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# Analysis of concrete strengths and allowable stresses

At release In service
Concrete strength 2800 (f'ci) psi 0.35 8000 (f'c) psi
Allowable tension -317 psi 6 -536.6563 6
C o m p r e ssiv e S t r e n g t h (p si)

## Plank Concrete Strength vs. Age in days

9000

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Age (days)
ervice Topping concrete
4000 (f'c) psi
-506 8
1800 0.45

Age fc
0.1 280
1 2800
28 8000

## Explanation: I have chosen concrete strength and

subsequent allowable compression and tension,
staying within the ranges required.
Also, I have plotted the evolution in time of
concrete strength.
Design of cross section and section properties

width
tt= 2 in

y tp = 8 in

Plank Width-inches 48
Void Diameter-inches 5
Min spacing between voids (in.) 2 Explanation: I have chosen all dimensions of
plank, topping and voids, and below I have
Calc number of voids per plank 6.6 made all the calculations for the resulting
Actual number of voids per plank 6 section properties, with and without topping
Center of voids from bottom (in.) 4.25
Clear depth below voids (in.) 1.75
Clear depth above voids (in.) 1.25

## Section Properties without Topping

Area y bar (A)(ybar) Ig d Ad2
Topping 0 0 0 0 0 0
Plank 384 4 1536 2048 -0.110644 4.700988
Voids -118 4.25 -501 -184.0777 -0.360644 -15.32284
Totals 266 1035 1864 -10.62185
Area 266 in2
Y Bar (from bottom) 3.89 in2
Moment of inertia 1853 in2
c to bottom 3.89 in2
c to top 4.11 in2
S (bottom of plank) 477 in2
S (top of plank) 451 in2
chosen all dimensions of
voids, and below I have
ations for the resulting
with and without topping

## Section Properties without Topping

Area y bar (A)(ybar) Ig d Ad2
Topping 96 9 864 32 3.76 1354
Plank 384 4 1536 2048 1.24 594
Voids -118 4.25 -501 -184.0777 0.99 -116
Totals 362 1899 1896 1832
Area 362 in2
Y Bar (from bottom) 5.24 in2
Moment of inertia 3728 in2
c to bottom 5.24 in2
c to top of plank 2.76 in2
c to top of topping 4.76 in2
S (bottom of plank) 711 in2
S (top of plank) 1353 in2
S (top of topping) 784 in2
Prestressing Configuration and Forces

## 270 KSI wire strand

Wire Dia Wire Dia Area
3/8. 0.375 0.085
7/16. 0.438 0.115
1/2. 0.500 0.153
9/16. 0.563 0.192
0.6 0.600 0.215

## Number of prestressing strands 9

Nominal size of prestressing strands 3/8.
Explanation: I have cho
Diameter of prestressing strands 0.375 in the table above) of the
Area of strand 0.085 in2 I have decided the situ
the cross section and t
with time.
Bottom cover on strand 1 inches moments and stresses
after losses.
Center of strand from bottom 1.19 inches
Untopped eccentricity of prestressing force -2.70 inches

## Ultimate strength 270 KSI

Initial stressing percentage 0.75

## Initial stressing at release of strands At Service after loss

Initial force per strand 17.2 Kips Service force per strand
Initial precompression force 155 Kips Service precompression force
Initial precompression axial stress 582 psi Service precompression axial stress
Initial untopped prestressing moment 419 in-Kips Service untopped prestressing moment
Flexural prestressing tension on top -928 psi Flexural prestressing tension on top
Initial prestressing net tension on top -346 psi Service prestressing net tension on top
Flexural prestressing compression on bottom 878 psi Flexural prestressing compression on bottom
Initial prestressing compression on bottom 1460 psi Service prestressing compression on bottom
Explanation: I have chosen number and size (from
the table above) of the prestressing strands. Also,
I have decided the situation of those strands in
the cross section and their strength and relaxation
with time.
Finally, I have made all the calculations for forces,
moments and stresses in the plank, initially and
after losses.

## At Service after losses

nd 13.8 Kips
on force 124 Kips
on axial stress 466 psi
stressing moment 335 in-Kips
tension on top -743 psi
net tension on top -277 psi
compression on bottom 703 psi
ompression on bottom 1168 psi
Span 28 feet
Maximum allowable superimposed load= 115 psf
Plank self weight moment 25362 ft-lb
Topping self weight moment 9147 ft-lb
Plank area 266 in2 Topped Sb 711 in3
Untopped Sb 477 in3 Topped St plank 1353 in3
Untopped St 451 in3 Topped St topping 784 in3

## Top of topping Top of plank Bottom of plank

Initial prestressing compression, psi 0 582 582
Initial prestressing flexure, psi 0 -928 878
Self Weight Plank, psi 0 675 -639
Plank at release of strands, psi 0 329 822

## Service Prestressing Compression, psi 0 466 466

Service Prestressing flexure, psi 0 -743 703
Self Weight Plank, psi 0 675 -639
Plank at service before topping applied, psi 0 398 530

## Self weight topping flexure 0 243 -230

Topped plank, no external load 0 641 299
Max allowable stress 1800 3600 -537

## Tolerable stress from additional LL 1800 2959 -836

Superimposed load moment (ft lb) 117580 333510 49521
Superimposed load on topped plank (psf) 300 851 126
Final stress state with full superimposed load 690 1041 -462
posed load Plank concrete density 140 lb/ft3
Topping density 140 lb/ft3
Untopped plank weight 64.7 psf

## Topping weight 23.3 psf

Topped plank weight 88.0 psf

Explanation:
1) I have chosen span length.
2) With the values of density abo
weights and the subsequent pro
3) With the values of self weight
stresses, and a superimposed loa
calculated all the stress states th
process, since fabrication to serv
4) Finally, I have compared if the
Bottom of plank acceptable, since the point of vie
582 stresses calculated in the next sh
878
-639 Topping is OK Top of plank is OK Bottom of plank OK
822 NA 1 1

466
703
-639
530 NA 1 1

-230
299 NA 1 1
-537

-836
49521
126
-462 1 1 1
nation:
ave chosen span length.
th the values of density above, I've calculated self
hts and the subsequent produced moments.
th the values of self weights, prestressing
es, and a superimposed load of 180 psf, I've
ated all the stress states throughout the whole
ss, since fabrication to service.
ally, I have compared if these stress states are
table, since the point of view of allowable
es calculated in the next sheet.
Design of cross section and section properties

width
tt= 2 in

y tp = 5 in

Plank Width-inches 48
Void Diameter-inches 3
Min spacing between voids (in.) 2 Explanation: I have chosen all dimensions of
plank, topping and voids, and below I have
Calc number of voids per plank 9.2 made all the calculations for the resulting
Actual number of voids per plank 9 section properties, with and without topping
Center of voids from bottom (in.) 2
Clear depth below voids (in.) 0.5
Clear depth above voids (in.) 1.5

## Section Properties without Topping

Area y bar (A)(ybar) Ig d Ad2
Topping 0 0 0 0 0 0
Plank 240 2.5 600 500 0.180339 7.805286
Voids -64 2 -127 -35.7847 0.680339 -29.44592
Totals 176 473 464 -21.64064
Area 176 in2
Y Bar (from bottom) 2.68 in2
Moment of inertia 443 in2
c to bottom 2.68 in2
c to top 2.32 in2
S (bottom of plank) 165 in2
S (top of plank) 191 in2
chosen all dimensions of
voids, and below I have
ations for the resulting
with and without topping

## Section Properties without Topping

Area y bar (A)(ybar) Ig d Ad2
Topping 96 6 576 32 2.15 444
Plank 240 2.5 600 500 1.35 438
Voids -64 2 -127 -35.7847 1.85 -218
Totals 272 1049 496 663
Area 272 in2
Y Bar (from bottom) 3.85 in2
Moment of inertia 1160 in2
c to bottom 3.85 in2
c to top of plank 1.15 in2
c to top of topping 3.15 in2
S (bottom of plank) 301 in2
S (top of plank) 1009 in2
S (top of topping) 368 in2
Prestressing Configuration and Forces

## 270 KSI wire strand

Wire Dia Wire Dia Area
3/8. 0.375 0.085
7/16. 0.438 0.115
1/2. 0.500 0.153
9/16. 0.563 0.192
0.6 0.600 0.215

## Number of prestressing strands 8

Nominal size of prestressing strands 7/16.
Explanation: I have cho
Diameter of prestressing strands 0.438 in the table above) of the
Area of strand 0.115 in2 I have decided the situ
the cross section and t
with time.
Bottom cover on strand 1.08 inches moments and stresses
after losses.
Center of strand from bottom 1.30 inches
Untopped eccentricity of prestressing force -1.38 inches

## Ultimate strength 270 KSI

Initial stressing percentage 0.75

## Initial stressing at release of strands At Service after loss

Initial force per strand 23.3 Kips Service force per strand
Initial precompression force 186 Kips Service precompression force
Initial precompression axial stress 1056 psi Service precompression axial stress
Initial untopped prestressing moment 257 in-Kips Service untopped prestressing moment
Flexural prestressing tension on top -1349 psi Flexural prestressing tension on top
Initial prestressing net tension on top -293 psi Service prestressing net tension on top
Flexural prestressing compression on bottom 1559 psi Flexural prestressing compression on bottom
Initial prestressing compression on bottom 2615 psi Service prestressing compression on bottom
Explanation: I have chosen number and size (from
the table above) of the prestressing strands. Also,
I have decided the situation of those strands in
the cross section and their strength and relaxation
with time.
Finally, I have made all the calculations for forces,
moments and stresses in the plank, initially and
after losses.

## At Service after losses

nd 18.6 Kips
on force 149 Kips
on axial stress 845 psi
stressing moment 206 in-Kips
tension on top -1079 psi
net tension on top -234 psi
compression on bottom 1247 psi
ompression on bottom 2092 psi
Span 28 feet
Maximum allowable superimposed load= 43.4 psf
Plank self weight moment 16805 ft-lb
Topping self weight moment 9147 ft-lb
Plank area 176 in2 Topped Sb 301 in3
Untopped Sb 165 in3 Topped St plank 1009 in3
Untopped St 191 in3 Topped St topping 368 in3

## Top of topping Top of plank Bottom of plank

Initial prestressing compression, psi 0 1056 1056
Initial prestressing flexure, psi 0 -1349 1559
Self Weight Plank, psi 0 1057 -1221
Plank at release of strands, psi 0 764 1393

## Service Prestressing Compression, psi 0 845 845

Service Prestressing flexure, psi 0 -1079 1247
Self Weight Plank, psi 0 1057 -1221
Plank at service before topping applied, psi 0 823 870

## Self weight topping flexure 0 575 -665

Topped plank, no external load 0 1398 206
Max allowable stress 1800 3600 -537

## Tolerable stress from additional LL 1800 2202 -742

Superimposed load moment (ft lb) 55227 185077 18633
Superimposed load on topped plank (psf) 141 472 48
Final stress state with full superimposed load 554 1600 -471
posed load Plank concrete density 140 lb/ft3
Topping density 140 lb/ft3
Untopped plank weight 42.9 psf

## Topping weight 23.3 psf

Topped plank weight 66.2 psf

Explanation:
1) I have chosen span length.
2) With the values of density abo
weights and the subsequent pro
3) With the values of self weight
stresses, and a superimposed loa
calculated all the stress states th
process, since fabrication to serv
4) Finally, I have compared if the
Bottom of plank acceptable, since the point of vie
1056 stresses calculated in the next sh
1559
-1221 Topping is OK Top of plank is OK Bottom of plank OK
1393 NA 1 0

845
1247
-1221
870 NA 1 1

-665
206 NA 1 1
-537

-742
18633
48
-471 1 1 1
nation:
ave chosen span length.
th the values of density above, I've calculated self
hts and the subsequent produced moments.
th the values of self weights, prestressing
es, and a superimposed load of 180 psf, I've
ated all the stress states throughout the whole
ss, since fabrication to service.
ally, I have compared if these stress states are
table, since the point of view of allowable
es calculated in the next sheet.
Masonry Design Choices
Wall geometry

## Concrete Masonry Unit Geometry

Concrete Masonry Unit Properties

Mortar properties
Masonry properties
f’m

Mortar bedding
Grouted
Modulus of Elasticity
Masonry Design Choices
Width of wall 8 in
Horizontal Length 15.09 ft
Height (floor to floor height is usually also the maximum unbraced length) 9 ft
Width of unit (Nominal 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-inch) 8 in

## Concrete Unit strength (1900 to 6000 psi) 3050 psi

Concrete Unit density (80 to 140 lb/ft3) 120 lb/ft3
Type: M, S, N, O N

As determined as a function of concrete unit strength and mortar type 2000 psi
Face Shell, Full Bedding Full
Ungrouted, partially grouted, fully grouted Ungrouted
Function of unit strength and mortar type 2315000 psi
Masonry Section Properties (per ft of wall)
Area 41.5 in2
Moment of Inertia 334 in4
Section Modulus 87.6 in3
Weight (ungrouted) 40 psf
Floor loads per foot of wall

Pressures
Floor plank self weight 88.0 psf
DL 15 psf
LL 100 psf
203.0 psf

Floor Length 28 ft

Forces
Floor plank self weight 2464.9 lb
DL 420 lb
LL 2800 lb
5684.9 lb
Roof loads per foot of wall

Roof plank self weight 66.2 psf
DL 15 psf
LL 0 psf
Snow 28.4 psf
110 psf

Roof length 28 ft

Forces
Roof plank self weight 1854 lb
DL 420 lb
LL 0 lb
Snow 793.8 lb
3068 lb
DL and Self weight 2274 lb
DL and Self weight+LL+Snow 3068 lb
Wall loads per foot of wall
Pressures
Self weight 40 psf 1.915 kN/m2
Height 9 ft 2.74 m
Force
Self weight 360 lb/ft 5.25 KN/m

basic wind 30 psf 1.436 KN/m2
wind pressure (k=0.8) 24 psf 1.149 KN/m2
wind suction (k=0.5) 15 psf 0.718 KN/m2
According to New York State Building Code, we have to follow the method described by ASCE 7, Section 7.3
Step 1: We identify the ground snow load in the area of Ithaca using the figure below.

According to the figure above, we find that the ground snow load is 45.

Step 2: Determine the flat roof snow load using the ground snow load.

## Determining Exposure Factor

According to terrain categories listed in ASCE Section 1609.4, the building site fits into category B. Therefore, Exposure factor

## Step 3: Determing Thermal Factor

We choose the value, 1.0 for Thermal Factor. The structure doesn't seem to fit any of the bottom 3 categories.

## Step 4: Snow Importance Factor

We determine that the Snow Importance Factor is 1.

## Step 5: Calculate the flat roof snow load:

P f=
osure factor is: 0.9
28.4 psf
basic wind 30 psf
wind pressure (k=0.8) 14.1 psf
wind suction (k=0.5) 15 psf
Masonry Walls- Interior-Pure compression
Calculations per foot of wall
fa 9 psi
r 2.84 in
h/r 38.0
Fa 463.1 psi f'm*(1-(h/140/r)^2) Code requirements
fa/Fa 0.02 <1 1
Peuler 136889 lb >4P 1
Masonry walls- Exterior wall -combined axial and bending stresses

ALL THE CALCULATIONS IN THE TABLE BELOW ARE PER FEET OF WALL

Self weight +
pressure
Axial compression
stress at mid- fa = P/A = actual axial compression stress o
height of exterior 9 9 psi
wall, fa

## Computed value of Fa = allowable masonry compression stress

Fa(Increase by 1/3 when wind 463 617 psi Code Equations (2-12) and (2-13)
is present)

Max value of P 360 360 lb P = actual axial force on wall or strip of wal

## Computed value of Pe = Modified Euler bucking load for wall or

1/4Pe(Increase by 1/3 when 34222 45630 lb eqn (2-11)
wind is present)

Max value of P
acceptable?
1 1 Is P < (1/4) Pe?

## Flexural fbwp = Mbwp/S, where Mbwp is due to wind pres

compression stress 0 20 psi
at mid-height, fbwp,
due to wind pressure

## Computed value of Fb = allowable masonry flexural compressio

Fb(Increase by 1/3 when wind 667 889 psi given by Code Equation (2-14).
is present)

## Flexural tension fbwp = Mbwp/S, where Mbwp is due to wind pres

stress at mid- 0 20 psi
height, fbwp

## Worst case NET Net tension stress= Axial compression stress

flexural tension
0 11 psi [Mbws/S]
stress at mid-
height =(fa-fb)
Allowable tension This comes directly from Code allowable ten
stress (Increase by 1/3 19 25 psi
2.2.3.2.
when wind is present)

## Tension stress Is actual stress > allowable stress?

1 1
acceptable?
Value of fa/Fa + This is the only permissible way to combine
0.02 0.04 originates in axial load with compressive str
fb/Fb
bending.
This is the only permissible way to combine
originates in axial load with compressive str
bending.
Is this value
1 1 Is the interaction equation satisfied?
acceptable?
ctual axial compression stress on wall or strip of wall.

## ble masonry compression stress as given by

ions (2-12) and (2-13)

) Pe?

## ble masonry flexural compression stress as

de Equation (2-14).

## nly permissible way to combine compressive stress in masonry that

n axial load with compressive stress in masonry that originates in
nly permissible way to combine compressive stress in masonry that
n axial load with compressive stress in masonry that originates in

## ction equation satisfied?

Bearing walls- Lowest exterior wall -combined axial and bending stresses

DL and Self
DL and Self
DL and Self weight + LL +
Load Case weight + LL +
Weight Snow + Wind
Snow
pressure

## Axial compression stress at

mid-height of exterior wall, 53 200 200
fa
Computed value of Fa 463
(Increased by 1/3 when wind is present) 617

## Max value of P 2217 8299 8318

Computed value of 1/4Pe 163565
(Increased by 1/3 when wind is present) 218086
Max value of P acceptable? 1 1 1
Flexural compression stress
at mid-height, fbe due to plank 13 82 82
eccentricity

## Flexural compression stress

at mid-height, fbwp, due to wind 0 0 -20
pressure

## Flexural compression stress

at mid-height, fbws due to wind 0 0 0
suction

## Worst Case Net combined

flexural compression stress 13 82 102
at mid-height, fb compr.
Computed value of Fb
500 500 667
(Increase by 1/3 when wind is present)

## Flexural tension stress at

mid-height, fbe 13 82 82

## Flexural tension stress at

mid-height, fbwp 0 0 -20
Flexural tension stress at
mid-height, fbws 0 0 0
Worst case combined
13 82 63
flexural tension stress at 13 82 63
mid-height, fb tension
Worst case NET flexural
tension stress at mid-height
= 40 118 138
fa - fb tension

## Allowable tension stress 19 19 25

(Increase by 1/3 when wind is present)

ng stresses

## DL and Self DL and Self

DL and Self
weight + LL + weight +
weight +
Snow + Wind Wind
Wind suction
suction pressure

200 54 54 psi

463 psi
617 psi
lb
8319 2236 2238
lb
163565 lb

218086 lb
1 1 1

82 13 13 psi

0 -20 0 psi

21 0 21 psi

103 33 34 psi

psi
667 667 667
psi

82 13 13 psi

psi
0 -20 0
psi
psi
21 0 21
psi
psi
103 -7 34
103 -7 34
psi

psi
97 60 20
psi

25 25 25 psi

1 1 1

## 0.59 0.11 0.17

1 1 1
Floor Effective Seismic Weight Height
1st floor 3575 kips 0 ft
2nd floor 10442 kips 9.3 ft Base Shear 1922
3rd floor 10442 kips 19.0 ft ∑(wi*hi) 381333
Roof 2995 kips 28.5 ft
total 27454

## Distance between floors 9.7 ft

Distance between last floor and roof 9.5 ft

## Floor pressure + suction (psf) associated area(ft2) Force(kips)

2nd floor 29.1 826 24.0
3rd floor 29.1 826 24.0 resultant base wind force
Roof 29.1 427 12.4

## Floor pressure + suction (psf) associated area(ft2) Force(kips)

2nd floor 29.1 1118 32.5
3rd floor 29.1 1118 32.5 resultant base wind force
Roof 29.1 578 16.8
(taking into account plank thickness)
Earthquake forces
Base shear 1922 kips
kips 2nd floor 491 kips
kips-ft 3rd floor 1000 kips
Roof 431 kips

## e wind force 82 kips

SHEAR WALLS- Wind or EQ force in East-West Direction

## PROPERTIES OF SHEAR WALLS:

Number of shear walls : 2
Wall geometry Thickness of wall 4 in
Horizontal Length 6 ft
CMU Geometry Width of unit (Nominal 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-inch) 4 in
CMU Properties
Concrete Unit strength (1900 to 6000 psi) 2150 psi
Concrete Unit density (80 to 140 lb/ft3) 120 lb/ft3
Mortar properties Type: M, S, N, O N
Masonry properties
f’m
As determined as a function of concrete unit 1500 psi
Mortar bedding Face Shell, Full Bedding Full
Grouted Ungrouted, partially grouted, fully grouted Grouted Same density as cmu
Modulus of Elasticity Function of unit strength and mortar type 1920000 psi

## Masonry Section Properties (per foot of height)

Area 261 in2
Moment of Inertia 112908 in4
Section Modulus 3136 in3
Weight (grouted) 76 psf
ANALYSIS OF FORCES AND STRESSES

## Forces over each shear wall

EQ (lb) Wind (lb)
1st floor 961 30
2nd floor 246 12
3rd floor 500 12
Roof 215 6

## Moments at base of each shear wall

EQ 17938 lb-ft
Wind 518 lb-ft

Shear force at base of each shear wall (assumption rectangular cross section)
EQ 5.5 psi
Wind 0.2 psi

## Slf weight of shear wall

Total 13162 lb
Stress 50.4 psi
Flexural tension at base
EQ 68.6 psi
Wind 1.98 psi

EQ 18.2 psi
Wind -48.4 psi

Tension is OK
EQ 1
Wind 1

## Axial compression and flexure:

fa 50 psi fb
r 21 in Fb
h 345 in fb/Fb
h/r 16.6
Fa 493 psi
fa/Fa 0.10
P 13162 lb
Peuler 1.80E+07 lb
EQ Wind
Compression is OK 1 1
Buckling is OK 1

Shear analysis:
EQ Wind
Shear stress 5.5 0.17 psi
Allowable shear stress
a) 58 psi
b) 120 psi
c)running bond, grouted 82.7 psi

Shear is OK 1
Same density as cmu
EQ Wind
68.6 1.98 psi
667 psi
0.10 0.00