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Important scientists:

Period - Name - Famous for

Jabir Ibn Hayyan

Al Kindi - Philosopher of the Arabs

Al Khawarizmi: Hisab al Jabr wal muqabala

Al Jaffer

Al Razi

Al Battani - Astronomer

Ibn Sina - Al Qanun fit Tibb

Omar al Khayyan - Poetry

Ibn al Haytham - Optics

Fatima majritiyya - Female 

Az Zahrawi

Ibn Rushd

Hunayn ibn Ishaaq

Ibn Shater

Al Biruni

At Tusi

Remember that you do not need to know their full names or their date of birth. The factors
that lead to the intellectual decline include the conflict between ulema and philosophers,
economical and political decay, and translation grinding to a halt.

Important dates:

750-1258 Abbasid Era

1258 - Fall of Baghdad

711 -- Start of Muslim Rule in Spain

756 -- Abd-al-Rahman gets power
1492 -- End of Muslim rule in Spain
1614 -- End of Muslim presence in Spain

1236 -- Fall of Cordoba

1492 -- Fall of Granada

1453 -- Istanbul established (Note: City was pre-existent under the name Constantinople)

1499 -- Baptism or Death (Phase III)

1609 -- Start Deportation

661 -- Foundation of Umayyad Caliphate.

This is the date of the Assasination of Ali Ibn Abi Talib at Kufa. He was succeeded by
Muawiyah I, who moved the Capital to damascus.

1031 -- Breakdown (End of Umayyad rule)

1171 -- Fatimids removed by Salah ad din al Ayyubid

1250s (Mid-13th century) - 1517 Mamluks

1281 -- Beginning of Ottomans

16th Century - 20th Century Ottomans

1798 -- Nahda (French invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte)

1801 -- French overthrown

1805 - 1848 Muhammad Ali (Nahda Proper)

He placed an emphasis on modernization. Economy, military, agriculture, etc flourished

under his rule. His vision was continued by his grandson Ismail Basha.

1822 -- Printing Press

1835 -- School of Language
1882 -- Start of British Occupation
1952 - End of British Occupation

Islamic Spain after the 13th Century.

You do not need to know the names of the rulers of the Christian or Muslim kingdoms.

The text explores the situation of the Muslims: how they became subject to Christrian laws
after being taken over.
Phase I -- Beginning
11th Century -- Phase II -- Kingdoms fall -- Era of Mudejars

Phase III -- Conversion to Moriscos

Ibn Khatib

Understand the alliances that were made -- especially how Muslims sided with Christians to
fight against other Muslims in the hope that they would be spared, or how they hired
mercenaries from their enemies.

Religo-Political Movements.

Shia -- First example of sectarianism -- 7th Century

Political Disagreement

Develop into Religious differences

The issue of the imamate splits the Shia into many, many subgroups.

Zaydiyya, also known as the Fivers, are still politically active and based primarily in Yemen.

Ismailiyya -- Fatimid Dynasty -- Indian Subcontinent

Imamiyya -- Twelvers -- Rest of the world

18th Century RELIGIOUS reform

Mohammad bin Abdal Wahhab

-Tawhid and Oneness of God
-Calls for Scholars to wake up instead of blindly imitating previous people
-Society has gone astray & introduced innovation.

Sufi faith & practice -- Prophetic personality

Asceticism -- Renouncing worldly pleasure

Mysticism -- All is not what it seems

At Umayyad time, reaction against their lavishness

Rabi al Adawiyya -- Love

Different Turq (Paths) -- Institutions -- 11th Century

Murshid - Guide
Murid - Follower

Sufi were also called Awliya, Darwish, Fuqara, Wool-wearers

1920s -- Hasan al Banna forms the Muslim Brotherhood, a political party in Egypt.

Arab Heritage & Arab History

The past can be divided into Good & Bad

The Nahda is the revival of what came before

Juri Zaydan -- Novel Pioneer.

Zainab 1913 by Hussain is considered the first proper novel.

Era b/w establishment of Arab states

Mamluks & their eras

- Ibn Battuta -- Traveler & Religious scholar -- ONLY source we have on some places in this
period, but also unreliable because 
 -- 30 years after his travels, he narrated it to Ibn Juzayd
-- Ibn Juzayd recorded and edited as Ibn Battuta spoke
-- Then, later, when this manuscript had to be printed, the printers made their own edits
-- Finally, when it had to be translated to English, the translators had to do their own edting

Ibn Khaldun is considered the Father of Sociology

Asadiyya is the concept of Group Solidarity.

Pilgrimage - religious duty to facilitate - Economic boost that made Sultan happy

Industrial revolution affected the economy because they couldn't compete

Ottoman art & architecture BIG, except in PERSIA.

Ilkhanids invaded baghdad

Jerusalem brings everyone together!

Al Azhar was established by the Fatimids

20s Indepence starts

70s All Arab states gain independence 
-- Except for Palestine. Sorry Palestine.
-- There's a lot of literature created about the pain their Palestinian brothers and sisters
have to endure but none of the Arabs actually do anything to help out as far as I can tell.

Suez Canal - 1869

Libya was conolized by Italy

British --> Economical and Political

French --> Linguistically & Culturally

Algeria --> First & longest colonization

Don't need to know exact dates.


Quiz 2 -- Arabic & Identity

What may constitute a boundary marker?

-- All of the mentioned options

Some boundary markers are geographically transportable


What the author of the text Arabic and Identity calls Boundary markers are the same as
what Yasser Suleiman calls symbols

The author believes that Arabic language learning will make him fully integrate into the
culture of the UAE

What is the exact word used in the text for communities that live outside their conventional

Yasser Sulieman discusses Identity in relation to groups of people. According to him those
groups are anchored in relation to
-- All the mentioned options

The author of the text, "Arabic and Identity" believes that boundary markers are not always
helpful in identifying one group and distinguishing it from another.

Boundary Markers are specific customs & behaviors a person adopts in relation to a
particular geographical location
-- True
Language identity is the manner in which a group of people characterize themselves
linguistically in relation to other people, other places, & other times.
-- True

According to the text Arabic & Identity a person who belongs to a certain religion or tribe is
not necessarily the same as everyone else in those groups
-- True

Quiz 2 -- Arabic Language

Classical Arabic remained the official and literary language till some time after 
-- The Capture of Baghdad by Hulagu in the 13th Century

Some of the challenges that face Arabic language are

-- All of the mentioned options

MSA means
-- Modern Standard Arabic

In the late 19th and 20th Centuries, some Arab & Non-Arab writers thought that
modernizing the Arab world requires
-- the use of colloquial Arabic instead of the standard.

Islam played a significant role in creating a unified form of Arabic


Which of the following is true about Arabic language

-- All of the mentioned options

MSA (Modern Standard Arabic) is used in formal settings, books, and media
-- True

According to the author, Arabic experienced a period of stagnation, roughly from the 14th to
19th century when non arab dynasties prevailed and other languages were used in
governmental administration. These languages include:
--Persian and Turkish

(Colloquial has been influenced by Persian and Turkish. MSA has been influenced by
English and French, while the Classical Arabic is from the Semitic Languages Syriac,
Hebrew, Aramaic, Phoenician, Babylonian which all have three consonant roots.)

Arabic has been subjected to the influence of foreign languages throughout its history

The Quran standardized Arabic by using a combination of different dialects that were
spoken by tribes that inhabited the Arabian peninsula. Yet, mainly the dialects of 
--Quraysh and Tameem
There's absolutely no doubt that the conservative religious scholar Al Ghazali was the
cause for a quick decline in Islamic science after the 11th Century

According to some Islamic civilization and science did not so much decline as simply get
overtaken by the rapidly rising European civilization and more importantly that this western
rise was almost entirely due to economic factors.

Women were not allowed to practice astronomy in andalucia


All scholars agree that the decline of scientific production in the Arabo-Islamic civilization
started in the 11th century

After the 14th century, the most important scientific contributions were in the field of

Some of the external factors that have been considered by some scholars to have greatly
contributed to the decline of sciences in Islam included
--All of the mentioned options

According to the author of the Article, Nidhal Guessoum, the reasons for the decline of
sciences in Islam are most probably 
--A combination of both internal and external factors

Major scientific works in Islam were produced during

-- 8th to 13th Centuries

(Note: Original answer was none of the above while my answer was 8th and 9th. She gave
me a mark because my reasoning made sense)

According to John Freely who was the first writer in any language to complain about
discrimination against women
--Ibn Rushd

Scholars unanimously agree on explaining the decline of sciences in Islam by indicating

external factors only

Quiz 4 -- Al Andalus

Taqiyya is the Hispano-Arabic dialect of Al-Andalus

(Note: Taqiyya is the notion of concealing your Islam during the Morisco phase. Al Majado
was the Hispano-Arabic dialect of Al-Andalus.)

For the Spanish Muslims of the 16th Century subject to persecution and oppression and
who are now unable to escape, the mufti indicated that they were allowed 
--All of the mentioned options

(Because they were being forced, drinking wine and eating pork in public became

Shortly after the conquest of Granada, the situation began to change radically everywhere
in the peninsula and a new attitude of anti-Islamic prejudice grew

The Muslims of the Iberian peninsula were finally expelled from all regions in the early
--17th Century

In the 16th Century, the region most densely populated by Moriscos was the region of

Moriscos is a term that refers to

--Crypto-Muslims or new Muslims scattered throughout the Iberian peninsula

The widespread internal discontent among Granada's Muslim population was because
--The tribute paid to Castilles by Granada had risen to three times the tribute paid by
Christian territories

The last Muslim King of Granada was

--Abu-Abdallah (AKA Boabdil)

At the beginning of the 16th Century Muslims were not allowed to move near the coastal
lands or emigrate from the Iberian Peninsula
--Because the Castillians were afraid that the Muslims might give crucial information to their
Berber or Ottoman Turkish counterparts.

The first Archbishop of Granada supported moderate policies in dealing with Muslims.
However, Cardinal Cincero of Toledo favoured rapid conversion to Christianity over
peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Christians

Quiz -- Ibn Khaldun

According to the reading Group solidarity, social solidarity is found only in groups with blood

Ibn Khaldun was

--All of the mentioned options

Ibn Khaldun claims that society is necessary to man because it serves as a survival

Ibn Khaldun explains that sovereignty is needed to keep men off of each other

According to the reading Group solidarity, man is social in nature and so human society is a
necessity. The reason for this is
-- All of the mentioned options

According to the reading Group solidarity, ties of kinship come up mostly clearly among the

 According to Ibn Khaldun, the ties of clientship are almost as powerful as those of blood

Quiz - Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta was a native of 


Upon visiting the Maldive Islands, Ibn Battuta found it strange that their ruler was a young

Some doubt has been expressed as to the reliability of many portions of Ibn Battuta's travel
(his rihlah), due to the fact that
--All of the mentioned options

Although Ibn Battuta is mainly known for his travels, his main profession was
--Religious law

Upon visiting the Maldive Islands, Ibn Battuta was impressed with
--All of the mentioned options

Upon visiting the Maldive Islands, Ibn Battuta described its women as true Muslims, sound
in their beliefs, pious, sincere in their thought, clean, and properly dressed according to
Islamic customs and dogma

Ibn Battuta dictated his memoirs after returning to Morocco 

--In the mid-13th Century