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A

PAPER PRESENTATION
ON

Presented
By
T suresh Babu T Vasu
III BTech [ECE] IV BTech [EEE]
Suresh_thotavari@yahoo.co.in Vasu.252@gmail.com
PH: 9985715285 9885247389

Sree vidyanikethan Engg College


A.Rangampet, TIRUPATI.
ABSTRACT:
“Thousands of persons killed as a A microprocessor-controlled
cause of earthquake”. The above words automatic clutter cancellation sub system
aren’t the headlines of the newspaper but ,consisting of a programmable micr owave
daily news everyone come a cross attenuator and a programmable microwave
whenever we go through a newspaper or phase shifter controlled by a
watching over a TV news. microprocessor based control unit,has
A person’s life is precious and been developed for a microwave life
meaningful to his loved ones. detection system (L-band 2 GHz or X band
We, as responsible Engineers felt a 10 GHz) which can remotely sense
part of society to bring a system to avoid breathing and heartbeat moveme nts of
these mishaps. With the meteor ic living objects.This automatic clutter
Embedded systems along with cancellation subsystem has drastically
microprocessor our designed system in improved a very slow process of manual
preventing deaths and providing safe clutter cancellation adjustment compared
guided measures. to previous microwave system .this is very
A new revolutionary microwave life important for some potential applications
detection system, which is used to locate including location of earthquake or
human beings buried under earthquake avalanche-trapped victims through
rubble, has been designed. This system rubble.A series of experiments have been
operating at certain frequency can conducted to demonstrate the applicability
remotely detect the breathing and heartbeat of this microwave life detection system
signals of human beings buried under for rescue purposes.the automatic clutter
earthquake rubble. By proper processing of canceller may also have a potential
these signals, the status of the person under application in some CW radar systems.
trap can be easily judged. The entire
process takes place within a few seconds By advent of this system the world
as the system is controlled by a death rate may decrease to greater extent
microprocessor (8085) or microcontroller as large percentage of death occur due to
unit. earthquake. We welcome and wish you to
a safe journey of this paper.
INTRODUCTION: frequency [L (or) S band (or) UHF band] is

At present as we all know the need of aimed at a portion of rubble (or) collapsed

the hour is to find an effective method for building under which a person has been

rescuing people buried under earthquake trapped, the microwave beam can penetrate

rubble or collapsed building. It has to be through the rubble to reach the person.

done before we experience another quake. So, if the reflected waves from

Present methods for searching and the immovable debris are cancelled and the

rescuing victims buried or tapped under reflected wave from the person’s body is

earthquake rubble are not effective. properly distinguished, the breathing and
heartbeat signals can be detected.
By proper processing of these
signals, the status of the person under trap
can be easily judged. Thus a person under
debris can be identified.
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF
THE CIRCUIT:
The microwave life detection system
Taking all the factors in has four major components. They are
mind, a system, which will be really  A microwave circuit which
effective to solve the proble m, has been generates, amplifies and distributes
designed. microwave signals to different
When the microwave beam microwave components.
focuses the person, the reflected wave  A microwave controlled clutter
from the person’s body will be modulated cancellation system, which c reates
(or) changed by his/her movements, which an optimal signal to cancel the
include breathing and heartbeat. clutter from the rubble.
Simultaneously, reflected waves are a lso  A dual antenna system, which
received from the collapsed structures consists of two antennas, energized
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION: sequentially.
The basic principle is that
when a microwave beam of certain
 A laptop computer which controls Directional coupler 2 (3 dB):
the microprocessor and acts as the One output of the 3 dB directional
monitor for the output signal. coupler 2 (20mW) drives the clutter
WORKING FREQUENCY: cancellation unit. Other output (20mW)

The frequency of the microwave falls serves as a local reference signal fo r the

under two categories, depending on the double balanced mixer.

type and nature of the collapsed building. Antenna system:


They are The dual antenna system has two

 L (or) S band frequency say antennas, which are energized sequentially

1150 MHz by an electronic switch. Each antenna acts

 UHF band frequency say 450 separately.

MHz Clutter cancellation system:

Let us see the advantages and The clutter cancellation unit consists of

disadvantages of both the systems later.  A digitally controlled phase shifter


 A fixed attenuator
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:
 A RF amplifier
The circuit description is as follows:
 A digitally controlled attenuator.
Phase locked oscillator:
The phase locked oscillator generates
WORKING:
a very stable electromagnetic wave say Clutter cancellation of the received

1150 MHz with output power say 400mW. signal:

Directional coupler 1 (10 dB):  The wave radiated by the antenna I

This wave is then fed through a 10 dB penetrates the earthquake rubble to

directional coupler and a circulator before reach the buried person.

reaching a radio frequency switch, which  The reflected wave received by the

energizes the dual antenna system. Also, antenna 2 consists of a large

the ten dB directional coupler branches out reflected wave from the rubble and

one-tenth of the wave (40mW) which is a small-reflected wave from the

then divided equally by a directional person’s body.

coupler 2 (3 dB).
 The large clutter from the rubble  When the settings of the digitally
can be cancelled by a clutter - controlled phase shifter and the
canceling signal. attenuator are swept the
 The small reflected wave from the microprocessor control system, the
person’s body couldn’t be output of the microwave detector
cancelled by a pure sinusoidal varies accordingly.
canceling because his/her Demodulation of the clutter cancelled
movements modulate it. signal:
 The output of the clutter  At the double balanced mixer, the
cancellation circuit is automatically amplified signal of the reflected
adjusted to be of equal amplitude wave from the person’s body is
and opposite phase as that of the mixed with the local reference
clutter from the rubble. signal.
 Thus, when the output of the clutter  The phase of the local reference
cancellation circuit is combined signal is controlled by another
with the directional coupler 3 (3 digitally controlled phase shifter 2
dB), the large clutter from the for an optimal output from the
rubble is completely cancelled. mixer.
 Now, the output of the directional  The output of the mixer consists of
coupler 3 (3 dB) is passed through the breathing and heartbeat signals
a directional coupler 4 (6 dB). of the human plus some avoidable
 One-fourth of the output directed is noise.
amplified by a RF pre-amplifier  This output is fed through a low
and then mixed with a local frequency amplifier and a band
reference signal in a double pass filter (0.4 Hz) before displayed
balanced mixer. on the monitor.
 Three-fourth of the output is  The function of the digitally
directed by a microwave detector to controlled phase shifter 2 is to
provide dc output, which serves as control the phase of the local
the indicator for the degree of the reference signal for the purpose of
clutter cancellation. increasing the system sensitivity.
 The reflected signal from the microwave attenuator) in the
person’s body after amplification microwave system.through port 1
by the pre-amplifier is mixed with the microprocessor controls the
the local reference signal in a phase-shifter (or the attenuator) to
double balanced mixer. cancel the clutter signal
MICROPROCESSOR automatically.

CONTROL UNIT:  Port 2 of the microprocessor and


the output bus of an A/D converter
There are two identical sets of
are connected to a latch. The clutter
microprocessor circuits in the control unit
signal is sampled by the A/D
for manipulating the pr ogrammable
converter.the latch keeps the output
attenuator and phase-shifter, respectively
data of the sampled clutter s ignal
the description of the microprocessor
from the A/D converter until the
circuit is as follows.
data are fetched to port 2 of the
 A microprocessor is the central
microprocessor
processor in each set. Port 0 of the
The program stored in the EPROM is
microprocessor is connected to a
executed in the micro processor to search
LATCH and an EPROM where the
for the optimal settings of the
program is stored.When the
programmable attenuator and phase -shifter
microprocessor sends memory
to completely cancel the clutter.the
addresses from port 0 to the
algorithm of the program scans the entire
EPROM through the latch, the latch
ranges of the attenuator and the phase -
keeps address information until the
shifter. And then the program determines
EPROM sends memory data to the
the optimal settings by detecting the
microprocessor.
minimum clutter signals sent to the
 Port 1 of the microprocessor is
microprocessor control unit .the pr ogram
connected to the programmable
executing time is less than a millisecond.
microwave phase shifter (or the
ADVANTAGES OF UHF BAND 1. The location of the person

FREQUENCY SYSTEM: under the rubble can be know n


by calculating the time lapse
Microwaves of UHF band frequency can
2. Since it will not be possible to
penetrate deeper in rubble (without
continuously watch the system
metallic mesh) than that of L (or) S band
under critical situations, an
frequency waves.
alarm system has been set, so
ADVANTAGES OF L (OR) S
that whenever the laptop
BAND FREQUENCY SYSTEM:
computer system processes the
Microwaves of L (or) S
received signal and identifies
band frequency can penetrate the rubble
that there is a human being, the
with metallic mesh easier than that of UHF
alarm sound starts.
band frequency waves.
3. Also under critical situations,
where living beings other than
FREQUENCY RANGE OF
humans are not required to b e
BREATHING AND HEARTBEAT
found out, the system can detect
SIGNAL:
the signals of other living
The frequency range of heartbeat
beings based on the frequency
and breathing signals of human beings lies
of the breathing and heartbeat
between 0.2 and 3 Hz.
signals.

HIGHLIGHTS:
between the sending time, Ts
and receiving time, Tr.

CONCLUSION:
Thus a new sensitive life detecti on system using microwave radiation for
locating human beings buried under earthquake rubble (or) hidden behind various barriers has
been designed. This system operating either at L (or) S band, UHF band can detect the
breathing and heartbeat signals of hu man beings buried under earthquake rubble.

REFERENCES:

 www.wikipedia.com
 www.google.com