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0001 //Perhitungan Reaktor sesuai Silla

0002 clear;clc;clf
0003
0004 //Data
0005 FA0=88.020 //kmol/jam
0006 FB0=FA0*2 //kmol/jam
0007 FC0=0.000012 //kmol/jam
0008
0009 BMA=72.11 //n-C3H7CHO
0010 BMB=2 //H2
0011 BMC=74.123 //n-C4H9OH
0012
0013 MA0=FA0*BMA
0014 MB0=FB0*BMB
0015 MC0=FC0*BMC
0016 MT0=MA0+MB0+MC0
0017
0018 C=120 //Suhu masuk dalam [C]
0019 T0=C+273 //Suhu Umpan dalam [K]
0020 Treff=298 //Suhu Referensi [K]
0021 P0=30/14.7 //Tekanan Operasi [atm]
0022 xa0=0 //Konversi awal
0023 xan=0.98
0024
0025 //Data Kinetika Reaksi
0026 A=775.821 //Konstanta Arhenius [kmol/(jam.kgkatalis.atm^0.5)]
0027 EA=7730 //Energi Aktivasi [kal/mol]
0028 R1=1.987 //Tetapan gas [kal/(mol.K)]
0029 R2=0.0820575*1000 //Tetapan gas [L.atm/(kmol.K)]
0030
0031 //Laju alir mol total per pipa
0032 FT0=FA0+FB0+FC0
0033 q0=FT0*R2*T0/P0 //Volume [L/jam]
0034
0035 //Data Katalis
0036 //Katalis yang digunakan Nickel
0037 //Tipe : Bola
0038 rhok=1440 //Rapat massa katalis [kg/m3]
0039 Dp=0.125*2.54/10 //Diameter Katalis [m]
0040 E=0.38 //Porositas
0041
0001 function [Fa, Fb, Fc, Ft]=massa(xa)
0002 Fa=FA0*(1-xa)
0003 Fb=FB0-(FA0*xa)
0004 Fc=FC0+(FA0*xa)
0005 Ft=FT0-FA0*xa
0006 endfunction
0048
0001 function [CPA, CPB, CPC]=cp(T)
0002
CPA=(64.374*((T)-Treff)+(6.4776e-02)/2*((T)^2-Treff^2)+(3.5143e-04)/3*((T)^3-Treff^3)+(-3.5370e-07)/4*((T)^4-Treff^4)+(
0003
CPB=(25.399*((T)-Treff)+(2.0178e-02)/2*((T)^2-Treff^2)+(-3.8549E-05)/3*((T)^3-Treff^3)+(3.188e-08)/4*((T)^4-Treff^4)+(-
0004
CPC=(8.157*((T)-Treff)+(4.1033e-01)/2*((T)^2-Treff^2)+(-2.2645e-04)/3*((T)^3-Treff^3)+(6.0372e-08)/4*((T)^4-Treff^4)+(-
0005 endfunction
0054
0001 function [CPAM, CPBM, CPCM]=cpm(T)
0002 CPAM=64.374+(6.4776e-02)*(T)+(3.5143e-04)*((T)^2)+(-3.5370e-07)*((T)^3)+(1.0082e-10)*((T)^4)
0003 CPBM=25.399+(2.0178e-02)*(T)+(-3.8549E-05)*((T)^2)+(3.188e-08)*((T)^3)+(-8.7585e-12)*((T)^4)
0004 CPCM=8.157+(4.1033e-01)*(T)+(-2.2645e-04)*((T)^2)+(6.0372e-08)*((T)^3)+(-6.2802e-12)*((T)^4)
0005 endfunction
0060
0001 function [CPA0, CPB0, CPC0]=cp0(T0)
0002
CPA0=(64.374*(Treff-T0)+(6.4776e-02)/2*((Treff)^2-T0^2)+(3.5143e-04)/3*((Treff)^3-T0^3)+(-3.5370e-07)/4*((Treff)^4-T0^4
0003
CPB0=(25.399*((Treff)-T0)+(2.0178e-02)/2*((Treff)^2-T0^2)+(-3.8549E-05)/3*((Treff)^3-T0^3)+(3.188e-08)/4*((Treff)^4-T0^
0004
CPC0=(8.157*((Treff)-T0)+(4.1033e-01)/2*((Treff)^2-T0^2)+(-2.2645e-04)/3*((Treff)^3-T0^3)+(6.0372e-08)/4*((Treff)^4-T0^
0005 endfunction
0066
0001 function [miuA, miuB, miuC]=viskositas(T)
0002 miuA=7.694+(2.0543e-1)*T+(1.0683e-5)*T^2
0003 miuB=27.758+(2.12e-1)*T+(-3.28e-5)*T^2
0004 miuC=-11.144+(2.879e-1)*T+(-5.6275e-5)*T^2
0005 endfunction
0072
0001 function [f1, f2]=fungsi(xa, W, T)
0002 [Fa,Fb,Fc,Ft]=massa(xa)
0003 q=q0*P0*Ft*T/(P*FT0*T0) //Volume sepanjang z [L/jam]
0004 Pa=Fa*R2*T/q;
0005 Pb=Fb*R2*T/q //Tekanan parsial [atm]
0006 k=A*(exp((-EA)/R1/T))
0007 ra=k*Pa/(Pb^0.5)
0008 [CPA0,CPB0,CPC0]=cp0(T)
0009 delHR=CPA0+CPB0+CPC0
0010 HrA=-207*1000
0011 HrB=0
0012 HrC=-274.6*1000
0013 delHf=HrC-(HrA+HrB)
0014 [CPA,CPB,CPC]=cp(T)
0015 delHP=CPC+CPA+CPB
0016 deltH=delHR+delHf+delHP
0017 [CPAM,CPBM,CPCM]=cpm(T)
0018 Cpm=Fa/Ft*CPAM+Fb/Ft*CPBM+Fc/Ft*CPCM
0019 f1=FA0/ra
0020 f2=-deltH*FA0/Cpm/Ft
0021 endfunction
0094
0095 //Mencari Katalis Minimum
0096 xa2=0.98;xa1=xa0;n=100
0097 h=(xa2-xa1)/n
0098 P=P0;T=T0
0099 xa=xa0
0100 W=0
0101 while xa<=xa2
0102 xanext=xa+h
0103 [f1,f2]=fungsi(xa,W,T)
0104 Wnext=W+f1*h
0105 Tnext=T+f2*h
0106 xa=xanext;W=Wnext;T=Tnext
0107 end
0108
0109 [miuA,miuB,miuC]=viskositas(T0)
0110 mium=(FA0/FT0*miuA+FB0/FT0*miuB+FC0/FT0*miuC)*1e-6*0.1 //kg/m/s
0111 bmrt=(FA0*BMA+FB0*BMB+FC0*BMC)/FT0 //kg/kmol
0112 rhom=P0/R2/T0*bmrt*1000 //kg/m3
0113
0114 //Mencari superficial velocity
0001 function F=sv(vs)
0002 F=(150*(mium*vs/(Dp^2))*((1-E)^2)/(E^3))+(1.75*(rhom*(vs^2)/Dp)*(1-E)/(E^3))-delP
0003 endfunction
0118 delP=3350
0119 vs=[0:0.1:10]
0120 er=1
0121 tol=1e-5
0122 iter=0
0123 h=0.01
0124 vs=0
0125 //Menghitung Nilai Superficial Velocity
0126 while er>tol
0127 iter=iter+1
0128 F=sv(vs)
0129 F1=sv(vs+h)
0130 F2=sv(vs-h)
0131 dF=(F1-F2)/2/h
0132 vsbaru=vs-F/dF
0133 er=abs(vsbaru-vs)/vsbaru*100
0134 vs=vsbaru
0135 end
0136
0137 //Mencari inlet Volumetric Flow Rate
0138 Vv=FT0/3600*R2*T0/P0/1000 //m3/s
0139
0140 //Mencari Luas Bed
0141 Ab=Vv/vs
0142
0143 //Mencari Diameter
0144 D=(4*(Ab)/%pi)^0.5 // Diameter dalam meter
0145 Dft=D*3.28084 // Diameter dalam ft
0146
0147 //Didapat Diameter minimum 29.7 inch
0148 //Dibulatkan diameter menjadi 30 inch
0149 Dfeet=34/12 //diameter dalam ft
0150 Dstd=Dfeet*12 //inch
0151 Dbaru=Dstd/3.28084/12 //meter
0152 Abnew=%pi*(Dbaru)^2/4 //meter^2
0153 D1=1.049/12 //Diameter = 1 - 2 inch (Howard F Rase)
0154 Dstd1=D1*12 //ft
0155 D1b=Dstd1/3.28084/12 //meter
0156 Ab1=%pi*(D1b)^2/4 //meter^2
0157 N=Abnew/Ab1 //Jumlah Pipa
0158 Od=1.32/12
0159 ODstd=Od*12
0160 OD=ODstd/3.28084/12
0161 //Membagi Volume menjadi N pipa
0162 Fa0=FA0/N //kmol/jam
0163 Fb0=FB0/N //kmol/jam
0164 Fc0=FC0/N //kmol/jam
0165 Ft0=Fa0+Fb0+Fc0 //kmol/jam
0166 VV=Ft0/3600*R2*T0/P0/1000 //Volume [L/jam]
0167 qi0=Ft0*R2*T0/P0 //m3/jam
0168
0169 //Mencari superficial Velocity baru
0170 vsnew=VV/Ab1 //meter/s
0171
0172 //Mencari pressure drop
0173 delP=(150*(mium*vsnew/(Dp^2))*((1-E)^2)/(E^3))+(1.75*(rhom*(vsnew^2)/Dp)*(1-E)/(E^3)) // Pa/m
0174
0175 //Luas Penampang Tube
0176 at=(D1b^2)/4*%pi
0177
0178 //SPESIFIKASI PENDINGIN DOWTERM A
0179 Tc=40+273 //K
0180 CpP=1.630 //kj/kg K
0181 WP=30000 //kg/jam
0182 Ud=50*3600/1000 //(kJ/jam.m2 .K)
0183 //Dipilih 50 W/m2 K diambil untuk sistem: dowterm (cold Fluid) dan Light Organic (hot Fluid)
0184 //(Sumber: Rase, H.F., “Chemical Reactor Design”, 1977)
0185 //sumber: Product Technical Data ( dowterm A , heat transfer fluid)
0186
0001 function [Fai, Fbi, Fci, Fti]=massa1(xa)
0002 Fai=Fa0*(1-xa)
0003 Fbi=Fb0-(Fa0*xa)
0004 Fci=Fc0+(Fa0*xa)
0005 Fti=Ft0-Fa0*xa
0006 endfunction
0193
0001 function [dxadz, dTdz, dTcdz, dPdz]=perhitungan(z, xa, T, Tc, P)
0002 [Fai,Fbi,Fci,Fti]=massa1(xa)
0003 q=qi0*P0*Fti*T/(P*Ft0*T0)
0004 Pa=(Fai*R2*T/q);
0005 Pb=(Fbi*R2*T/q)
0006 k=A*(exp((-EA)/R1/T))
0007 ra=k*Pa/(Pb^0.5)
0008 [CPA0,CPB0,CPC0]=cp0(T0)
0009 delHR=CPA0+CPB0+CPC0
0010 HrA=-207*1000
0011 HrB=0
0012 HrC=-274.6*1000
0013 delHf=HrC-(HrA+HrB)
0014 [CPA,CPB,CPC]=cp(T)
0015 delHP=CPC+CPA+CPB
0016 deltH=delHR+delHf+delHP
0017 [CPAM,CPBM,CPCM]=cpm(T)
0018 Cpm=Fai/Fti*CPAM+Fbi/Fti*CPBM+Fci/Fti*CPCM
0019 [miuA,miuB,miuC]=viskositas(T0)
0020 mium=(Fa0/Ft0*miuA+Fb0/Ft0*miuB+Fc0/Ft0*miuC)/10000*0.001 //kg/m/s
0021 bmrt=(Fa0*BMA+Fb0*BMB+Fc0*BMC)/Ft0 //kg/kmol
0022 rhom=P0/R2/T0*bmrt*1000 //kg/m3
0023 dxadz=ra*rhok*D1b^2/4*%pi/Fa0
0024 dTdz=(-rhok*at*deltH*ra+(Ud*(Tc-T)*%pi*D1b))/Cpm/Fti
0025 dTcdz=(Ud*%pi*D1b*N*(T-Tc))/(WP*CpP)
0026 dPdz=-(vsnew/rhom/Dp)*(1-E)/(E^3)*((150*(1-E)*mium/Dp)+1.75*vsnew)*(9.86923e-6)
0027 endfunction
0221
0222 xa=0;z1=0;z2=20;n=50
0223 h=(z2-z1)/n
0224 P=P0;T=T0;
0225 z=[z1:h:z2]
0226 m=length(z)
0227 slp=1
0228 iter=0
0229 disp(' No. z xa T(C) Ts(C) P(atm) slope')
0230 for i=1:m-1
0231 [k1(i),w1(i),b1(i),l1(i)]=perhitungan(z(i),xa(i),T(i),Tc(i),P(i))
0232
[k2(i),w2(i),b2(i),l2(i)]=perhitungan(z(i)+0.5*h,xa(i)+0.5*k1(i)*h,T(i)+0.5*w1(i)*h,Tc(i)+0.5*b1(i)*h,P(i)+0.5*l1(i)*h)
0233
[k3(i),w3(i),b3(i),l3(i)]=perhitungan(z(i)+0.5*h,xa(i)+0.5*k2(i)*h,T(i)+0.5*w2(i)*h,Tc(i)+0.5*b2(i)*h,P(i)+0.5*l2(i)*h)
0234
[k4(i),w4(i),b4(i),l4(i)]=perhitungan(z(i)+h,xa(i)+k3(i)*h,T(i)+w3(i)*h,Tc(i)+b3(i)*h,P(i)+w3(i)*h)
0235 xa(i+1)=xa(i)+1/6*(k1(i)+2*k2(i)+2*k3(i)+k4(i))*h
0236 T(i+1)=T(i)+1/6*(w1(i)+2*w2(i)+2*w3(i)+w4(i))*h
0237 Tc(i+1)=Tc(i)+1/6*(b1(i)+2*b2(i)+2*b3(i)+b4(i))*h
0238 P(i+1)=P(i)+1/6*(l1(i)+2*l2(i)+2*l3(i)+l4(i))*h
0239 slp(i+1)=(xa(i+1)-xa(i))/(z(i+1)-z(i))
0240 iter(i+1)=iter(i)+1
0241 end
0242 printf('%5.0f%8.2f%8.3f%8.2f%8.3f%8.3f%8.3f\n',iter,z',xa,T-273,Tc-273,P,slp)
0243
0244 plot(z',xa);xlabel('Panjang Reaktor (meter)');ylabel('Konversi')
0245 figure
0246 plot(z',T,z',Tc);xlabel('Panjang Reaktor (meter)');ylabel('Suhu (Kelvin)')
0247 figure
0248 plot(z',P);xlabel('Panjang Reaktor (meter)');ylabel('Tekanan (atm)')
0249
0250 mx=length(xa)
0251 for j=1:mx
0252 Fa(j)=FA0*(1-xa(j))
0253 Fb(j)=FB0-(FA0*xa(j))
0254 Fc(j)=FC0+(FA0*xa(j))
0255 Ft(j)=FT0-FA0*xa(j)
0256 end
0257
0258 figure
0259 plot(z',Fa,'d-r',z',Fb,'.-g',z',Fc,'k');legend(['Mol Butyraldehyde';'Mol Hidrogen';'Mol
Butanol']);xlabel('Panjang Reaktor (meter)');ylabel('Laju Alir Mol(kmol/jam)')
0260
0261 Lb=z(13)
0262 Lbin=Lb*100/2.54
0263 //Mencari Pressure Drop sepanjang reaktor
0264 dP=delP*Lb //pascal
0265 Pakhir=P(13) //atm
0266 dPatm=P0-Pakhir //atm
0267 Ld=Lbin/Dp //L/D>100 (Howard F. Rase)
0268 Re=rhom*vsnew*D1b/mium //Bilangan Reynold
0269 Vact=Lb*Ab1*N //meter^3
0270 Wtotal=Vact*rhok //kg
0271 xa=xa(13)
0272 Takhir=T(13)
0273 //Merangkum hasil
0274 printf('\n\nSpesifikasi Reaktor :\n Kondisi Reaktor = Fixed-bed, Multitube\n Konversi
akhir = %.2f\n Panjang pipa = %.2f meter\n Banyak Pipa = %.0f
buah\n Diameter Tube = %.4f inch\n Volume bed = %.4f Liter\n Massa
Katalis = %.2f kg\n Superficial velocity = %.4f meter/detik\n delta P persatuan
panjang = %.3f Pa/meter\n Suhu awal = %.2f Celsius\n Suhu Akhir = %.2f
Celsius\n Tekanan awal = %.4f atm\n Tekanan akhir = %.4f atm\n Total
Pressure Drop = %.4f atm\n Bilangan Reynold = %.0f\n Nilai L/D = %.2f
\n', xa, Lb, N, D1b*100/2.54, Vact, Wtotal, vsnew, delP,T0-273,Takhir-273,P0,Pakhir,dPatm, Re,Ld)