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OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering

University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.

(Communicated by F. H. Wlttmann)

(Recelved March II, 1974)

ABSTRACT

The influence of fiber diameter, length and volume fraction on the

properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete in the fresh and

hardened states is reported. The compactability of fresh fibrous

concrete decreases linearly with fiber aspect ratio. There is no

unique relationship between fiber aspect ratio and ultimate flexural

strength or compressive strength. The dynamic modulus of elasticity

of fiber reinforced concrete is little different from that of plain

concrete. The fibers, however, show substantial improvements in

damping when the concrete is wet. It is shown that the ultimate

flexural strength can be predicted by a composite mechanics

equation. A unique relationship is also shown to exist between

ultimate flexural strength and an "effective spacing" concept.

Stahlfasern auf die Eigenschaften des Frischbetons sowie des erhBlrteten

Betons berichtet. Die VerdichtungsmS~lichkeit von faserbewehrtem

Frischbeton nimmt l~near mit dem Verhh:itnis aus L~nge zu Durc),nesser

der verwex~deten Fasern ab. Weder die Biegezugfestigkeit noch die

D~ckfestigkeit lassen sich durch eine einzige Funktion in Abh~tugigkeit

vom IAhge/Durchmessel-~erhk~tnis der ~asern a~eben. Nut ein geringer

EinfluJ der Faserbewehrung auf den dynamischen Elastizit~smodul konnte

festgestellt werden. Im feuchten Zustand wird die l ~ p f u n g dagegen

wesentlich erhB~t. Die Biegezugfestigkeit l ~ t sich dutch eine

f r ~ e r angegebene Formel vorausberech~en. Es wird gezeigt, daJ ein

Zusammenhang zwischen dem "effektiven Faserabstand" und der

Bieg~zugfestigkeit besteht.

451

452 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

Introduction

fibers randomly oriented in the mix are influenced by many parameters. Two

factors which influence significantly the characteristics of the fibrous

concrete in both the fresh and hardened states are the coarse aggregate

content, and the fiber geometry and volume fraction. The influence of

coarse aggregate content on the compactability and strength properties of

steel fiber reinforced concrete has already been established (1). It has

been shown that increasing volume fractions of coarse aggregate decrease the

compactability and ultimate flexural strength of the fibrous concrete°

the fresh and hardened fibrous concrete is the fiber geometry and volume

fraction, particularly in the presence of coarse aggregates. No fundamental

study exists on the interaction of fiber diameter, length and volume fraction

on the characteristics of a fibrous concrete composite. Tests are reported

in this paper on the influence of these three parameters on the

compactability, ultimate flexural strength, compressive strength, dynamic

modulus, and damping characteristics of steel fiber reinforced concrete.

Round straight fibers ranging from O.15mm to 1.82mm in diameter (d) and

12.Smm to 50nmT, long (I), were used in volume fractions of 0.69 to 5.8 per cent

of the matrix volume. The fiber aspect ratio (l/d) in the tests varied from

15.7 to 333.5. The fibers were embedded in a concrete matrix the composition

of which was kept constant for all the tests.

Experimental Program

The experimental work was carried out to establish the influence of fiber

geometry on the properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete such as

compactability, flexural and compressive strength, dynamic modulus and

damping.

A total of 28 fibrous concrete mixes were cast and tested. The concrete

matrix for the fiber reinforcement was the same throughout the program and

consisted of cement-sand ratio of 1 : 2.5, with a water-cement ratio of 0.55.

The coarse aggregate content was 20 per cent of the volume of the mix (1).

used and for each diameter, four different lengths, ranging from 12.Smm to

50mm were used - except in the cases of fibers of diameter 1.1mm, 1.42mm and

lo82mm for w~ich only one length (25mm) was used. The volume of fibers used

Vol. 4, No. 3 453

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEONETRY

per mix was varied to give a wide range of fiber spacings as determined by the

equation of Romualdi and Mandel (2).

Ordinary Portland cement, washed pit sand and graded crushed gravel with

10ram maximum size were used. The round fibers were interannealed, hard drawn

mild steel straight wires with a plain surface.

All the mixes were made in a pan-type mixer, In addition to the fibrous

concrete mixes, a control mix without fibers was also tested to establish the

properties of the unreinforced concrete matrix. All the test specimens were

cast in steel molds using internal vibration and cured in water for 28 days.

A limited number of 91 day tests were carried out on specimens subjected to

laboratory curing after 28 days.

by the Vebe test (5). The flexural strength, dynamic modulus and damping

capacity were determined from I00 x I00 x 500mm prisms. The compressive

strength was obtained from lOOmm cubes. Where appropriate all the tests Were

carried out according to British Standards (5).

The results of the compactability tests as determined by the Vebe test are

shown in FIGS. i, 2, and 5.

The variation of Vebe time with the fiber aspect ratio is shown in

FIG. I. No unique relationship is seen %o exist between fiber geometry and

oompactability for the fiber diameters ranging between O.15mm and 0.91ram and

fiber vol1~ne fractions from 0.69 to 2.40 per cent. For a given fiber

diameter and volume fraction, however, the compactabilit-y appears to vary

linearly with the aspect ratio. Mixes containing the same volume fraction

but different diameters of fibers do not show the same degree of

compactability for a given aspect ratio.

The fiber spacing due to Romualdi and Mmmdel (2) is a measure of the

geometrical arrangement of the fibers in the matrix, and compactability also

appears to be influenced by fiber spacing. There is, however, no unique

relationship between the two. This is not perhaps altogether surprising

since the spacing concept is a function of both the diameter and volume fraction

of fibers in the matrix for a given length of fiber, and compactability is

likely to vary with the length of the fiber as well.

454 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

• .IS 0.69 %

O-27 ! • 13 0

0"46 I • 90 x

O.61 I. 13 •

0.7t 2'40 &

O.91 I .90 @

p,l,13O/o / p'0.690/o

20 20"

Z

O U

hi

I

I p= 1.9Olo ul

:i

--~ 10-

F- s s ~--IO-

x ." uJ

m

.'" ~ P=2'4•/0

> .p •

• s "m

/

O

O fro ~o 40 ioo abo .z~:)

Aspect Ratio A//~ AspKt Rot~o

FIG. I.

The influence of fiber aspect ratio on Vebe time.

18'

O.91, O.91, HO, 1.42 &

1"82ram

I SO.•ram O

t

2 37" $~lm •

12, I 3 2S.Omm •

4 12.Sin A

e• ~ O U P I

FIG. 2.

Relation between Vebe time and fiber spacing (2)

Vol. 4, No. 3 455

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOI~TRY

value of fiber spacing i.e. for a given

diameter and volume fraction of fibers,

the Vebe time increases linearly with

increasing fiber length. The slope of S•I:l'llll~-I'~~ S'Su

the straight lines increases as fiber I0-

spacing (i.e. as fiber diameter for a

given volume of fibers) decreases, thus

showing that the rate of increase of Vebe

i

time is greater at small values of fiber

I //~ j $-?ma

spacing. In other words, difficulties I" ~ S=@mm

of compaction increase as the fiber ~LI

diameter decreases.

~o ~o

fibers was observed, during mixing, in FIBERLENGTH

lit

some of the mixes. "Curling up" is

primarily dependent on the aspect ratio,

FIG. 3.

and long thin fibers with an aspect

Influence of fiber length on

ratio greater than about lO0 tended to compactability of fibrous concrete

show extensive "curling up" during for various ~iber diameters and

fiber volumes

mixing, mainly due to their lack of

stiffness to withstand the mixing operation.

shown in FIG. 4. The results fall into six groups, each group representing

fibers of one particular diameter. The flexural strength generally increases

with fiber aspect ratio until difficulties of mixing long thin fibers are

encountered and curling up occurs, when there is a reduction in flexural

strength. Measurements of density of the modulus of rupture prism specimens

showed that the reduction in strength was not due to poor compaction of the

material but mainly due %o inefficient reinforcing capability of the "curled

up" fibers.

different diameters reinforce the matrix at different rates. For a fiber

volume of 1.13 per cent, for example, fibers of diameter 0.27ram yield a higher

flexural strength than fibers of diameter 0.6]ram up to an aspect ratio of

456 V01. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

the thicker fiber appears to

thinner one. A similar

N

~ $ 0 " ' ' ~. --

phenomenon is shown by

~, o

' ~ | 1 1 ~ . I I O

of 1.91 per cent, for which

oK

_ r-~ C the "transition aspect ratio"

P,

is again about 70. It is

yet to be established if this

81 -~,o

r-W . ~ aspect ratio of 70 represents

%~'~'e.~, -M

a general "transition aspect

ratio", for fibers of

o

different diameters.

,,~<\

Mechanism of Fiber

Reinforcement on Flexural

Strength

O~IV~ 3 U N I d ~ ~0 S f n ~ O V W the ultimate flexural strength

ratio and fiber spacing as calculated from the spacing equation due to

Romualdi and Mandel (2) is shown in FIG. 5. Although fiber spacing has been

theoretically related only to the first crack tensile strength (4), the

spacing equation per se represents a purely geometrical arrangement of the

fibers in the concrete matrix. FIG. 5 is drawn to study the relationship,

if any, between fiber spacing (2) and ultimate modulus of rupture. For the

range of fiber diameters (0.15mm - 1.82mm) and lengths (12.Smm - 50mm) used

in this study, it can be seen that no unique relationship exists between

fiber spacing and the ultimate flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced

concrete.

The authors have shown that the ultimate flexural strength of concrete

reinforced with short discontinuous steel fibers randomly oriented in the mix

and failing by fiber pull-out can be predicted by a composite mechanics

equation (5) of the type

Vol. 4, No. 3 457

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

where

Oc u = ultimate flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete

~m = ultimate flexural strength of the unreinforced control

mix, and

vf - volume fraction of fibers in the relY.

2'0

FIBER L E N G T H : 5OMM o

x : 37-S MM x

: 2$.OMM •

: 12"SMM •

0 /"~ FIBER DIA :O.15 0 ' 2 7 O.4b, O.61,O.71 O'91,

. / \ I ,o.1..2• ,.,2 . .

1"6

W

;\/ \.---GRO.p,

rr

1"4

cZ

U.

0

\ \

II I~I, %.

1.2 I I& •

3

0

IE I'0

08 .

O 5 I0 15 20

FIBER SI:)AC|NG-MM (ROMUALD! ANO MANDEL)

FIG. 5.

Relation between ultimate flexurs~l strength

and fiber spacing due to Romualdi and Mandel (2).

FIG. 6 shows the correlation between equation (I) and the experimental

data obtained from this and a previous investigation (i) in which fibers of a

constant aspect ratio of I00 were used in mixes with different volume

fractions of coarse aggregate. The excellent correlation shown in FIG. 6

has also been shown to be valid for the results of other investigators (5).

Fibers with an aspect ratio equal to or less than 20.5 are too short to

develop sufficiently high bond stresses and do uot obviously follow the

prediction of equation (i).

have proposed a new "effective spacing concept" (6) in which the fiber-matrix

shear stress due to the load transfer between the fiber and the matrix as

458 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, HECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEONETRY

AUTHORS

well as the bond stress due to

x - IO4q,. . Age M t ~ 211 cloys

• . gOe/o. . Cure : Wet the presence of a crack were

~M/sCmd : I:g-5

. 40,/o.. wa~r/cemeM : O. SS both considered. It has been

• B uml, oN.~ze : IOmm

40 | ~/d~ 20.S shown that the effective fiber

o~

s p a c i a g c a n then be

represented by the equation

X effective

spacing

25/T7 (2)

O*'cu • O'97 O'm I I - V¢ ) +3 41 V f ( / ~ / o t~*30.$)

~ o elf/~ "13"7 I t [ t / ' ' 1 3 7 )

For the range of fiber

diameters (0.15mm - 1.82mm)

and lengths (12.Smm - 50mm)

used in this investigation,

FIG. 7 shows a unique

relationship between

O - - i I I

0 I0 20 30 equation (2) and the ultimate

~., vf,/v~c,/, ,

COWRELATION OF AUTHORS DATA ON CONCI~ETE AND k40~TAR WITH ULTIMATE

modulus of rupture ratio.

FLEXURAL STRENGTH EQUATION

The flexural strength of

FIG. 6. mixes in which "curling up" of

Correlation between composite mechanics fibers occurred is obviously

ultimate strength equation and

reduced and this is also shown

experimental data

in FIG. 7.

Compressive Strength

fiber reinforced concrete is shown in FIG. 8. For the range of fiber

diameters and fiber lengths studied in this investigation, it is clear that no

unique relationship exists between compressive strength and fiber aspect ratio.

For a given fiber diameter, the variation in compressive strength with aspect

ratio never exceeds l0 per cent and may be considered insignificant. 0nly

in the case of mixes containing fibers of 0.15mm diameter is the variation

in compressive strength greater than l0 per cent. This variation is caused

by the "curling up" of fibers which causes a reduction in the compressive

strength of the material.

maximum compressive strength is obtained for steel fiber reinforced concrete

FIG. 9. For the mixes studied in this investigation, this optimum fiber

Vol. 4, No. 3 459

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

plotted in FIG. 9 also show that the

compressive strength is greater for

smaller lengths of fibers. The

mechanism of failure of fibers in a

compression test is not known. Aligned

fibers would be expected to fail due to • .re,arealn~u~

2.0-

buckling (7), but the mode of failure is x a~qra0m which

I cvrlleql occurecl

more difficult to define in the case of

randomly oriented fibers. If a

buckling mode is assumed, then it

I'S"

appears logical for longer fibers to

.S2

yield smaller compressive strengths

since they are more slender than short |

fibers• I

Is

i

For the amount of fibers that can be

satisfactorily embedded in a cement-based

matrix, the dynamic modulus is little O.S

0

affected by the presence of fibers. For En~ttv¢ Fiber ~Dac|~ ws

the range of fiber mixes used in this

FIG. 7

study, the dynamic modulus varied

Correlation between ultimate

between + 5 per cent of the modulus

flerural strength and the

of the unreinforced control mix authors ' effective

(FIG. lO). The trend of the spacing concept

fiber aspect ratio is similar to that obtained for compressive strength

(FIG. 8). A relationship similar to that shown in FIG. 9 was also found to

exist between fiber spacing and dynamic modulus and again, the maximum

dynamic modulus appeared to occur at a fiber spacing of about 4.Smm.

The conventional upper (8, 9) and lower (lO) bound equations for static

modulus of elasticity developed for umreinforced plain concrete can also be

applied to fiber reinforced concrete if the composite is considered to

consist of a concrete matrix and a fiber inclusion phase. The upper bound

solution is a linear variation while the lower bound shows a non-linear

variation between elastic modulus and fiber volume. The fiber inclusions

460 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

Filer Fiber

Dia Imml Vol Oto Symbol

O.15 0.~ X

O. 27 I • 13 O

0.46 I .90 x

O'61 1"13 •

¢w 0.71 240 •

0 O "ql I '90 @

$5" E)

c ( m t ~ ho f i N r s

! =-

45

50 i~o ~o ~o

Aspect Ratio ~/d

x

x

55-

x

A • control no fibers

&

@

@

! • | @ x_ mixes m wt~ict~

• • 'cueliN up' occurred

45 ....

o 5b ,6o

Aspect I~t~m ~//d

FIG. 8.

Variation of compressive strength with fiber

aspect ratio

li.

FIBER DIAM. 0 . 2 7 , 0 . 4 6 .

O-bl, O-71, O'91, HO, 1.42

& 1.82 mm

SO.Oma, O

I.O -A I [ \" ""

37'5mm x

25" Omm •

12' 5 mm A

A\

0.9 ¸

(>8

O ~o

FIBER SPACING-mm (ROMUAt.DI AND MANDEL)

FIG. 9.

Relation between fiber spacing and

compressive strength

Vol. 4, No. 3 461

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

however, negligibly small to Fibre Fibrl

Did.m) VolOlo S)~o~

have a~¥ significant effect

O'lS 0"69 •

on the modulus, and the 0.2'7 I .13 O

0.46 I -90 I

experimental data obtained 0"61 I • 13 •

0.71 2 "40 •

from this investigation 0-91 I "90 @

45

confirm that the results

(~ Mi=,,t in

follow the lower bound 'curlinli up' occurred

valid for inclusions stiffer

i x i( x

than the matrix. Each ® • ; 0 Control No Fibres

o

experimental point in

u

A A "e :-

FIG. ll represents up to E A@e ®

@

sixteen different specimens

made with various lengths

and diameters of fibers, the

AtpcKt Ratio

minimum numbe~ of values for

any point being four. FIG. I0.

Variation of dynamic modulus of elasticity

Damping Capacity with fiber aspect ratio

The damping capacity

of a material is the property

which causes vibrations in a

50- • Experimental results

specimen to decrease in

amplitude when the specimen

is isolated from all e x t e r n a l ~

sources of energy loss. A o

convenient measume of this Upper bound Iolution {theorcticol)

2.s-

property is the logarithmic

decrement, ~ , which is the

U

•

successive amplitudes for a m

decaying vibration (ll).

o

o ~ ,b is

The measurement of Volume I~ " cent of f i ~ ¢ $

the "bandwidth technique" Correlation between dynamic modulus and the

was adopted for the tests theoreticaL upper aud lower bound c~rves

of this investigation.

462 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

~ f2 - fl

= --. (3)

/-~ fr

either side of the resonant frequency where the amplitude is one-half of that

at resonance.

The results of the damping capacity tests for all the fiber reinforced

concrete mixes investigated are shown in FIG. 12 against fiber aspect ratio.

Again, there is no unique

relationship between

logarithmic decrement and

Fiber FibGr

Diolmnd Voi°lo Symbol

fiber aspect ratio. There

O. 15 0-69 • a pears to be no consistent

O ' 27 I - 13 0

0.46 1.90 x inf]uence of either the fiber

O.61 I, 13 •

O" 71 2.40 & dia~eter or length on the

0.91 1.90 @ damping properties of the

fibrous concrete; the

• 0Mixes in which maximum increase obtained was

g..,C.~up' occurred

Q

52 per cent above that of the

i O.O~

x xQ plain unreinforced matrix.

x

0"07- A The maximum damping capacity

0 Z _Z

A AZ Q was again found to occur at a

® @ @A@° .

~ 0-06- fiber spacing of 5.5~P - 4.5mm.

Control No Fibres

0 ,~s ~o 3~s

Aspect R ~ i o Modulus and Dampin~

Variation of the damping capacity of fibrous on the dynamic modulus and

concrete with fiber aspect ratio damping capacity was

investigated for one volume

(1.15 per cent) and two diameters (0.27mm and 0.61n~n) of fibers. The test

specimens were cured in water for 28 days and then in the laboratory air until

being tested at 91 days.

Tests for dynamic modulus showed that the effect of ag'e was insignificant.

Drying is known to produce a slight reduction in the dynamic modulus of plain

ooncrete (Ii), and the same phenomenon was observed with fibrous concrete.

Vol. 4, No. 3 463

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

The mean reduction in dynamic modulus of the fibrous concrete was about I0

per cent for the mixes studied in the investigation.

On the other hand, the effect of age is known to have a more pronounced

effect on the d ~ p i n g properties of concrete, partly due to drying, and

partly due to the progressive hydration of the paste when the capillary

channels became gradually blocked with hydration products (12). The results

of the tests showed that the mean ratio of the logarithmic decrement at 91

days to that at 28 was 0.52 for fibrous concrete compared to a value of 0.64

for plain concrete. Thus while in the wet state, the logarithmic decrement

of fibrous concrete was r,uch higher than that of plain concrete, with age and

drying the reverse appeared to be true although the differences were

marginal. The fibers, of course, control cracking of the concrete due to

differential drying, and hence lead to a reduced value of damping, a l t h o u ~

under load, the crack control properties of the composite will reassert

itself to show improved damping properties.

Conclusions

dra.~n. The conclusions relate to round straight fibers having a fiber

diameter of O.15mm to l~82mm and lengths of 12.5mm to 50nml with an aspect

ratio of 14 to 333.

of steel fiber reinforced concrete decreases linearly with the fiber

aspect ratio. There appears to be no unique relationship between fiber

aspect ratio and Vebe time. Fibers with am aspect ratio greater than

about 100 tended to show the phenomenon of "curling up" of fibers mainly

due to their lack of stiffness.

2. For a given length and volume fraction of fibers, compactability

increases with increasing fiber diameter.

3. There is no m i q u e relationship between ultimate flexural strength and

fiber aspect ratio. For any given fiber diameter a~Id volume fraction,

the ultimate f~exural strength increases linearly with increasing aspect

ratio until "curling up" of fibers causes a reduction in strength.

4. There appears to be, what might be termed, a "transition aspect ratio" for

two given diameters of fibers. For the same volume fraction of fibers,

this value defines a certain aspect ratio below which the thinner fiber

gives a higher flexural strength and above which, the thicker fiber

gives the higher strength.

464 Vol. 4, No. 3

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

purely geometrical spacing concept.

6. The ultimate flexural strengtl: can be predicted by a composite mechanics

equation. The results for a wide range of fiber diameters and lengths

also show a unique relationship between the ultimate flexural strength

and an "effective spacing" concept.

7. There appears to be no unique relationship between compressive strength

and fiber aspect ratio. For a given fiber diameter, the variation in

compressive strength wit~ aspect ratio is less than l0 per cent.

8. For the vclume of fibers that could normally be embedded in a concrete

matrix, the dynamic modult:s of elasticity of fiber reinforced concrete

is little different from that of the plain unreinflorced concrete. T!)e

conventional lower bound solution for static eiastic modulus appears to

be valid for the dyn~nic modulus of fiber reim"orced concrete.

9. The damping property of wet-cured fiber reinforced concrete is higher

than that of the unreinforced control mix. T~e maxim~l increase i n

ds;rping is about 50 per cent.

!0. Age and drying have little effect on the dyna:~:ic modulus of elasticity.

The logarit~Jc decrement, however, was reduced substantially by age

and drying, a phenomenon observed with the unreinforced concrete as well.

Acknowledgements

reinforcement of cement matrices supported by Tinsley Wire Industries Ltd.

The authors are grateful for the s1~pport and to ~ . Ernest Baldwin for his

encm~agement, ~elp and valuable discussions.

References

on some Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete". To be

published.

2. J.P. Romualdi and J. A. ~ n d e l , J. Am. Conc. Inst., 61, 657 (196A).

3. British Standard 1881 : Parts 2, 4 and 5, "Methods of Testing Concrete",

British Standards Inst., London (1970).

4. J.P. Romualdi and G. B. Batscn, J. Engg. Mech. Div., ASCE, 89, 147 (1963).

5. R . N . Swamy and P. S. Mangat, "A Theory for the Flexural Strength of Steel

Fiber Reinforced Concrete".

6. R . N . Swamy, P. S. Mar~at and C. V. S. Kameswara Rao, "The Mechanics of

Fiber Reinforcement of Cement Matrices". Paper presented at the ACI

International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Ottawa (1973).

Vol. 4, No. 3 465

FIBER REINFORCEDCONCRETE, MECHANICALPROPERTIES, GEOMETRY

8. M. Chefdeville, Annales, 1,Institut Technique du Batiment et des Travaux

Publics, Paris (1950).

9. P. Dautu, Annales, l'Institut Technique du Batiment et des Trava1~x

Publics, Paris, 40, 54 (1958).

I0. T. C. Hansen, J. Am. Conc. Inst., ~_~2, 193 (1965).

ll. R. N. Swamy and G. Rigby, RIL~Materials and Structures, ~, 13 (1971).

12. R. N. Swamy, "DampingMechsmisms in Cementitious Systems". Proc.

Conference on Dynamic Waves in Civil Engineering, July 1970, Wiley -

Interscie~ce, 521 (1971).