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COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector: CONSTRUCTION
Qualification Title: CARPENTRY NC III

Unit of Competency: Install Architectural Ceiling, Wall/ Sheats/ Panels and


Floor Finishes
Module Title: Installing Architectural Ceiling, Wall/ Sheats/ Panels and
Floor Finishes

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Jacobo Z. Gonzales


Memorial School of Arts and Trades San Antonio, Biñan City

Carpentry NC III Date Developed: Document No.


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HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED
LEARNING MATERIAL

Welcome to the module in Developing Competency-Based Learning


Materials. This module contains training materials and activities for you to
complete.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome
are Information Sheets, Self-Checks, Operation Sheets and Job Sheets.
Follow these activities on your own. If you have questions, don't hesitate to
ask your facilitator for assistance.
The goal of this course is the development of practical skills. To gain
these skills, you must learn basic concepts and terminology. For the most
part, you'll get this information from the Information Sheets and TESDA
Website, www.tesda.gov.ph
This module was prepared to help you achieve the required
competency, in "Developing Competency-Based Learning Materials".
This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge
and skills in this particular competency independently and at your own
pace, with minimum supervision or help from your instructor.
Remember to:
Work through all the information and complete the activities in each
section.
Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested
references are included to supplement the materials provided in this
module.
Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager.
He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do things.
You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice
on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work
shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and memory and also
your confidence.
Use the Self-checks, Operation Sheets or Job Sheets at the end of
each section to test your own progress.
When you feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask
your Trainer to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be
recorded in your Progress Chart and Accomplishment Chart.
You need to complete this module before developing the CBLM of the
Learning Outcomes assigned to you.
Carpentry NC III Date Developed: Document No.
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MODULE CONTENT

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : INSTALL ARCHITECTURAL CEILING,


WALL/ SHEATS/ PANELS AND
FLOOR FINISHES

MODULE TITLE :INSTALL ARCHITECTURAL CEILING,


WALL/ SHEATS/ PANELS AND
FLOOR FINISHES

MODULE DESCRIPTOR : This module covers the knowledge, skills and


attitude in selecting, checking and preparing
materials and tools in installing architectural
ceilings, wall frames, panels and floor
finishes, establishing lay-out of wall/floor and
ceiling pattern, installing architectural ceiling,
wall/sheats/panels and floor finishes
according to job requirements.
NOMINAL DURATION : 40 hrs.

CERTIFICATE LEVEL : NC III

PREREQUISITE :

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Upon completion of this module, the trainee/student must be able to:

Select, check and prepare materials and tools in installing


architectural ceilings, wall frames, panels and floor finishes;

Establish lay-out of wall/floor and ceiling pattern; and,

Install architectural ceiling, wall/sheats/panels and floor finishes


according to job requirements.

Carpentry NC III Date Developed: Document No.


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ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Select and use appropriate PPE according to job requirements and


OSHA specifications.
Read and interpret related plans and details according to job
requirements.
Select and prepare Materials, power and hand tools and equipment
consistent with job requirements
Re-check materials according to specifications.
Deal unexpected situations according to company rules and
regulations.
Perform housekeeping according to safety regulations.
Locate lay-out according to job specifications.
Cut and fit materials according to required size with 3 mm for
squareness, plumbness, levelness and dimension.
Lay-out finished materials correctly in position.
Align, tack and nail Finished materials according to lay-out.
Check connections, levelness and smoothness of installed finished
materials’ according to job requirements.
Make final checks to ensure that work conforms with instructions
and to requirements
Prepare and submit completion report to appropriate officer.
Check and monitor power and hand tools, equipment and any
surplus resources and materials in accordance with established
procedures
Monitor work area as to cleanliness and safety

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 1 Select, check and prepare materials
and tools in installing architectural
ceilings, wall frames, panels and floor
finishes
CONTENTS:

• Interpretation of Plans and details


• Materials and specification
• Board foot Computation

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Plans and details are correctly identified and interpreted according
to job requirements
2. Materials, tools and equipment are identified and prepared consistent
with job requirements
3. Materials are re-checked for correct specifications to ensure that they
are free from defects; otherwise defects are reported to immediate
supervisor for appropriate action
4. Unexpected situations are dealt with according to company rules and
regulations
5. Appropriate PPE is selected according to safety standards and
regulations
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1. WORKPLACE LOCATION
2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hammer Hand Saw
Marking Tools Chalk Line
Measuring Tools Water Hose Level
Nylon String Plumb Bob
Steel Square Hand Saw
Try-square PPE
3. TRAINING MATERIALS Circular Saw
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens
Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD

1. Portfolio

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Learning Experience
SELECT, CHECK AND PREPARE MATERIALS AND TOOLS IN INSTALLING
ARCHITECTURAL CEILINGS, WALL FRAMES, PANELS AND
FLOOR FINISHES

Learning Activities Special Instructions


1. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.1-1 on Interpretation
of plans and details
2. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.1-1
3. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.1-2 on Material
specifications
4. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.1-2
5. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.1-3 on board foot
Computations
6. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.1-3

Carpentry NC III Date Developed: Document No.


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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-1

INTERPRETATION OF PLANS AND DETAILS

LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to recognize the
different types of drawings and their uses.

CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS
Generally, construction or "working" drawings furnish enough
information for the Builder to complete an entire project and incorporate all
three main groups of drawings-architectural, electrical, and mechanical.
Normally, construction drawings include the detail drawings,
assembly drawings, bill of materials, and the specifications.
Construction drawings consist mostly of right-angle and
perpendicular views prepared by draftsmen using standard technical
drawing techniques, symbols, and other designations. The first section
of the construction drawings consists of the site plan, plot plan,
foundation plans, floor plans, and framing
plans. General drawings
consist of plans (views from
above) and elevations (side
or front views) drawn on a
relatively small scale. Both
types of drawings use a
standard set of architectural
symbols. Figure 1 illustrates
the conventional symbols for
the more common types of
material used on structures.
Figure 2 shows the more
common symbols used for
doors and windows. Study
these symbols thoroughly
before proceeding further in
this chapter.

Figure 1. Architectural symbols for plans and elevations.


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Figure 2. Architectural symbols for doors and windows.

A. Site Plan
A site plan shows the contours,
boundaries, roads, utilities, trees,
structures, and any other significant
physical features on or near the
construction site. The locations of
proposed structures are shown in
outline.

Figure 3. Site plan

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B. Plot Plan
The plot plan shows the
survey marks with the elevations
and the grading requirements. The
plot plan is used by the
Engineering Aids to set up the
corners and perimeter of the
building using batter boards and
line stakes, as shown in Figure 4.
Thus, the plot plan furnishes the
essential data for laying out the
building.

Figure 4. Plot plan

C. Foundation Plan
A foundation plan is a plane view of a structure. That is, it looks as if
it were projected onto a horizontal plane and passed through the structure.
In the case of the foundation plan, the plane is slightly below the level of
the top of the foundation wall.

Figure 5. Foundation plan


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D. Floor Plan
An architectural or structural floor plan shows the structural
characteristics of the building at the level of the plane of projection. A
mechanical floor plan shows the plumbing and heating systems and
any other mechanical components other than those that are electrical.
An electrical floor plan shows the lighting system and any other
electrical systems.

Figure 6. Shows the way a floor plan is developed: from elevation, to cutting
plane, to floor plan.

Figure 7 is a floor plan


showing the lengths,
thicknesses, and character
of the outside walls and
partitions at the particular
floor level. It also shows the
number, dimensions, and
arrangement of the rooms,
the widths and locations of
doors and windows, and the
locations and character of
bathroom, kitchen, and
other utility features.

Figure 7. Floor plans

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E. Elevations
The front, rear, and sides of a structure, as they would appear
projected on vertical planes, are shown in elevations. Studying the
elevation drawing gives you a working idea of the appearance and layout of
the structure.

Figure 8. Elevations for a small

F. Framing Plans
Framing plans show the size, number, and location of the
structural members (steel or wood) that make up the building framework.
Separate framing plans may be drawn for the floors, walls, and roof.
The floor framing plan must specify the sizes and spacing of joists,
girders, and columns used to support the floor.

Figure 9. Floor framing plan


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Wall framing plans show the location and method of framing openings
and ceiling heights so that studs and posts can be cut.
Roof framing plans show the construction of the rafters used to
span the building and support the roof. Size, spacing, roof slope,
and all details are shown.

G. Sectional Views
Sectional views, or sections, provide important information about the
height, materials, fastening and support systems, and concealed features of
a structure.

Figure 10. Typical small building cutting-plane A-A and section


developed from the cutting plane

Typical sections represent the


average condition throughout a
structure and are used when
construction features are repeated
many times. Figure 10 shows typical
wall section A-A of the foundation plan
in Figure 5.

Figure 11. A typical section of a masonry


building

H. Details
Details are large-scale drawings
that show the builders of a structure
how its various parts are to be

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connected and placed. Detail drawings are used whenever the information
provided in elevations, plans, and sections is not clear enough for the
constructors on the job.
The construction of doors, windows, and eaves is customarily shown
in detail drawings of buildings. Typical door and window details are shown
in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Door and window details

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.1-1
Check your mastery in interpretation of plans and details by completing the
tasks below.

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Identify the types of plans on the following statement. Choose
the letter of the correct answer.

1. It shows the contours, boundaries, roads, utilities, trees, structures, and


any other significant physical features on or near the construction site.

a. Floor plan c. Plot plan b. Foundation plan d. Site plan


2. This plan shows the survey marks with the elevations and the grading
requirements. It is used by the Engineering Aids to set up the corners
and perimeter of the building using batter boards and line stakes.
a. Floor plan c. Plot plan
b. Foundation plan d. Site plan
3. It is a plane view of a structure. That is, it looks as if it were projected
onto a horizontal plane and passed through the structure.
a. Floor plan c. Plot plan
b. Foundation plan d. Sectional view
4. This shows the structural characteristics of the building at the level of
the plane of projection.
a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Elevation
b. Details d. Sectional view
5. The front, rear, and sides of a structure, as they would appear
projected on vertical planes, are shown in this drawing. This drawing
gives you a working idea of the appearance and layout of the structure.
a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Elevation
b. Details d. Sectional view
6. Plan showing the size, number, and location of the structural members

(steel or wood) that make up the building framework.


a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Framing plan b.
Elevation d. Sectional view
7. It provides important information about the height, materials, fastening
and support systems, and concealed features of a structure.

a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Framing plan b.


Elevation d. Sectional view
8. These are large-scale drawings that show the builders of a structure how
its various parts are to be connected and placed.
a. Details c. Framing plan
b. Foundation plan d. Sectional view

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-1
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. D
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. A

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-2

MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to recognize the
different specification of materials used in finishing carpentry.

The primary components used in frame construction are lumber and


hardware. This section includes information on the types and sizes of
lumber as well as a description of various metal fasteners.
A. Lumber

Lumber varies greatly in structural characteristics. A carpenter must


learn about lumber so that he can choose the most suitable material for
each job

1. Grades

Lumber, as it comes from the sawmill, is divided into three main


classes: yard lumber, structural material and factory and shop lumber. It
is classified on the basis of quality. The carpenter must choose a quality
that is suitable for the intended purpose. At the same time, he must exercise
economy by not choosing a better (and therefore more expensive) grade than
is required.

Lumber is subdivided into classifications of select lumber


and common lumber.

Select Lumber - Select lumber is of good appearance and finishing. It


is identified by the following grade names for comparison of quality: o
Grade A is suitable for natural finishes and is practically clear. o
Grade B is suitable for natural finishes, is of high quality, and is
generally clear.
o Grade C is suitable for high-quality paint finishes.
o Grade D is suitable for paint finishes between high-finishing
grades and common grades and has somewhat the nature of both.

Common Lumber - Common lumber is suitable for general


construction and utility purposes. It is identified by the following
grade names for comparison of quality:
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o No. 1 common is suitable for use without waste, it is sound and
tight knotted, and it may be considered watertight lumber.
o No. 2 common is less restricted in quality than No. 1, but of the
same general quality. It is used for framing, sheathing, and other
structural forms where the stress or strain is not too great.
o No. 3 common permits some waste, and it is lower in quality than
No. 2. It is used for such rough work as footing, guardrails, and
rough flooring.
o No. 4 common permits waste, is of low quality, and may have
coarse features such as decay and holes. It is used for sheathing,
subfloors, and roof boards in the cheaper types of construction,
but its most important industrial outlet is for boxes and crates.
o No. 5 common is not produced in some kinds of lumber. It is
used for boxes, crates, and dunnage, for which the quality
requirement is very low.

Table 1. Code for surfaced lumber

Code Meaning
S1E SURFACED 1 EDGE
S2E SURFACED 2 EDGES
S1S SURFACED 1 SIDE
S2S SURFACED 2 SIDES
S1S1E SURFACED 1 SIDE AND EDGE
S2SIE SURFACED 2 SIDES AND 1 EDGE
S1S2E SURFACED 1 SIDE AND 2 EDGES
S4S SURFACED 4 SIDES

2. Uses of Lumber

a. Frames. Building frames are the wood forms constructed to support


the finished members of a structure. These include posts, girders
(beams), scabs, joists, subfloors, sole plates, girts, knee braces, top
plates, and rafters. No. 2 common lumber is used for framing.
Heavy frame components, such as beams and girders, are made by
combining several pieces of framing material.
b. Walls. The exterior wall of a frame structure usually has three
layers: sheathing, building paper, and siding. Sheathing and siding
lumber are normally grade No. 2 common softwood, which is with
solid knots, no voids. Siding is either vertically or horizontally
applied. Theater construction may limit available material to lap
siding for both horizontal and vertical surfaces. For local
procurement, there are several types of drop and bevel siding,
which is applied horizontally.
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3. Sizes

Lumber is usually sawed into standard dimensions (length, width,


and thickness). This allows uniformity in planning structures and in
ordering materials. Table 2 the common widths and thicknesses of wood in
rough and in dressed dimensions in the US. Standards have been
established for dimension differences between the quoted size of lumber and
its standard sizes when dressed.
Quoted size refers to dimensions prior to surfacing. These dimension
differences must be taken into consideration. A good example of the
dimension difference is the common 2 x 4. As shown in Table 2, the familiar
quoted size 2 x 4 is the rough or nominal dimension, but the actual dressed
size is 1 1/2 x 3 1/2 inches. Lumber is sawn in standard sizes used for
light framing.

Thickness: 1, 2, and 4 inches.


Width: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches.
Length: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 feet.

The actual dimensions of


dressed lumber are less than the
sawn dimensions because of
drying and planing (or finishing).
For the relative difference between
sawn (standard or nominal)
dimensions and actual sizes of
construction lumber, see Table 2.

Table 2. Nominal and dressed


sizes of lumber

Plywood is usually 4 x 8
feet and varies from 1/8 to 1 inch
in thickness.

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B. Hardware

A wide variety of fasteners are used for frame construction in the


TO. These fasteners are all made of metal. They are classified as nails,
screws, bolts, driftpins, corrugated fasteners, and timber connectors.
1. Nails - Nails are the most commonly used items that are under the
classification of rough hardware. Nails come in different sizes and
are divided into general types:

a. Wire Nails. Wire nails are divided into five main types:
Finishing Nails - The head of a finishing nail is only slightly
larger in diameter than the body of the nail so that it can be
embedded (set) into the surface of the wood. There is a slight
depression on the top of the head to prevent the nail set from
slipping off the head. The small hole that is made in the wood is
filled with putty or some other type of filler to hide the nail when
the surface is finished.

Figure 13. Finishing nail


Casing Nails - similar in appearance to the finishing nail. The
head, however, is slightly larger and has no depression in the top.
These nails are used to nail doors and window casings in place.

Figure 14. Casing nail


Box Nails - used in box construction or whenever there is a
possibility of splitting the wood with a common nail. The head of a
box nail is somewhat thinner and larger in diameter than the head
of a common nail. Box nails are sometimes coated with a special
cement to give them better holding quality.

Figure 15. Box nail


Common Nails - have a thick flat head used for most phases of
building construction.

Figure 16. Common nail


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Duplex-Head or Double-Headed Nails - used in temporary
construction such as form work and scaffolding. The advantage
of using this type of nail is easy removal. It has a collar that
keeps the head away from the wood, and the claw of the hammer
can easily engage the head for removal.

Figure 17. Duplex-head or double-headed nail


b. Cut Nails. Cut nails are wedge-shaped with a head on the large end
(Figure 19). They are often used to nail flooring because they have
good holding power and are made of very hard steel.

Figure 18. Cut nail


c. Special Nails. Rustproof nails are sometimes used when the head
is exposed to the weather. The head often rusts and causes a black
streak along the grain of the wood, even though it is painted.
Therefore, it is desirable to use a nail that will not rust. Plain wire
nails that have a zinc coating are often used where there is a
possibility of rusting. These are called galvanized nails (such as a
roofing nail).

d. Drywall Nails. Drywall nails are used for hanging drywall and have
a special coating to prevent rust.

Figure 19. Drywall nail


e. Masonry (Concrete) Nails. Masonry nails are available in lengths
from 1/2 inch to 4 inches, with a single head. These nails are
usually hardened steel. Concrete nails are thicker and are used to
fasten metal or wood to masonry or concrete.

Figure 20. Masonry nail

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Sizes

Nail sizes are given by penny number from two penny to sixty penny .
A small letter d is the recognized abbreviation for penny. The penny number
refers to the length of the nail. Nails are normally packaged in 50-pound
boxes. Table 4 gives the general sizes and types of nails preferred for
specific applications.
Table 3. Nail sizes

Table 4. Sizes, types, and uses of nails

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2. Screws - Screws are another means of fastening one member to
another. Screws have some advantages over nails. They have greater
holding power, present a neater appearance, and have more
decorative possibilities than nails. They also have the advantage of
being easily removed or tightened. Screws are usually either slotted-
head or Phillips head (Figure 21).

a. Phillips Head. Phillips head screws require a special screwdriver for


driving them. Some advantages of Phillips head screws are that the
screwdriver does not slip out easily and that the head is not as apt
to break as that of a conventional type screw.

Figure 21. Slotted and Phillips head

b. Wood Screws. Wood screws are made of iron, bronze, brass, copper,
or other metals; however, some are coated with nickel or chrome to
match special-finish hardware. The main types of wood screws are
roundhead, oval head, and flathead, which can be either slotted or
Phillips head.
Roundhead Screws - used on a surface where the heads will show.
The head is not countersunk, and for this reason it should have a
pleasing finish-either blued or polished. If slotted-head, the screw
slot should always be left in a parallel position to the grain of the
wood.

Figure 22. Roundhead screw


Oval-head Screws - used to fasten hinges or other finish hardware
to wood. If slotted-head, the screw slots of these screws should be
parallel to each other for better appearance.

Figure 23. Flathead screw


Flathead Screws - used where the head will not show. The head
should be countersunk until it is level with or slightly below the

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finished surface. If flathead screws are used on an exposed area,
they should be countersunk in a hole that can be plugged.

Figure 24. Flathead screw


Other Screws
o Lag Screws - Lag screws are longer and heavier than the
common wood screw and have coarser threads. They have
square and hexagon heads. They are used when ordinary wood
screws would be too short or too light and spikes would not be
strong enough.

Figure 25. Lag screws


o Drive Screws - Special screws, made to be driven with a
hammer, are called drive screws (Figure 26). They may have a
roundhead but are usually made with a flathead, and they may
have no slot for a screwdriver. (They also come in larger sizes
with square or round heads.) The threads are far apart. Drive
screws are available in the same size as wood screws.

Figure 26. Drive screw


o Special Screws. Many special hanging and fastening devices
have a screw-type body (Figure 27). The screw eye is often used
on picture frames, screen doors, and many other items. The
curved screw hook and square screw hooks are mainly used for
hanging articles. The
curved screw hook is
usually used in the ceiling,
while the square screw
hook is more often used
on vertical walls.

Figure 27. Special screws

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c. Sheet-Metal Screws. Like wood screws, sheet-metal screws can also
be slotted or Phillips head. They are used for the assembly of metal
parts. They are steel or brass with four types of heads: flat, round,
oval, and fillister.

Figure 28. Sheet metal screws


d. Pilot and Starter Holes. Prepare the wood for receiving a screw by
baring a pilot hole (the size of the diameter of the screw) into the
piece of wood. A smaller, starter hole is then bored into the piece of
wood that is to act as anchor or hold the threads of the screw. The
starter hole has a diameter less than that of the screw threads and is
drilled to a depth 1/2 or 2/3 the length of the threads to be
anchored. This method (shown in Figure 29) assures accuracy in
placing the screws and reduces the possibility of splitting the wood.

Figure 29. Sinking a wood screw


e. Covering Material. Both slotted and Phillips flathead screws
are countersunk enough that a covering material can be used.

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Figure 30. Screw-covering material

3. Anchors - Fastening wood or other materials to concrete or other


materials has always been a task for carpenter's. Anchors (fasteners)
for such work can be divided into three general categories. The first
group includes anchors installed during the initial construction. The
second group includes anchors installed in solid concrete or masonry
after construction is completed. The third group includes anchors
installed in masonry, plastic, or drywall that has a hollow space
behind it.

a. Anchor Bolts. Anchor bolts are used


to fasten sills to masonry
foundations. These bolts are used to
fasten the sill to the footers. Anchor
bolts are installed when placing the
footer while the concrete is still wet.

Figure 31. Anchor bolt installation

b. Expansion Anchor Bolts. Lead screws, plastic anchors, and lag


expansion shields all work with the same basic idea. Drill a proper size
hole and insert the expansion shield into the hole. The insertion of the
screw or lag bolt expands the fastener to provide a secure hold.

Figure 32. Expansion anchor bolt


c. Molly Universal-Screw Anchors. Molly fasteners provide a solid
means of attaching fixtures to interior walls. A hole is drilled the same
size as that of the outside diameter of the fastener. These fasteners
are designed to expand behind the wall covering.

Figure 33. Molly universal screw anchors

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4. Bolts - Bolts are made of steel with either round, square, or octagon
heads and threaded shanks. The threads may run the full length of
the bolt, or they may stop a certain distance from the head, leaving a
smooth upper shank. Bolts are used to fasten timber, steel, or other
materials. They range in diameter from 3/16 to 1 ½ inches, and in
lengths from 3/4 to 30 inches. They are available in three main
styles: stove bolts, machine bolts, and carriage bolts.

a. Stove Bolts. Stove bolts are used mostly with small items of
hardware. Roundhead or flathead stove bolts range in length from
3/8 to 6 inches. They are used in light construction.

Figure 34. Stove bolts


b. Machine Bolts. Machine bolts are used in woodwork. They usually
have square heads and square nuts. A metal washer is usually used
under both the head and the nut. These washers prevent the head
from embedding into the wood and keep the nut from tearing the wood
fibers as it is turned. Two wrenches are required when tightening
machine bolts.

Figure 35. Machine bolts


c. Carriage Bolts. Carriage bolts are like machine
bolts except for the heads, which are round (Figure
36). The shank of the carriage bolt has a square
portion, which is drawn into the wood to prevent
the bolt from turning as the nut is tightened. A
washer is used under the nut, but not under the
head of this bolt.
Figure 36. Carriage bolts

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d. Toggle Bolts. Toggle bolts are used to fasten fixtures to hollow walls.
The two types of toggle bolts are the pivot type and the spring-wing
type. Both types have heads similar to those of ordinary wood
screws. Both come in various sizes.

Pivot-Type. The pivot-type has a bent-steel channel with the nut


slightly off-center so that one end of the channel is heavier than
the other. A hole is drilled into the hollow wall or block. The heavy
end of the nut drops down at a right angle to the bolt when it is
inserted into the hole. The nut will pull up tight against the
drywall or block as the bolt is tightened.

Figure 37. Pivot-type toggle bolt


Spring-Wing Type. Spring-wing type toggle bolts are made like the
pivot type except that the wing is hinged in the center. It is held
open with a small spring and is closed while inserting it into the
hole. It snaps open when it enters the hollow cavity of the wall.

Figure 38. Spring-wing toggle bolts

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.1-2
Check your mastery in material specifications by completing the tasks below.

IDENTIFICATION: Identify the type of materials identified in the following


statement. Choose your answer from the items below.

Wood screws Anchor bolts

drive screws Pivot-type


4ftx8ft Carriage bolts
No. 1 common Grade A lumber
Finishing nail Common nail

1. This type of lumber is suitable for natural finishes and is practically


clear
2. This type of common lumber is suitable for use without waste, it is
sound and tight knotted, and it may be considered watertight
lumber.
3. Plywood is usually of this size and varies from 1/8 to 1 inch in
thickness.
4. The head of this nail is only slightly larger in diameter than the body
of the nail so that it can be embedded (set) into the surface of the
wood.
5. This nail has a thick flat head used for most phases of building
construction.
6. Screws made of iron, bronze, brass, copper, or other metals, some
are coated with nickel or chrome to match special-finish hardware.
7. Special screws, made to be driven with a hammer
8. This is used to fasten sills to masonry foundations.
9. Bolts that are like machine bolts except for the heads, which are
round
10. This bolt has a bent-steel channel with the nut slightly off-center so
that one end of the channel is heavier than the other.

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-2
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Grade A lumber
2. No. 1 common
3. 4ftx8ft
4. Finishing nail
5. Common nail
6. Wood screws
7. drive screws
8. Anchor bolts
9. Carriage bolts
10. Pivot-type

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-3
BOARD FOOT COMPUTATION
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to compute for board
foot from a given dimensions.

The amount of lumber required is measured in board feet. A board


foot (BF) is a unit measure representing an area of 1 foot by 1 foot, 1 inch
thick. Thus, a board that is 1 inch thick, 1 foot wide, and 1 foot long
measures 1 board foot. A board that is 1 inch thick, 1 foot wide, and 12
feet long measures 12 board feet.
A. Methods of computing BF

1. Rapid Estimate. You can estimate BF rapidly by using Table 5. For


example, reading the table, you can see that if a 2-inch by 12-inch board
is 16 feet long, your board feet would be 32.
Table 5. Board feet

2. Arithmetic Method. To determine the number of BF in one or more


pieces of lumber use the following formula:

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NOTE: If the unit of measure for length is in inches, divide by 144
instead of 12.

Sample Problem 1: Find the number of BF in a piece of lumber 2


inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 6 feet long (Figure 40).

Sample Problem 2: Find the number of BF in 10 pieces of lumber 2


inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 6 feet long.

Sample Problem 3: Find the number of BF in a piece of lumber 2


inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 18 inches long.

Figure 39. Lumber dimensions

3. Tabular Method. The standard Essex board measure table (Figure


40) is a quick aid in computing BF. It is located on the back of the blade
of the framing square. In using the board measure table, make all
computations on the basis of 1-inch thickness. The inch markings along
the outer edge of the blade represent the width of a board 1 inch thick.
The third dimension (length) is provided in the vertical column of figures
under the 12-inch mark.
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Figure 40. Essex board measure table
Sample Problem: To compute the number of BF in a piece of lumber that
is 8 inches wide, 14 feet long, and 4 inches thick-

1. Find the number 14 in the vertical column under the 12-inch


mark.
2. Follow the guideline under number 14 laterally across the blade
until it reaches the number on that line that is directly under
the inch mark matching the width of the lumber.

Example: Under the 8-inch mark on the guideline, moving left from 14,
the numbers 9 and 4 appear (9 and 4 should be on the same line as 14).
The number to the left of the vertical line represents feet; the number to
the right represents inches.

3. The total number is 37 1/3 BF. BF will never appear in a


decimal form.

Example solution: 1" x 4" x 8' x 14' Feet Inches

NOTE: 1" x 4" = Always multiply the number of pieces by the thickness
and multiply the feet and inches by the sum of pieces and thickness.

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.1-3
Check your mastery in board foot computation by completing the
tasks below.

A. Compute for the board foot of the given measurements.

Board Foot Size (BF) Board Foot Size (BF)


1. 1” x 4” x 6’ = ____ 7. 2” x 6” x 8’ =____

2. 2” x 4” x 12’ = ____ 8. 2” x 6” x 6’ =____

3. 1” x 10” x 8’ =____ 9. 1” x 4” x 12’ =____

4. 2” x 6” x 16’ =____ 10. 1” x 14” x 10’ =____

5. 4” x 4” x 8’ =____ 11. 4” x 4” x 12’ =____

6. 6” x 6” x 6’ =____ 12. 6” x 6” x 16’ =____

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-3
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. 2 sq.feet
2. 8 sq.feet
3. 6.67 or 7 sq.feet
4. 48 sq.feet
5. 10.67 or 11 sq.feet
6. 18 sq.feet
7. 8 sq.feet
8. 6 sq.feet
9. 4 sq.feet
10. 11.67 or 12 sq.feet
11. 16 sq.feet
12. 48 sq.feet

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 2 Establish lay-out of wall/floor and
ceiling pattern
CONTENTS:
• Flooring

• Wall Sheating
• Ceiling

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Wall/floor and ceiling patterns are laid-out according to job
specifications
2. Materials are cut and fitted according to required size with + 3mm for
squareness, plumbness, levelness and dimensions
3. Finished materials are laid-out in correct positions
4. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place
requirement
5. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
6. Appropriate PPE are used according to OSHC regulations
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1. WORKPLACE LOCATION
2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hammer Hand Saw
Marking Tools Chalk Line
Measuring Tools Water Hose Level
Nylon String Plumb Bob
Steel Square Hand Saw
Try-square PPE
3. TRAINING MATERIALS Circular Saw
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens
Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD

1. Portfolio

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Learning Experience
ESTABLISH LAY-OUT OF WALL/FLOOR AND CEILING PATTERN

Learning Activities Special Instructions


1. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.2-1 on Flooring
2. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.2-1
3. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.2-2 on Wall Sheating
4. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.2-2
5. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.2-3 on Ceiling
6. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.2-3

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1
FLOORING
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to identify the different
parts of flooring and its types.

Flooring consists of the subfloor, underlayment and finish floor.


Depending upon the type of finish floor or subfloor used, underlayment
may not be required. Where 25/32-inch tongue and grooved wood strip
flooring is used, it may be laid directly over the subfloor, Figure 42. Where
lesser thicknesses of wood strip flooring are used, the thickness and grade
of subflooring must be adequate to support end joints at full design load,
unless they occur over joists. Underlayment is normally applied over the
sub-floor where resilient tile, sheet vinyl or carpet is used as the finish floor
surface.

Figure 41. Wood strip flooring

A. Subfloors - The sub-floor usually consists of plywood, particleboard or


other wood structural panels, or board lumber. Lumber sub-flooring is
typically laid diagonally to permit wood strip finish flooring to be laid
either parallel with or at right angles to, the floor joists. End-joints in
sub-flooring are cut to occur over joists.

Wood structural panels are typically installed with the long dimension at
right angles to the joists and with the panel continuous over two or more
spans. Spacing between panels should be approximately 1/8 inch.

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B. Underlayment - Underlayment panels are applied over sub-flooring to
provide a smooth surface for application of carpeting and other resilient
floor coverings. Application of finish floor coverings is generally by
specialists who follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions for the
carpet, resilient tile or vinyl products.

C. Finish Floors - these are usually applied to a structural base but may
form part of the floor structure as in the case of floor boards. Most
finishes are chosen to fulfill a particular function such as:
Appearance - chosen mainly for their aesthetic appeal or effect but
should however have reasonable wearing properties. Examples are
carpets; carpet tiles and wood blocks.
High Resistance - chosen mainly for their wearing and impact
resistance properties and for high usage areas such as kitchens.
Examples are quarry tiles and granolithic paving.
Hygiene - chosen to provide an impervious easy to clean surface with
reasonable aesthetic appeal. Examples are quarry tiles and polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) sheets and tiles.

1. Wooden Floors. Wooden floors


must be framed with one main
purpose in mind they must be
strong enough to carry the load.
The type of building and the use
for which it is intended
determines the general
arrangement of the floor system,
thickness of the sheathing, and
approximate spacing of the
joists.

Figure 42. Methods of nailing


tongue-and-grooved flooring

Types of Wood Flooring


Strip Flooring - Hardwood finish flooring; narrow tongue-
and-groove strips; commonly maple, mahogany, oak, etc.

Plank Flooring – Flooring made of long, wide, square-sawn


thick piece of timber called planks; the specifications vary, but
often the minimum width is 8” (200 mm), and the minimum
thickness is 2” to 4” (50 to 100 mm) for softwood and 1” (25
mm) for hardwood.
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Parquet Flooring – Inlaid wood flooring usually set in
simple geometric patterns.

Parquet Tile Flooring – parquet units glued to paper to form


tiles for flooring. The tiles are glued to the cement floor face
down; when dry, paper is wet and stripped off the tile surface;
sanded and primed to finish.

Figure 43. Types of wood flooring

2. Concrete Floors. Concrete floors may be constructed for shops


which earthen or wooden floors are not suitable, such as in repair
and assembly shops for airplanes and heavy equipment and in any
kinds of warehouses. These floors are made by pouring the concrete
on the ground after the earth has been graded and tamped. This type
of floor is likely to be damp unless protected. Drainage is provided,
both for the floor area and for the area near the floor, to prevent
flooding after heavy rains. The floor should be reinforced with steel or
wire mesh. Where concrete floors are to be poured, a foundation wall
may be poured first and the floor poured after the building is
completed. This gives protection to the concrete floor while it sets and
eliminates the waiting period before construction of the building.

3. Miscellaneous Floors. These types of floors include earth, adobe brick,


duckboard, or rushes. Miscellaneous flooring is used when
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conventional materials are unavailable or where there is a need to
save time or labor. Such floors may be used if facilities are temporary
or if required by the special nature of a structure. Selection of material
is usually determined by availability.

Duckboard is widely used for shower flooring. Earthen floors are


common; they conserve both materials and labor if the ground site is
even without extensive grading. Rush or thatch floors are primarily an
insulating measure and must be replaced frequently.

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.2-1
Check your mastery in flooring by completing the tasks below.

A. IDENTIFICATION. Read the statement carefully. Identify what is being


described in the statement below. Write your answer on the space provide.

_______________________1. Usually consists of plywood, particleboard or


other wood structural panels, or board lumber and is typically laid
diagonally to permit wood strip finish flooring to be laid either
parallel with or at right angles to, the floor joists.

_______________________2. Applied over sub-flooring to provide a smooth


surface for application of carpeting and other resilient floor coverings.

_______________________3. Chosen mainly for their aesthetic appeal or


effect but should however have reasonable wearing properties.

_______________________4. Flooring made of long, wide, square-sawn


thick piece of timber, the specifications vary, but often the minimum
width is 8” (200 mm), and the minimum thickness is 2” to 4” (50 to 100
mm) for softwood and 1” (25 mm) for hardwood.

_______________________5. Inlaid wood flooring usually set in simple


geometric patterns.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.2-1
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Subfloor
2. Underlayment
3. Appearance
4. Plank flooring
5. Parquet flooring

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.2-2
WALL SHEATHING
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to identify the
Application of wallboard to various types of ceiling and types of
ceiling coverings

After completing the framework of a building, fasten a covering,


known as sheathing, to it. Sheathing includes exterior wall sheathing,
finish siding, and interior wall sheathing.

1. Exterior Wall Sheathing. Sheathing is nailed directly onto the


framework of the building. It is used to strengthen the building; provide a
base wall to which finish siding can be nailed; act as insulation; and, in
some cases, be a base for further insulation. Some common types of
sheathing include wood, gypsum board, and plywood.

a. Wood Sheathing. Wood sheathing may be nailed on horizontally or


diagonally. However, diagonal application adds much greater strength
to the structure. If the sheathing is to be put on horizontally, start at
the foundation and work toward the top. If it is to be put on
diagonally, start at the corner of the building and work toward the
opposite wall.

Figure 44. Horizontal and diagonal sheating

b. Gypsum Board. The long edges of the 4 by 8 boards are tongue-and-


grooved. Gypsum board can be nailed (together with the wood siding)
directly to the studs. Gypsum sheathing is fireproof, water resistant,
and windproof. It does not warp or absorb water and does not
require the use of building paper.

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c. Plywood. Plywood is highly recommended for wall sheathing because of
its weight, strength, and structural properties. Plywood is most
commonly used because it adds a lot more strength to the frame than
using diagonally applied wood boards. It comes in 4-feet-wide and 5-to 8-
feet-long sheets, 1/4 to 3/4-inch thick. Install the sheets with the face
grain parallel to the studs (see Figure 45). It is usually applied vertically
from the floor to the ceiling. When plywood is correctly applied (with
flush joints), the joints do not need to be concealed. However, to improve
wall appearance, joints may be covered with moldings. These may be
battens fastened over the joints or applied as splines between the panels.
Less-expensive plywood can be covered with paint or covered in the same
way as plastered surfaces.

Figure 45. Gypsum and plywood sheathing


2. Finish Siding. Finish siding is the outside wood finish of the wall. Only
board siding made of long, narrow boards will be covered in this section.

a. Vertical Wood Siding. Vertical wood siding is nailed securely to girts


with 8d or 10d nails. The cracks are covered with wood strips called
battens. To make this type of wall more weatherproof some type of tar
paper or light-roll roofing may be applied between the siding and the
sheathing.

Figure 46. Vertical wood siding


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b. Horizontal Wood Siding. Horizontal wood siding is cut to various
patterns and sizes to be used as the finished outside surface of a
structure. It should be well-seasoned lumber. Siding is made in sizes
ranging from 1/2 inch to 1 inch by 12 inches. Two types of siding
are beveled and drop.

Figure 47. Horizontal wood siding


Beveled Siding. Beveled siding is made with beveled boards, thin at
the top edge and thick at the butt. It is the most common form of
wood siding It comes in 1 inch for narrow widths and 2 inches and
over for wide types. It is nailed to solid sheathing, over which building
paper has been attached.

Figure 48. Beveled siding


Drop Siding. Drop siding is used as a
combination of sheathing and siding or
with separate sheathing. It comes in a
wide variety of face finishes and is either
shiplapped or tongue-and-grooved.
When sheathing is not used, the door
and window casings are set after the
siding is up. If sheathing is used and
then building paper is added, drop
siding is applied with beveled siding,
after the window and door casings are
in place.
Figure 49. Drop siding
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3. Interior Wall Coverings. Interior wall coverings are divided into two
general types: wet wall material (such as plaster) and drywall
material (including wood, sheetrock, plywood, and fiberboard).

a. Drywall. Sheetrock, fiberboard, and plywood usually comes in 4-foot-


wide and 5- to 8-footlong sheets, 1/4 to 3/4 inch thick. Drywall is applied in
either single or double thicknesses with panels placed as shown in Figure
10. When covering both walls and ceilings, always start with the ceilings.
Use annular ringed nails when applying finished-joint drywall to reduce
nail pops.

Figure 50. Drywall placement


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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.2-2
Check your mastery in wall sheating by completing the tasks below.

A. IDENTIFICATION. Read the statement carefully. Identify what is


being described in the statement by choosing your answer below. Write
your answer on the space provide.

Beveled siding Finish siding Drywall

Drop siding Sheating Plywood

________________1. After completing the framework of a building, fasten a


covering, known as ________________.
________________2. This is highly recommended for wall sheathing
because of its weight, strength, and structural
properties.
________________3. This is the outside wood finish of the wall.
________________4. It is made with beveled boards, thin at the top edge
and thick at the butt. It is the most common form of
wood siding.
________________5. It is made from either sheetrock, fiberboard, or
plywood that usually comes in 4-foot-wide and 5- to
8-footlong sheets, 1/4 to 3/4 inch thick and is applied
in either single or double thicknesses.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.2-2

Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Sheating
2. Plywood
3. Finish siding
4. Beveled siding
5. drywall

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.2-3
CEILINGS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to identify the
different kinds of sheating, finish siding, and interior wall covering

A. Introduction
Ceilings may be constructed of wood or wallboard. Wood ceilings
present day practice utilizes 4 by 8 foot plywood, sheets in ¼-inch
thicknesses. Normal ceiling joist spacing 16 and 24 inches on center is
sufficient for nailing support. Plywood may be exposed, covered with
wood molding, bevel and utilize metal divider strip molding.

The size and shape of the ceiling will largely determine of three
methods of applying wallboard will be used, as shown in figure 51. In all
cases, the facelayer is applied at right angle in the direction of the first
layer. When the number of pieces with their sizes have been determined,
proceed as follows:

Figure 51. Application of wallboard to various types of ceiling

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B. Ceiling Coverings
In current construction, sheetrock, plywood, and fiberboard are
used instead of laths and plaster to cover ceilings.

a. Sheetrock - Cut the panels and treat the joints the same as for walls
and partitions, making sure that joints break on the centers of ceiling
joists. A brace may be constructed and used to raise and hold a sheet in
place when fitting and nailing the sheet to the ceiling joists. Nail sheets
with the lengths going across ceiling joists to prevent sagging.

b. Plywood - Plywood is hung the same on ceilings as on walls


and partitions.

c. Fiberboard - Fiberboard sheets are 1/2 to 2 inches thick. For a


smooth cut on these sheets, use a utility knife. Fiberboard sheets are
attached directly to the joists. To improve ceiling appearance, cover the
joints between the sheets with batten strips of wood or fiberboard.
Smaller pieces of fiberboard (tiles) require furring strips (wooden strips
nailed across joints). Fiberboard sheets also come in small (rectangular
or square) pieces called tiles, which are often used for covering ceilings.

They may be made with a lap joint, which permits blind-nailing or


stapling through the edge. They may also be tongue-and-grooved,
fastened with 2d box nails driven through special metal clips. For
fiberboard tiles that need solid backing, place furring strips at right
angles across the bottom of the joists. Place short furring pieces along the
joists between the furring strips. Nail metal channels to furring strips and
slide the tiles horizontally into them. In lowering ceilings (usually in older
buildings), metal channels are suspended on wire. Some large (2 x 4 foot)
tile panels are installed in individual frames.

Figure 52. Furring strips on ceiling joists

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.2-3
Check your mastery in ceiling by completing the tasks below.

MATCHING TYPE. Match column A with column B by writing your answer


on the space provided.

COLUMN A COLUMN B
_______1. May be constructed in wood or a. ½ to 2 inches

wallboard b. ¼ inches
_______2. Normal ceiling joist spacing c. 16 and 24 inches
_______3. Wood ceiling thickness d. 90 degrees
_______4. Angle of facelayer when applied e. 4x8 feet
to first layer f. Ceiling
_______5. Fiberboard sheet thickness

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.2-3
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Ceiling
2. 16 and 24 inches
3. ¼ inches
4. 90 degrees
5. ½ to 2 inches

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 3 Install architectural ceiling, wall/
sheats/panels and floor finishes
according to job requirements
CONTENTS:

Finish Flooring
Installing Wall Sheats
Paneling the Ceiling
Moldings

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Finished materials are aligned, tacked and nailed according to lay-out
2. Installed finished materials connections, levelness, smoothness
are checked according to job requirements
3. Work area is cleaned and made safe according to OHS regulation
4. Final checks are made to ensure that work conforms with instructions
and to requirements
5. Completion report is prepared and submitted to appropriate officer
6. Unexpected situations are dealt with according to company rules
and regulations

CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1. WORKPLACE LOCATION
2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hammer Hand Saw
Marking Tools Chalk Line
Measuring Tools Water Hose Level
Nylon String Plumb Bob
Steel Square Hand Saw
Try-square PPE
3. TRAINING MATERIALS Circular Saw
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens
Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD

1. Portfolio

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Learning Experience
INSTALL ARCHITECTURAL CEILING, WALL/SHEATS/PANELS AND
FLOOR FINISHES ACCORDING TO JOB REQUIREMENTS

Learning Activities Special Instructions


1. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.3-1 on Finish
Flooring
2. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.3-1
3. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.3-2 on Installing Wall
Sheats
4. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.3-2
5. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.3-3 on Paneling the
Ceiling
6. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.3-3
7. Read Information Sheet
No. 1.3-4 on Molding
8. Answer Self-Check No. Compare your answer to the answer key
1.3-4

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.3-1
FINISH FLOORING
Learning Objective: After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST
be able to follow the STEPS IN FINISH FLOORING

A. Prepare to Lay a Floor


The finish flooring should be delivered to the job site in sufficient time
to allow the carpenter to lay out the floor. This allows the flooring to adjust
to the moisture and temperature conditions in the building. Fifteen-pound
asphalt felt should be placed over the subfloor before installing the finish
flooring. Before laying the floor, check the floor plans to determine which of
the rooms is the largest and what its relationship is to the other rooms. If
laying strip flooring, see if the flooring will extend from the largest room into
the next room. If so, lay the flooring in the longest direction. Check the walls
of the largest room to see if the opposite walls are parallel to each other.
Snap a chalk line parallel along the longest wall to establish a straight line
(called a baseline). This line should extend into the next room so the strip
flooring will be continuous.

B. Lay the Floor

The following guidelines should be used when laying a floor:


a. Select a long straight piece of flooring for the first board. Place this
piece of flooring in position with the grooved edge toward the wall.
Allow approximately 1/4 inch along the wall for expansion.

Figure 52. Floor plan

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b. Face nail the board at A with a finish nail, but do not drive the nail
home.
c. Measure the distance X from the face of the fist board to the chalk line
L.
d. Transfer this distance to Y and set a nail at B. Now board 1 is parallel to
the chalk line L and to the longest wall in the largest room.
e. Use a straightedge to ensure that board 1 is straight. Then face nail
the board every 12 inches. Nail as close to the wall as possible.
f. Continue to cut, fit, and nail the flooring until the board marked 2 has
been reached.
g. Make sure the board joints are staggered (Figure 53).
h. Blind nail the rest of the tongue-and-groove flooring through the
tongue at about 50 degrees to the floor. To draw up the tongue-and-
groove flooring for nailing, use a short piece of tongue-and groove
lumber as a straightedge and a hammer to drive the flooring up tight
(Figure 54).

Figure 53. Staggered board joints

Figure 54. Blind nailing

i. Stand on the board to be nailed when nailing the floor in place.


This holds the strips of flooring in place.
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Figure 55. Nailing floor in place

j. Look at baseline L in Figure 56. When the finished floor has been laid
up to line 2, the starter board 3 in the largest room should be laid.
The front edge of this board should be the same distance from the
chalk line L as the front edge of board 2. This ensures that the boards
will come out evenly at the door opening, where the flooring passes
from room 1 to room 2.

Figure 56. Floor plan


k. Continue laying the floor until you are within two or three boards from
the opposite wall.
l. Now, cut the last few boards, open up the groove in the boards, place
them in position, draw them tightly together, and surface nail them in
place.

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.3.1
Check your mastery in finish flooring by completing the tasks below.
Instruction. Read the statement carefully. Arrange the following by
writing the numbers in order . Write your answer on the space
provided.

Continue to cut, fit, and nail the flooring until the board
_____________1)
marked 2 has been reached.
_____________2) Select a long straight piece of flooring for the first board.
Place this piece of flooring in position with the grooved edge toward the wall.
_____________3) Face nail the board at A with a finish nail, but do not drive
the nail home.
_____________4) Measure the distance X from the face of the fist board to the
chalk line L.
_____________5) Make sure the board joints are staggered.
_____________6) Use a straightedge to ensure that board 1 is straight. Then
face nail the board every 12 inches. Nail as close to the wall as possible.
_____________7) Transfer this distance to Y and set a nail at B. Now board 1
is parallel to the chalk line L and to the longest wall in the largest room.
_____________8) Blind nail the rest of the tongue-and-groove flooring. To
draw up the tongue-and-groove flooring for nailing, use a short piece of
tongue-and groove lumber as a straightedge and a hammer to drive
the flooring up tight.
_____________9) Stand on the board to be nailed when nailing the floor in
place to hold the strips of flooring in place.
_____________10) Now, cut the last few boards, open up the groove in the
boards, place them in position, draw them tightly together, and surface nail
them in place.
_____________11) When the finished floor has been laid up to line 2, the
starter board 3 in the largest room should be laid. The front edge of this
board should be the same distance from the chalk line L as the front edge of
board 2. This ensures that the boards will come out evenly at the door
opening, where the flooring passes from room 1 to room 2.
_____________12) Continue laying the floor until you are within two or three
boards from the opposite wall.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.3-1
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. 6 7. 4
2. 1 8. 8
3. 2 9. 9
4. 3 10. 12
5. 7 11. 10
6. 5 12. 11

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.3-2
INSTALLING WALL SHEATS
Learning Objective:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to
FOLLOW STEPS IN INSTALLING WALL SHEATS

A. Applying single-thickness dry wall


1. Start in one corner and work around the room, making sure that
joints break at the centerline of a stud.
2. Use ½ inch thick recessed-edge wallboard and span the entire
height of the wall if possible.
5/8
3. Using 13-gage nails, l inches long, start nailing at the center of
3/8
the board and work outward. Space the nails inch in from the
edge of the board and about 8 inches apart. Dimple nails below
surface of panel with a ball peen hammer. Be careful not to break the
surface of the board by the blow of the hammer.
4. Procedures for cutting and sealing wallboard are covered in (3) below.

B. Applying double-thickness dry wall


The double-thickness dry-wall system calls for two layers of wallboard.
The base layer is nailed vertically to the studs and the face layer is
applied horizontally over the base layer with an adhesive which makes the
two adhere to each other. The joints are sealed with a reinforcing tape and
a cement especially designed for this purpose.

C. Fit dry wall materials to rough or uneven walls in the following


manner:
1. Place a piece of scrap material in
the angle and scribe it to
indicate the surface peculiarities.
2. Place the scribed strip on the
wallboard to be used, keeping
the straight edge of the scrap
material parallel with the edge of
the wallboard.
3. Saw both the scrap and
wallboard along the scribed line.

Figure 57. Fitting single-piece wallboard


partition to walls

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.3-2
Check your mastery in installing wall sheats by completing the tasks
below.
Instruction. Read the statement carefully. Arrange the following by
writing the numbers in order . Write your answer on the space provided.

Applying single-thickness dry wall

__________1) Use ½ inch thick recessed-edge wallboard and span the


entire height of the wall if possible.
__________2) Start in one corner and work around the room, making
sure that joints break at the centerline of a stud.
__________3) Procedures for cutting and sealing wallboard are covered
in (3) below.
5/8
__________4) Using 13-gage nails, l inches long, start nailing at the
3/8
center of the board and work outward. Space the nails inch in
from the edge of the board and about 8 inches apart. Dimple nails
below surface of panel with a ball peen hammer. Be careful not to
break the surface of the board by the blow of the hammer.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.3-2

Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right,
refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. 2

2. 1

3. 4

4. 3

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.3-3
PANELING THE CEILING
Learning Objective: After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST
be able to INSTALL CEILING PANEL

Starting at an existing wall, raise first panel into position. Use


improvised braces to hold panel in place. Nail panel to ceiling joists. The
ceiling joists at either end of panel require 8-inch nail spacing. Fit panels
flush, one to the other, covering entire ceiling.

Figure 58. Brace for holding ceiling panels

___________1) Even if the walls are to be covered, start by applying the


first piece of base wallboard to the ceiling.
___________2) Nail on the first layer parallel to the ceiling joists. Span
the entire width of the room with one piece if possible. If this is
not possible, stagger the end joints.
___________3) Start the application of the face layers. Nail all face layers
on at right angles to the base layers. Special adhesive, usually supplied
with the boards, is mixed and spread on the backs of the face

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layer with a notched trowel. This "buttered side" is then placed against
the base coat and nailed.
___________4) Use only enough nails in the face layer to hold it in place.
Drive the nails in so that the heads are slightly below the surface
of the wallboard.

Figure 59. Do not hit the nail hard enough to break the outside cover paper on
the wallboard

___________5) Seal all joints and nail holes.

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.3-3
Check your mastery in paneling the ceiling by completing the tasks
below.
Instruction. Read the statement carefully. Arrange the following by
writing the numbers in order . Write your answer on the space provided.

___________1) Nail on the first layer parallel to the ceiling joists. Span
the entire width of the room with one piece if possible. If this is
not possible, stagger the end joints.
___________2) Even if the walls are to be covered, start by applying the
first piece of base wallboard to the ceiling.
___________3) Use only enough nails in the face layer to hold it in place.
Drive the nails in so that the heads are slightly below the surface
of the wallboard.
___________4) Start the application of the face layers. Nail all face layers
on at right angles to the base layers. Special adhesive, usually
supplied with the boards, is mixed and spread on the backs of the
face layer with a notched trowel. This "buttered side" is then placed
against the base coat and nailed.
___________5) Seal all joints and nail holes.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.3-3

Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. 2
2. 1
3. 4
4. 3
5. 5

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.3-4
MOLDINGS
Learning Objective: After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST
be able to IDENTIFY KINDS OF MOLDINGS AND INSTALL MOLDINGS

A. Base Moldings

The interior trim of a building should match or complement the design


of the doors, the windows, and the building. Base molding is the trim
between the finished wall and the floor. It is available in several widths and
forms. Figure 9, shows the types of base molding.
Square-edge (or two-piece) baseboard consists of a square-edged
baseboard topped with a small base cap. When the wall covering is not
straight and true, small base molding will conform more closely to the
variations than will a one-piece base alone. This type of baseboard is
usually 5/8 x 3 1/4 inches or wider. Installation of square-edged baseboard
is shown in Figure 61.

Figure 60. Types of base moldings

Narrow- and wide-ranch base (one-piece baseboard) are 3/4 x 3


1/4 inches or wider and vary from 1/2 x 2 1/4 inches to 1/2 x 3 1/4
inches or wider.
A wood member at the junction of the wall and carpeting serves as
a protective bumper; however, wood trim is sometimes eliminated. Most
baseboards are finished with a 1/2- x 3/4-inch base shoe. A single-base
molding without the shoe is sometimes placed at the wall-floor junction,
especially where carpeting might be used.

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Figure 61. Installing base molding
Baseboard should be installed with a butt joint at the inside corners
and a mitered joint at the outside corners. (The base board installation in
Figure 61 is done with square-edge baseboard.) It should be nailed to each
stud with two 8d finishing nails. Base molding should have a coped joint at
inside corners and a mitered joint at outside corners. A coped joint is one in
which the first piece is square cut against the plaster or base and the
second molding is coped. This is done by sawing a 45° miter along the inner
line of the miter. The base shoe should be nailed into the subfloor with long,
slender nails, but not into the baseboard itself. Then, if there is a small
amount of movement in the floor, no opening will occur under the shoe.
When several pieces of molding are needed, they should be joined with a lap
miter (Figure 62). When the face of the base shoe projects beyond the face of
the molding, it abuts (Figure 63).

Figure 62. Trim lap-miter joint

B. Ceiling Moldings

Ceiling moldings are sometimes used at the junction of the wall and
the ceiling to finish the sheetrock paneling (sheetrock or wood). Inside
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corners should be coped joints. This ensures a tight joint even if minor
moisture changes occur. Figure 63 shows ceiling molding. For sheetrock
walls, a small, simple molding might be best. For large moldings, finish
nails should be driven into the upper wallplates and also into the ceiling
joist, when possible. (For plastered ceilings, a cutback edge at the outside of
the molding will partially conceal any unevenness of the plaster and make
painting easier where there are color changes.)

Figure 63. Ceiling moldings

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.3-4

Check your mastery in installing molding by completing the tasks


below.

Instruction. Read the statement carefully. Arrange the following by


writing the numbers in order . Write your answer on the space provided.

_______1) Moldings sometimes used at the junction of the wall and the
ceiling to finish the sheetrock paneling (sheetrock or wood).

_______2) The trim between the finished wall and the floor. It is available in
several widths and forms.

_______3) Installed with a butt joint at the inside corners and a mitered
joint at the outside corners.

_______4) For large moldings, ________________ should be driven into the


upper wall plates and also into the ceiling joist, when possible.

_______5) Baseboard consist of a square-edged baseboard topped with a


small base cap and is usually 5/8 x 3 1/4 inches or wider.

_______6) Baseboards which are 3/4 x 3 1/4 inches or wider and vary from
1/2 x 2 1/4 inches to 1/2 x 3 1/4 inches or wider.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.3-4

Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it
right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Ceiling Moldings
2. Base molding
3. Baseboards
4. Finish nails
5. Square-edge baseboards
6. Narrow- and wide-ranch base

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