡j hLb c`©vi bx‡P Del ‡jLvwU Avm‡e ZLb Kx-‡evW© n‡Z
Del Kx Pvcyb| A_ev gv`vi‡ev‡W©i K¨vUvMix Abyhvqx F1 ev F2 Pvcyb wewfbœ
†Kv¤úvbxi ev‡qvmt evRv‡i mvaviYZ wZbwU †Kv¤úvbxi ev‡qv‡m e¨eüZ n‡”Q| †hgbt
1. AWARD SOFTWATRE INC Gi ev‡qvm
2. American megatrends INC Gi ev‡qvm
3. Phonix ‡Kv¤úvbxi ev‡qvm
mvaviY †Kvb wcwm‡Z AWARD ‡Kv¤úvbxi ev‡qvm e¨enZ nq | eª¨vÛ wcwm‡Z Phonix
‡Kv¤úvbxi ev‡qvm e¨envi nq|
wb‡æ AWARD SOFTWARE LTD Gi ev‡qvm m¤ú‡K© A‡jvPbv Kiv nj|
Main Diagram
Standard Cmos Features Frequency/voltage Control
Advanced Bios Features Load Fail-Safe Default
Advanced chipset Features Load Optimized Default
Integrated peripherals Set Supervision password
Power management setup Set User Password
Pnp/Pci Configurations Save & Exit Setup
Pc Health Status Exit Without Saving

Standard CMOS Setup


Date/Time: wbw`©ó ZvwiL I mgq †mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e
Primary Master eZ©gvb gv`vi‡evW©mg~‡n A‡Uv †mwUs Kiv
_v‡K|
Primary Slave c~‡e©i gv`vi‡ev‡W© pageup Kx †P‡c Auto
Secondary Master ‡mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e (Type/Mode) None
Secondary Slave _vK‡j nvW©wW®‹ cv‡e bv|
Drive A: mvaviYZ eZ©gvb d¬wc wW¯‹ 3.5 ©© ©© GRb¨ 1.44 M, 3.5 in ‡mwUs Kiyb
_vK‡j None d¬wc WªvBf KvR Ki‡e bv|
Drive B: `yBwU d¬wc WªvBf _vK‡j GLv‡b Zvi KbwdMv‡ikb †mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e|
Video: wcwm‡Z e¨eüZ wWm‡c Abyhvqx †mwUs Kiyb| †hgb: eZ©gv‡b EGA/VGA e¨eüZ
nIqvq GwU †mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e|
Halt on - ‡h †Kvb GKwU Kiv fvj Z‡e All Error Select Kiv fvj G‡Z †Kvb mgm¨v _vK‡j Pc
në n‡q hv‡e|
Advanced Bios Features
Virus Warning: Enabled/Disabled DfqUvB †mwUs Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| CPU Internal
Cache/External Cache: me ai‡bi Cache (K¨vk)†mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z Kw¤úDUvi Zvi
cÖ‡qvRbxq K¨vk Lye mn‡RB †c‡q hvq|
Boot Sequence: G AckbwU LyeB ¸i“Z¡c~Y©|

First Boot Device: mvaviYZ d¬wc wbe©vwPZ _v‡K| d¬wci gva¨‡g Kw¤úDUvi eyU Ki‡Z
PvB‡j A_©vs bZzb Kw¤úDUvi G‡m¤^wjs K‡i A_ev DB‡Ûv‡Ri mgm¨v n‡j wm‡÷g dvBj
UªvÝdv‡ii cÖ‡qvR‡b d¬wci gva¨‡g eyU Ki‡Z PvB‡j d¬wc wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e| Avi hw`
wmwWig Gi mvnv‡h¨ eyU Ki‡Z PvB‡j Page up/Down Kx Gi mvnv‡h¨ wmwWig CDROM
wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e|
Note: cyivZb gv`vi‡ev‡W©i †¶‡Î Boot Sequence G wM‡q d¬wci gva¨‡g eyU Ki‡Z PvB‡j
A, C , SCSI wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e| wmwW ig Îi gva¨‡g eyc Ki‡Z PvB‡j wmwWig wbe©vPb
Ki‡Z n‡e|
Advanced Bios Features
Second Boot Device
mvaviYZ: nvW©wW¯‹ wbe©vwPZ _v‡K| Hdd-0 wbe©vwPZ Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx
Hdd-0,Hdd-1,2,3 ‡mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e| cyivZb gv`vi †ev‡W©i †¶‡Î C: WªvBf wbe©vPb Ki‡Z
n‡e|
Third boot device: CD ROM wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e|
Boot up Floppy Seek: Default.
Boot up Num lock Status: on ‡mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e|
Boot up System speed: High (Default) wm‡÷g `ª“Z eywUs nIqvi Rb¨|
Security option: G AckbwUi mvnv‡h¨ wm‡÷g I ev‡qv‡m cvmIqvW© †`Iqv hvq|
(User password Aa¨v‡q †`Lyb)
Typematic Rate: Normal Value-6
Typematic Delay: Normal Value-250
Os Select For Dram > - Non-0S2
Chipset Features Setup
Auto configuration: Enable Ki‡Z n‡e| A‡Uv‡gwUK mg¯— cvU©mmgyn‡K wW‡U± Ki‡Z
m¶g|
System (Video) BIOS Cacheable- Disable
(At Bus Clock-CLK2/4
DRAM Timing-Slow
pipelined Function- Disabled
Delay Transaction- Disabled)
Integrated Peripherals
Onchip primary IDE- Enabled
Onchip Secondary IDE- Enabled
(Disable _vK‡j nvW©wW¯‹ cv‡e bv)
On board Fdd Controller- Enabled
MPU-401 Enabled (default)
MPU-401 1/0 Address-330-333H (Default)
G Ackb `ywU cwieZ©b Ki‡j mvDÛ KvW© Bbój mgm¨v n‡e|
Game port- Enabled (Disable _vK‡j Joystick KvR Ki‡e bv)
Power Management
Suspend Mode: Disable
Soft-off by PWRBTN-Instant off
Power Management- User Define
ACPI Function – Enabled
PM Control by APM- Yes
Hdd Power Down- Disable)
PNP/PCI Configuration:
PNP OS Installed- Yes (Default)
Resources Controlled by- Auto wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e|
Reset configuration Date- Disabled (default)

Load Fail-Safe Default:


GwU AZ¨š— ¸i“Z¡c~Y© K‡¤úv‡b›U| g‡b Ki“b Avcbvi ev‡qv‡mi me Ackb mg~‡ni †mwUs
G‡jv‡g‡jv n‡q‡MQ| Avcwb ¯^vfvweK †mwUsm eyS‡Z cvi‡Qb bv, †m †¶‡Î G AckbwU
e¨envi Ki“b| Kw¤úDUvi ¯^qswµqfv‡e Zvi wbR¯^ (Default) ‡mwUsm Abyhvqx mvwR‡q
†dj‡e|
wbqg t Load Fail-Safe Default t wbe©vPb K‡i G›Uvi Pvcyb|
-“y” ‡P‡c G›Uvi w`‡q †mf K‡i †ei n‡q Avmyb|
Load optimized Default
G AckwU e¨envi K‡i Kw¤úDUvi ¯^qswµqfv‡e A‡c¶vK…Z gvbm¤úbœ ev‡qvm †mwUs
K‡i w`‡e|
wbqg t Load fail safe Gi Abyi“c|
PC Health Status:
Gi gva¨‡g Kw¤úDUv‡ii wewfbœ Z_¨vw` Rvbv hvq †hgb t wm‡÷g ZvcgvÎv, wmwcBD d¨vb
w¯úW BZ¨vw`|

Frequency/Voltage Control
GwUi me welqmgyW wWdë †`Iqv _v‡K|

Set Supervisor Password


Gi gva¨‡g †bUIqvK©fy³ wewfbœ Kw¤úDUv‡i cvmIqvW© †`Iqv hvq|

Set User Password


Kw¤úDUvi I ev‡qv‡m cvmIqvW© †`Iqvi Rb¨ G AckbwU e¨envi Kiv nq|

cvmIqvW© †`Iqvi wbqgt


cÖavb †gbyi Advance BIOS Features G Xy‡K Security Option G wM‡q System wbe©vPb
Ki“b|
-cy‡iv wm‡÷‡g cvmIqvW© w`‡Z PvB‡j System Avi ïaygvÎ ev‡qv‡m cvmIqvW© w`‡Z
PvB‡j Sep-up wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e|
-Esc ‡P‡c Set User Psssword wbe©vPb K‡i G›Uvi Pvcyb|
-cvmIqvW© bv¤^vi †P‡c G›Uvi|
-Gevi †mf w`‡q ev‡qvm †_‡K †ei n‡q Avmyb|
Gevi cÖwZevi Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy nIqvi mgq D³ cvmIqvW© bv¤^vi bv w`‡j Kw¤úDUvi eyU
n‡e bv|

cvmIqvW© Zz‡j †`Iqvi wbqg t


ev‡qv‡m XyK‡j Enter Password bvgK e· Avm‡e| †mLv‡b wbw`©ó bv¤^vi Gw›Uª K‡i
ev‡qv‡m XyKzb|
Set User Password Ackb G wM‡q wZbevi G›Uvi w`b|
-Save w`‡q †ei n‡q Avmyb|

Save & Exit Setup


ev‡qv‡m Xy‡K †h †Kvb †mwUs cwieZ©b K‡i †mf Kivi Rb¨ GwU e¨eýZ nq| wbqg t Save
& Exit Setup G wM‡q G›Uvi Pvcyb|
-“y” ‡P‡c G›Uvi|

Exit Without Saving


ev‡qv‡m †Kvb Ackb cwieZ©b K‡i‡Qb, wKš‘ †mf Ki‡Z Pv‡”Qb bv; †m‡¶‡Î G AckbwU‡Z
G›Uvi w`‡q “y” ‡P‡c †ei n‡q Avmyb|

IDE HDD AUTO DETECTION


cyivZb gv`vi‡ev‡W© G Ack‡bi gva¨‡g nvW©wW¯‹ A‡UvwW‡U± Kiv nq| nvW©wW¯‹ bv
†c‡j A‡UvwW‡U± Ki‡j A‡bK mgq ¯^vfvweK n‡q hvq|
A‡UvwW‡U± Kivi wbqg nj AckbwU wbe©vPb K‡i ch©vqµ‡g “y” ‡P‡c G›Uvi Pvc‡Z n‡e|

Dcmsnvi t c~‡e©B D‡jL Kiv n‡q‡Q, ev‡qv‡mi wewfbœ †mwUs G‡jv‡g‡jv/cwieZ©b n‡j
Load Bios Default/Fail Safe Default Ki‡j Kw¤úDUvi Zvi wbR¯^ (Default) ‡mwUs K‡i †bq|
GZ ev‡qvm msµvš— mvaviY mgm¨v mgvavb n‡q hvq| G Qvov GKB gv‡bi Ab¨
Kw¤úDUv‡ii ev‡qv‡mi †mU-Avc Abyhvqx ev‡qvm †mU-Avc K‡i wb‡Z cv‡ib|

nvW©Iq¨vi
cÖ‡mmi Uªvejï¨wUs
mgm¨v-1 t wWm‡c I wec mvDÛ Avm‡Q bv|
KviY t cÖ‡mmi bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t m‡›`nhy³ cÖ‡mmiwU Ly‡j cybivq fvjgZ ¯’vcb Ki“b| mgvavb bv n‡j Ab¨ GKwU
fvj cÖ‡mmi jwM‡q cix¶v Ki‡Z n‡e m‡›`nhy³ cÖ‡mmiwU bó wKbv, bó n‡j byZb cÖ‡mmi
jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t evi evi n¨vs n‡q hv‡”Q|


KviY t Kzwjs d¨vb Nyi‡Q bv|
mgvavb t †Kwms Ly‡j †`Lyb- cÖ‡mm‡ii Mv‡q jvMv‡bv Kzwjs d¨vbwU Nyi‡Q wKbv?
hvw` bv Ny‡i Zv‡e ayjvevwj cwi®‹vi K‡i mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e| GiciI bv Nyi‡j bZzb
GKwU Kzwjs d¨vb jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-3 t †g‡mR Illegal Operatio.........


KviY I mgvavb t cÖ‡mm‡ii mv‡_ gv`vi‡ev‡W©i wgmg¨vP nIqv| AZGe g¨vP Kiv‡Z n‡e|

gv`vi †evW© UªvejïwUs


mgm¨v-1 t ev‡qvm †mU-Avc c~Y©v½ Ackb †bB|
mgvavb t Kw¤úDUvi †Kwms Ly‡j gv`vi‡ev‡W©i mv‡_ †h e¨vUvix i‡q‡Q (Nwoi e¨vUvixi
gZ) Zv Ly‡j 20/30 wgwbU c‡i cybivq hy³ Ki“b| GZ ev‡qvmGi wWdë †mwUs GKwUf n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t eywUs Gi mgq †g‡mR- “Cmos/Bios Batery Low”


KviY t e¨vUvix WvBb
mgvavb t bZzb e¨vUvix mshy³ Ki“b|

mgm¨v-3 t cvmIqvW© fy‡j †M‡Qb, wm‡÷‡g cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cvi‡Qb bv|


mgvavb t 1 bs mgm¨vi mgvavb Abyhvqx c`‡¶c wbb| GZ cvmIqvW© `yi n‡q hv‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t †g‡mR- “Illegal Operation”


KviY I mgvavb t cÖ‡mmi w¯ú‡Wi mv‡_ wgj †i‡L gv`vi‡ev‡W©i Rv¤úvi †mwUs fyj n‡Z
cv‡i| cybivq mwVKfv‡e †mwUs Ki“b|

RwUj mgm¨v
mgm¨v-5 t wWm‡c/wec mvDÛ wKQyB Avm‡Q bv|
KviY t gv`vi‡evW© bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t Ab¨ GKwU fv‡jv gv`vi‡evW© cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡i cix¶v K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b
fvj gv`vi‡evW© wK‡b jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t Wait †g‡mR w`‡”Q, eyU n‡”Q bv|


KviY t jyR Kv‡bKkb _vK‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t gv`vi‡ev‡W©i mv‡_ me ai‡Yi K¨vejmgyn‡K cybivq mwVKfv‡e jvwM‡q cix¶v
Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b cy‡iv wm‡÷g bZzb K‡i Gm¤^wjs K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-7 t †g‡mR “Desplay Adapter Failed; using Alternate”


mgvavb t gv`vi‡ev‡W©i wfwWI Rv¤úvi †mwUs fyj n‡Z cv‡i, †m‡¶‡Î mwVKfv‡e Rv¤úvi
†mwUs K‡i w`‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-8 t Gii †g‡mR--“CKSUM ERROR (Cheeksum Error)”


KviY t ev‡qvm Kv‡bKkb fyj n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t ev‡qvm wPcwU gv`vi‡ev‡W©i mv‡_ mwVKfv‡e emv‡bv Av‡Q wKbv †`L‡Z
n‡e| †m‡¶‡Î ev‡qvm wPc wVKgZ m‡K‡U emv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-9 t wWm‡c Avm‡Q bv|


KviY t ev‡qvm bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t GKwU fvj ev‡qvm m‡›`nhy³ ev‡qv‡mi ¯’v‡b cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e mgvavb
nq wKbv| †m‡¶‡Î m‡›`nRb ev‡qvmwUi ¯’‡j GKwU fv‡jv ev‡qvm wi‡cm‡g‡›Ui gva¨‡g
mgvavb Ki‡Z n‡e|
i¨vg UªvejïwUs
mgm¨v-1 t Kw¤úDUvi Nb Nb n¨vs
KviY t i¨vg wP‡c mgm¨v _vK‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t cÖ_‡g i¨vg Ly‡j cybivq fvjgZ ¯’vcb Ki“b| GiciI mgvavb bv n‡j i¨vg wPcwU Lvivc
wKbv cix¶vi Rb¨ GKwU fvj i¨vg wPc ¯’v‡b ewm‡q Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy K‡i †g‡gvwi †Uó K‡i
wm×vš— wbb|

mgm¨v-2 t wWm‡c Av‡m bv|


KviY I mgvavb t i¨vg bó n‡Z cv‡i| 1 bs mgm¨vi mgvavb Abyhvqx KvR Ki“i|

mgm¨v-3 t †g‡mR- “Illegal Operation”


KviY t e¨v‡gi evmw¯úW wgmg¨vP nIqv| †hgb t gv`vi‡evW© nq‡Zv mv‡cvU© K‡i 100
†gMvnvR© evmw¯ú‡Wi i¨vg A_P 133 †gMvnv‡R©i i¨vg jvwM‡q‡Qb|
mgvavb t wbw`©ó evmw¯ú‡Wi i¨vg jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t †g‡mR- “INVALID CONFIGURATION, PLEASE RUN SETUP PROGRAM”


KviY t Kw¤úDUv‡ii cÖK„Z KbwdMv‡ik‡bi mv‡_ i¨v‡gi †mU-Avc KbwdMv‡ikb wgm-
g¨vP|
mgvavb t ev‡qv‡m Xy‡K wmgm Gi †mU-Avc KbwdMv‡ikb Abyhvqx wVK K‡i w`‡Z n‡e
A_ev Load Bios Default w`‡q Save K‡i wi-eyU Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t †g‡mR- “Decresign available memory”


KviY I mgvavb t i¨vg bó n‡Z cv‡i| 1 bs mgm¨vi mgvavb Abyhvqx c`‡¶c wbb|

mgm¨v-6 t †g‡mR- -“Cmos memory size mismatch”


mgvavb t System G †h †g‡gvix jvMv‡bv Av‡Q Zvi mv‡_ wmgm †mU-Av‡ci †g‡gvixi
mwVK wgj wbw`©ó Ki‡Z n‡e, ev‡qv‡m G Xy‡K|

mgm¨v-7 t †g‡mR- -“Memory his address line at Memory parity failure Memory read/write”
KviY t 1| i¨vg wPc gwWDj mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv †bB|
2| bó n‡Z cv‡i
mgvavb t 1| i¨vg wPc Ly‡j mwVKfv‡e cybivq jvMv‡Z n‡e|
2| fv‡jv i¨vg jvwM‡q cix¶v K‡i cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb i¨vg jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-8 t bxj ¯Œxb-Gii ‡g‡mR Fetal Exception


mgvavb t i¨v‡gi mv‡_ gv`vi †ev‡W©i evmw¯úW wgmg¨vP n‡Z cv‡i| mwVK evmw¯ú‡Wi
i¨vg jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-9 t DB‡ÛvR †mU-Avi wb‡”Q bv


KviY I mgvavb t i¨v‡g mgm¨v _vK‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î fvj i¨vg wi‡c‡mi gva¨‡g mgvavb Ki‡Z
n‡e|

nvW© wW¯‹ Uªvejï¨wUs


mgm¨v-1 t ‡g‡mR- “Boot Disk Failure/Missing Operating System”
KviY t
1| AvBwW K¨vej jyR/bó n‡Z cv‡i
2| nvW©wW¯‹ bó n‡Z cv‡i
3| wm‡÷g dvBj bó n‡Z cv‡i

mgvavb t
1| †Kwms Ly‡j AvBwW K¨vej cybivq fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb K¨vej jvMv‡Z
n‡e (hw` bó nq)|
2| Ab¨ †Kvb fvj nvW©wW¯‹ cÖwZ¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g cix¶v K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e m‡›`nhy³
nvW©wW¯‹wU bó wKbv| bó n‡j fvj/bZzb nvW©wW¯‹ jvMv‡Z n‡e|
3| wm‡÷g dvBj bó n‡j mgvavb cÖwµqv mdUIq¨vi Aa¨v‡q ‡`Lyb|

mgm¨v-2 t ‡g‡mR- “Hard Disk Controler Failed”


KviY t AvBwW K¨vej jyR/bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t K¨vej Ly‡j cybivq fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb K¨vej jvMv‡Z n‡e (hw` bó
nq)|

mgm¨v-3 t “Primary/Secondary Master/Slave Failed”


mgvavb t K‡›Uªvjvi I WªvB‡fi mv‡_ †WBwR †PBb mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e| -nvW©wW¯‹
A‡Uv-wW‡U± Ki‡Z n‡e| mgvavb bv n‡j eyS‡Z n‡e nvW©wW¯‹ bó|

mgm¨v-4 t “HARD DISK UNIT 0/1 ERROR/FAILURE”


KviY t †WUv K¨vej mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv nqwb|
mgvavb t 20 wcb wewkó †WUv K¨vej mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b 20 wc‡bi fvj
K¨vej jvMv‡Z n‡e| 34 wc‡bi †¶‡Î 34 wc‡bi fvj K¨vej jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t Gii †g‡mR- “Diskette drive O Seek to Track O Failed”


mgvavb t WªvB‡fi mv‡_ hy³ †WBwR †PBb ev d¬wc WªvBf K¨vej mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv bv
_vK‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î mwVKfv‡e K¨vej jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy n‡j wKQy¶Y kã n‡Z _v‡K|


mgvavb t †Kwms Ly‡j nvW©wW¯‹ Ly‡j †djyb| Gici cybivq fvjgZ jvwM‡q †`Lyb| e‡· †Kvb
¯Œz ev Ab¨ wKQy AvU‡K Av‡Q wKbv ‡`Lyb| _vK‡j mwi‡q †djyb| K¨vej cwieZ©b K‡iI
†`L‡Z cv‡ib| GiciI mgvavb bv n‡j nvW©wW¯‹ jvwM‡q cix¶v Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b
nvW©wW¯‹ cwieZ©‡bi cÖ‡qvRb n‡Z cv‡i|

cvIqvi mvcvB Uªvejï¨wUs


mgm¨v-1 t Kw¤úDUvi I gwbU‡i cvIqvi bv Avmv|
mgvavb t Kw¤úDUv‡ii cvIqvi mvcvB‡qi mv‡_ cvIqvi Kv‡bKkb jyR _vK‡Z cv‡i| jyR
_vK‡j gReyZfv‡e jvwM‡q w`b| m‡K‡Ui cv‡Mi Kv‡bKkb mgm¨v _vK‡j Zv mgvavb Ki“b|

mgm¨v-2 t Kw¤úDUvi kvU WvDb Ki‡j wi-÷vU© n‡q hvIqv|


KviY t cvIqvi mvcvB‡q mgm¨v _vK‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t fvj cvIqvi mvcvB w`‡q wi‡cm Ki“b|
mgm¨v-3 t gwbU‡i cvIqvi Av‡m wKš—y Kw¤úDUv‡i †bB|
mgvavb t 1| cvIqvi BDwb‡Ui wdDR cy‡o †h‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î cix¶v K‡i cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡e|
2| cvIqvi mvcvBwU Ly‡j fvjgZ cix¶v K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e Gi †Kvb cvU©m cy‡o †M‡Q wKbv,
†m‡¶‡Î D³ gv‡bi cvU©m Øviv cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t Kw¤úDUvi ¯úk© Ki‡j kK K‡i|


KviY t Avw_©s Kiv bvB|
mgvavb t mwVKfv‡e Avw_©s Gi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| wZb wc‡bi cvIqvi Kv‡W©i Z…Zxq
wcbwU Avw_©s Gi Rb¨ _v‡K| we`y¨r wgw¯¿ w`‡q Avw_©s Gi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

mgm¨v-5 t gwbUi/wmwcBD‡Z cvIqvi Av‡m wKš—y wWm‡c †bB|


mgvavb t cvIqvi mvcvB‡qi cvIhvi ¸W (Power Good) wmMb¨vj bó _vK‡Z cv‡i|
‡m‡¶‡Î cvIqvi mvcvBwU Ly‡j fv‡jv K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e †Kvb cvU©m bó n‡q‡Q wKbv| hw` nq
Z‡e D³ gv‡bi cvU©m Øviv wi‡cm Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t wWm‡c †bB|


KviY t †fv‡ëR DVvbvgvi d‡j cvIqvi †mKk‡bi GWvÞvi R¡‡j †h‡Z cv‡i|
‡m‡¶‡Î ïaygvÎ GWvÞvi †givgZ Ki‡jB cvIqvi mvcvBwU e¨venvi Dc‡hvMx n‡e|

mgm¨v-7 t Kw¤úDUvi evi evi wi-÷vU© n‡q hv‡”Q|


KviY t cvIqvi mvcvB‡qi GWvÞvi cy‡i †h‡Z cv‡i|
-cvIqvi mvcvB‡qi Ab¨ †Kvb BDwbU bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t wbw`©ó BDwbU ev GWvÞvi †givg‡Zi gva¨‡g mgvavb n‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb
cvIqvi mvcvB wi‡cm‡g‡›Ui gva¨‡g mgvavb n‡Z cv‡i|

GwRwc KvW© U¨vejï¨wUs


mgm¨v-1 t c`v©q wWm‡c Av‡m bv/wec kã Av‡m|
KviY t 1| wWm‡c KvW© mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv bv _vK‡Z cv‡i|
2| bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t 1| wWm‡c KvW© Ly‡j cybivq fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e|
2| wWm‡c KvW© bó wKbv Zv cix¶vi Rb¨ GKwU fv‡jv wWm‡c KvW© jvwM‡q
cÖ‡qv‡R‡b bZzb wWm‡c KvW© jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t mwVK Kvjvi bv Avmv|


KviY I mgvavb t wmwcBD Gi †cQ‡b wWm‡c Kv‡W©i Kv‡bKkb jyR _vK‡Z cv‡i| K¨vej
Ly‡j cybivq fvjgZ jvwM‡q †`L‡Z n‡e| GZ mgvavb bv n‡j wWm‡c KvW© Ly‡j cybivq
fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-3 t evi evi n¨vs


KviY I mgvavb t cÖ‡mmi ev gv`vi‡ev‡W©i mv‡_ MÖvwd· KvW© K¤ú¨vwUej bv n‡Z
cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î ev‡qvm †mU-Av‡c Xy‡K GwRwci B›Uvi‡dm G· ev 2 G· i‡q‡Q Zv cwieZ©b
K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e|

mDÛ KvW©
mgm¨v-1 t mvDÛ KvW© WªvBfvi Bb÷j n‡”Q bv|
KviY t 1| WªvBfviwU bó n‡Z cv‡i|
2| mvDÛ KvW© jyR Kv‡bKkb n‡Z cv‡i|
3| GiciI mgm¨vi mgvavb bv n‡j mvDÛ KvW©wU bó wKbv cix¶vi Rb¨ Ab¨ GKwU fvj
mvDÛ KvW© cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb KvW© jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t WªvBfvi Bb÷j nq, wKš‘ mvDÛ Av‡m bv|


KviY I mgvavb t mvDÛ Kv‡W©i SP Jack-G Jack wVKgZ jvMv‡bv bvI n‡Z cv‡i †m‡¶‡Î
fvjgZ jvwM‡q †`L‡Z n‡e| GiciI mgvavb bv n‡j mdUIq¨vi Aa¨vq †`Lyb|

mgm¨v-3 t mDÛ Kv‡W© we`Ny‡U kã Av‡m|


mgvavb t Audio Out Jack mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e| cª‡qvR‡b Slot cwieZ©b K‡i †`L‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t AwWI wmwWi mvDÛ Av‡m bv|


mgvavb t wmwWig †_‡K mvDÛKvW© ch©š— AwWI K¨vej mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv Av‡Q
wKbv †`L‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b K¨vej D‡ë-cv‡ë †`Lv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t gvD_ w¯úKvi KvR Ki‡Q bv|


Kvib I mgvavb t gD_ w¯úKv‡ii K¨vej hv wmwcBD-Gi wcQ‡b mshy³ Kiv nq Zv mwVKfv‡e
jvMv‡bv bv _vK‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î cybivq Ly‡j fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t b‡qR Avmv|


KviY I mgvavb t ch©vß wi‡mv‡m©i Afv‡e G mgm¨v n‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î AwaK i¨vg
jvwM‡q mgvavb n‡Z cv‡i| cvIqvi mvcvB Gi Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| GRb¨ w¯úKvi‡K cvIqvi mvc-
B n‡Z `y‡i ivLyb|

gwbUi/wcÖ›Uvi
mgm¨v-1 t gwbUi wWm‡c/cvIqvi †bB
KviYt gwbU‡ii K¨vej jyR _vK‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t gwbU‡ii †h K¨vejwU wmwcBD-Gi †cQ‡b jvMv‡bv nq Zv Ly‡j fvjgZ jvMv‡Z
n‡e|
mgm¨v-2 t gwbU‡i cvIqvi Av‡m wKš—y wWm‡c †bB|
mgvavb t 1| gwbU‡ii D¾¡jZv n«vm/e„w×i bewU Nywo‡q †`L‡Z n‡e Kgv‡bv Av‡Q wKbv,
Kgv‡bv _vK‡j cÖ‡qvRb gZ evwo‡q w`‡Z n‡e|
2| gwbU‡ii wWm‡c Kv‡W©i mgm¨v n‡Z cv‡i, †m‡¶‡Î GKwU fv‡jv KvW© ms‡hvRb K‡i
‡`L‡Z n‡e|
3| GiciI mgvavb bv n‡j gwbUi Ly‡j †`L‡Z n‡e Gi wewfbœ hš¿vsk (UªvbwR÷i, K¨vcvwmUi
BZ¨vw`) bó n‡q‡Q wKbv| †m‡¶‡Î fvj hš¿vsk wi‡c‡mi gva¨‡g mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-3 t gwbU‡i wWm‡c Av‡m, wKš—y Kvjvi †bB|


mgvavb t gwbU‡ii wmMb¨vj K¨ve‡j mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î D³ K¨vej cwieZ©Y
Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t gwbUi ¯ŒxY jvj‡P is nIqv|


KviY I mgvavb t we`y¨r Gi †jv †fv‡ë‡Ri Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î †fv‡ëR evov‡bvi e¨e¯’v
Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t gwbUi ax‡i ax‡i †Nvjv (mv`v) n‡Z _v‡K|


mgvavb t gwbU‡ii d¬Be¨v‡K mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î d¬Be¨vK cwieZ©b Ki‡Z
n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t gwbU‡ii ¯ŒxY Kvucv|


mgvavb t wWm‡c Kv‡W©i mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i- fvj wWm‡c KvW© cÖwZ¯’vc‡bi
gva¨‡g cix¶v K‡i cÖ‡qvR‡b fvj KvW© jvMv‡Z n‡e|
-‡jv †fv‡ë‡Ri Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| Z`vbyhvqx e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e|

wmwW WªvBf
mgm¨v-1 t wmwW WªvBf KvR Ki‡Q bv|
KviY t
1| wmwW WªvBfv‡ii cvIqvi †PBb jvMv‡bv bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i|
2| Rv¤úvi mwVK †bB|
3| †n‡W gqjv Rg‡Z cv‡i|
4| bó n‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t
1| wmwW WªvB‡fi cvIqvi †PBb mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e|
2| Rv¤úvi mwVKfv‡e †mwUs Ki‡Z n‡e|
3| †j‡Ý gqjv Rg‡j †jÝ wK¬bvi w`‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Z n‡e|
4| cÖ‡qvR‡b bZzb WªvBf jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t AwWI wmwW ev‡R bv|


KviY I mgvavb t AwWI K¨vejwU WªvBf I dv‡W© mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv bv _vK‡Z cv‡i|
†m‡¶‡Î mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-3 t wmwW ivb n‡Z mgq wb‡”Q|


mgvavb t †n‡W gqjv Rg‡Z cv‡i| †jÝ wK¬bvi w`‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t Wm cÖ¤ú‡U Gii †g‡mR- “Cannot find the path”


mgvavb t wmwW i‡gi Wm WªvBfviwU B÷j Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t wmwW Pvjv‡j n¨vs|


KviY I mgvavb t wmwWi‡gi WvUv/cvIqvi K¨vej jyR n‡Z cv‡i|
cybivq Ly‡j mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-6 t Gii †g‡mR- “Gil is not accessible the device is not ready”
KviY I mgvavb t wmwW‡Z ¯‹¨vP ci‡Z cv‡i| fvj †Kvb wmwW Pvwj‡q cix¶v Ki“b| A_ev
†n‡W gqjv Rg‡Z cv‡i| †nW wK¬bvi w`‡q cwi®‹vi K‡i ‡`Lyb|
d¬wc WªvBf
mgm¨v-1 t d¬wc WªvBf KvR Ki‡Q bv|
KviY t WªvB‡fi †n‡W gqjv Rg‡Z cv‡i|
mgvavb t †nW wK¬bvi w`‡q fvjgZ cwi®‹vi Ki‡Z n‡e| Gic‡iI mgvavb bv n‡j WªvBfwU
Ly‡j mvwf©wms Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-2 t d¬wc WªvBf KvR Ki‡Q bv| †g‡mR- “The device is not resdy”
KviY t ev‡qvm msµvš—
mgvavb t mv‡qvm †mUAv‡c Xy‡K Standard CMOS Setup Xy‡K Drive A: 3.5 inc Floppy
wbe©vPb K‡i †mf w`‡q †ei n‡q cybivq †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e|

mgm¨v-3 t d¬wc WªvB‡fi jvBU R¡‡j _v‡K|


mgvavb t d¬wc WªvB‡fi WvUv K¨vej Dwë‡q w`‡Z n‡e| hw` KvR bv nq Z‡e K¨vej cvëv‡Z
n‡e|

mgm¨v-4 t †g‡mR “Drive not ready”


mgvavb t WªvBfwUi cvIqvi Kv‡bKkb I †WBwR †PBb jyR ev mwVKfv‡e jvMv‡bv bv
_vK‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î cybivq fvjgZ jvMv‡Z n‡e| GiciI mgvavb bv n‡j bZzb WªvBf jvMv‡Z
n‡e|

mgm¨v-5 t W‡m Gii †g‡mR “Not read Drive”


mgvavb t d¬wcwW®‹wU wVKg‡Zv bv XyK‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î cybivq wVKgZ XywK‡q R
Pvcyb|

mgm¨v-6 t †g‡mR “Drive not ready, Write Protected”


KviY I mgvavb t d¬wcwW®‹wU ivBU cÖ‡U‡±W _vK‡Z cv‡i| d¬wcwW®‹wU †ei K‡i
Dëv wc‡Vi bx‡P †h †QvU Kv‡jv PvKwZ i‡q‡Q Zv Dc‡i Zz‡j w`b|

mgm¨v-7 t d¬wc KvR Ki‡Q bv|


KviY I mgvavb t fvBivm msµvš— KviY n‡Z cv‡i| fvBivm wW‡¯‹i eyU †m±i‡K bó K‡i
†d‡j| †m‡¶‡Î ¯‹¨vbwW¯‹ Pvjv‡j A‡bK †¶‡Î mgvavb n‡q _v‡K| AZGe, cÖwZ‡ivag~jK
e¨e¯’v wnmv‡e me©`v wcwm‡K fvBivm gy³ ivLyb|

gDm/Kx-‡evW©

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