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A Data Substation Communication System


Based on IEC61850 for Integrated Protection
X D Guo[1], J H He[1],L Yu[1], Z Q Bo[2], H Zhang[1]
[1] Beijing Jiaotong University, China [2] AREVA T&D Automation, UK

very large. Meanwhile, the digital data will be output by


Abstract—This paper designs a novel seamless merging units and exchanged by switches which are the
communication system in digital substation based on IEC61850. devices in process layer, then the data will be sent to the
The system will be used in the integrated protection. A structure integrated protection in bay level for being processed. In order
based on the concept of object-oriented hierarchical distributed
to reach the requirement for real-time and security, the data
design is firstly presented, and then the details of the
communication system realization are given. Based on the stream needs an efficient communication system as a platform
proposal, there are three levels within a digital substation: the for streaming in the digital substation[7].
station level, the bay level and the process level. The To abide by IEC 61850 about substation communication
communication system can provide a platform for data stream to network and system, the paper presents a structure based on
be upward from the process level to the station level. Meanwhile, the concept of object-oriented hierarchical distributed design[8-
the communication system will reach the requirement for 10]
. Meanwhile, this paper will also introduce the very
security, real-time and reliability. Finally, the application of
IEC61850 in the seamless communication system is introduced. important primary device: photoelectric mutual inductor, and
Index Terms—Digital Substation, Data Traffic System, introduce the communication part of IEC61850, and put
IEC61850, Integrated Protection emphasis on the differences between IEC61850-9-1 and
IEC61850-9-2 used in this data traffic system. Then a whole
I. INTRODUCTION plan of an experimental platform is given. In this platform, a
protection tester is used to generate fault signal to simulate the
I n recent years, with the dramatic growth in signal
processing power in relay platforms and the availability of
widespread communications schemes, more and more
power system fault. The very important thing is that the
protection tester must be able to packet the fault signal into
protection devices and communication schemes are used in a messages based on IEC61850-9-1 or IEC61850-9-2[11]. To
digital substation[1-2]. Especially new opportunities are abide by IEC61850, a message can contain several ASDU
provided to study the novel data traffic system of digital (Application Service Data Unit).
substation based on IEC61850[3-4].
The integrated protection which is a new concept for a II. THE DIGITAL SUBSTATION
digital substation integrates many protections into it, such as Along with the development of digital technology, the
line protection, transformer protection, busbar protection, application of photoelectric mutual inductors, smart switches,
etc[5]. It is different from conventional substation protection. monitoring primary devices online and network in the real-
The communication process for a digital substation has time system becomes more and more common. The research
achieved absolute digitization on which new means of and application of digital substation will entre the period of
integrated protection based. The new means are provided for practical project[12]. To the technology extent, the design
processing digital quantity. According to integrated protection, philosophy of digital substation is irrespective with voltage
different protection programs may require the same data or the grade. It is just a little more complex to consider the questions
processing consequence from other protection programs, so a about how to construct a high voltage grade digital substation.
large quantity of digital quantity will be exchanged[6]. Not According to the communication technology develops to an
only the raw data which is collected by the photoelectric extent, it is necessary that the digitization and networking to
mutual inductors, but also the communication between the replace the analog quantity transmission. The digital
process level and interval level, requires absolute digitization. substation will become the inevitable trend of substation
Since the analog quantity is transformed into digital quantity construction after the synthesis automation technology[13].
by primary devices, the quantity of the digital data has been
A. The Communication Structure of a Digital Substation
The digital substation makes the primary devices
This project is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China digitization based on the synthesis automation technology.
(506770033)
Xianda Guo is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Beijing
Then these primary devices switch-in the whole system of a
Jiaotong University, China. (e-mail:08121983@bjtu.edu.cn) digital substation through IEC61850. A digital substation
J H He, Le Yu, Hao Zhang are with the Department of Electrical consists of the station level, the bay level and the process level.
Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, China
Fig. 1 shows the structure. The station level consists of
Z Q Bo is with the AREVA T&D Automation, UK
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conventional back stage monitoring system and remote servers. C. Photoelectric Mutual Inductor
Station Photoelectric Mutual Inductors are the most important as
Level Monitor Computer A Monitor Computer B

Devices primary devices. The digitization of mutual inductors is the


foundation of digital substation. The conventional mutual
Bay Bay Level Switches A
Level
inductors expose a series of short comings, such as strict
Network Bay Level Switches B requirement for insulation, magnetic saturation, ferromagnetic
resonance, narrow dynamic range, narrow frequency range etc.
Bay
Level Protective and Monitoring Devices A
Bay Protective and Monitoring Devices B The implement theory of conventional mutual inductors is
Devices Level hardly to make a further development[19]. But the photoelectric
Process
Switches A Switches B
mutual inductors overcome the technology bottleneck from
Level
Network the root of implement theory. Furthermore, the digitization
Bay The The development of protection and automatic controlling devices
Merging Units other Merging Units other
Level A
Smart Cells A
bay level B bay Smart Cells B
level
reduces the secondary load, and provides prerequisite for the
Devices devices
devices
application of photoelectric mutual inductors[20].
Photoelectric Mutual Inductor A Photoelectric Mutual Inductor B
In accordance with the IEC60044-7 standard, photoelectric
Photoelectric Mutual Inductor

Primary
voltage mutual inductors adopt resistance voltage dividers,
Devices
Breakers
condenser dividers or optical apparatuses as the primary
converting components, and use the optical fibre transports
The bay level consists of measurement and control protection primary converting signal. According to IEC60044-8 standard,
Fig. 1 The communication structure of a digital substation photoelectric current mutual inductors adopt the Rogowski
devices, protection devices for low voltage grade busbar Roil, hall sensors, optical apparatus or conventional current
apparatuses, gauging devices and other protocol converting mutual inductors as the primary converting components, and
devices which switch-in the smart devices[14]. The devices of a use optical fibre transports the primary converting signal. The
single bay level contain high voltage distribution line photoelectric mutual inductors can output digital secondary
protection devices and gauging devices. The devices among signal and provide basic guarantee to digital substations[21].
several bay levels contain auto-switch-on protection devices
D. IEC61850 and Ethernet Used In a Digital Substation
and transformer protection devices. The process level devices
mainly contain photoelectric mutual inductors and smart cells In a substation automation system, devices from different
etc. Nowadays, the photoelectric mutual inductors use the generations are often incompatible because of technological
Rogowski coil and the current or voltage mutual inductors changes and replacement costs are high. IEC61850 may be the
which are supplied energy by laser to realize the digitization answer. IEC61850 is based on a common application model of
of mutual inductors, and are equipped with merging units[15]. substation automation function. It defines a set of standard
The process level devices have the function of self-detection interfaces are called logical nodes. In a power network,
and self-description, and support the IEC61850 process level busbars are called nodes because power flows between them.
protocol. The transmission medium adopts optical fibre According to IEC61850, data flow between the interfaces and
transmission. hence the term “node” is used. “Logical” signifies that the
interface is not a physical but rather a conceptual one[22].
B. Implement Scheme Fig. 2 shows the interface for input data, output data and
At the present stage, the development of digital substations configuration data of a general function. A function
has entered the period of practical program from theoretical communicates with another function through its logical node.
research. To satisfy the development of digital substations, the There are approximately 90 different logical nodes
implement scheme must realize the requirement for the standardised by the IEC.
forward looking technologies and the realizabilities[16]. With the logical nodes and data defined, the standard then
In accordance with the features of a digital substation, the details the communication services that can operate on the
implement scheme of a digital substation may contain three data. These services include get values, set values, transfer a
aspects: Firstly, the communication between the station level file and so on. These are abstract services and they must be
and the bay level; Secondly, the transmission of the sampled mapped to concrete and standard protocols with standardised
data; Lastly, the connection between the intelligent terminal of semantics. The first fully standardised protocol in IEC61850
switches and the bay level devices[17]. The communication is based on Ethernet[23], Transmission Control
between the station level and bay level is mainly reflected in Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Manufacturing
the protocol level, and there are IEC61850 and IEC61870-5- Message Specification (MMS).
103. All the sampled data is transported to abide by
IEC61850-9-1 which is the protocol on network mode. The
communication between the intelligent terminal of switches
and the bay level devices abides by the message protocol of
GOOSE, and abides by the network mode transmission[18].
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Because this redundant Ethernet is in a local area network


(LAN) and the switches will divide VLAN, so the Ethernet
protocol adopts
Fig. 3. An experimental platform for communication system in a digital

Integrated
Protection Server

Ethernet over
Optical

Fig. 2 Interface through which data of a function flows


Ethernet
The utilities expect ‘gateway-free’ access to all intelligent Ethernet Switch
GOOSE Switch
Switch
components of the digital substation system by means of the
commercially available tools and standard communication
Merging Merging Intelligent
protocols. These requirements demand a flexible bus at all Unit 1 Unit 2 Devices
levels. The use of Ethernet technology fulfils these
requirements and provides uniform access to the data
throughout the whole substation. Ethernet is the only system Input Analog
Breaker
whose present version is compatible with its original version
Protection Tester
invented in the 1970s[24].
The use of Ethernet communications for all the digital substation
substation functions allows for standard and simpler cabling in the IEEE802.1Q standard. It means that the messages should
comparison with the use of parallel communications. This is contain the information label of IEEE802.1Q. The label
an advantage in project execution, equipment installation and consists of TPID, user priority, canonical format indicator and
equipment testing. Ethernet is highly backward and forward VLAN ID. In the header of the messages, there are destination
compatible. For example, a 10Mbit per second network can address and source address[27]. Fig. 4 shows the analysis result
easily be integrated into a 100Mbit per second network, and a of capturing the messages from the redundant Ethernet. It
100Mbit per second network can be integrated into a 1Gbit indicates the message information such as the destination
per second network in the same manner[25]. Thus, the address and source address. Inside the red frame, it indicates
investment of the utility is safeguarded. the condition of sending messages. Inside the green frame, it
indicates the destination address and the source address.
III. THE SCHEME OF COMMUNICATION PLATFORM IN A SINGLE Different devices should use the different MAC address and
BAY LEVEL the same device can use different MAC address.
IEC 61850 does not make the use of the station bus or the
process bus mandatory. The number of buses is flexible. It is
not necessary to adopt the rigid three-layer structure (station
layer, interval layer and process layer). So Fig.3 shows a
scheme of combining the station layer and process layer.
This communication system adopts the scheme of
combining station level and process level. The protection
testers are used to simulate mutual inductors, and output the
sampled information in analog quantity. In the bay level,
merging units are directly connected to the protection testers.
A merging unit can receive the analog signal from a protection
tester and converts it into digital signal[26]. Meanwhile, the Fig. 4. The analysis result of capturing the messages from redundant Ethernet.
merging units also can package the digital signal in The integrated protection receives the messages contain
accordance with IEC61850-9-1 or IEC61850-9-2. Then the the sampled data information and distinguishes the redundant
merging units send these messages to the GOOSE network data through the protection program. Then the central server
switches through redundant Ethernet. This experimental deals with the messages and analyzes the APDU. The results
platform adopts the network switch made by RuggedCOM. It will be packaged in GOOSE protocol and sent back to the
has the function of QOS, priority, multicast, opening SNMP redundant Ethernet. The GOOSE network switches transport
service and so on. The most important is that it supports the the GOOSE message to different smart cells.
technology of GOOSE. The switches can use the messages to In this communication system, the selection between
make a networking deployment in accordance with IEC61850-9-1 and IEC61850-9-2 is another important thing
IEC61850-9-1 or IEC61850-9-2. Then send these packages to to be considered. At the beginning of the application of
the integrated protection through the redundant Ethernet.
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VI. BIOGRAPHIES
Xianda Guo received his BSc in 2008 in the Department of
Electrical engineering and Automation, Beijing Jiaotong
University. Presently, he is a master student in Beijing
Jiaotong University. His main research interests are Integrated
Protection and Digital Substation.

Jinghan He received her BSc in 1987 in TaiYuan University


of Technology, MSc in 1994 in the Department of Automation,
Tianjing University, China, respectively. Presently, she is
employed as the Associated Professor in Beijing JiaoTong
University, China. Her main research interests are Protective
Relaying, Fault distance measurement and Location in Power
System.

Hao Zhang obtained his B.Sc. degree from


BeijingJiaotongUniversity in 2006. And he worked in the
design and application of protection relays as a research
fellow, in AREVA Company U.K. in 2008. He is currently
working toward the Ph.D. degree in the School of Electrical
Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China. His
research interests are integrated power system protection and
substation communication.

Le Yu received his BSc in 2006 in the Department of


Electrical engineering and Automation, Beijing Jiaotong
University. Presently, he is working on his Ph.D. degree in the
same field in Beijing Jiaotong University. His main research
interests are Protective Relaying, Fault Distance Measurement
and Location in Power System and Traction System.

Zhiqian Bo received his BSc degree from the Northeastern


University, China in 1982 and PhD degree from The Queen's
University of Belfast, UK in 1988 respectively. Presently, he
is with AREVA T&D Automation & Information Business.