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BC 4000: It is considered that both Proto Australoid and Negrito race inhabited the land at that period.
Early inhabitants of the recent trivandrum belonged to the last phase of Middle Stone Age.

BC 700: The migration of Dravidians.

BC 300: The Aryans migrated from north India.

BC 250 - AD 250: Ay Tamil Kingdom believed to be started their rule from early sangam period to 10th
century. Their rule extended from Tiruvalla to Nagercoil including present day trivandrum. Their capital
was at Aykudi, Podiyil Malai (Near to Shenkottai) and then they shifted it to Vizhinjam. The major Ay
rulers during Sangam Period include Ay Antiran, Titiyan and Atigan.

AD 216 - 428: According to Keralolpathy, the period up to AD 216 is called as ‘Parasurama’ period. Kerala
is believed to have originated by the withdrawal of sea, when Parasurama threw his axe from Gokarnam
to Kanyakumari. Parasurama divided Kerala into 64 villages and donated them to Brahmins.

AD 250 - AD 925: Post Sangam age, the Ay rulers are Ay Sadayan (till AD 788), Karunandan (AD 788-857),
Karunandadakkan (AD 857-885) who was the founder of famous Kandalur Salai and the Vikramaditya
Varaguna (885-925). By the 10th century, Ays lost their territories to Cheras.

AD 800 - 1100: Rule of Kulashekhara Kings

AD 800 - 820: Kulasekara Azhwar who was the founder of Later Chera Dynasty in southern India and also
was the first king of this dynasty who ruled from AD 800 to AD 820.

AD 825: Kolla Varsham started which is also known in the name of Quilon Calendar is the current
Malayalam Calendar system. It was introduced in 25th July 825 AD. The Quilon city was recreated by
Maruvan Sabareso and it included the regions of present day Thiruvananthapuram and got the name
AD 851: The arrival of Persian Traveller, Sulaiman in Kerala. There onwards, Kollam is considered as the
major harbor in South India.

AD 880: Chera Army invaded the Mooshaka kingdom. Retrieval of Pandyas.

AD 974: The Mampalli Plate of Sri Vallabhan Kotha of Venad is considered as the first known record
dated during the kollam era (149). It also becomes the earliest record in which the Panamkavil palace of
the venad kings known.

AD 988: Palya Shasanam of Vikramaditya Varaguna.

AD 1000: Raja Raja Cholan attacked Venad and they destroyed Kandalur Salai.

AD 1019: Rajendra Cholan attacked Venad.

AD 1044: Rajendra Cholan invaded Vizhinjam

AD 1070: Freedom from Cholas.

AD 1292: An Italian (Venice) named Marco Polo visited kollam and other places of kerala and recorded.

AD 1324: Friar Jordanus from severic reached kollam for spreading missionary thoughts. He wrote the
famous book, Mirabilia Descripta. He was the first foreign writer to mention about the
Marumakkathayam system of Kerala.

AD 1644: The English men (British) builded a trading place in Vizhinjam.

AD 1677 - 1684: The first women ruler of Venad, Umayamma Rani Period.
AD 1684: Attingal Rani given the Permission to British to build a fort at Anjuthengu.

AD 1695: The construction of Anjuthengu Fort completed.

AD 1696: Kerala Varma abolished several hateful customs known as Pulappedi, Mannapedi etc. in 1696.
In the same year some landlords and the Ettara Yogam members assassinated him.

AD 1721: Attingal Outbreak (Anjengo Revolt) is the first organized revolt against English. The revolt that
happened in 1721 April 21st saw the massacre of 140 East India Company officers by native Indians.

AD 1723: A treaty between Travancore and British. Marthanda Varma got title of "Prince of
Neyyatinkara" in 1723.

AD 1729: Emergence of modern Travancore. Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma became the ruler of
Travancore with Padmanabhapuram as capital. He defeated several small kingdoms and merged with
Travancore. So he is called as the founder of Travancore.

AD 1731: Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple was rebuilt by Marthanda Varma.

AD 1739: The Preparation of land records (Ozhuku) was first done by Mallan Sankaran upon instruction
from Marthanda Varma. It consists of survey number, name and area of assets. The division of lands was
done under the chief heads of Devaswom, Brahmaswom, Danam and Pandaravaka. Every landowner
was given a patta stating the tax charged on each piece of land.

AD 1741: Marthanda Varma defeated Dutch in Colachel War. It was first time that a European force
defeated against a king in Asian continent. Marthanda Varma joined the best militants from Dutch in his
troop and had rearranged his army in European model. He also appointed Dutch Commander Delanoy as
the captain in his highness service.

AD 1742: Marthanda Varma merged Ilayidathu Swaroopam (Kottarakara) with Travancore.

AD 1746: Marthanda Varma invaded Kayamkulam.

AD 1749: Marthanda Varma merged thekkumkoor with Travancore.

AD 1750: Thrippadi Danam of Marthanda Varma. He donated his entire kingdom to Lord Sree
Padmanabha through Thrippadi Danam. Thus he got the name of Sree Padmanabha Dasan. In the same
year, he invaded Vadakkumkoor.

AD 1753: An agreement between Travancore and Dutch took place in Mavelikkara.

AD 1758: Dharma Raja Karthika Thirunal Ramavarma succeeded to the throne of Travancore following
the death of Marthanda Varma in 1758. Upon attack of Tipu in Malabar region, Ramavarma gave shelter
to the people fled from Malabar to South Kerala. Thus he got the name “Dharma Raja”.

AD 1758: Hyder Ali attacked South Kerala.

AD 1789: Tipu Sultan attacked the Nedumkotta which is the north of Travancore.

AD 1789: Raja Keshavadas become dewan of Travancore. He changed the title, from dalawa to dewan.
He is also the first man to get the title “dewan”. He also got the title Rajah from British Governor
Mornington, in pleasure of his talents. In return, he also added Dasan to his name to become Raja
Keshavadas. He is the chief architect of Alappuzha Harbour Town and also taken steps to built Chala
Market in Trivandrum.

AD 1795: Travancore accepted the British Supremacy. The British entered the administration of the state
under the rule of Dharma Raja.

AD 1798: Dharma Raja died in the age of 74, after a long reign of 40 years from 1758 to 1798.

AD 1798: Avittom Thirunal Balarama Varma succeeded to the Throne of Travancore after the demise of
Dharma Raja.

AD 1799: Raja Keshavadas died. The name of popular place in Trivandrum, “Keshavadasapuram” was
named after him.
AD 1800: Colonel Macaulay became the resident for Travancore and Cochin under British East India
Company from 1800 to 1810 and involved in the matter of an attack by Chempil Arayan.

AD 1802: Veluthampi Dalawa became Dalawa of Travancore.

AD 1809: Kundara Proclamation (January 11, 1809).

AD 1809: Velu Thampi suicided by cutting his throat died in the Mannadi Temple of Pathanamthitta.

AD 1810: Gouri Lakshmi Bai succeeded to the throne of Travancore.

AD 1810: Colonel John Munro becomes the resident of both Kochi & Travancore. He played an
important role in administration of justice that take place in both Kochi & Travancore under the rule of
Gouri Lakshmi Bai and Gouri Parvati Bai. He also takes step to start Secretariat administration in

AD 1812: Slave trade was abolished in Travancore by Rani Gauri Lekshmi Bhai.

AD 1815: Rani Gouri Parvati Bai succeeded to the throne of Travancore.

AD 1817: Primary education made compulsory by Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bhai.

AD 1829: Swathi Thirunal succeeded to the throne of Travancore. Maharani Lakshmi Bai was the mother
of Swathi. He was declared as next ruler, much before Laksmi Bai got pregnant to give birth to Swathi.
Thus he got the title of “Garbha Shriman''.

AD 1830: Hazoor Kacheri shifted from Kollam to Kottakakam in Trivandrum.

AD 1831: First Census was conducted in Travancore

AD 1834: First English School built by Swathi Thirunal in Thiruvananthapuram.

AD 1834: First Kaneshumari in Travancore.

AD 1836: Star Bungalow in Thiruvananthapuram.

AD 1846: Swathi Thirunal Died. His ruling period is called as the Golden Period of Travancore.

AD 1853: The slaves are released in Travancore.

AD 1853: Chattampi Swamikal born in Kannamoola of Trivandrum. His original name was Kunjan Pillai.

AD 1855: Birth of Sree Narayana Guru at Chempazhanthi.

AD 1858: Sir T Madhava Rao becomes the Dewan of Travancore. He is one among the best dewan of
Travancore. It was during his period, the current Secretariat of Kerala was built.

AD 1861: Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma succeded to the throne of Travancore.

AD 1863: Ayyankali, the social reformer born in 1863 in Venganoor, Trivandrum.

AD 1864: The first Government Hospital of Kerala established in Trivandrum (Thiruvanathapuram Civil
Hospital - General Hospital) during the region of Ayilyam Thirunal.

AD 1865: Pandara Pattam Proclamation

AD 1866: Ayyankali born at Venganur

AD 1866: The English School built by Swathi Thirunal in 1834 changed into a University. That University is
called as Today’s University College in Trivandrum.
AD 1869: The inauguration of new Secretariat in Trivandrum. William Barton designed and built the new
Secretariat, who was the chief engineer of Travancore. It was built based on Roman Architecture. Later
it became the administration center of Thiru – Kochi and then for whole Kerala.

AD 1874: For the first time, Government Law College in Trivandrum established.

AD 1877: The construction of main central road completed. The path extended from Trivandrum to
Angamaly is now known in the name of State Highway Number 1.

AD 1880: Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma become the king of Travancore. The cultivation of tapioca
cultivation started.

AD 1883: Land Survey in Travancore Started.

AD 1885: Sree Moolam Thirunal Maharaja succeeded to the throne of Travancore (1885 - 1924).

AD 1887: Sri Narayana Guru founded Siva temple at Aruvippuram.

AD 1888: The Travancore Legislative Council was established in the year 1888 with Dewan T. Rama Rao
in the chair of meeting.

AD 1888: In February 1888, Sree Narayana Guru installed a rock from the Neyyar River as Shivalinga at
Aruvippuram. Brahmins argued it by citing the condition that only Brahmins can do that. In reply to this,
Guru said that he installed an Ezhava Shiva. This incident is also termed as Aruvippuram Revolt.

AD 1889: The First Ayurveda College of Kerala was started by Sree Moolam Thirunal in the name of
Ayurvedic Patasala (Kashayappura).

AD 1891: Malayali Memorial Agitation. According to that Agitation, a memorandum presented by a

group of citizens under the leadership of GP Pillai and KP Shankara Menon to Maharaja Sree Moolam
Thirunal on January 1, 1891. It was signed by more than 10,028 citizens which includes all castes and
religions. It demands Sri Moolam Thirunal to secure government jobs for educated people in
Travancore. At that time, most jobs were in the hands of Tamil Brahmins.It is the first recorded political
movement in Travancore and Cochin.

AD 1896: Ezhava Memorial under the leadership of Dr Palpu is a group memorandum signed by 13,176
Hindu Ezhava community members. It is also similar to Malayali Memorial which was submitted to King
of Travancore demanding the Government to allow government jobs for educated people of Ezhava
Community in Travancore.

AD 1896: The Janmi Kudiyan Regulation Act in Travancore providing security of tenure to the tenants of
private lands.

AD 1900: The visit of British Viceroy, Lord Curzon in Travancore and is also the first viceroy to visit
Travancore. Curzon mentioned Alappuzha as “The Venice of East”.

AD 1900: Due to the rejection of Ezhava Memorial by Travancore Government in 1896, they once again
submitted the memorial to Lord Curzon in 1990. It is known in the name of “Ezhava Memorial in 1990”.

AD 1901: K Ramakrishna Pillai, Started the magazine “Kerala Panchika” in Trivandrum.

AD 1903: Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam was registered in May 15, 1903 for the progression
of Ezhava Community under the leadership of Sree Narayana Guru (President) and the secretary,
Kumaran Aasan (upto 1919). The formation of SNDP Yogam led to the formation of Sadhujajna Pariplana
Yogam, Pulaya Samudhaya Parishkarana Sabha, Valasevasamithi, Dheevara sabha,Yogashema sabha and
the Nair Service Society.

AD 1904: Sree Moolam Popular Assembly (Praja Sabha) started, the first legislative assembly among
princely stated in India established in Travancore.

AD 1904: First Railway in Travancore between Thirunelveli and Kollam.

AD 1904: The bi-monthly magazine of SNDP, Vivekodayam started in Trivandrum with Kumaran Aasan as
AD 1905: Vakkom Muhammed Abdul Khadir Moulavi started Swadeshabhimani Newspaper near
Anjuthengu of Thiruvananathapuram District. Chirayinkeezhu CP Govinda Pillai is the first Editor of

AD 1905: Ayyankali started a school to teach Dalit children at Venganoor. It is also the first school in
kerala built for the welfare of children of Dalit people.

AD 1906: K Ramakrishna Pillai becomes the editor of Swadeshabhimani.

AD 1906: Raja Ravi Varma (1848 – 1906), great painter Died.

AD 1907: Ayyankali founded the Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham in 1907, in Venganoor. In the same year
Brahmananda Swami Sivayogi founded the Ananda Maha Sabha and C Krishna Pillai initiated the
Smastha Kerala Nair Samajam.

AD 1909: The first farmer group strike in kerala was first organized in Venganoor by Ayyankali.

AD 1909: The old manuscripts containing 11 Bhasa plays written in Bhasa Sanskrit by T Ganapati Shastry
was discovered from Manalikkara Matham in Munjira near Trivandrum.

AD 1910: Swadeshabhimani K Ramakrishna Pillai was deported in September 26, 1910. Ramakrishna
Pillai wrote the criticisms against P. Rajagopalachari, who was the then Diwan of Travancore and also
Maharaja in Swadeshabhimani. This forced the authorities to taking away the newspaper and deported
him from Travancore.

AD 1912: The Malayalam edition of life of Communist leader, Karl Marx was published for the first time
in India by Swadeshabhimani K Ramakrishna Pillai.

AD 1912: Sree Sarada Pradishta in Sivagiri by Sree Narayana Guru.

AD 1915: Ooruttambalam Revolt (Nineteenth Century Revolt) under the leadership of Ayyankali. In the
same year, Kallumala Agitation occurred under the leadership of Ayyankali in Perinad of Kollam.
AD 1916: Swadeshabhimani K Ramakrishna Pillai died. He was deported from Travancore in 1910 and
after that he lives along with his wife in Madras, Palakkad and then settled in Kannur during his last
days. He wrote Vrithantha Pathra Pravarthanam in 1912, which is known as the first book on journalism
in Malayalam language.

AD 1918: CV Ramanpillai wrote his first edition of the novel “Ramaraja Bahadur” in 1918. He published
its second edition in 1919. His First novel is “Marthanda Varma” and his second novel is Dharma Raja.

AD 1919: Sambavar Sangam formed in Travancore

AD 1920: Congress committees of three regions, Travancore, Kochi and Malabar merged and formed the
Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC). T Madhavan Nair is the first secretary of the committee.

AD 1922: CV Raman Pillai died in March 21, 1922.

AD 1922: First Trade Union in Kerala, the Travancore Labor Association was formed.

AD 1922: Rabindranath Tagore visited Sree Narayana Guru in Sivagiri.

AD 1924: Samadhi of Chattambi Swamikal.

AD 1925: Mahatma Gandhi visited Kerala for the second time in March 8, 1924 in order to find a solution
for Vaikom Satyagraha. He also visited Sree Narayana Guru in Sivagiri.

AD 1926: In 1926, Sethu Lakshmi Bayi passed the Newspaper Regulation to control the abuse of press
with the introduction of license for them.

AD 1928: Sree Narayana Dharma Sangam was registered in January 9th. Sri Narayana Guru samadhi at
Sivagiri was also in the same year (September 20).

AD 1929: Under the presidency of Sir M Vishweshwaraya, Nattu Rajya Praja Sammelanam was held at
AD 1930: First silent film in Malayalam, Vigathakumaran (The Lost Child) released in 23rd October 1930
by the studio, Travancore National Pictures in Pattom. The film is directed by J. C. Daniel. JC Daniel and
PK Rosy are the actor and actresses.

AD 1930: P Subramoniyam started the first Movie Theatre “New Theatre” in Thiruvananthapuram.

AD 1932: Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore.

AD 1933: Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma becomes the first Maharaja of Travancore to travel in

AD 1935: The first Aeroplane service was started in kerala from Mumbai to Trivandrum.

AD 1936: Sir CP Ramaswami Iyer becomes the Dewan of Travancore.

AD 1936: Temple Entry Proclamation by Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma on the advice of Sir CP
Ramaswami Iyer (November 12), allowing the lower castes (untouchables) to enter temple.

AD 1937: Travancore University was founded.

AD 1939: Uttaravada Rule in Travancore started.

AD 1939: Rajadhani March in October 23rd under the leadership of Akkamma Cheriyan.

AD 1941: Ayyankali died.

AD 1943: The first Radio Station started in Thiruvananthapuram.

AD 1946: Diwan, CP Ramaswamy introduced "American model” administration in Travancore in January

AD 1947: In a press meet held in June 11, CP Ramaswami Iyer issued a statement citing that Travancore
would become independent following the Indian independence in August 15th. This statement led to
controversy. A general meeting was held by the public in pettah in July 13th and police fired the public.
A student named, Rajendran and 3 others were shot dead. After that Ramaswami Iyer resigned in 1947
following an unsuccessful murder attempt against him in July 25th.

AD 1948: First General Election in Travancore. The first ministry in Travancore; Pattom Thanu Pillai as
Chief Minister with TM Varghese and C Kesavan as Sub Ministers.

AD 1949: Thiru - Kochi came into existence in July 1, by merging both Travancore and Kochi. Travancore
King, Sree Chitra Thirunal became the head of the states (Raja Pramukhan). Parur TK Narayana Pillai
became the first chief minister and TM Varghese became the speaker of the newly formed Travancore-
Cochin state. AK John, Dr EK Madhavan and TE Abdhulla became the ministers of Travancore whereas
Ikkanda Warrior, K Ayyappan and Panampilly Govinda Menon became the ministers of Kochi.

AD 1951: C Kesavan became the prime minister of Thiru-Kochi in February 28.

AD 1952: AJ John became the first elected chief minister of Thiru Kochi. Consequent to the General
Election of December 1951.

AD 1954: Pattom Thanu Pillai won the General election from PSP Party supported by the congress, and
became the chief minister of Travancore- Cochin.

AD 1956: Malayalees long time wish happened with the merge of Malabar and Thiru-Kochi to form the
Kerala State in November 1st 1956.

AD 1957: Travancore University is re-named to Kerala University.

AD 1959: Colonel Goda Varma Raja introduced the second flying club of Kerala in January 7. He is
considered as the father of sports Kerala. The birth date of GV Raja, October 13 is considered as the
Kerala Sports Day.
AD 1963: Thumba Rocket Launching Centre established in October. In November 21, the first rocket was
launched weighing 715 kg with solid propellants; go up to a height of 208 km discharging sodium vapour
that lit up the sky.

AD 1963: Kizhanguvila Research Centre established in Trivandrum.

AD 1965: The first film society of Kerala ‘Chitralekha’ started in Thiruvananthapuram in July.

AD 1967: The first rocket built in India was launched in November from Thumba.

AD 1968: Thumba Rocket Launching Centre was taken by United Nations Organization (UNO) in February

AD 1968: Kerala Bhasha Institute in September 16 established in Nalanda Trivandrum. NV Krishna

Warrior was the first Director.

AD 1971: Actor Sathyan died in June 15. He is also the first winner of Kerala state award for best actor in

AD 1971: Dr Vikram Sarabhai, who is called as the father of Indian Space Science died in Kovalam.

AD 1972: The name of Thumba Rocket Launching Centre changed to Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
(VSSC) upon instruction from Space Commission of India in July 10.

AD 1973: Kerala Highway Research Institute established in Karyavattom, Trivandrum.

AD 1975: The first sports school in Kerala, GV Raja Sports School established in Trivandrum in August 11.

AD 1976: Chitranjali Film Studio under KSFDC inaugurated in August 12.

AD 1976: The inauguration of broad gauge railway track by Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi between
Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulam in August 13.

AD 1977: Morarji Desai inaugurated the Navel Study Centre in Vizhinjam in September 24.

AD 1978: The Aeroplane Service from Trivandrum to Dubai in January 31.

AD 1979: Inaugration of Thiruvananthapuram – Kanyakumari Railway line in April 16.

AD 1979: Inauguration of Trivandrum Railway Division in October 2.

AD 1980: Milma founded in February 21st.

AD 1982: Television Telecast from Thiruvananthapuram in August 15.

AD 1983: Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary came into existence in December 21

AD 1985: Malayalam Channel was telecasted from Thiruvananthapuram Doordarsha Kendra in January

AD 1991: Trivandrum Airport got the status of International Airport in January 2.

AD 1991: The first Techno Park in India was established in Kazhakuttom, Trivandrum in March 31.

AD 1991: Sree Chitra Thirunal Balarama Varma died in July 19. His final resting place is at Panchavadi.

AD 2003: Kerala’s first coast-Guard station is started at Vizhinjam.

AD 2003: Vellanadu Panchayat in Trivandrum becomes the country’s first fully computorised Panchayat.
AD 2004: Tsunami in December 26.

AD 2007: Child begging was abolished in Trivandrum. (January 28)

AD 2008: Indian President, Pratibha Patil inaugurated Niyamasabha Golden Jubilee Valedictory function
in April 30.