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Signals and Systems

System:- In general sense, a system is a group of objects that can interact harmoniously
.and that are combined in a manner intended to achieve a desired objective
.)A system may be a member (subsystem)of a larger system (
Signal:- A signal is an event that serves, or at least is capable, to start some action, i.e, it
can incite action. Within energy and power restrictions, we are particularly
interested in the concept of a signal and also in the response of a system to a given
.signal
.The diagram in fig. below illustrates the role of the signal

Signal System Response

Actually the system will sometimes only be known in terms of its response to given
.signals
An electrical signal may be either a voltage or a current waveform that we are
describing mathematically. Sinusoidal signals play a major role in the analysis of
communication systems. Such a signal f(t) may be represented as a function of
time t by the equation: F(t) = A cos (wt+ θ)
Where A is the amplitude, θ is the phase
and w is the rate of phase change or frequency of the sinusoid in
radians
.per second

. It may also be expressed as (f) in cycles per second (Hz), where w= 2π f


The principle of the Fourier methods of signal analysis is to breakup all signals into
.summations of Sinusoidal components
.The provides a description of a given signal in terms of sinusoidal frequencies
Classification of Signals
The most useful method of signal representation for any given situation depends upon
The type of signal being considered. A few of the classifications most useful to us are
.discussed here
:Random & Deterministic -1
:We are concerned with two broad signals, referred to
Random: A random signal is one about which there is some degree of uncertainty
.Before it actually occurs
Such a signal can be thought of as belonging to a collection of signals, each
of which is different. In other cases, future value of the signal may not be
Predictable even after observation of past values. An example of such a
Random signal is the output of a radio receiver when tuned off station as
It responds to noise arising from disturbances in the atmosphere and its
.Internal circuitry
A nonrandom, or deterministic: A signal is one a bout which there is no uncertainty
In its values. In almost all cases, an explicit mathematical expression can be
.Written for such a signal
∞ ˃ For example, the signal x(t) = Acosw0t -∞˂ t
.Where A and w0 are constants, is a familiar example of deterministic signal

:Periodic & non periodic(aperiodic)-2


Periodic: A periodic signal is one that repeats it self exactly after a fixed length of
time. Thus the signal f(t) is periodic if there is a number T such that
For all t f(t) f(t+T)
The smallest positive number T that satisfies above equation is called the
.Period. The period defines the duration of one complete cycle of f(t)
A periodic signal is a power signal if its energy per cycle is finite, and then
.The average power need only be calculated over one complete cycle
Non periodic or aperiodic: Any signal for which there is no value of T satisfying
.above equation is said to be non periodic or aperiodic
A borderline case between periodic and non periodic signals is that of
the "almost periodic signal". This latter type of signal is composed of the
.sum of two or more periodic signals having not period
F(t) = sint +sin√2 t
This function is "almost periodic" because each term on the right- hand
.Side is periodic, yet there is no period T in which f(t) exactly repeats itself
:Energy & Power Signals -3
An energy signal is a pulse-like signal that usually exists for only a finite
interval of time or, even if present for an infinite amount of time, at least
.has a major portion of its energy concentrated in a finite time interval
.for electrical systems, a signal is a voltage or a current
The instantaneous power dissipated by a voltage e(t)in a resistance R is
P = e(t) 2 / R ----- watts
And for a current i(t)
P = i(t) 2 . R ----- watts
In each instance the instantaneous power is proportional to the
squared magnitude of the signal. For a one-ohm resistance, these
equations assume the same form. Thus it is customary in signal analysis to
speak of the instantaneous power associated with a given signal f(t) as
2
P = f(t) ----- watts
,Even though the dimensions may not appear to be correct in Eq. above
the multiplication or division by an appropriate resistance is implied in
.this convention
Using this convention, the energy dissipated by the signal during a time
Interval (t1 ,t2) is
t2
E = ʃ f(t) 2 dt ------- joules
t1
We define an energy signal to be one for which Eq. above is finite even when
the time interval becomes infinite: i.e, when

∞ ˂ ------- ʃ f(t) 2 dt t2

t1
.Example of several energy signal are shown in Fig. below (Some energy signals)

t t
Rectangular pulse Pulsed sinusoid

:Analog & Digital Signals -4


Analog: A straight forward way of using electrical energy in
communications
Is to vary the flow of current with reference to time to produce a
meaningful pattern. Suppose that the voltage level varying with time
of Fig. below represents a quantity as electrical signal that is meaningful
.in some way to both transmitter and receiver
v
Information signal
t 0

,Digital: Digital signals have only two possible levels of voltage or current
making them simple for communication systems to process. The types
.of electrical signals of Fig. below are called digital signal
They have two different levels of voltage or current. When the signal is
at
The first level it is said to be ON or TRUE or a 1. When the signal is at
the
.Second level, it is said to be OFF or FALSE or a 0
or Dash or 1
Voltage V Dot or Long pulse
applied Shot pulse
t to line 1 0 1
0

Classification of Systems
Mathematically , a system is a rule used for assigning a function g(t) (the output) to a
function f(t) (the input) that is

g(t) = { f(t) }
,where { } is the rule. This rule could be in terms of an algebraic operation
a differential and/ or integral equation, etc. For two systems connected in
cascade, the output of the first system forms the input to the second, thus
forming a new overall system

g(t) = 2 { 1 [f(t)] } = { f(t) }


As in signal analysis, we find it convenient to classify systems by some of their
.basic properties. Those most useful to us are discussed below
: Linear & Nonlinear -1
If a system is linear then superposition applies; that is, if
g1(t) = { f(t)} , and g2(t) = { f(t)}
then { a1 f1(t) + a2 f2(t) } = a1 g1(t) + a2 g2(t)
where a1 , a2 are constants. A system is linear if it satisfies above Eq.; any system not
.meeting these requirements is nonlinear

:Time-Invariant or Time-Varying-2
A system is time-invariant if a time shift in the input results in a corresponding time shift in
the output so that
g(t-to) = { f(t-to) } for any to
The output of a time-invariant system depends on time differences and not on absolute
.values of time
Any system not meeting this requirement is said to be time –varying. A system may be linear
.yet time –varying and vice versa

:Realizable & Nonrealizable-3


A physically realizable system cannot have an output response before an arbitrary input
function is applied. Stated another way, the output of a physical system at t=to, namely, g(to)
must depend only on values of the input f(t) for t ≤ to. A system having this property is called
physically realizable or causal. Any system not meeting this requirement is said to be non-
.realizable or non causal
Noise Signal
The term noise is used customarily to designate unwanted waves that tend to disturb the
transmission and processing of signals in physical system, and over which we have
incomplete control. In practice, we find that there are many potential sources of noise in a
.communication system
The sources of noise may be External to the system(e.g, atmospheric noise, galactic noise,
man-made noise), or Internal to the system. The second category includes an important type
of noise that arises due to spontaneous fluctuations of current or voltage in electrical
.circuits
Noise may be classified according to type, source, effect, relation to the receiver. Here we
:classify noise into two groups
.EXTERNAL noise (outside receiver); INTERNAL noise (inside the receiver)

:External noise -1
The noise which is created outside the receiver or the system. It is difficult to treat external
noise and reduce it systematically. It include atmospheric, man-made; and extraterrestrial
.noise
-:a- Atmospheric noise(and space noise)
from Atmospheric noise is composed of undesired electrical impulses that originate
natural phenomena in the earth's atmosphere. The electrical discharges of lightning
are the major source of atmospheric noise. Lighting discharges generate frequencies
across the RF spectrum. However, the energy level of this disturbance is inversely
.proportional to its frequency. It is hardly a problem at frequencies above 20MHz
storms that occur geographically near a receiver will produce the greatest amount of
interference. The noise signals of lightning discharges may propagate over great
distances if conditions are also favorable for the propagation of radio signals over those
.distance
-:b- Man-made noise
A number of different types of equipment used in great numbers every day are sources
of radiation electrical energy. The ignition systems of automotive engines, fluorescent and
neon lighting systems, and certain types of electric motors are all sources of relatively
potent radiation energy. The frequencies of energy radiated by these sources are spread
randomly across most of the radio-frequency spectrum. The radiation impulses enter
communications systems and produce undesired currents. Thus we have man-made
.noise
-:c- Space noise
Space noise is a classification representing the electrical signals that originate in the
universe beyond the earth's atmosphere. The sun and the other stars are huge masses of
ionized gases. By definition, the electrons and ions of such gases are in motion. Such
.motion represents electrical currents, current that can produce radio-frequency emission
,These emission propagate in all directions and some of them reach the earth. However
only those whose frequencies are above 8MHz are able to penetrate the ionosphere and
.reach the earth's surface
.i-Emissions that originate from the sun are called SOLAR noise
.ii-All other noise from space is called COSMIC noise (from stars)
:Internal noise -2
Unintended and undesired voltages and currents arise in circuits for several different
Reasons. It is created by any of the active or passive elements inside the receiver or
.system
Generally it is random so it is impossible to treat it as individual signal but it is easy to
Describe it statistically. It is randomly distributed over the entire radio spectrum thus
.Random noise power is proportional to the bandwidth over which it is measured
:a- Thermal noise (or white or Johnson)
This noise is generated in the resistive component of any impedance. It is due to
.rapid and random motion of exited electrons because of temperature increasing
Thermal noise is also called Johnson noise or white noise. Thus, not only resistors
,but also capacitors, inductors, and even electronic devices such as tube, diodes
and transistor introduce thermal noise voltages into the circuits in which they
are connected. The frequencies of thermal noise signals are spread relatively
uniformly over the entire radio-frequency spectrum. This is analogous to the
.phenomenon of white light, which includes light of all wavelength(frequencies)
Hence thermal noise is also called white noise. As might be expected, thermal noise
,is related to the temperature of a conductor or component: the higher the temperature
the greater the noise. In fact, J.B.Johnson, a U.S. physicist, in 1928 was able to show a
precise relationship between the power in a thermal noise signal and the temperature of
the device in which it is produced
f Pn= KT∆ -------------
Where K = Boltzmann's constant = 1.38 * 10-23 J|oK
T = temperature of device(oK) [Absolute Te. = 273+Co]
.f = bandwidth over which the circuit will operate∆
The result in this formula, Pn, is in watts and is the maximum possible that can be
.generated by thermal noise for a given condition
This formula enables us to estimate the noise voltage that could be generated by a
component, in term of the resistance, R, of that component. Refer to Fig. shown
below, in which a thermal noise source is represented as a generator with voltage Vn, and
internal resistance R (the equivalent resistance of the circuit in which the noise is being
.generated)

) .FIG (

The generator is connected to a load RL. Maximum power will be transferred to the load
When R = RL . Thus
/R = Vn2/4R ---------------- P L= VL2/R = (Vn/2)2
Vn2= 4RPL :.

and hence Vn= √4KT∆f R volt (r.m.s)


The noise voltage, Vn, obtained in this way is an rms value because Eq. above is for
.Average noise power generated, not for an instantaneous peak value
If there are more than one resistor in series i.e R1 & R2
So Vntot=√ V2n1+ V2n2
4KT∆f Rtot where Rt = R1 + R2 √ =
For parallel noise resistors, the same procedure is done but the equivalent resistor for
.two parallel
If ∆f = 1 (unity bandwidth) so the noise is called spot noise and it is called frequency
.Independent
:b- Shot noise
Another type of noise that is generated within an electric circuit is called shot
,noise. Sources of shot noise are the electronic, devices themselves: electron tube
transistors, and semiconductor diodes. Shot noise gets its name from the fact that
when a shot noise current flows in a speaker coil producing sound, the sound is
,similar to that of lead shot falling on a drumhead or sheet of metal. This, in turn
.suggests that the noise signal is generated by a no uniform form flow of current

Signal- to –Noise Ratio(S/N)

,When the time comes to apply information a bout noise to actual electronics system
.Such as receivers, one basic concept in common use the signal -to- noise ratio(S/N)
Let us examine what the term means and how it is used. The signal-to-noise ratio(S/N
Ratio) at any given point in a system is obtained, as the title suggests, by dividing the
Signal power at that point by the noise power at the same point. That is
S/N = Signal power / Noise power
The result is a pure number; it has no units. Signal-to-noise ratio are often expressed in
:decibels
S/N (dB) = 10 log (signal power/noise signal)
assuming that both signal and noise voltages are measured or calculated across the (
same
.)resistance, as is usually the case
.The ratio is better designated the "signal-plus-noise-to-noise ratio'' [(S+N)/N ratio]
In practical work it is generally very difficult to measure a pure signal voltage. If a pure
Signal voltage and noise voltage can be measured or calculated, it is possible to
determine
.A pure S/N ratio; other wise, as is usually the case, an(S+N)/N ratio is what is determined
In most cases, as in Example the noise voltage is so small compared to the signal voltage as
to be negligible in the S+N sum. The result is that the S/N and (S+N)/N ratios are virtually
.identical, especially for practical purposes

Noise Figure (NF) (Noise Factor)

Noise Figure (NF) is a concept used to providing an answer to the question. Noise Figure
is a ratio of ratio: the ratio of the signal-to-noise at the input )or some times, noise factor(
of an electronic unit to the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of that unit. Thus
Noise Figure = (Input S/N)/(Output S/N)
The result for NF using this formula is a pure number. The ratio can also be expressed in
:decibels
NF(dB) = 10 log[(input S/N)/(output S/N)]
Input S/N(dB) – Output S/N (dB) =
,You will note that if an amplifier adds no noise, S/N at input and output will be the same
and NF = 1 OR 0dB.An NF of 1 or 0 dB characterizes an ideal amplifier and is not some thing
.that is found in actual devices

Exp.1:The input circuit of a high-gain RF amplifier has an equivalent resistance value of


1000Ω. The amplifier has an overall voltage gain of 1000 and a bout width of
200KHz. Estimate the maximum noise voltage amplitude at the input to the
.Amplifier due to thermal noise only when the operating temperature is 29 oC
.Sol
Vn= √4KT∆f R
Vn= √4×1.38×10-23× (29+273) × 200×103×1000 = √3.33×10-12
v 10-6 × 1.826 =
The implication of the estimate of 1.826.10-6 v in this example is that this
amplifier would not begin to be useful until the input information signal
.voltage is several time 1.826×10-6 v

Exp.2: The voltage across a receiver's speaker coil is 890 mV when the receiver is
adjusted for normal operation while receiving a station(hence the noise
.voltage) is 12 mV. Determine the S/N ratio in decibels
Sol. S/N = 20 log (signal voltage/noise voltage) = 20 log (890/12)
37.4 =
dB
Exp.3: An amplifier using a transistor with an NF = 4 dB has an input S/N of 40
.dB. Estimate the output S/N

Sol. Output S/N (dB) = Input S/N (dB) - NF


dB 36 = 4 – 40 =
Exp.4: An amplifier using a transistor with an NF = 4 dB has an output S/N ratio
.of 38dB. Estimate the input S/N ratio

Exp.5: The voltage across a receiver's speaker coil is 890 mV when the receiver is
adjusted for normal operation while receiving a station. The S/N ratio in
decibels is of 37.4 dB. Determine the voltage across the coil when the
.receiver is not receiving a station

The spectral density function[ Fourier Transform]


ʃ { F(w) } = f(t) 1/2π ʃ