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(b) Z new (s) K m Zold (s) is achieved by impedance scaling the individual circuit

1 Km 1

elements by K m : Rnew K m Rold , , and Lnew s (K m Lold )s .

Cnew s Cold s Cold

s

Km

s2 Ê Ês Ê

(a) Zin (s) ÊÊ

___________________

Ês

2 © R. A. DeCarlo

s2 Ê Ês Ê

Zin,new (s) ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊÊÊ Zold (s)

___________________

Ês

Vout (s)

H (s)

Vin (s)

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ__________________________________

Vout (s)

H new (s) H old (s)

Vin (s) ________________________________

3 © R. A. DeCarlo

s

1. (a) Frequency scaling by a factor K f : s .

Kf

s

2. s achieved by frequency scaling each of the circuit elements:

Kf

1

(a) If ZC (s) then frequency scaling by K f means:

Cs

s

ZC ,new (s) ZC ,old implies Cnew _________ Cold .

Kf

s

Z L,new (s) Z L,old implies Lnew _________ Lold .

f

K

s

Z R,new (s) Z R,old means Rnew _________ Rold .

f

K

4 © R. A. DeCarlo

s2 Ê Ês Ê

(a) Zin (s) ÊÊ

___________________

Ês

(b) Frequency scale each circuit element by K f . Then using the frequency scaled

2

s s

s Ê

2

Ês Ê Ê Ê Ê

ÊÊÊÊ ÊÊÊÊ

Zin (s) ÊÊ ÊÊ

s

Ês Ê

ÊÊÊÊ

Vout (s)

H (s)

Vin (s)

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ__________________________________

5 © R. A. DeCarlo

Vout (s)

H new (s)

Vin (s)

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ________________________________

s

(e) With frequency scaling by s

Kf

s

H new (s) H old

Kf

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ________________________________

SHOW THAT YOUR ANSWERS TO (d) AND (e) ARE THE SAME.

6 © R. A. DeCarlo

1

1. If ZC (s) then frequency scaling by K f and magnitude scaling by K m means

Cs

that Cnew _________ Cold .

_______________

7 © R. A. DeCarlo

TEST YOURSELF:

In the left hand column below there is an approximate gain magnitude response

associated with a transfer function H(s). In the right hand columns there is a new gain

magnitude response whose transfer function is related to H(s) by scalaing. Properly label

the horizontal axis of the graph on the right.

(a)

(b)

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