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Application of Non-contact IR-Heat Tracer in

Maintenance and Repair Operations

非触式紅外線溫度儀於修護工程之應用

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Division
Temperature Measuring Techniques
¾ Mercury thermometer
¾ Thermistors – temperature sensitive resistors
¾ Resistance temperature detector (RTD)
¾ Thermocouples (Type J, T & K)
¾ Solid state – e.g. P-N junction
¾ Fibre optics (Raman effect/ OTDR)
¾ Ultrasonic
¾ Infrared thermometer (black body radiation)

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What Is Infrared?

Infrared (IR) is that portion of the


electromagnetic spectrum that lies beyond
the visible response of the human eye. IR
wavelengths extend from 0.75 to 1000
microns.

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What Is Infrared?

¾ All objects warmer than absolute


zero (0 K or -273°C) emit infrared
energy.

¾ The hotter an object is, the more


active its molecules are, and the
more infrared energy it emits.

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Infrared Thermometers

Provides a non-contact means of


measuring the surface
temperature of an object safely
and accurately from a distance.

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Reasons to Use Infrared for
Temperature Measurement

¾ Non-contact, clean
¾ Moving object
¾ Inaccessible
¾ Speed, reliability, repeatability
¾ Real time measurement

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About IR Heat Tracing
¾ All objects that have temperatures above absolute zero radiate infrared
energy.
¾ This energy travels in all directions at light speed
¾ When pointed at a target, the lens of the Heat Tracer collects and focuses
the energy onto an infrared detector.
¾ The detector responds by producing a voltage signal which is directly
proportional to the amount of energy received, and a function of the
temperature of the target.
¾ Some objects reflect as well as emit infrared energy.
¾ Shiny or highly polished surfaces tend to reflect energy, whereas dull
surfaces do not.
¾ Emissivity is a factor whose value ranges from 0.1 to 1.0, accounts for
the actual energy being emitted.
¾ Emissivity of different series Heat Tracers can be adjustable or pre-set.
¾ Note: For almost all applications, the emissivity is set at 0.95, which
describes a target having a reflection of 5%.
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How Do Infrared Thermometers Work?
¾ An infrared thermometer house optics that
collect the radiant infrared energy being
emitted from an object and focus it onto a
detector.
¾ The detector converts the energy into an
electrical signal, which is amplified and
displayed.

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What It Measures

fle ct e d energy
Re
Transmitted
energy
Emitted
energy

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Applications
Electrical Maintenance
¾ Locate over-temperature conditions caused by defective circuit
breakers, overload conditions or poor electrical connections
¾ Monitor electric motors
¾ Locate loose wire connections
¾ Diagnose nuisance tripping of circuit breakers
¾ Locate defective ballasts within fluorescent fixtures

Food Safety
¾Audit storage temperature
¾Maintain process temperature

Household
¾In the kitchen
¾In the garage
¾In the workshop

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Applications
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance
¾ Monitor furnace exteriors
¾ Test heat exchangers, steam traps, air vents
¾ Identify refrigeration problems
¾ Check thermal insulation

Car/Truck/Fleet Maintenance
¾Locate radiator core blockages
¾Identify misfiring spark plugs
¾Monitor electrical components
¾Diagnose low voltage batteries

Transportation
¾Monitor road surface temperature for icing conditions
¾Maintain asphalt temperature during preparation and application

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Applications

Motor Bearing Hot Spot Tracing Elec. Terminals Tx. Wingings

Remote Circuits

Overload/Loose
Elec. Contacts Data Logging Performance Analysis
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Selecting A Unit

¾ Size of your target ¾ Laser assisted sighting


¾ Temp range of target ¾ Alarm requirement
¾ Distance to target ¾ Offset properties
¾ Surface of target ¾ D/S Ratio
¾ Data storage ability ¾ Emisstivity settings

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Measurement Spot Size

8:1 ratio 60:1 ratio


At 5 ft away
7.5” spot 1” spot

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Distance To Spot-size Ratio
Distance: Sensor to Object (inch)
Spot Dia. (inch)
Spot Dia. (mm)

Distance: Sensor to Object (mm)

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Distance To Spot-size Ratio (Depth of Field)

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Field of View

Target fall
into spot size

Target size
too small

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Emissivity

¾ Emissivity is the ability of an object to emit


or absorb energy.

¾ Perfect emitters have an emissivity of 1,


emitting 100% of incident energy.

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Emissivity

¾ Example, an object with an emissivity of


0.8 will emit 80% and reflect 20% of the
incident energy.
¾ Unless you can adjust for emissivity, it is
difficult to take accurate readings of shiny
metal surfaces.

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Typical Emissivity Values
Metal

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Typical Emissivity Values
Non-Metal

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Determine an Unknown Surface Emissivity
¾ Compare with a thermo-couple.
¾ Using masing tape with emissivity of 0.95
¾ Drill a hole approximately (3.5 cm) in diameter
and approximately (10 cm) deep in a sample of
the object. This hole will act as a blackbody
with emissivity of approximately 0.97.
¾ Paint it with a flat black paint. These materials
exhibit an emissivity of approximately 0.95.

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A Typical Temperature Profile of an
induction Heating Process

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What Does Specification Tells You?

IR-750C IR-750CL2 IR-750CEXL2 IR-60L2 IR-60EXPL2


-32°C- -32°C-
Temp -32°C-500°C -32°C-870°C -32°C-870°C
400°C 400°C
Laser √ √ √ √
CIRCULAR CIRCULAR
D:S Ratio 8:1 8:1 8:1 60:1 60:1
Hi Alarm √ √ √
Lo Alarm √ √
Adjust
Emiss.
√ √ √
Store data √

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Laser Classes
Class I Lasers
These are lasers that are not hazardous for continuous viewing or are
designed in such a way that prevent human access to laser radiation.
These consist of low power lasers or higher power embedded lasers. (i.e.
laser printers)

Class 2 Visible Lasers (400 to 700 nm)


Lasers emitting visible light which because of normal human aversion
responses, do not normally present a hazard, but would if viewed directly
for extended periods of time. (like many conventional light sources)

Class 2A Visible Lasers (400 to 700 nm)


Lasers emitting visible light not intended for viewing, and under normal
operating conditions would not produce a injury to the eye if viewed directly
for less than 1000 seconds. (i.e. bar code scanners)

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Laser Classes
Class 3a
Lasers that normally would not cause injury to the eye if viewed
momentarily but would present a hazard if viewed using collecting optics
(fibre optics loupe or telescope).

Class 3b
Lasers that present an eye and skin hazard if viewed directly. This includes
both intrabeam viewing and specular reflections. Class 3b lasers do not
produce a hazardous diffuse reflection except when viewed at close
proximity.

Class 4 Lasers
Lasers that present an eye hazard from direct, specular and diffuse
reflections. In addition such lasers may be fire hazards and produce skin
burns.

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Laser Energy Effects On The Eyes
¾ Wavelength
¾ Incident or reflected laser beam:

• Laser light in the visible to near infrared


spectrum (i.e., 400 - 1400 nm) can cause
damage to the retina (视网膜) resulting in
scotoma (blind spot in the fovea).

• Laser light in the ultraviolet (290 - 400 nm) or


far infrared (1400 - 10,600 nm) spectrum can
cause damage to the cornea (角膜) and/or to
the lens.

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Selecting A Unit

¾ Size of your target ¾ Laser assisted sighting


¾ Temp range of target ¾ Alarm requirement
¾ Distance to target ¾ Offset properties
¾ Surface of target ¾ D/S Ratio
¾ Data storage ability ¾ Emisstivity settings

A supplier that can support you on your applications

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