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Department of English – CAU Kiel PS 53254: Introducing Drama and Fiction Mondays 10-12; Room 22/23

SoSe 2002

Theory of Prose and Fiction - Narratology

Narratology equips interpretation of texts with terms and concepts of structuring and thus understanding a text. There are a number of models which are used to get closer to what a text actually wants. A starting point for the interpretation/work with a text is always the first impression of the reader. The systematic analysis of a text is based on pre-knowledge of the reader about the text or the author or the time of writing, or the topic that is subject of the text. A narrative text narrates of real or invented streams of action in prose form. The most important formal device: a narrator (and sometimes an addressed reader). The basic communication situation takes therefore place on three levels (author-reader; narrator, narratee; characters inside the narrative). Narratives are: novels, short stories, novellas, fairy tales, saga, legend, etc.)

1)Communication Model

Basic model of what layers are affect when reading ! “narrative communication model”.

External communication level / extratextual level of non-fictional communication

Real /

empirical !


Narrative text Internal communication level of narrative discourse / level of fictional mediation and discourse

Narrator !

Plot / story level of narrated world / level of action


character as



character as



as sender Narrated character as perceiving instances ! narratee Real / ! empirical reader Vgl. Nünning,

! narratee

Real /

! empirical


Vgl. Nünning, Ansgar: Uni-Training Englische Literaturwissenschaft. Grundstrukturen des Fachs und Me- thoden der Textanalyse. Stuttgart 1996, p.77.

1a) external communication level

- relationship btw. empirical author and empirical reader

- what is the intention of author and of reader when writing and reading?

- Has the author an intention when writing? (art, autobiography, science, publicity, ego-satisfying action, etc.)

- What is the reader’s intention (entertainment, leisure, duty, information, school, university, addiction?) ! model reader / model author

- what are the circumstances of the writer writing (political, economical, personal, etc.)?

1b) Internal communication level of narrative discourse

- relationship between narrator (authorial, third-person, first person, dramatic mode) and narratee?

- Who presents the narration / who is talking?

- Who is the narrator talking to (to an unknown, anonymous reader, or is the reader addressed directly, “you”, or in generalising tone “we”)?

- Is the narrator aware of him narrating, does he do it on purpose?

- Is the narrator reliable / can we trust him?

- Why does he narrate, does he tell anything he knows? Why?

1c) action level

The third layer is the actual story of the text. This model provides awareness for “many common conceptual pitfalls”:

- author / implied author / narrator are not equal, not the same person

- there are certain boundaries between the levels that have to be regarded ! narrative embeddedness

From this model it should be clear that there is a clear distinction between author, narra- tor, and characters.

2)Interpretation Levels – story & discourse


Narrative events discourse types of narration/point of view/focalisation beginning, end/story time, discourse time


discourseNarrative events types of narration/point of view/focalisation beginning, end/story time, discourse time structure of

types of narration/point of view/focalisation beginning, end/story time, discourse time structure of narration beginning, end/story time, discourse time structure of narration

story existents

story existents
story existents


story existents characters setting



Vgl.: Jahn, Manfred; Molitor, Inge; Nünning, Ansgar: A Concise Glossary of Narratology. Köln 1991,


Story – What is narrated?

- What happens?

- Who acts ?

- Where is it set (space, time, etc.)?

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Discourse – How is the story narrated?

- Who is narrating? ! choice of narrative situation (authorial, 1 st person, 3 rd person, dramatic), modes of narrating events or of presenting consciousness (telling = re- port, description, comment; showing = scenic); point of view

- Who is talking and from whose point of view, with what kind of focus/involvement in the narration and to what effect?

- How is the story structured? Structure of narration / time

3) Story level / level of action

3a) characters & characterisation

basic characters due to their function protagonist, antagonist, witness, helpers

- round characters / dynamic characters / individuals

- flat characters / static characters / types

techniques of characterisation figural authorial explicit implicit explicit implicit self- description non-verbal
techniques of characterisation
by others
- description of
the characters
in subplot
contrasting &
- telling nam es
im plicitly telling
- bodily features
- voice
- mimic
- manner of
- gestures
- masks / costume
- idolect /
- requisites
sociolect /
- place
- behaviour
- register
- style
the first entrance
in presence of
the character
in absence of the

before after the first entrance


- direct/explicit/authorial/explanatory characterisation (“he was a fool”, “Jim was ugly”) ! telling

- indirect/implicit/dramatic/figural characterisation (via action, speech, outer ap- pearance, environment) ! showing

- analogy/authorial implicit (names, landscape, weather, other characters)

- self-characterisation /figural explicit

3b) action / events Important distinction between story /chronology) and plot (causality).

Beginnings of stories as ab ovo (from the very beginning), in medias res (in den middle of action), in ultimas res (at the end of the action)

exposition complication climax or turning point - resolution

Endings / closures do present themselves as open endings, or closed endings.

3c) setting

- atmosphere

- referential dimension (history, culture, class, place, time, natural environment, phi- losophical statements, political statements, etc.)

4) Level of discourse

What is discourse level? There is a distinction to be made between the term discourse in our context and the term discourse used in cultural theory. Here it means how the text works, in cult. theory discourse means the “totality of statements about one subject”.

4a) time and order Distinction between:

- story time (the time that passes in the narrative ! can range from a few seconds in

a short story, over one day, e.g. in Ulysses, or several years, etc.)

- discourse time (how long does is take to narrate these events? ! usually referred to

in pages)

It is interesting in that respect to compare the importance of the action with the space they are furnished with. Usually, important events for the narrative use more discourse time than unimportant events.

The particularities that we meet when we compare story time and discourse time can be describe in the following terms:

- acceleration

- deceleration

- omission, ellipsis

- cuts, breaks

- pauses

- summary vs. scene

- stretch

Another important feature is the order of events. There we can distinguish between:

- chronological order

- anachrony (flashbacks, flashfowards, foreshadowing)

Other structural features are:

- repetition of action,

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- recurring events / symbols / leitmotifs / imagery

- frequency

- embeddedness, frame narrative

- symmetry

- parallel structures in parallel plots

4b) narrator function In comparison to drama where we only have the characters that as talking media, in

prose fiction we have a narrator who tells the story. In narrating he fulfils different func- tions:

- presentation of the story world

- direct commentary (explanation/evaluation)

- generalising commentary

- metafictional elements

The basic questions concerning the narrator are:

- what is the identity of the narrator ! does the narrator take part in the action or not? from which point of view the story narrated ! is it from an outside point of view of the characters, or is the inner perspective of a character narrated?

4c) narrative situations The basic ideal narrative situations are: authorial narrator, I-narrator, figural narrator (or third person narrator)


- narrating-I

- experiencing-I

- I-as-protagonist

- I-as-witness

Restrictions of the I-narrator:

- the narration of the consciousness is restricted to the I-narrator

- no inside view into other characters ! only guesses

- limited to one place of action ! information of other action only through other characters

- limited to the experience of one individual

- possible to narrate in retrospect from his own point of view ! limited point of view, unreliable

- there is not view into the future

Authorial narrator:

- outside the figural world ! outside perspective

- interference by personal comments, morals, explications

- ficticious individuals ! reader address, speculations about the future, generalisia- tions Privileges of the authorial narrator:

- can look into the consciousness of all characters, knows their thoughts and feelings

- omnipresence at all places at all times

- knows all past and future events

figural narrator:

- the narrating I and the narrating authorial voice both retreat ! to the effect that a narrating is almost not to be anticipated

- the action is “seen” through the eyes of a present figure ! reflection of the charac- ter

- presentation of the consciousness and subjective perception of the environment is in the foreground " instead of using description of setting and action

- inside perspective of a figure

- it is not really a figural/personal “narrator” but more a “reflecting medium”

- impression of immediacy (the dramatic mode would be an extreme example of figural narration)

I-narrator and authorial narrator are relatively easy identified, we “hear” the presence of a narrating person, or someone telling the story.

With the figural narrator we often get the impression of not really knowing “who” is speaking. This is not a cognitive telling but a showing of inside impressions, thoughts, feel- ings.

For the authorial narrator, the dominant feature is the outside perspective; for the I- narrator, the dominant feature is the identity of narration with all areas of perception and being; the dominant feature for the personal narration is the reflection mode.

Stanzel’s type circle depicts the possible narrative situations ; he distinguishes three pairs of opposition:

- mode (narration vs. reflection)

- person (first or third person narration)

- perspective (internal vs. external narration)

narration) - perspective (internal vs. external narration) Vgl.: Jahn, Manfred; Molitor, Inge; Nünning, Ansgar: A

Vgl.: Jahn, Manfred; Molitor, Inge; Nünning, Ansgar: A Concise Glossary of Narratology. Köln 1991, p.2. Original in Stanzel, Franz K.:

Theorie des Erzählens. München 5 1991.

Other questions concerning the narrator are: is he an omniscient narrator, is overt or covert, is he a reliable or unreliable narrator.

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Focalisation & narration (Genette)

As we have seen in some of the examples, the terminology available by Stanzel was not always sufficient, modern narratology uses more and more frequently the terminology by Gerard Genette, replacing “point-of-view” and “narrative situations” by the distinction between narration and focalisation. He consequently asks two questions: 1) Who sees !!!! focus, and 2) Who speaks !!!! narration.

Focalisation external internal fixed/variable/multiple/omniscient Narration Heterodiegetic Portrait of the Artist as
Portrait of the Artist as
a young man
“The Killers”
Tom Jones
Malone Dies
Moll Flanders

The six types described above are not the only ones that can occur. They only serve as examples ! see exercise “Narratology Ia and Ib”

Narrators who are part of the story are called homodiegetic, if they don’t participate heterodiegetic.

If their focus is from an omniscient point of view ! zero focalisation; if it is from the inside of one character ! internal focalisation; if only from the outside ! external focalisation (external focus and heterodiegetic narration ! dramatic mode; heterodiegetic and zero focus ! authorial/omniscient mode).

Other distinctions & terms:

- autodiegetic ! I-as-protagonist narrator

- overt or covert narrator

- reliable or unreliable narrator

- reader address

- stream of consciousness

- free indirect discourse, narrated monologue

- interior monologue / quoted monologue

Exercise !!!! Narratology Ia, Narratology Ib (using Genette’s model)

Narratology Ia: 1)multiple external focus, heterodiegetic narration, covered narrator (Hemmingway, The Killers), 2) internal focus, homodiegetic narration, open narrator (Beckett, Malone Dies), 3) fixed external focus, homodiegetic narration, open narrator (Defoe, Moll Flanders), 4) fixed external focus, heterodiegetic narration, open narrator (Charlotte Bronte, Shirley), 5) external omniscient focus, het- erodiegetic narrator, open narration (Henry Fielding, Tom Jones), 6) mix of external focus and internal focus with heterodiegetic narration and “free indirect discourse” (whenever the protagonist’s thoughts are presented) (James Joyce, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man); Narratology Ib: 1) internal focus, homodiegetic narration (James Joyce, Ulysses), 2) external focus on his own life and homodiegetic narration (Louis Sterne, Tristam Shandy), 3) mix of internal focus and external focus (when her movements and actions are described) and heterodiegetic narration (Vir-

ginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse), 4) dominantly external omniscient focus with internal foci when she thinks, heterodiegetic narration (Michael Ondaatje, The English Patient).

5) Additional considerations for interpretation

- Intertextuality

- adaptation

- Generic conventions

- Textual control, reader response

- irony, unreliability, satire

6) Literary History – Novel & Prose

Since antiquity literary works have been classified into different genres:

- epic

- drama

- poetry (lyric)

If we stick to this classification we say that the novel belongs to the epic. Although the epic was a – very – long poem in ancient and medieval times, it shares some character- istics with today longer prose fiction:

- centres around on character/hero/protagonist

- shows in episodes his “adventures”

- fulfils a number of tasks of national or cosmic significance

Classical epics are rooted in myth, history and religion, and reflect a contained – in its

own sense complete – (limited) world view. With the obliteration, with the shaking and gradual dissolution of a unified world view – Weltanschauung (e.g. Hamlet) in early modern times, the epic was replaced by the ro- mance and novel.

Romance and novel 1


Features of romance

Features of novel



Bourgeois society

Depiction of char- acters

Idealised heroes

Average characters, mixed char- acters


Miraculous, impossible events; heroic deeds and affairs of state

Close to life, probable events from daily life

Reference to hu- man reality

Limited due to improbability and fantastic elements in the plot

Definite reference to life due to realist narration


Stylised language

Everyday language

Effect on the reader

Wonderful delight, that restricts the view to reality

Delight in depiction of a known world

1 Nünning, Vera; Nünning, Ansgar: Englische Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart 1998, p.122-


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The novel emerges in Spain during the seventeenth and in England during the eight- eenth century:

- Cervantes ! Don Quixote (1605) – parody to chivalric romance (”a lady who is not so deserving of adoration is courted by a not-so-noble knight who is involved in quite unheroic adventures.”) The term romance is in the following times used quite frequently as a self-description for prose pieces.

In England:

- Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719)

- Samuel Richardson Pamela (1740/41) and Clarissa (1748-49)

- Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749)

- Laurence Sterne’s Tristam Shandy (1759-67)

The newly established novel is often characterised by the terms:

- realism,

- individualism

Realism because it has abandoned an allegorical/cosmic dimension and is now set in distinct historical and geographical (also one should add social) reality. Individualism because the allegorical and typified epic hero metamorphoses/develops into the protagonist of the novel with individual character traits, with a development of his character and with his relation towards his social environment. The relation bears the quality of conflict.

The novel appears in a climate of:

- rejecting the one-dimensional medieval thought

- rising middle-class and change of economic basis

- mass production of printed product.

The genre ‘novel’ subsumes a number of subgenres:

- picaresque novel

- Bildungsroman (novel of education)

- epistolary novel (Briefroman)

- historical novel

- “New Journalism”

- satirical novel

- utopian novel / science fiction novel

- gothic novel

- crime / detective novel

Another genre of prose fiction is the short story as a more or less independent text type at the end of the eighteenth century. Traditional features:

- can be read in one sitting without interruption

- highly selective temporal dimension which usually focuses on the central moment of action

- the action usually starts close to the climax (in media res – in the middle of matter)

- reconstruction of the preceding action through flashbacks – if they do appear

- more suggestive than lengthy description

- one particular point of view – one central character and incident

Prose and Fiction until 1830 !!!! see Referat Laila Irfan & Marlene Wieland The Victorian Novel !!!! see Referat Celia Schmidt & Mareike Gursky

The Modern Novel – 20 th Century !!!! Essay Patterson “They’ve changed everything now … we used to think there was a beginnign and a middle and an end.” [Thomas Hardy]

In the 20 th century we encounter a turn from the depiction of reality and circumstances to the inner world of the perceiving mind and then to literature as such an its character of construction of reality, mind, self, identity, language (examination of the own medium and the creative process).

Modernism Modernism is less a complete break with realism than a radical reshaping of its estab- lished conventions: including, in particular, a foregrounding in the represented picture of the means of its perception or creation. Typically of modernism, the challenges of the contemporary world are incorporated and resisted not so much at the level of theme, argument or statement – as the Edward- ians might have done – but through finding new forms and shapes through which life can be differently or more positively imagined. By 1910, ‘human character’ was threatened as never before by industrialization, mate- rialism and reification, and Virginia Woolf naturally insists on a literature which could find some domain of the mind aloof from such pressures. Threatened by a first phase of indus- trialism, the literature of the Romantics recreates a sense of integral individuality through contact with external green nature. Challenged by an acceleration industrialized tech- nology in the early twentieth century, modernism turn instead to the inner field of the self.

Transition from modernist to postmodernist literature ! epistemological concern of mod- ernism giving way to a postmodern writing defined by practices and interests which are principally ontologic: concerned, that is, not so much with how the mind encounters the world, but with the capacity to project imaginative domains – worlds – of its own.

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Narratology & Contents influences Individual Writers and Works 1900s & Modern- ism - autonomy of
Narratology & Contents
Individual Writers
and Works
1900s & Modern-
- autonomy of language; experimentation
with language
- questioning fictional realism
WWI, Freud ! Psy-
choanalysis, colo-
nial wars, industriali-
sation, modern sci-
- concentration on the mind and the inner
life / private world and perception !
stream of consciousness , free indirect
style / free indirect speech
- anachrony ! fluid approaches to time
structure and order
- focus shifts from being author-centred to
being reader-centred
Rejection of Victorianism and the security
of Edwardian times, WWI, critical debate of
colonialism, declining religious faith, critique
of the Empire, materialism, emancipation of
women, critical account of science
unreliability of narration ! rejection of nar-
rative objectivity ! subjectivity of perception
and narration
construction of narration and “realism”
Denial of History (as truth), denial of “abso-
lute facts”
E.M. Forster (Room with a
view, Passage to India,
Howard’s End), Joseph
Conrad (Heart of Dark-
enns, Lord Jim), James
Joyce (Portrait of the Artist
as a Young Man, Ulysses,
Finnegan’s Wake), Virginia
Woolf (Orland, To the
Lighthouse, A Room of her
Own), D.H. Lawrence
(Women in Love, Lady
1930s – WWII –
- anti-modernist ! emphasis on realist nar-
- camera-eye / documentary style
- some of the narratological influences re-
World economic
crisis, fascism, WWII,
atom bomb, con-
centration camps,
1 st Labour govern-
description/ depiction of social reality; back
to shared political & economical interests &
concerns with society and the material
world, WWII ! fracturing of the familiar, re-
shaping of the environment,
Christopher Isherwood (Mr
Norris Changes Trains,
Goodbye to Berlin),
George Orwell (1984,
Animal Farm), H.G. Wells,
Graham Green (Brighton
Rock, The Power of Glory,
Caught), Evelyn Waugh
(Brideshead Revisited),
James Henley, L.P. Hartley
(The Go-Betweens), Mal-
colm Lowry (Under the
volcano), Aldous Huxley,
- Realism & mixed narrations,
- readiness to experiment & depart from
conventions (fantasy, split narratives, di-
vided selves)
Angry Young Men, Alan
Silitoe (Saturday Night and
Sunday Morning),
William Golding (Lord of

Education reform

“The end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart”, deeper moral and philosophic investigation, questioning of gender roles, organised women’s movement, Campus-Novel,

the Flies, The Inheritors, Rites of Passage), Anthony Burguess (A Clockwork Orange), Jean Rhys (Wide Sargasso Sea), Kingsley Amis, Iris Murdoch,

Postmodernism c. 1960 !!!!

- turn from the inner world to the world of fiction

Doris Lessing (The Golden Notebook), Laurence Dur- rell (Alexandria Quartet), Flan O’Brien (At Swin-two- birds), Samuel Becket (Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnameable), John Fowles (The French Lieu- tenant’s Woman), David Lodge, Julian Barnes (Flaubert’s Parrot), Peter Ackroyd, Martin Amis, Anita Desai, Salman Rush- die (Midnight’s Children, Satanic Verses), Kazuo Ishiguro (The Remains of the Day), Caryl Phillips, Timothy Mo,

- chronological fragmentation,

Civil rights, global-

- multiple endings to chose from,

- anachrony of narration

- verbal inventiveness

isation, growing in- fluence of media,

- mix of styles, register and narrative situa- tions

questioning the possibilities of representa- tion (truth, language, art, self) ! artificiality and construction of every presenta- tion/narration Challenge to all theory, media ! lan- guage and image are not as innocent means of representing a world, but are inevi- tably bound up with intentions to condition and control it Postcolonialism, Gender, Intertextuality, Metafiction, Regionalisation,

Postmodernism Postmodernism as a wider challenge to all theories, explanations or versions of life as a part of a widespread scepticism of any construction of reality. Such scepticism is appro- priate to an era more than ever enthralled by its media; one in which language and im- age must be seen not as innocent means of representing a world, but as inevitably bound up with intentions to condition and control it.

Writers at this time can be seen to extend several aspects of the modernist experiment ! restructuring of novel, challenges to conventional chronology and concentration on sin- gle days of consciousness

7) Theoretical Approaches to Literature !!!! Essay Klarer

What is theory? Theory ! Culler, chap. 1. Liberal Humanism ! Barry (Lecture Course Reader)

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Literary Interpretations always reflect a particular institutional, cultural, and historical background. The interpretation of all sorts of texts – broad definition of text as encoded information – is as old as all depiction and presentation of information. Historically obvious interpreta- tions are those in religious and legal discourse. “The exegesis of religious and legal texts was based on the assumption that the meaning of a text could only be retrieved through the act of interpretation. Bib- lical scholarship coined the term “hermeneutics” for this procedure.” [Klarer,


The hermeneutical approach implies that there is a/one meaning of a text that can be discovered if interpretation is practiced correctly.

Literary criticism vs. literary theory literary criticism ! analysis, interpretation and evaluation of primary sources, literary theory ! scrutiny of methods used in the readings of primary texts; func- tions as the theoretical and philosophical consciousness of textual studies, con- stantly reflecting on its own development and methodology.

Combining models by Klarer and Nünning we can distinguish the following approaches to literary texts:
Combining models by Klarer and Nünning we can distinguish the following approaches
to literary texts:
• biographical approach
• psychological approach
• oeuvre studies
• development of the single work / empirical
• history of reception / aesthetics of reception
• empirical reception studies
text-centred approaches
• new criticism / intrinsic approach
• rhetoric, stylistics, formalist/structuralist ap-
• poststructuralism / deconstruction
historical reality
other texts
• ‘sources and influence studies’
• literary history
• history of topics and themes
• ‘New Historicism’ / discourse analysis
• development of text type, intertextuality
• sociological, Marxist approaches
• feminist approaches
• general literary history

Linguistic Turn

- sign (Saussure)

- representation

- discourse

- text

Literary theory

- hermeneutics and hermeneutic circle

- author function (Barthes, Foucault)

- intentional fallacy & effective fallacy

- blank or gaps of indeterminacy

- close reading

- interpretation

- intertextuality (Kristeva)

- canon

historically specific concepts of culture

- prescriptive/normative/exclusive concepts (“high culture”) vs. descriptive concepts

- focus : culture as a web of competing codes of representaiton/discourses (unend- ing conversation, negotiation, conflict)

social/discoursive construction of reality

- constructionism

- essentialism

- sex-gender system, race, class

- subject

- identity

- alterity

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Department of English – CAU Kiel PS 53254: Introducing Drama and Fiction Mondays 10-12; Room 22/23

SoSe 2002

Key Terms - Prose

1) Levels of communication

External communication level (production and reception)

Real /

empirical !


Narrative text first text internal communication level discourse


narrator !

internal communication level discourse fictive narrator ! fictive narratee ! (=reader addressed in



! (=reader


in text)

narratee ! (=reader addressed in text) second text internal level of communication: story/plot
narratee ! (=reader addressed in text) second text internal level of communication: story/plot

second text internal level of communication: story/plot level of action


character as



character as



Real /

! empirical


Vgl. Nünning, Ansgar: Uni-Training Englische Literaturwissenschaft. Grundstrukturen des Fachs und Me- thoden der Textanalyse. Stuttgart 1996, p.77.


- epic

- romance

- novel

- novella / novelette

- short story

3) Conventions

- realism (circumstantial detail, social realism, psychological realism)

- alternatives: fabulation, non-fictional narrative, “experimental writing”

- metafiction

4) Narrator Functions

- presentation of story world

- direct commentary (explanation/evaluation)

- generalizing comments

- metafictional elements

5)Techniques for representing speech and thought mediation vs. immediacy; diegesis vs. mimesis; telling vs. showing

Diegetic discourse

Telling / mediation narrator’s voice:

Diegetic discourse Telling / mediation narrator’s voice: Mimetic discourse Showing / immediacy character’s voice:
Diegetic discourse Telling / mediation narrator’s voice: Mimetic discourse Showing / immediacy character’s voice:

Mimetic discourse

Showing / immediacy character’s voice:

narrator’s voice

narrative report of speech/thought act

“tagged” indirect speech/thought

(“dual voice”)

free indirect


character’s voice

“tagged” indirect speech/thought

free direct


6) story time vs. discourse time

- order: flashback, flashforward, foreshadowing

- duration and frequency: summary vs. scene, ellipsis, stretch, pause

7) Narrative situations ( !!!! Stanzel’s typological circle)

- authorial narrative situation

- first-person narrative situation

- figural narrative situation

8) Point of view vs. Focalisation

- narration vs. focalisation (Genette)

- heterodiegetic vs. homodiegetic narration

- external focalisation (fixed/variable/multiple/omniscient) vs. internal focalisation

9) Characters

- types vs. individuals, flat vs. round characters

- authorial vs. figural characterisation

- explanatory characterisation (narration) vs. dramatic characterisation (showing)

10) Setting

- referential dimension (when and where does the story take place?)

- atmosphere

11) Additional considerations for an interpretation

- beginning / ending

- structural integration by means of imagery/symbolism,leitmotifs, intertextuality, generic conventions

- textual control of reader response

- irony, unreliability, satire

Thanks for readings, reports and for participating in class. GOOD LUCK with the Klausur and have a nice summer holiday.

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