Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

CEMENTand coNCRETERESEARCH. Vol. 4, pp. 451-465, 1974. PergamonPress, Inc.



R. N. Swamy and P. S. Mangat

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.

(Communicated by F. H. Wlttmann)
(Recelved March II, 1974)

The influence of fiber diameter, length and volume fraction on the
properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete in the fresh and
hardened states is reported. The compactability of fresh fibrous
concrete decreases linearly with fiber aspect ratio. There is no
unique relationship between fiber aspect ratio and ultimate flexural
strength or compressive strength. The dynamic modulus of elasticity
of fiber reinforced concrete is little different from that of plain
concrete. The fibers, however, show substantial improvements in
damping when the concrete is wet. It is shown that the ultimate
flexural strength can be predicted by a composite mechanics
equation. A unique relationship is also shown to exist between
ultimate flexural strength and an "effective spacing" concept.

Es wird h'oer den Einflu# von Durchmesser, L ~ e und Volumenanteil von

Stahlfasern auf die Eigenschaften des Frischbetons sowie des erhBlrteten
Betons berichtet. Die VerdichtungsmS~lichkeit von faserbewehrtem
Frischbeton nimmt l~near mit dem Verhh:itnis aus L~nge zu Durc),nesser
der verwex~deten Fasern ab. Weder die Biegezugfestigkeit noch die
D~ckfestigkeit lassen sich durch eine einzige Funktion in Abh~tugigkeit
vom IAhge/Durchmessel-~erhk~tnis der ~asern a~eben. Nut ein geringer
EinfluJ der Faserbewehrung auf den dynamischen Elastizit~smodul konnte
festgestellt werden. Im feuchten Zustand wird die l ~ p f u n g dagegen
wesentlich erhB~t. Die Biegezugfestigkeit l ~ t sich dutch eine
f r ~ e r angegebene Formel vorausberech~en. Es wird gezeigt, daJ ein
Zusammenhang zwischen dem "effektiven Faserabstand" und der
Bieg~zugfestigkeit besteht.
452 Vol. 4, No. 3


The properties of concrete reinforced with short discontinuous steel

fibers randomly oriented in the mix are influenced by many parameters. Two
factors which influence significantly the characteristics of the fibrous
concrete in both the fresh and hardened states are the coarse aggregate
content, and the fiber geometry and volume fraction. The influence of
coarse aggregate content on the compactability and strength properties of
steel fiber reinforced concrete has already been established (1). It has
been shown that increasing volume fractions of coarse aggregate decrease the
compactability and ultimate flexural strength of the fibrous concrete°

The second factor that has a pronounced influence on the properties of

the fresh and hardened fibrous concrete is the fiber geometry and volume
fraction, particularly in the presence of coarse aggregates. No fundamental
study exists on the interaction of fiber diameter, length and volume fraction
on the characteristics of a fibrous concrete composite. Tests are reported
in this paper on the influence of these three parameters on the
compactability, ultimate flexural strength, compressive strength, dynamic
modulus, and damping characteristics of steel fiber reinforced concrete.
Round straight fibers ranging from O.15mm to 1.82mm in diameter (d) and
12.Smm to 50nmT, long (I), were used in volume fractions of 0.69 to 5.8 per cent
of the matrix volume. The fiber aspect ratio (l/d) in the tests varied from
15.7 to 333.5. The fibers were embedded in a concrete matrix the composition
of which was kept constant for all the tests.

Experimental Program

The experimental work was carried out to establish the influence of fiber
geometry on the properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete such as
compactability, flexural and compressive strength, dynamic modulus and

A total of 28 fibrous concrete mixes were cast and tested. The concrete
matrix for the fiber reinforcement was the same throughout the program and
consisted of cement-sand ratio of 1 : 2.5, with a water-cement ratio of 0.55.
The coarse aggregate content was 20 per cent of the volume of the mix (1).

Nine different diameters of fibers varying from O.15mm to 1.82mm were

used and for each diameter, four different lengths, ranging from 12.Smm to
50mm were used - except in the cases of fibers of diameter 1.1mm, 1.42mm and
lo82mm for w~ich only one length (25mm) was used. The volume of fibers used
Vol. 4, No. 3 453

per mix was varied to give a wide range of fiber spacings as determined by the
equation of Romualdi and Mandel (2).

Ordinary Portland cement, washed pit sand and graded crushed gravel with
10ram maximum size were used. The round fibers were interannealed, hard drawn
mild steel straight wires with a plain surface.

All the mixes were made in a pan-type mixer, In addition to the fibrous
concrete mixes, a control mix without fibers was also tested to establish the
properties of the unreinforced concrete matrix. All the test specimens were
cast in steel molds using internal vibration and cured in water for 28 days.
A limited number of 91 day tests were carried out on specimens subjected to
laboratory curing after 28 days.

The compactability of the fresh fiber reinforced concrete was determined

by the Vebe test (5). The flexural strength, dynamic modulus and damping
capacity were determined from I00 x I00 x 500mm prisms. The compressive
strength was obtained from lOOmm cubes. Where appropriate all the tests Were
carried out according to British Standards (5).

Test Results and Discussion

Compactability of Fresh Concrete

The results of the compactability tests as determined by the Vebe test are
shown in FIGS. i, 2, and 5.

The variation of Vebe time with the fiber aspect ratio is shown in
FIG. I. No unique relationship is seen %o exist between fiber geometry and
oompactability for the fiber diameters ranging between O.15mm and 0.91ram and
fiber vol1~ne fractions from 0.69 to 2.40 per cent. For a given fiber
diameter and volume fraction, however, the compactabilit-y appears to vary
linearly with the aspect ratio. Mixes containing the same volume fraction
but different diameters of fibers do not show the same degree of
compactability for a given aspect ratio.

The relation between compactability and fiber spacing is shown in FIG. 2.

The fiber spacing due to Romualdi and Mmmdel (2) is a measure of the
geometrical arrangement of the fibers in the matrix, and compactability also
appears to be influenced by fiber spacing. There is, however, no unique
relationship between the two. This is not perhaps altogether surprising
since the spacing concept is a function of both the diameter and volume fraction
of fibers in the matrix for a given length of fiber, and compactability is
likely to vary with the length of the fiber as well.
454 Vol. 4, No. 3

.F.I)B E R ~l~o SYMBOL

• .IS 0.69 %
O-27 ! • 13 0

0"46 I • 90 x
O.61 I. 13 •
0.7t 2'40 &
O.91 I .90 @

p,l,13O/o / p'0.690/o
20 20"


I p= 1.9Olo ul
--~ 10-
F- s s ~--IO-
x ." uJ
.'" ~ P=2'4•/0
> .p •

• s "m
O fro ~o 40 ioo abo .z~:)
Aspect Ratio A//~ AspKt Rot~o

The influence of fiber aspect ratio on Vebe time.


16' FIBER DIAM. 0"27, 0-46, O'61.

O.91, O.91, HO, 1.42 &


I SO.•ram O
2 37" $~lm •
12, I 3 2S.Omm •
4 12.Sin A

e• ~ O U P I


FIG. 2.
Relation between Vebe time and fiber spacing (2)
Vol. 4, No. 3 455

PIG. 3 shows that for a constant

value of fiber spacing i.e. for a given
diameter and volume fraction of fibers,
the Vebe time increases linearly with
increasing fiber length. The slope of S•I:l'llll~-I'~~ S'Su
the straight lines increases as fiber I0-
spacing (i.e. as fiber diameter for a
given volume of fibers) decreases, thus
showing that the rate of increase of Vebe
time is greater at small values of fiber
I //~ j $-?ma
spacing. In other words, difficulties I" ~ S=@mm
of compaction increase as the fiber ~LI
diameter decreases.

A new phenomenon of "curling up" of

~o ~o
fibers was observed, during mixing, in FIBERLENGTH
some of the mixes. "Curling up" is
primarily dependent on the aspect ratio,
FIG. 3.
and long thin fibers with an aspect
Influence of fiber length on
ratio greater than about lO0 tended to compactability of fibrous concrete
show extensive "curling up" during for various ~iber diameters and
fiber volumes
mixing, mainly due to their lack of
stiffness to withstand the mixing operation.

U'J.t~r~te Strength

The variation of ultimate flexural strength with fiber aspect ratio is

shown in FIG. 4. The results fall into six groups, each group representing
fibers of one particular diameter. The flexural strength generally increases
with fiber aspect ratio until difficulties of mixing long thin fibers are
encountered and curling up occurs, when there is a reduction in flexural
strength. Measurements of density of the modulus of rupture prism specimens
showed that the reduction in strength was not due to poor compaction of the
material but mainly due %o inefficient reinforcing capability of the "curled
up" fibers.

One interesting factor that emerges from FIG. 4 is that fibers of

different diameters reinforce the matrix at different rates. For a fiber
volume of 1.13 per cent, for example, fibers of diameter 0.27ram yield a higher
flexural strength than fibers of diameter 0.6]ram up to an aspect ratio of
456 V01. 4, No. 3

about 70; beyond this value,

the thicker fiber appears to

...... oI be more efficient than the

thinner one. A similar
~ $ 0 " ' ' ~. --
phenomenon is shown by
~, o

fibers of 0.461mm and 0.91mm

' ~ | 1 1 ~ . I I O

$ ,: 6 0 0 6 6 6 " ~+~ diameter at a volume fraction

of 1.91 per cent, for which
_ r-~ C the "transition aspect ratio"
is again about 70. It is
yet to be established if this
81 -~,o
r-W . ~ aspect ratio of 70 represents

%~'~'e.~, -M
a general "transition aspect
ratio", for fibers of
different diameters.
Mechanism of Fiber
Reinforcement on Flexural

The relationship between

O~IV~ 3 U N I d ~ ~0 S f n ~ O V W the ultimate flexural strength
ratio and fiber spacing as calculated from the spacing equation due to
Romualdi and Mandel (2) is shown in FIG. 5. Although fiber spacing has been
theoretically related only to the first crack tensile strength (4), the
spacing equation per se represents a purely geometrical arrangement of the
fibers in the concrete matrix. FIG. 5 is drawn to study the relationship,
if any, between fiber spacing (2) and ultimate modulus of rupture. For the
range of fiber diameters (0.15mm - 1.82mm) and lengths (12.Smm - 50mm) used
in this study, it can be seen that no unique relationship exists between
fiber spacing and the ultimate flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced

The authors have shown that the ultimate flexural strength of concrete
reinforced with short discontinuous steel fibers randomly oriented in the mix
and failing by fiber pull-out can be predicted by a composite mechanics
equation (5) of the type

acu = 0.97 (~ m (I - Vf) + 3.41 Vf 1/d (I)

Vol. 4, No. 3 457

Oc u = ultimate flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete
~m = ultimate flexural strength of the unreinforced control
mix, and
vf - volume fraction of fibers in the relY.

x : 37-S MM x
: 2$.OMM •
: 12"SMM •
0 /"~ FIBER DIA :O.15 0 ' 2 7 O.4b, O.61,O.71 O'91,
. / \ I ,o.1..2• ,.,2 . .
;\/ \.---GRO.p,

\ \
II I~I, %.
1.2 I I& •
IE I'0

08 .

O 5 I0 15 20

FIG. 5.
Relation between ultimate flexurs~l strength
and fiber spacing due to Romualdi and Mandel (2).

FIG. 6 shows the correlation between equation (I) and the experimental
data obtained from this and a previous investigation (i) in which fibers of a
constant aspect ratio of I00 were used in mixes with different volume
fractions of coarse aggregate. The excellent correlation shown in FIG. 6
has also been shown to be valid for the results of other investigators (5).
Fibers with an aspect ratio equal to or less than 20.5 are too short to
develop sufficiently high bond stresses and do uot obviously follow the
prediction of equation (i).

In an attempt to define the mechanism of fiber reinforcement, the authors

have proposed a new "effective spacing concept" (6) in which the fiber-matrix
shear stress due to the load transfer between the fiber and the matrix as
458 Vol. 4, No. 3


o Seem A.Oelo c.o N

well as the bond stress due to
x - IO4q,. . Age M t ~ 211 cloys
• . gOe/o. . Cure : Wet the presence of a crack were
~M/sCmd : I:g-5
. 40,/o.. wa~r/cemeM : O. SS both considered. It has been
• B uml, oN.~ze : IOmm
40 | ~/d~ 20.S shown that the effective fiber
s p a c i a g c a n then be
represented by the equation

X effective
25/T7 (2)
O*'cu • O'97 O'm I I - V¢ ) +3 41 V f ( / ~ / o t~*30.$)

where p represents the

0 t [~lt'13 7 ) volume of fibers in the matrix.

~ o elf/~ "13"7 I t [ t / ' ' 1 3 7 )
For the range of fiber
diameters (0.15mm - 1.82mm)
and lengths (12.Smm - 50mm)
used in this investigation,
FIG. 7 shows a unique
relationship between
O - - i I I
0 I0 20 30 equation (2) and the ultimate
~., vf,/v~c,/, ,
modulus of rupture ratio.
The flexural strength of
FIG. 6. mixes in which "curling up" of
Correlation between composite mechanics fibers occurred is obviously
ultimate strength equation and
reduced and this is also shown
experimental data
in FIG. 7.
Compressive Strength

The influence of fiber aspect ratio on the compressive strength of steel

fiber reinforced concrete is shown in FIG. 8. For the range of fiber
diameters and fiber lengths studied in this investigation, it is clear that no
unique relationship exists between compressive strength and fiber aspect ratio.
For a given fiber diameter, the variation in compressive strength with aspect
ratio never exceeds l0 per cent and may be considered insignificant. 0nly
in the case of mixes containing fibers of 0.15mm diameter is the variation
in compressive strength greater than l0 per cent. This variation is caused
by the "curling up" of fibers which causes a reduction in the compressive
strength of the material.

There appears to be an optimum fiber spscingvalue (2) for which the

maximum compressive strength is obtained for steel fiber reinforced concrete
FIG. 9. For the mixes studied in this investigation, this optimum fiber
Vol. 4, No. 3 459

spacing is about 4.5ms. The data

plotted in FIG. 9 also show that the
compressive strength is greater for
smaller lengths of fibers. The
mechanism of failure of fibers in a
compression test is not known. Aligned
fibers would be expected to fail due to • .re,arealn~u~
buckling (7), but the mode of failure is x a~qra0m which
I cvrlleql occurecl
more difficult to define in the case of
randomly oriented fibers. If a
buckling mode is assumed, then it
appears logical for longer fibers to
yield smaller compressive strengths
since they are more slender than short |
fibers• I

D/namic Modulus of Elasticit~

For the amount of fibers that can be
satisfactorily embedded in a cement-based
matrix, the dynamic modulus is little O.S
affected by the presence of fibers. For En~ttv¢ Fiber ~Dac|~ ws
the range of fiber mixes used in this
FIG. 7
study, the dynamic modulus varied
Correlation between ultimate
between + 5 per cent of the modulus
flerural strength and the
of the unreinforced control mix authors ' effective
(FIG. lO). The trend of the spacing concept

relationship between dynamic modulus and

fiber aspect ratio is similar to that obtained for compressive strength
(FIG. 8). A relationship similar to that shown in FIG. 9 was also found to
exist between fiber spacing and dynamic modulus and again, the maximum
dynamic modulus appeared to occur at a fiber spacing of about 4.Smm.

The conventional upper (8, 9) and lower (lO) bound equations for static
modulus of elasticity developed for umreinforced plain concrete can also be
applied to fiber reinforced concrete if the composite is considered to
consist of a concrete matrix and a fiber inclusion phase. The upper bound
solution is a linear variation while the lower bound shows a non-linear
variation between elastic modulus and fiber volume. The fiber inclusions
460 Vol. 4, No. 3

Filer Fiber
Dia Imml Vol Oto Symbol
O.15 0.~ X
O. 27 I • 13 O
0.46 I .90 x
O'61 1"13 •
¢w 0.71 240 •
0 O "ql I '90 @
$5" E)
c ( m t ~ ho f i N r s

! =-
50 i~o ~o ~o
Aspect Ratio ~/d
A • control no fibers
! • | @ x_ mixes m wt~ict~
• • 'cueliN up' occurred

45 ....
o 5b ,6o
Aspect I~t~m ~//d

FIG. 8.
Variation of compressive strength with fiber
aspect ratio


FIBER DIAM. 0 . 2 7 , 0 . 4 6 .
O-bl, O-71, O'91, HO, 1.42
& 1.82 mm


SO.Oma, O
I.O -A I [ \" ""
37'5mm x
25" Omm •
12' 5 mm A

0.9 ¸

O ~o

FIG. 9.
Relation between fiber spacing and
compressive strength
Vol. 4, No. 3 461

in cement-based matrices are,

however, negligibly small to Fibre Fibrl
Did.m) VolOlo S)~o~
have a~¥ significant effect
O'lS 0"69 •
on the modulus, and the 0.2'7 I .13 O
0.46 I -90 I
experimental data obtained 0"61 I • 13 •
0.71 2 "40 •
from this investigation 0-91 I "90 @
confirm that the results
(~ Mi=,,t in
follow the lower bound 'curlinli up' occurred

equation (FIG. ll) which is

valid for inclusions stiffer
i x i( x
than the matrix. Each ® • ; 0 Control No Fibres
experimental point in
A A "e :-
FIG. ll represents up to E A@e ®
sixteen different specimens
made with various lengths
and diameters of fibers, the
AtpcKt Ratio
minimum numbe~ of values for
any point being four. FIG. I0.
Variation of dynamic modulus of elasticity
Damping Capacity with fiber aspect ratio
The damping capacity
of a material is the property
which causes vibrations in a
50- • Experimental results
specimen to decrease in
amplitude when the specimen
is isolated from all e x t e r n a l ~
sources of energy loss. A o
convenient measume of this Upper bound Iolution {theorcticol)
property is the logarithmic
decrement, ~ , which is the

natural logarithm of any two j • Jw u J

successive amplitudes for a m
decaying vibration (ll).
o ~ ,b is
The measurement of Volume I~ " cent of f i ~ ¢ $

logarithmic decrement by FIG. ll.

the "bandwidth technique" Correlation between dynamic modulus and the
was adopted for the tests theoreticaL upper aud lower bound c~rves
of this investigation.
462 Vol. 4, No. 3

For 50 per cent bandwidth, the ~ogarithmic decrement is given by (ii)

~ f2 - fl
= --. (3)
/-~ fr

where fr is the reson nt frequency and f2 and fl are the frequencies on

either side of the resonant frequency where the amplitude is one-half of that
at resonance.

The results of the damping capacity tests for all the fiber reinforced
concrete mixes investigated are shown in FIG. 12 against fiber aspect ratio.
Again, there is no unique
relationship between
logarithmic decrement and
Fiber FibGr
Diolmnd Voi°lo Symbol
fiber aspect ratio. There
O. 15 0-69 • a pears to be no consistent
O ' 27 I - 13 0
0.46 1.90 x inf]uence of either the fiber
O.61 I, 13 •
O" 71 2.40 & dia~eter or length on the
0.91 1.90 @ damping properties of the
fibrous concrete; the
• 0Mixes in which maximum increase obtained was
g..,C.~up' occurred
52 per cent above that of the
i O.O~
x xQ plain unreinforced matrix.
0"07- A The maximum damping capacity
0 Z _Z
A AZ Q was again found to occur at a
® @ @A@° .
~ 0-06- fiber spacing of 5.5~P - 4.5mm.
Control No Fibres

0-05 Influence of A~e on D~namic

0 ,~s ~o 3~s
Aspect R ~ i o Modulus and Dampin~

FIG. 12. The influence of age

Variation of the damping capacity of fibrous on the dynamic modulus and
concrete with fiber aspect ratio damping capacity was
investigated for one volume
(1.15 per cent) and two diameters (0.27mm and 0.61n~n) of fibers. The test
specimens were cured in water for 28 days and then in the laboratory air until
being tested at 91 days.

Tests for dynamic modulus showed that the effect of ag'e was insignificant.
Drying is known to produce a slight reduction in the dynamic modulus of plain
ooncrete (Ii), and the same phenomenon was observed with fibrous concrete.
Vol. 4, No. 3 463

The mean reduction in dynamic modulus of the fibrous concrete was about I0
per cent for the mixes studied in the investigation.

On the other hand, the effect of age is known to have a more pronounced
effect on the d ~ p i n g properties of concrete, partly due to drying, and
partly due to the progressive hydration of the paste when the capillary
channels became gradually blocked with hydration products (12). The results
of the tests showed that the mean ratio of the logarithmic decrement at 91
days to that at 28 was 0.52 for fibrous concrete compared to a value of 0.64
for plain concrete. Thus while in the wet state, the logarithmic decrement
of fibrous concrete was r,uch higher than that of plain concrete, with age and
drying the reverse appeared to be true although the differences were
marginal. The fibers, of course, control cracking of the concrete due to
differential drying, and hence lead to a reduced value of damping, a l t h o u ~
under load, the crack control properties of the composite will reassert
itself to show improved damping properties.


From the results of this investigation, the following conclusions can be

dra.~n. The conclusions relate to round straight fibers having a fiber
diameter of O.15mm to l~82mm and lengths of 12.5mm to 50nml with an aspect
ratio of 14 to 333.

1. For a given diameter and volume fraction of fibers the compactability

of steel fiber reinforced concrete decreases linearly with the fiber
aspect ratio. There appears to be no unique relationship between fiber
aspect ratio and Vebe time. Fibers with am aspect ratio greater than
about 100 tended to show the phenomenon of "curling up" of fibers mainly
due to their lack of stiffness.
2. For a given length and volume fraction of fibers, compactability
increases with increasing fiber diameter.
3. There is no m i q u e relationship between ultimate flexural strength and
fiber aspect ratio. For any given fiber diameter a~Id volume fraction,
the ultimate f~exural strength increases linearly with increasing aspect
ratio until "curling up" of fibers causes a reduction in strength.
4. There appears to be, what might be termed, a "transition aspect ratio" for
two given diameters of fibers. For the same volume fraction of fibers,
this value defines a certain aspect ratio below which the thinner fiber
gives a higher flexural strength and above which, the thicker fiber
gives the higher strength.
464 Vol. 4, No. 3

5. There is no unique relationship between ultimate flexural strength and a

purely geometrical spacing concept.
6. The ultimate flexural strengtl: can be predicted by a composite mechanics
equation. The results for a wide range of fiber diameters and lengths
also show a unique relationship between the ultimate flexural strength
and an "effective spacing" concept.
7. There appears to be no unique relationship between compressive strength
and fiber aspect ratio. For a given fiber diameter, the variation in
compressive strength wit~ aspect ratio is less than l0 per cent.
8. For the vclume of fibers that could normally be embedded in a concrete
matrix, the dynamic modult:s of elasticity of fiber reinforced concrete
is little different from that of the plain unreinflorced concrete. T!)e
conventional lower bound solution for static eiastic modulus appears to
be valid for the dyn~nic modulus of fiber reim"orced concrete.
9. The damping property of wet-cured fiber reinforced concrete is higher
than that of the unreinforced control mix. T~e maxim~l increase i n
ds;rping is about 50 per cent.
!0. Age and drying have little effect on the dyna:~:ic modulus of elasticity.
The logarit~Jc decrement, however, was reduced substantially by age
and drying, a phenomenon observed with the unreinforced concrete as well.


The work reported here forms part of an extensive study on fibrous

reinforcement of cement matrices supported by Tinsley Wire Industries Ltd.
The authors are grateful for the s1~pport and to ~ . Ernest Baldwin for his
encm~agement, ~elp and valuable discussions.


1. R . N . Swamy and P. S. Mangat, "Influence of Fiber-aggregate Interaction

on some Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete". To be
2. J.P. Romualdi and J. A. ~ n d e l , J. Am. Conc. Inst., 61, 657 (196A).
3. British Standard 1881 : Parts 2, 4 and 5, "Methods of Testing Concrete",
British Standards Inst., London (1970).
4. J.P. Romualdi and G. B. Batscn, J. Engg. Mech. Div., ASCE, 89, 147 (1963).
5. R . N . Swamy and P. S. Mangat, "A Theory for the Flexural Strength of Steel
Fiber Reinforced Concrete".
6. R . N . Swamy, P. S. Mar~at and C. V. S. Kameswara Rao, "The Mechanics of
Fiber Reinforcement of Cement Matrices". Paper presented at the ACI
International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Ottawa (1973).
Vol. 4, No. 3 465

7. A. Kelley, "Strong Solids", Clarendon Press, Oxford (1966).

8. M. Chefdeville, Annales, 1,Institut Technique du Batiment et des Travaux
Publics, Paris (1950).
9. P. Dautu, Annales, l'Institut Technique du Batiment et des Trava1~x
Publics, Paris, 40, 54 (1958).
I0. T. C. Hansen, J. Am. Conc. Inst., ~_~2, 193 (1965).
ll. R. N. Swamy and G. Rigby, RIL~Materials and Structures, ~, 13 (1971).
12. R. N. Swamy, "DampingMechsmisms in Cementitious Systems". Proc.
Conference on Dynamic Waves in Civil Engineering, July 1970, Wiley -
Interscie~ce, 521 (1971).