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Management of Technology (MoT)

Introduction to Technology
• Technology is the application of science,
especially to industrial or commercial
objectives
• Technology deals with human as well as
other animal species'
– usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and
how it affects a species' is something to look
on and also ability to control and adapt to its
natural environment.
• Engineering is the discipline dealing with
the art or science of applying scientific
knowledge to practical problems
Faces of Technology
• The Good
• The Bad
• The Ugly
Management of Technology
• Is a field of knowledge concerned with
the setting and implementation of
policies to deal with technological
development and utilization, and the
impact of technology on society,
organizations, individuals and nature.
It aims to stimulate innovation, create
economic growth, and to foster
responsible use of technology for the
benefit of humankind (Khalil, 1993)
MOT Examines:
• How technology is created;
• How it can be exploited to create business
opportunities;
• How to integrate technology strategy with
business strategy;
• How to use technology to gain competitive
advantage;
• How technology can improve the flexibility of
manufacturing and service systems;
• How to structure organizations that embrace
technological change; and
• When to enter and when to abandon
technology
(MOT) is an
interdisciplinary field
MOT
it integrates science,
engineering, and
management knowledge and
practice.
THE INTERDISCIPLINARY NATURE of MOT

NATURAL
SCIENCE

ENGINEERING SOCIAL
SCIENCE
MOT

BUSINESS INDUSTRIAL
THEORY PRACTICE
Science and Business
Engineering MOT Administration
Disciplines Disciplines
Strategic/Long-Term Issues
Discipline-based Relating to Technology
Knowledge -Science and Technology Policy
Discipline-based
-Science -Process of Technological Innovations Knowledge
Disciplines -R&D Management -Accounting
-R&D Infrastructure and
-Material Technological change -Finance
Technology -Technological Entrepreneurship -Management
-Product and New Ventures
Technology -Product/Process Life Cycles -Marketing
-Production/ -Technological Forecasting &Planning -Economics
-Technological Innovation & Planning
Process
-Intra-national Technology Transfer
-Business Law
Technology -International Technology Transfer -Political
-Information and the Role of Multinational Corp. -Sociological studies
Technology -Technological Risk analysis & Ass.
-Environmental -Technology & Economic Analysis -Humanities
Technology -Technology & Human, Social &
Cultural Issues
Why MOT Now
• The pace of change of technology
continues to increase because of;
–New technologies emerge and the
dynamics of trade shifts;
–Management systems must also shift
to cope with the change;
–Both shifts create a totally new
paradigm for business – a challenge
for entrepreneurs
TECHNOLOGY
• Technoware: Object-embodied form of
technology- machineries, tools, capital goods,
physical objects, etc;
• Humanware: People embodied form of
technology- human capabilities, skills, specialized
ideas, etc;
• Inforware: Document-embodied form of
technology- technical information, specifications,
standards, forms of organized knowledge, etc;
• Orgaware: Institution of form of technology-
day-to-day operations, social arrangements, etc.
TECHNOWARE HUMANWARE

TECHNOLOGY

ORGAWARE
INFORWARE

TECHNOLOGY CLIMATE
(Community, Government, Private,
and International Organizations etc.)
Appropriate Technology: Concept and Applications

Objectives Values Surroundings

 Population aspects;
 Resource aspects
 Economic aspects
 Technological aspects
 Environmental aspects
 Socio-cultural aspects
 Politico-legal aspects
Technology Assessment
• Reactive Assessment is a reaction to currently
recognized problems. The objective is to alter the
technology, if possible, to prevent further damage
• Corrective Assessment involves tracing
problems to their causes, and initiating research
and development before it becomes severe.
• Anticipatory Assessment (technology
forecasting) is concerned with anticipating the
future problems, which would be posed by
proposed technology
Technology Choice
• is a problem of choosing from among
a set of feasible technological
alternatives, whereas, technology
assessment provides the feasible
alternatives where a choice can be
made
Technology Transfer
• Implies the movement of
technology from one entity to
another, and if the transfer is
successful, a proper understanding
and effective use of the technology
by the receiving entity.
Greater
Environment

Transferee Environment

TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFEROR TRANSFEREE
FEEDBACK

Transferor Environment

Schematic representation of the technology transfer process for


rural areas (Adapted: SCHLIE et al., 1987)
Transferor Transferee
Te Tr
(T r) Te Tr
(Te)

A chain of technology transfer between transferors


and transferees
Marketing Analysis