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English Teaching Techniques

1. The Grammar Translation Method is a way of studying a language that


approaches the language, first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules,
followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and
texts into and out of the target language.
The principal characteristics of the Grammar-Translation Method were these:
a. The goal of foreign study is to learn a language in order to read its literature or in
order to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that
result from foreign language study.
b. Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid
to speaking and listening.
c. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used, and words are
taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and memorization.
d. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the
lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of target language, and it
is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method.
e. Accuracy is emphasized.
f. Grammar is taught deductively – that is, by presentation and study of grammar
rules, which are then practiced through translation exercise.
g. The student’s native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain
new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the foreign language
and the student’s native language.

2. The Audio-Lingual Method owed its existence to the behaviourist models of


learning. Using the Stimulus-Response-reinforcement model, it attempted ,
through a continuous process of such positive reinfeorcement, to engender good
habits in language learners.
Audio-lingualism relied heavily on drills to form these habits; substitution was built
into these drills so that, in small steps, the student was constantly learning and,
moreover, was shielded from the possibility of making mistakes by the design of the
drill.

3. The Silent Way: one of the most notable features of the silent way is the
behaviour of the teacher who, rather than entering into conversation with the
students, says as little as possible.
In a classic silent way procedure, a teacher models sounds while pointing to a
phonemic chart – or to an arrangement of Cuisenaire rods. A student imitates the
teacher and the teacher indicates (silently) if he or she is correct. If not, another
student is prompted to help the first student. A third or fourth students is prompted if
necessary until a correct version of phoneme is produced. Later, students can point
to elements on the chart or arrange the Cuisenaire rods in such a way that they
have provided a stimulus for the language in the same way as the teacher did. They
and their colleagues have to work out what the correct language is.

4. Suggestopedia developed by Georgi Lazanov, suggestopedia sees the physical


surroundings and atmosphere of the classroom as of vital importance. By
ensuring that the students are comfortable, confident and relaxed, the affective
filter is lowered, thus enhancing learning.
A feature of suggestopedia is referredto as ‘infantilisation’; that is the teacher and
students exist in a parent-children relationship where, to remove barriers to
learning, students are given a different names from their outside real ones.
Traumatic themes are avoided, and the sympathy with which the tacher treats the
students is vitally important. A suggestopaedic lesson has three main parts. There
is an oral review section in which previously learnt material is used for discussion.
This is followed by the presentation and discussion of new dialogue material and its
native language equivalent. Finally, in the ‘séance’ or ‘concert’ session, students
listen to relaxing music (slow movements from the baroque period at about sixty
beats per minute are preferred) while the teacher reads the new dialogue material in
a way which synchronises with the taped music.

5. Total Physical Response (TPR): the originator of TPR, James Asher, worked
from the premise that adult second language learning could have similar
developmental patterns to that of child language acquisition. If children learn
much of their language from speech directed at them in the form of commands to
perform actions, then adults will learn best in that way too. Accordingly, TPR
asks students to respond physically to the language they hear. Language
processing is thus matched with physical action.

6. The Direct Method: according to franke, a language could best be taught by


using it actively in the classroom. Rather than using analytical procedures that
focus on explanation of grammar rules in classroom teaching, teachers must
encourage direct and spontaneous use the foreign language in the classroom.
Learners would then be able to induce rules of grammar. The teacher replaced
the textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking began with systematic
attention to pronounciation. Known words could be used to teach new
vocabulary, using mime, demonstration, and pictures.
The principles and procedures of The direct method:
a. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
b. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
c. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression
organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and
students in small, intensive classes.
d. Grammar was taught inductively.
e. New teaching points were introduced orally.
f. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures;
abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
g. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
h. Correct pronounciation and grammar were emphasized.

7. Task-Based Learning. Instead of a language structure, in other words, students


are presented with a task they have to solve. One way of looking at TBL is to see
it as a kind of ‘deep-end’ strategy, or like a sort of PPP upside down. In other
words students are given a task to perform and only when the task has been
completed does the teacher discuss the language that was used, making
corrections and adjustments which the students’ performance of the task has
shown to desirable. However, as Willis herself makes clear, TBL is in fact
considerably more complicated than this. She suggests three basic stages: the
Pre-task, the Task cycle, and Language focus.

8. Community Language Learning: in the classic form of CLL students sit in a


circle. It is up to them to decide what they want to talk about. A counsellor or a
‘knower’ stands outside the circle. The knower provides or corrects target
language statements so that if, for instance, a student says something in their
own language, the knower can then give them the English equivalent for them
use.

9. The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): is a set of beliefs which


included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach, but also
a shift in emphasis in how to teach. The CLT have now become generalised
‘umbrella’ terms to describe learning sequences which aim to improve the
students’ ability to communicate, in stark contrast to teaching which is aimed
more at learning bits of language just because they exist and without focusing on
their use in communication. CLT has also included snatches of drilling and
focussed language work despite the non-communicative nature of such activities.

10. Cooperative Language Learning is an approach to teaching that makes


maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of
learners in the classroom. It has been defined as follow: cooperative learning is
group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the
socialitystructured exchange of information between learners in groups and in
which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is
motivated to increase the learning of others. Johnson describe three types of
cooperative learning groups: formal cooperative learning groups, informal
cooperative learning groups, and cooperative based group.
The elements of successful group-based learning in CL: positive interdependence,
group formation, individual accountability, social skills, structuring and structures.
Teacher roles: take your existing lessons, curriculum, and sources and structure
them cooperatively; tailor cooperative learning lessons to your unique instructional
needs, circumstances, curricula, subject areas, and students; diagnose the
problems some students may have in working together and intervene to increase
learning groups’ effectiveness.
Learner roles is a member of group who must work collaboratively on task with
other group members. Learners have to learn teamwork skills. Learners are also
directors of their own learning, which is viewed as a compilation of lifelong learning
skills.

11. Multiple Intelligences is a concept introduced by Howard Gardner. In his book


‘frames of mind’, he suggested that as human we do not posses a single
intelligence, but range of intelligencess. He listed eight of these:
a. Linguistic intelligence: the ability to use language in special and creative ways,
which is something lawyers, writers, editors, and interpreters are strong in.
learns best by saying, hearing and seeing words.
b. Logical/mathematical: the ability to think rationally, often found with doctors,
engineers, programmers, and scientist. Learnt best by categorising, classifying,
working with abstract patterns/relationship.
c. Spatial: the ability to form mental models of the world, something architects,
decorators, sculptors, and painters are good at. Learns best by visualizing,
dreaming, using the mind’s eye, working with colours and pictures.
d. Musical: a good ear for music, as is strong in singers and composers. Learns
best by rhythm, melody, music.
e. Bodily/kinesthetic: having a well-coordinated body, something found in
athletes,and craftspersons. Learns best by touching, moving, interacting with
space, processing knowledge through bodily sensations.
f. Interpersonal: the ability to be able to work well with people , which is strong in
salespeople, politicians, and teachers. Learns best by sharing, comparing,
relating, cooperating, interviewing.
g. Intrapersonal: the ability to understand oneself and apply one’s talent
successfully, which leads to happy and well-adjusted people in all areas of life.
Learns best by working alone, individualised projects, self-paced instruction,
having own space.
h. Naturalist: the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature.
The sequence consist of four stages:
1. Awaken the intelligence, through multisensory experiences – touching, smelling,
tasting, seeing, and so on.
2. Amplify the intelligence, students strengthen and improve the intelligence by
volunteering objects and events of their own choosing and defining with others the
properties and contexts of experience of these objects and events.
3. Teach with/for the intelligence, at this stage the intelligence is linked to the focus
of the class, that is, to some aspect of language learning.
4. Transfer of the intelligence, students reflect on the learning experiences of the
previous three stages and relate these issues and challenges in the out-of-class
world.

12. Content-Based Instruction is the teaching of content or information in the


language being learned with little or no direct or explicit effort to teach the
language itself separately from the content being taught. CBI is grounded on the
following two central principles:
1. People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language
as a means of acquiring information, rather than as an end in itself.
2. CBI better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language.
Stryker and Leaver suggest the following essential skills for any CBI instructor:
1. Varying the format of classroom instruction;
2. Using group work and team-building techniques;
3. Organizing jigsaw reading arrangements;
4. Defining the background knowledge and language skills required for student
success;
5. Helping students develop coping strategies;
6. Using process approaches to writing;
7. Using appropriate error correction techniques;
8. Developing and maintaining high levels of students esteem.