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Phased Array and TOFD

Boiler Tube Weld Inspection


Application Solution
February 2019

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Overview

• Inspection Challenge
• Recommended PA UT Solution
• Results – Comparison with RT
• Benefits of Zetec Solution
• Suggested Kit

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Inspection Challenge

• The industry requires a rapid volumetric NDE


technique for boiler tube welds, to minimize outage
time and budget
• Traditionally, radiography (RT) is used, but has several
drawbacks:
- RT is insensitive to planar defects,
if angle between planar flaw and
beam is > 8°
- No immediate feedback for welder
- RT is disruptive to other activities
- Safety regulations are getting
more severe worldwide
Lack of fusion defect missed by radiography

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Recommended Solution

• Encoded Phased Array UT paired with TOFD offers a


reliable and efficient alternative volumetric inspection
solution “in Lieu of RT”
• Solution to deal with low clearance, variety of
diameters, and the presence of weld caps :
• Circ-it Scanner
• Low Profile PA UT Probes & Wedges
• LIMBOTOFD™ Integrated Probes (*)
• Flexible Inspection Technique

(*) Trademark of GB Inspection Systems Ltd.

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Scanner

• Circ-it scanner (from Jireh Industries) :


one-axis manually encoded scanner
• Variety of diameters:
from 21.4 mm to 114.3 mm (0.5” to 4.0” NPS)
• Low-profile design: radial clearance 11 mm
• Modular and flexible design:
• Quick change links for infinite adjustment
• Single or dual PA probe scanning configuration
• With or without TOFD
• Cable management system for irrigation lines and
probe cables

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Scanner

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Low Profile Phased Array Probes

• Extra thin 1D linear array probe: 11 mm (0.433’’)


• Curved array for optimized focusing in thin tubes: r = 35 mm
• Designed for sectorial scanning
• Multiple probe frequencies available
• 5 MHz for rough inspection surfaces (with OD pitting)
• 7.5 MHz for standard inspections
• 10 MHz for optimized detection and characterization of small
volumetric indications (porosities, slag...)
• Choice of 16 or 32 elements to optimize steering capability

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Low Profile PA Probes

Active
Frequency Number of Pitch
Probe Type Aperture
(MHz) Elements (mm)
(mm x mm)

ZPA-PB1D-AT-5MHZ-16-REX-2.5M-ZPAC 5 16 0.5 8 x 10

ZPA-PB1D-AT-7.5MHZ-16-REX-2.5M-ZPAC 7.5 16 0.5 8 x 10

ZPA-PB1D-AT-7.5MHZ-32-REX-2.5M-ZPAC 7.5 32 0.25 8 x 10

ZPA-PB1D-AT-10MHZ-16-REX-2.5M-ZPAC 10 16 0.5 8 x 10

ZPA-PB1D-AT-10MHZ-32-REX-2.5M-ZPAC 10 32 0.25 8 x 10

All probes with ZPAC connector, dual connector optional,


recommended generic probe highlighted

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Low Profile Wedges

• Extra thin assembly: 11 mm (0.433’’)


• Wedge kit to cover 0.5” to 4” NPS, and flat
• Interchangeable rexolite wedges
• Wedges optimized to minimize the distance between
probe and weld center line
• Irrigation and easy scanner interfacing

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LIMBOTOFD™ Probes

• Extra low profile (10 mm) TOFD probes


• Curved wedges shaped to pipe diameter
• Integrated wedge for easy deployment
• 10 and 15 MHz frequencies available
• Multiple beam angles available, 60°LW or
70°LW recommended for boiler tube welds
• Active element diameter 3 mm, for complete
coverage of examination volume

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Inspection Technique

• High-speed inspection : acquisition


from 2 sides, in less than 1 minute
• One-line circular movement, with
sectorial scan for weld coverage
• Full skip inspection: capability to use
from 40° to 80°SW
• Accurate imaging using on-line
S-Scan and Dynamic Merge on TOPAZ
• 2 Side PA and TOFD dedicated layout
• Examination methodology adaptable to
applicable codes and requirements

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Results
Sample datafile for 2” NPS pipe

Dedicated
layout for Weld overlay
optimal data for easier flaw
review characterization

Alignment
makes flaws
easy to track
between all
channels

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Results – PA Comparison with RT

Wormhole piping Group porosity Wormhole piping

Courtesy of RWE Power Intl.Ltd

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Results – PA Comparison with RT

Isolated pore Lack of side wall fusion


Root crack
(not visible on radiograph)

Courtesy of RWE Power Intl.Ltd

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Results – PA Comparison with RT

• Coal Generators GENSIP Programme (UK) organized Round-


Robin NDT exercise (2013 – 2014) to assess performance and
reliability of PA UT
• 50 tubes with various diameters, and containing various flaw
types were inspected by 10 NDT service companies

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Results – PA Comparison with RT

Two-dimensional scoring system : detection on X-axis,


sizing and characterization on Y-axis
100 100
90
Quality of Sizing and Characterization (%)

90

Quality of Sizing and Characterization


80 80
70 70

Of Detected Flaws (%)


60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Detection (%) Detection of Rejectable Flaws (%)

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Technical Benefits of PA UT & TOFD

• PA UT & TOFD detects all weld defect types, but better suited
for planar defects : lack of root fusion, lack of root penetration,
weld toe crack, weld root crack
• RT is better suited for volumetric defect types: porosity,
inclusion
• Education on expected flaw types is important : well-trained PA
UT operators will have success for defect characterization on
all defect types, for wall thickness > 7 mm
• PA UT can have some difficulty to characterize volumetric
defect for small thickness (< 7 mm)
• Weld overlay is important to help position and diagnose flaws
• PA UT & TOFD offers through-wall sizing capability, length
sizing is less accurate than for RT (over sizing)

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Benefits of Zetec Solution

• PA UT combined with TOFD can detect all defect


types, and offer through-wall sizing capability
• Non-disruptive to other activities
• scanner, industrially proven design,
adapts to a wide variety of boiler tube diameters
• and integrated units,
compact and easy to setup
• UltraVision Touch™ on-board software, guarantees
an efficient inspection workflow, from set up to
analysis and reporting

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Suggested Solution Kit

Fully integrated portable Phased Array system featuring up to 16 active channels on up to 128 elements probe.
Phased Array probes are connected on a solid Zero Insertion Force secured connector whereas 2 Lemo 00
10053725 ZPA-IUT-TOPAZ-16/128P-KIT connectors can be used simultaneously for pulse echo or TOFD inspections. Kit includes TOPAZ16 unit with
UltraVision Touch™ embedded, 2 batteries, 1 carrying case, 1 power cable (North America), 1 power cable
(Europe), 1 AC adapter, 1 Ethernet cable, 1 USB Flash drive and user manual.

Manual Small Diameter Pipe Scanner - standard kit - low profile, can operate in an radial clearance of 0,433"
10040261 ZGN-SCN-CIRCT-IT envelope - lightweight, modular, easy to use - 1 encoder for circumferential scanning - compatible with pipe
diameters from 0,840" to 4,500" - dual or single side applications.

10058153 ZGN-SCN-CIRCT-IT-SEC_PR_HOLDER Extra probe holder links for Circ-IT

10058154 ZGN-SCN-CIRCT-IT-TOFD_PR_HOLDER TOFD probe holder arms for Circ-IT

Pour des épaisseurs minces, il faut


ZPA-PB1D-AT-7.5MHZ-16-REX-2.5M-
les
Extra thin sondes
1D linear 10designed
array probe MHz, diamètre
for azimuthal 3 mm,
scanning - Dual pas2 probe
configuration: 6 mm heads on a single
10042357 connector - 7.5 MHz - 16 elements - AT probe casing - active surface of 8 mm x 10 mm with a curvature radius of
ZPAC-D
35 mm on the passive axis -ZPAC connector (compatible with ZIRCON and TOPAZ) - 2.5 m cable

Extra thin wedge for AT-type phased array probe - Designed for azimuthal scanning from 40 to 70 degree using
10041900 ZPA-ACC-W-AT-60SW-IH-2NPS shear waves - 60-degree SW nominal angle - Irrigation channels and probe holder fixtures - Footprint curved
along the passive axis for 2 in NPS

ZUT-PB-PIEZO-60DEG-LIMBOTOFD10- Fully integrated, low profile, LIMBOTOFD 60° 10MHz ø 6mm Piezo Composite Compression wave probe, Lemo 00
10058121
6-LEMO00-2M-L-F Male, Lenght 2m, Left Side, Flat; compatible with Circ-It pipe scanner

ZUT-PB-PIEZO-60DEG-LIMBOTOFD10- Fully integrated, low profile, LIMBOTOFD 60° 10MHz ø 6mm Piezo Composite Compression wave probe, Lemo 00
10058122
6-LEMO00-2M-R-F Male, Lenght 2m, Right Side, Flat; compatible with Circ-It pipe scanner

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