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AP European History
Spring Final Study Guide
Includes:
Full reference timeline
15 Study Guides, pre-highlighted with study terms & key terms bolded
Condensed 10-Page Book Summary

Table of Contents:

Timeline Semester 1 (1300-1850) Page 1

Timeline Semester 2 (1750-2010) Page 3

Unit 1: Middle Ages & the Renaissance (Chap 12-13) Page 6

Unit 2: The Reformation (Chap 14) Page 9

Unit 3: Religious Wars & the Age of Exploration (Chap 14-15) Page 12

Unit 4: Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe (Chap 16) Page 16

Unit 5: Age of Absolutism in Eastern Europe (Chap 17) Page 19

Unit 6: Expansion & Daily Life (Chap 19-20) Page 22

Unit 7: Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment (Chap 18) Page 27

Unit 8: French Revolution & Napoleon (Chap 21) Page 30

Unit 9: Industrial Revolution (Chap 22) Page 33

Unit 10: Ideologies and Upheaval (Chap 23-24) Page 36

Unit 11: Age of Nationalism (Chap 25) Page 41

Unit 12: World War I and Imperialism (Chap 26-27) Page 45

Unit 13: Age of Anxiety (Chap 28) Page 51

Unit 14: Rise of Totalitarianism and World War II (Chap 29) Page 55

Unit 15: Europe During the Cold War and After (Chap 30-31) Page 60

Book Summary Page 67

Disclaimer: No  guarantee  that  ANY  of  this  will  help  you  ace  the  final.  If  there  are  any  mistakes,  I  take  absolutely  no  responsibility.  In  addition,  this  is  only  meant  for  review  for  
anyone  that  wishes  to  use  it.  I  strongly  encourage  you  to  make  your  own,  as  that's  the  true  benefit  for  studying.  Do  NOT  try  to  turn  this  in  as  your  own  work.  Good  luck!  

Information  in  this  Study  Guide  is  based  on  A  History  of  Western  Society  Since  1300,  by  John  McKay,  ISBN  #0618946071.  Any  accidentally  un-­‐
paraphrased  quotations  from  his  book  are  hereby  credited  to  him.  
Winter  Finals  Timeline  (1300-­1850)  
Events                                        People                                                  Works                                  Time  Periods  
Date Description Unit Page
1330-1550 Renaissance 1 6-9
1337-1453 Hundred Years’ War 1 6
1348 Black Death begins 1 9
1377-1418 Great Schism 1 6
1394-1460 Henry the Navigator 3 13
1429 Joan of Arc leads Battle of Orleans 1 6
1450-1525 Age of Exploration 3 13-15
1453-1471 War of the Roses 1 8
1480 Ivan III defies the khan 5 21
1492 Columbus’ first voyage 3 13-14
r. 1509-1547 Henry VIII 2 11-12
1513 The Prince (Machiavelli) 1 7
1516 Concordat of Bologna 1, 3 8, 13
1516 Utopia (More) 1 7
1517 95 Theses posted 2 10
1519 Conquest of Aztecs begins 3 14
r. 1519-1556 Charles V 2, 3 10, 13
1525 German Peasants’ War 2 10
1528 The Courtier (Castiglione) 1 7
1532 Henry VIII breaks from Roman Church 2 11-12
r. 1533-1584 Ivan the Terrible 5 21
1536 Institutes of the Christian Religion (Calvin) 2 11
1540 Loyola establishes Jesuits 2 11
1543 On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (Copernicus) 7 27
1545-1563 Council of Trent (Counter Reformation) 2 11
1555 Peace of Augsburg 2 10, 19
1556 Charles V abdicates throne 3 13
r. 1558-1603 Elizabeth I 2-4 12-13,
15, 19
1560 Presbyterian Church of Scotland established 2 11
1564-1616 Shakespeare 3 15
1568-1578 Civil War in Netherlands 3 13, 15
1572 Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 3 13
1581 Union of Utrecht 3 13
1588 Spanish Armada attacks England 3 15
r. 1589-1610 Henry IV 3, 4 8, 12-13
1598 Edict of Nantes 3, 4 13, 16-17
1598-1613 Time of Troubles 5 21
1600-1750 Baroque era 4 18
1602 Dutch East Indies Company established 4 19
1605, 1615 Don Quixote (Cervantes) 4 17
1609 Independence of United Provinces 3 15
1611 King James Version Bible 3 15
1618-1625 Thirty Years’ War 5 20
r. 1624-1642 Cardinal Richelieu 4 16-17
1625-1675 Dutch Golden Age 4 19
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1632 Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World (Galileo) 7 27
1640 Frederick William takes over Prussia 5 20
1642-1649 English Civil War 4 18
r. 1643-1715 Louis XIV 4 17
1648 Peace of Westphalia 5 20
1649 Elimination of limits on lords’ power in Eastern Europe 5 19
1651 Leviathan (Hobbes) 4 16
r. 1653-1658 Cromwell 4 18
1682 Court of Versailles established 4 18
r. 1682-1725 Peter the Great 5 21
1687 Principia (Newton) 7 27
1689 Glorious Revolution 4 19
1690 Second Treatise of Civil Government (Locke) 4 19
1690-1780 Enlightenment 7 28-29
1699-1777 Madame Geoffrin 7 28-29
1700-1721 Great Northern War 5 21
1701-1713 War of Spanish Succession 4-6 17, 23
1709 Construction of Saint Petersburg begins 5 21-22
1738 Methodist movement begins 6 26
1713 Peace of Utrecht 4 17, 23
1713 Pragmatic Sanction 5 20, 29
1717 Prussian education revolutions begin 6 25
1740-1748 War of Austrian Succession 7 23, 30
1748 Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu) 7 28
1750 Illegitimacy explosion begins 6 24-25
1751-1765 Encyclopedia (Diderot) 7 28
1756-1763 Seven Years’ War 6, 7 6, 7
1762 Social Contract (Rousseau) 7 23, 29
r. 1762-1796 Catherine the Great 7 29
1763 Treaty of Paris 6 23
1769 First modern steam engine (Watt) 9 34
r. 1774-1792 Louis XVI 8 31-32
1776 Wealth of Nations (Smith) 6 24
1776-1783 American Revolutionary War 8 30-31
1780-1850 Industrial Revolution in Britain 9 33-35
1792-1796 War in Saint Domingue 8 31-32
1792 Vindication on the Rights of Women (Wollstonecraft) 8 32
1793-1794 Reign of Terror 8 32
1796 Smallpox inoculation developed 6 26
1798 Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus) 9 34
1799 Combination Acts 9 35
1799-1804 War of Haitian Independence 8 33
1799-1815 Napoleonic Era 8 33
1830 First modern railroad (Rocket) 9 34
1833 Factory Acts 9 35
1834 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union established 9 35
1842 Mines Act 9 35
1844 Condition of the Working Class in England (Engels) 9 35

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Spring  Finals  Timeline  (1750-­2010)  
Date Description Unit Page
1750-1850 Illegitimacy explosion 10 40
1770-1827 Beethoven 10 37
1790-1840 Romantic movement 10 37
r. 1805-1848 Muhammad Ali 11 43, 45
r. 1808-1839 Mahmud III 11 43
r. 1809-1848 Metternich 10 36
1813-1855 Soren Kierkegaard 13 52
1814 Congress of Vienna 10-11 36, 41
1815 Revision of Corn Laws 10 37, 38
1815-1932 Great Migration 12 46
1819 L’Organisateur (Saint-Simon) 10 37
1819 Carlsbad Decrees 10 36
1819 Battle of Peterloo 10 37
r. 1824-1830 Charles X 10 38
1830-1847 French conquest of Algeria 10 38
r. 1830-1848 Louis Philippe 10-11 38, 43
1830 Greece declared independent from Ottomans 10 37
1830 Revolution of 1830 in France (“3 glorious days”) 10 38
1832 Reform Bill of 1832 passed in England 10 37
1834 Zollverein founded in Germany 11 42
r. 1835-1848 Ferdinand I 10 38
1838-1842 Chartist Movement 10 38
1839-1876 Radical Reform Era in Ottoman Empire 11 43
r. 1840-1861 Frederick William IV 10 38
1842 Chadwick publishes findings on urban environment 10 39
1842 Treaty of Nanking 12 45
1845-1852 Great Famine in Ireland 10 38
1847 Ten Hours Act of 1847 10 38
r. 1848-1870 Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) 10-11 38, 41
r. 1848-1916 Francis Joseph 10 38
1848 Communist Manifesto (Marx & Engels) 10 36
1848 Second Republic established in France 10 38
1849 German Confederation re-established 10 38
1851 Napoleon dismisses Assembly in coup d’etat 11 41
1853-1856 Crimean War 11 42
1853 Perry leads US fleet into Edo Bay 12 45
r. 1855-1881 Alexander II 11 43
1856-1939 Sigmund Freud 10, 13 40, 52
1857-1858 Great Rebellion in India 12 47
1859 On the Origin of Species (Darwin) 10 40
1860 Garibaldi’s Red Shirts land on Sicily 11 42
r. 1862-1890 Otto von Bismarck 11-12 42-43,
46-47
r. 1863-1879 Ismail 12 45
1864 Marx founds International Working Men’s Association 11 44-45
1866 Austro-Prussian War 10 42
1866 Magyars gain virtual independence for Hungary from Austria 10 44

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1867 Samurai seize control in Japan and launch Meiji Restoration 12 47
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War 11 42
1870-1878 Kulturkampf attack on Catholic Church in Prussia 11 43
1871 Civil war in France 11 43
1872 Birth of Tragedy (Nietzsche) 13 52
1873 Three Emperor’s League created 12 47
1880-1914 New Imperialism period 12 46
r. 1881-1894 Alexander III 11 43
1882 Tewfiq leads anti-European riots in Egypt 12 45
1883 Modern social security laws in Germany 11 45
1884 Third Reform Bill of 1884 passed in England 11 44
1884 Berlin Conference divides Africa 12 46
1885 Germinal (Zola) 10 41
r. 1888-1918 William II 11-12 43-44, 47
1893 Bill to give Ireland self government introduced by Gladstone 11 44
1897-1904 Herzl leads Zionist movement 11 44
1898 Dreyfus Affair 11 44
1898 Battle of Omdurman 12 46
1898 Philippines taken by US after Spanish American War 12 46
1898 Hundred days of reform in China 12 47
1899-1902 South African War 12 46-47
1899 Evolutionary Socialism (Bernstein) 12 45
1899 White Man’s Burden (Kipling) 12 46
1900-1903 Boxer Rebellion 12 47
1904 Russo-Japanese War 11-12 42, 47
1905 Revolution of 1905, Bloody Sunday, October Manifesto in Russia 11 42
1907 Cubism founded by Picasso 13 53
1908 Young Turks seize power in revolution in Ottoman Empire 11 43
1912 German Social Democratic Party gains great electoral victory 11 43
1914-1918 World War I (“Third Serbian War”) 12 47-51
1915 Lusitania sank by German submarine 12 48
1917-1921 Russian Revolution 12 49-50
1917 Balfour Declaration 12 51
1919 Treaty of Versailles 12 50-51
1919 Bauhaus opened by Gropius 13 53
1919 Economic Consequences of the Peace (Keynes) 13, 15 54, 61
1920 Melba sings on the radio 13 53
1920 France occupies the Ruhr district 13 54
r. 1920-1938 Mustafa Kemal 12 51
1921 New Economic Policy launched by Lenin 14 56
1922 Emmanuel III calls on Mussolini as dictator of Italy 14 57
1923 Failed armed uprising by Hitler’s Nazis 14 57
1924 Dawes Plan 13 54
1925 Mein Kampf (Hitler) 13-14 54, 57-58
1927 Stalin achieves supreme power in the USSR 14 56
1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact signed 13 54
1929 Stock market crash in US triggers Great Depression 13 54-55
1929 Lateran Agreement 14 57
1932 Roosevelt elected with promises of the New Deal 13 55
1932 Man-made famine in Ukraine 14 56

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1933 Enabling Act passed in Germany 14 58
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War 14 58
1936 Popular Front formed in France 13 55
1939-1945 World War II 14 59-60
1939 Munich Conference 14 58
1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 14 60
1945 Yalta Conference 15 60
1946-1951 Great Purge of Communist Party 14 56
1947 Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan 15 60
1947 India gains independence as two states 15 61
1947 Palestine divided into Arab and Jewish states 15 61
1948 Tito succeeds in gaining independence for Yugoslavia 15 61
1948 Nationalist revolution in Egypt led by Nasser 15 61
1949 1984 (Orwell) 13 53
1949 NATO & Warsaw Pact form 15 60
1949 Mao forces Nationalists to withdraw to Taiwan 15 61
1950-1953 Korean War 15 60
r. 1955-1964 Nikita Khrushchev 15 61-62
1955-1975 Vietnam War 15 62
1957 Treaty of Rome creates Common Market 15 61
1961 Berlin Wall built 15 61
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 15 61
1963 The Existential Background of Human Dignity (Marcel) 13 52
r. 1964-1982 Leonid Brezhnev 15 62
1966 Friedan forms the National Organization for Women 15 63
1968 Occupation of Czechoslovakia & Brezhnev Doctrine 15 62
1968 Students in France begin nationwide strike 15 62
1970 Brandt flies to Poland in treaty of reconciliation 15 62
1972 Watergate Scandal 15 63
1973 OPEC declares embargo on oil shipments to the US 15 63
1975 Final Act of the Helsinki Conference 15 62
r. 1979-1990 Margaret Thatcher 15 63
1980 Gdansk Agreement & formation of Solidarity 15 63
r. 1981-1995 Francois Mitterrand 15 63, 65
r. 1982-1998 Helmut Kohl 15 64
r. 1985-1991 Mikhail Gorbachev 15 63-64
1989 Revolutions in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia 15 63-64
1990 East and West Germany merge 15 64
1990 Paris Accord officially ends Cold War 15 64
r. 1991-2000 Boris Yeltsin 15 64
1991 Gorbachev kidnapped, USSR ceases to exist 15 64
1991 Maastricht Treaty 15 65
1992 Russian shock therapy brings about economic crisis 15 64
1995 UN intervenes in Yugoslavia against Milosevic 15 65
1997 Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic join NATO 15 65
r. 2000-2008 Vladmir Putin 15 65
2001 Terrorist attack on World Trade Centers in US 15 66
2003 US and Britain invade Iraq 15 66
2004 New constitution of EU rejected 15 65

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Unit 1 Study Guide- Middle Ages and the Renaissance:
12.3 The Hundred Years’ War Pg 381-

• English held Aquitaine since Treaty of Paris; France wishes to reclaim it and does so under Philip VI. In the meantime,
Edward III, related to the last king of France, attempts to claim French throne.
• Both governments manipulated public opinion to support their way. Wealth and advances made (⇑ pay for soldiers, ⇑
tech). Rep. assemblies develop in England, but French found that idea distasteful. France wasn’t united; weak monarchs.
Eventually an early form of nationalism develops in both countries.
• England wins in the beginning at Crecy and Agincourt, but after Joan, French take everything back.

Treaty of Paris • French/English treaty in 1259 making Eng king vassal of French for Aquitaine
Aquitaine • Are claimed by Eng as ancient inheritance
Edward III • English ruler for start of War- tried to claim French crown
Philip VI • French king for start of War; confiscated Aquitaine
Flanders • Wool trade w/ England served as base for good economy
Joan of Arc • French peasant girl rallied French to victory streak
Charles VII • Newly crowned French king due to Joan’s visions
Orleans • Battle of Orleans Joan went to and French won
Rep. assemblies • Flourishing style of gov in Eng from 1250-1450

12.4 Challenges to the Church Pg 387-

• Great Schism until 1417 divided Christians everywhere and exposed need for reform
• New ideas: assemblies representing all Christians, church subordinate to state, read Bible for themselves, laypeople
support individuals doing good
• Great council met in Constance (1414-1418) to resolve new threefold scheme, reform church, and wipe out heresy
 Jan Hus condemned (Czech reformer) & all popes replaced by Martin V
• Laity began exercising control: work in everyday lives, self-teach religion; “mysticism” = individual alone talks to God
• Brethren of the Common Life lived simple, did good deeds, emphasized personal virtues (modern devotion)
• Mystical experiences marked devotion: Bridget of Sweden saw visions of Mary & gave advice

Clement V • Pope pressured by Philip the Fair to settle in Avignon of France


Babylonian • 1309-1376 the popes lived in Avignon; damaged papal prestige & Rome suffered
Captivity
Gregory XI • Brought papal court back to Rome but died soon
Urban VI • Rome side of the Great Schism; Italian
Clement VII • Avignon side of Great Schism; elected by cardinals who hated Urban VI
Great Schism • Clement VII vs Urban VI; confused Christians everywhere
Conciliarists • Believed that reform of the church should use assemblies representing all Christians
Marsiglio • Writer of “Defensor Pacis”; argued that church was subordinate to state
Wyclif • Urged abolition of saints; read Bible for themselves- followers = “Lollards”
Martin V • Roman cardinal elected to end Schism
confraternities • Voluntary lay groups working in everyday life to do good
Kempis • Imitation of Christ summarized lay spirit to take Christ as model: perfect simple life

13.1 Economic and Political Developments Pg 408-

• “Geography is destiny”: sea trade (Venice), land trade (Genoa/Milan), ships (Genoa/Venice), & banking (Florence)
• 5 central powers: Venice, Milan, Florence, Papal States, and Naples
• Venice run by republic (actually oligarchy), Milan by republic (actually Sforza signori family), Florence secretly by
Medici banking family (first modern adapter & patron); major city states controlled smaller ones
• Balance of power developed- when one grew too powerful, the other city states rose against it, but this made an inability
for common alliance  invasions

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Vasari • Coined term “Renaissance”
Edward III • (Eng) forced Florence bankers to bankruptcy
communes • associations of free men seeking independence from nobles
oligarchy • Merged nobility and commercial elite that ruled communes
popolo • Common people; resented exclusion from power
condottieri • Powerful military leaders brought in by oligarchies
signori • Condottieris turned dictator of commune
courts • Palaces transformed from power oligarchs’ homes- center of political business
Alexander VI • reasserted papal authority w/ son Borgia (hero of The Prince)
Savonarola • predicted French invasion of Italy & attacked morality of Pope
Charles VIII • French king invaded Italy  Habsburg-Valois Wars
Charles V • Led attack on Rome

13.2 Intellectual Change Pg 412-

• Humanism, individualism, and secularism develops, education reforms into humanist views, women still treated
unequally but have more opportunities, Machiavellian techniques
• Christian humanism mixed Italian ideas with own ethical Christian traditions
• New printing spreads ideas; rulers uses books to print laws/propaganda but worried about “bad ideas”; ⇑ literacy

Petrarch • First realized “living in new age”


Bruni • Coined “humanism”; against education of women
Mirandola • “On the Dignity of Man”; man made in image of God
Alberti • individualism- man can do anything if they will; “On the Family” stressed wife’s role
Cellini • individualism- “Autobiography”; certain of own genius
Vergerio • designed early education system: instructed in public life
Joan Kelly • “Did women have a Renaissance?”
Castiglione • “The Courtier” – what a young gentleman should be
Machiavelli • “The Prince”- how a ruler should gain/maintain/increase power: cunning and ferocious
Valla • secularism- “On Pleasure”: pleasures highest good, “On the False Donation of Constantine”: says
document giving papacy rule over several places in W Europe was fake
Boccaccio • secularism- “The Decameron”: fiction portrays of worldly society
Julius II • went along with secular ideas; improved art in churches
More • Christian humanist- “Utopia”
Erasmus • Christian humanist- “The Education of a Christian Prince” & “Praise of Folly”: education is reform,
study Bible/classics, Christianity is an inner attitude, critical of Catholicism
Gutenburg • Metalsmith; recognized use of metal stamps in jewelry as printer
Clocks • First mechanic clock  much more reliable way of tracking time; measure of “hour” used
Cereta • Renaissance feminist- wrote letters to other intellectuals (fought for education & marriage)

13.3 Art and the Artist Pg 421-

• Art manifested corporate power; artists grew rich as patrons paid them to produce art for them; job as artist grew in fame
and honor- several artists grew egos from power
• New art focused on humanist and individualist ideals
• Young artists trained under old ones- top artists = Botticelli, Raphael, Michaelangelo, da Vinci
• Women artists rare; types of art women were in (textiles, needlework) considered minor, and excluded from other things
like male nude, frescoes, etc.
• Most artists came from families with money; gulf between educated and uneducated rose

patrons • People that supported artists to glorify their homes with art
Giotto • Led way to realist paintings that replaced formal stiffness of humans
Francesca & • Pioneered perspective in painting

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Mantagna
Donatello • Most influential sculptor before Michaelangelo; revived classical figure
Masaccio • Father of modern painting; new style w/ realism, narration, use of light/dark
da Vinci • “genius” label; Mona Lisa and The Last Supper; multi-talented (inventions also)
Brunelleschi • designed orphanage hospital- sense of balance and harmony
Weyden & Eyck • northern equals of Italian painters; more religious, detailed, human personality
Michaelangelo • “divine”; worked for Julius II as sculptor
Sanzio • commissioned for frescoes (rapid watercolor on walls) in papal apartments
Titian • “mannerism”- distorted figures for emotion
Aretino • addressed Michaelangelo as “divine”
Durer • German painter of the North Renaissance- most influential there; woodblock paints

13.4 Social Hierarchies Pg 428-

• Division between educated and educated, division on race (blacks as slaves were widely sought after as servants,
amusement, etc not to mention thought of as “evil”), division on class (noble vs commoner; wealth set people apart),
Jews obliged to wear special symbols, women still looked down

gens/nation   • “people/nation”; used to refer to ethnic/religious groups in law codes


“blood” • idea of having “French blood”, “Jewish blood”, etc.
race • used to describe “blood” groups and also other adjectives like “educated men”
• not used as currently used, but did differentiate skin color
Blumenbach • first used “Caucasian” to describe light-skinned European and western Asian people
Iberian Peninsula • location of most blacks; captured and sold to Portuguese as slaves
Orders • Medieval division into 3 groups: prayer people, fighters, and workers
Debate about • Began in Renaissance- questioned status of women; metaphor: snail/tortoise; subordinate to men,
women but some excel
Boccaccio & Pizan • Compiled lists of famous and praiseworthy women; defended them in “debate about women”
Elizabeth I • Regarded as “masculine” due to being successful as female ruler

13.5 Politics and the State in the Renaissance Pg 434-

• Monarchs rebuilt countries by expanding, cutting off nobles, Machiavellian techniques, gaining control over religion, etc
• Jews persecuted heavily in Spain; forced conversion into “New Christians”, but even then persecuted and eventually
driven out of Spain

Charles VII • Began recovery in France (crowned by Joan)


(France) • Reconciled Burgandians and Armagnacs (civil war for 30 years)
• Reorganized royal council to increase middle class influence over nobles
• More royal finance by raising gabelle (tax on salt) and taille (land tax)
• Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges asserted rights of king over church in France
Louis XI • “Spider King”- cut into urban independence to raise money
• Invaded Burgundy and brought in Anjou/Bar/Maine/Provence
Louis XII & Anne • Marriage added Brittany to French state
Francis I • Reached Concordat of Bologna w/ Pope Leo X: pope receives first years’ income but French king
appoints bishops
Henry IV • Lost to aristocracy; violence, Black Death, death all occurred
(Eng) • War of the Roses as York and Lancaster went through civil war
Henry VI • Mentally disturbed English king let authority sink slower
Edward IV • Began establishing domestic tranquility
• Ended War of Roses; defeated Lancastrian forces
• Conducted foreign policy based on diplomacy- less dependence on money
Richard III • Helped Edward IV (brother) restore order and crush nobles w/ Machiavellian ways

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Arthur & • Henry VII’s son w/ Spanish daughter – secured international recognition of Tudors
Catherine
Henry VII • Distrusted nobility; put center of authority in royal council
• Court of Star Chamber used terrifying methods to issue law
• Tudors relied on support of unpaid local officials (justices of the peace)
• Rebuilt monarchy and left England in peace
Ferdinand & • Spanish king/queen: revived old institution of hermandades; popular groups in towns given
Isabella authority as local police to curb rebellion
(Spain) • Lowered influence of nobles; middle class gained power in council
• Secured right to appoint bishops in agreement with Alexander VI
• Victory in invading Granada
• Drove out Jews/ forced conversion; set up Inquisition against these “New Christians”
Sixtus IV • Authorized Inquisition to persecute “New Christians”
Joanna & Phillip • Spanish daughter brings in Burgundian Netherlands and Holy Roman Empire
Charles V • Their son succeeds vast empire
Philip II • His son adds Portugal to Spanish crown

Book: The Black Death

• Causes have many theories, including carrier rats with fleas, delivered by ship to Sicily in 1348
• 2 types: one killing within a day with blood coughing, other lasting a week with gavocciolo tumors
• People not prepared (high population/disasters/little medication/unsanitary)  belief in supernatural causes/cures 
Flagellants and persecution of Jews
• Estimated 1/3 of Europe died, ⇑ peasantry discontent, landlords argue over extra land, drop in education and skill  fall
in standards, drop in Church membership but rise in spirituality, ⇓ public morality, etc.

Unit 2 Study Guide- The Reformation:


14.1 The Early Reformation Pg 445-

• Anticlericalism rose on 3 disorders: immorality, ignorance, and pluralism (absenteeism)


• Drunkenness, gambling, concubines, etc
• Standards for ordination low; education casual- priests often less educated than the laity
• Pluralism- clerics held benefices (offices), paid poor priests to fulfill spiritual duties of local church instead of doing
it themselves, and just collected incomes
• Local resentment of clerical privileges; city leaders began opposition
• Luther’s obsession with guaranteeing salvation led him to doubt monastic life, eventually concluding that faith alone
guaranteed salvation, not good works or indulgences  main theme of Protestantism
• Power of language- hymns, psalms, catechisms, etc; very linguistically skilled
• Translated New Testament to German
• Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation demanded German rulers to reform
• On Secular Government instructed Christians to obey secular rulers for order
• Originally supported Peasants’ War but later opposed its violence to legal secular powers
• Married- models of Christian charity and obedience
• Protestantism ideals:
• Four Protestant ideas: salvation by faith, authority only rests in word of God (individual interpretation), church
consists of all Christians, and all vocations have equal merit.
• Debate about Eucharist/communion: Zwingli believed bread/wine were symbolic, Luther believed they actually
became body/blood of Christ by action of God
• Educated people attracted to individual interpretation of Bible, nuns remained but believed

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• Marriage praised as “remedy” for lust- proper ones reflected proper hierarchy (wife obedient); divorce allowed as
desperate last resort, but prostitution condemned
• Controversy over art and music among Protestants and Catholics
• Zwingli believed only Bible used to spread the Gospel (Swiss Protestants removed organs)
• Luther believed in using it to spread Gospel message
• Calvin believed art deprived God of his glory- bare simplicity should be used
• Catholics believed images were to honor God
• Everyone used art as propaganda and to arouse the laity
• Radical Reformation- believed in break from past and separate the church/state
• Against infant baptism; often pacifists and refused to hold office/swear oaths
• Persecuted and executed, but ideas survived through Quakers, Baptists, Constitution, etc.

The Praise of Folly • Erasmus’ condemnation on superstitions and rituals of Church


Staupitz • Luther’s confessor, directed him to study Paul’s letters
Archbishop Albert • Sought to be bishop of other territories, used indulgences for money
Tetzel • Salesman of indulgences
Indulgence • Signed piece of paper by pope bought to reduce time in purgatory and repay sins
Penance • Religious act (pray/fast) done to confess sins
Purgatory • Place souls on way to Heaven stopped to make amends for earthly sins
95 Theses • October 31, 1517: posted on door of Wittenburg Castle
Johann Eck • Formally debated with Luther at Leipzig in 1519
Diet of Worms • First diet held by Charles V where Luther spoke
Zwingli • Important early reformer with Luther- Christian life rested on Scriptures
Transubstantiation • Catholic dogma where by the priest, the bread/wine of Mass became actual body/blood of Christ
German Peasants’ • Peasants revolt w/ 12 Articles vs nobles, citing Luther, but use of arms turns him against them
War of 1525 • Lost appeal of Reformation, and strengthened authority of lay rulers
Anabaptists • Radicals supporting re-baptization of enemies, separation of church/state, & against infant baptism
Cranach (Elder) • The Ten Commandments woodcut spread evangelical theology
Cranach (Younger) • True and False Churches subtly showed pope as “false church”; many levels

14.2 The Reformation and German Politics Pg 457-

• Marriage used politically as cheaper way to gain land


• Charles V had to maintain political and religious unity of a wide spread of territory
• German nationalism rose and together they fought for Protestantism and independence
• Battle in Switzerland  treaty of neutrality allowed self-determination of religion
• Military alliance formed after Augsburg Confession denied; Charles V couldn’t respond (tied up in Habsburg-Valois
Wars w/ France)  complicated political maneuvering (empire falling apart)
• Initial success in 1546 fighting  pope and France didn’t want Charles too powerful; helped Lutheran princes 
Charles loses and Peace of Augsburg signed
• Ended religious war in Germany, but put life in hands of territorial rulers; also no freedom of religion

Habsburgs • Used advantageous marriages to increase power:


• Holy Roman emperor Frederick III married Eleonore of Portugal
• Son Maximilian married Mary of Burgundy
• Other offspring married Ferdinand/Isabella’s kids, inheriting Spain
• Charles V inherited diverse states covering ½ of Europe- centuries of conflict
Cantons • 13 large territories of Holy Roman Empire; divided on Catholic vs Protestant
Imperial Diet • met in 1530 under Charles V to halt religious division
Augsburg • Lutheran statement of faith presented during Imperial Diet; rejected
Confession • Result: military alliance formed; war begins
Peace of • Charles signs this to officially recognize Lutheranism and permit each territory to decide for
Augsburg themselves Catholic or Lutheran
• Ended strong central empire; each individual territory self-ruled

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14.3 The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Pg 459-

• Henry VIII’s desperate search for a son was the motive for the Church of England
• Calvin’s ideals aroused high standard of morality: complete mastery of Scriptures and eloquence
• Predestination served as dynamic forcing people to undergo hardships in struggle vs evil
• Geneva seen as “perfect school of Christ”- compelling force in international Protestantism

Henry VIII • King of England led to major changes, mostly by searching for a son
1. Catherine • Henry’s wife (originally married to Henry’s brother Arthur)
• Henry wanted to annul the marriage for not having a son
2. Anne • Henry’s new love interest, later beheaded for not having a son
Clement VII • “imprisoned” by Charles V (Catherine’s nephew)  refused to annul marriage
Two Acts • Act in Restraint of Appeals and Supremacy Act broke England from Catholic Church and set up
Eng Crown as highest power, and head of Church of England
Fisher/More • Dissenters of two Acts; beheaded
3. Jane • Third wife: gave birth to sick song, but died in childbirth
Cromwell • Henry’s chief minister- convinced him to dissolve Eng monasteries
Pilgrimage of Grace • Massive multi-class rebellion to English Church; loyal to Catholic Church
Ireland • Church of Ireland established, rebelling against England w/ armed forces
• Harshly repressed and confiscated
Edward VI • Son of Jane; short rule exerted strong Protestant ideals
Cranmer • Book of Common Prayer- first order for English services under Edward VI
Mary Tudor • Catherine’s daughter; short rule = sharp turn to Catholicism
• Alienated subjects w/ marriage to Philip (son of Charles V) and Catholic move
Elizabeth • Anne’s daughter; famous ruler chose middle math between Puritans and Catholics
• Elizabethan Settlement and Thirty Nine Articles summarized Anglican Church
Calvin • Sudden transition to Protestanism; set up Genevan “city that was a church”
• Institutes of Christian Religion published Calvin’s ideas
• Predestination- pessimistic view that people were predetermined to be saved
• Genevan Catechism- set Q and A book gave people instruction in new religion
Genevan Consistory • Company of Pastors (12 laymen, Calvin in charge) regulated conduct down to smallest individual
things (family fights), with harsh punishments and torture
Servetus • Denied scriptural basis of Trinity and rejected child baptism in Spain; arrested but escaped to
Geneva, only to be rearrested and burned at stake
Knox • Reform in Scotland- Presbyterian Church (Book of Common Order)

14.4 The Catholic Reformation Pg 466-

• Counter Reformation began 30 years later; in the beginning most popes resisted calls for reform

Paul III • Began papal change; center of reform movement rather than opponent
Holy Office • Set up to oversee Inquisition and charge for heresy
• Index of Prohibited Books = catalogue of forbidden reading
• Little influence outside of papal states, but destroyed heresy in them
Council of • Ecumenical council attempted reconciliation with Protestants- impossible, but changed:
Trent • Gave equal validity to Scriptures and tradition, reaffirmed 7 sacraments
• Tridentine decrees strengthened ecclesiastical discipline
• Seminary for education/training of clergy, with curriculum and preference to poor
• Choosing clergy based on vocations (callings) and purity
• Emphasized instruction of laity and uneducated
• Stressed claustration (enclosure of religious women)
Clandestine • Secret marriage common practice; ended by Tametsi decree
Merici • Founded Ursuline order of nuns, focusing on education of women
Loyola • Founded Jesuits- resisted spread of Protestantism and spread Catholicism

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• Spiritual Exercises directed individual to reform of life
• highly centralized organization was hard to join, but very successful
• End justifies the means- used spying and other methods
Teresa • Saint and Doctor of the Church- entered nun Convent, found it luxurious
• New convent had 4 principles: poverty, enclosed from material world, class distinctions forbidden
(rejected “purity of blood”), emphasized obedience

Packet: Address to the Christian Nobility-

• Luther had no intention of a new church; only sought reform of morals, but a visit to papal court in 1510 shocked him at
how the papacy was disillusioned.
• 3 walls of papacy blocking reform: Spiritual power above temporal power, only pope may interpret scriptures, and no
one may summon a council but the pope.
• Every Christian is a priest: laymen could be their own priest without consecration if done right

Packet: Weber Thesis-

• Weber claimed four influence to capitalism: modern state, rational law, modern science, Calvinism
• Predestination created intense loneliness/anxiety; mechanism of relief = material success; businessmen followed
material interests (so long as morals remained), believing in fulfilling duty
• Divine Providence justified unequal distribution of goods
• Triumph of rationality over tradition
• Justified with Franklin’s writings that business was an ethic
• Weber’s Thesis kept in front line by critiques that, although valid, did not destroy the basics of Weber
• Dickson and McLachla: Franklin’s theories were prudential advice rather than morals
• Robertson: Catholics and Protestants had same ideas as Calvinism on capitalism
• Fanfani: capitalism was already a growing force due to things other than religion
• MacKinnon: Calvinist concepts of the calling misinterpreted; heavenly not material service
• Tawney: capitalism led to Protestantism, not the other way around
• Viner: Calvinism restrained economic development; EX- Scotland

Packet: Elizabeth I-

• Henry VIII was charmed by Anne Boleyn, a very well learned “heart collector” (Percy, Wyatt)
• Henry VIII used Leviticus to justify divorce w/ Catherine; God was punishing him for marrying his brother’s wife by not
providing a son  Cardinal Wolsey’s job
• Marriage with Anne took a long time; Anne grew impatient and they had to have a small, secret marriage and divorce
with the help of Cranmer, who replaced Wolsey
• Anne slowly lost approval in Henry’s eyes; had to butter up to him in an attempt to regain approval
• Catherine dies in 1536; Henry now free to marry someone else if he found Anne tiring
• When the third attempt at a child with Anne failed, Cromwell was put to the task of charging Anne
• False evidence used to prove Anne had threatened Henry and been violated by Smeaton

Unit 3 Study Guide- Religious Wars and the Age of Exploration:

14.5 Religious Violence Pg 472-

• Protestants and Catholics begin violent battles against each other after Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
• Huguenots in France attracted to “reformed religion”- Calvinism; civil wars begin
• Calvin wrote in French, Huguenots were reform-minded, and offered independence
• Weak monarchs: sons of Henry II were dominated by mother Medici; nobles gain power
• Reign of Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) restored peace when he converted to Catholicism from Calvinism but allowed
Huguenots freedom of worship in selected towns.
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• Charles V quit and divided territories between brother Ferdinand and son Philip II
• 17 self-governing provinces of the Netherlands annoyed by Phillip II’s attempts at religious unity
• Calvinism and it’s intellectual seriousness, moral gravity, emphasis on labor, and encouragement of opposition to
authority appealed to middle classes of North Netherlands- banded together and rebelled
• War: Dutch winning under William the Silent, but when he was assassinated, looked for help
• Elizabeth I of England reluctantly sent money and troops, fearing Spanish invasion

Treaty of Cateau- • 1559 treaty between France and Spain ended the long Habsburg-Valois Wars with Spain as the
Cambresis victor- did not bring peace however
Francis I • In attempt to raise revenue, used sale of public offices and treaty w/ papacy
• Offices sold were hereditary- only temporary source of $
• Concordat of Bologna- supremacy of papacy over council recognized in return to right to
appoint bishops- power over church and money and offices to sell
• Established Catholicism as state religion
Huguenots • French Calvinists, usually nobles attracted to independence and reformation
Iconoclasm • Acts of Reformation carried out by the common people in mobs, attacks on art, etc.
St Bartholomew’s • Savage Catholic attack on Calvinists during marriage of Margaret (king’s sister) to Henry
Day Massacre (Huguenot)  led to 15 year civil war
Politiques • Moderates of both faiths that believed in restoration of monarchy to stabilize France
Henry IV • Groom of Massacre- became Catholic, restored internal peace in France
Edict of Nantes • Henry’s policy granting liberty of conscience/public worship to Huguenots
Phillip II • Inherited Spain, Low Countries, etc. from father Charles V when he quit
• Dream to reunify Europe under Catholicism
Council of Blood • Tribunal opened by Alva (sent to pacify Low Countries) executing dissidents
Union of Utrecht • 7 north provinces in the Netherlands declaring independence from Spain (Calvinist)

15.2 European Voyages of Discovery Pg 492-

• Europeans expanded after Black Death and others collapsed their trade, because:
• Revival in activity = more demands for luxury goods, precious metal to trade, and supply of goods
• Spices were marvel and mystery- many uses
• Eager to spread Christianity (religious fervor)
• Eagerness for glory to own country and curiosity of physical universe/attracted to lavish tales
• Lack of opportunity at home- aristocracy controlled best land, merchants dominated industries
• Growth in government power  enough money and ability to support expeditions
• Sailors wanted to escape poverty, immigrate, or get some money, but many were poor people forced
• Technology: caravel replaced large/hard to manage/weak galleys, cannon allowed for sea warfare, advances in
cartography/navigation, astrolabe, magnetic compass, etc.
• Some argue that tech was stolen from other countries, other that advances weren’t important, that tech rose to
meet the needs of exploration, instead of being a precursor.
• Life at sea was dangerous- overcrowded, smelly, hunger, badly paid, little water, animal diseases
• Portugal became successful under support of Henry- wanted gold, to Christianize Muslims, and glory
• Began in Ceuta, Morocco, and soon to Madeira/Azores islands in the Atlantic
• First African settlement in Arguim, Mauritania  thriving plantations and access to gold
• Under Manuel, Cabral set up trading posts in India (Lisbon)
• Albuquerque had to use cannon to blast into port city-states- became standard for imperialism
• Columbus set sail for what he thought was India for Spain (rejected by Portugal and Ferd/Isa first)
• Believed in self as “divine agent” for Christianity, wanted to meet Khan and find direct route to Asia
• Experienced in trade and sea (portolans- navigation descriptions), although some calculations wrong
• At Bahamas, believed Japanese islands, named San Salvador- described natives as good slaves
• In Cuba, after no huge cities, gave up on meeting Khan and instead followed rumors of gold
• Conquest and colonization, but with little capacity to govern Hispaniola rebelled  Columbus arrested, but quickly
cleared (though territories lost and given to royals)
• Cruel, ineffective governor, did not actually discover America, never realized scope of achievement
• Columbus’ letter to Ferdinand and Isabella describing discoveries quickly spread and inspired others
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• After dangers of Magellan, Spain gives up competition for spice trade
• Dutch had most success in spice trade- DEIC gained control of African/American trade
• English/French had less results- Cabot from Eng found Newfoundland, but Henry VII lost interest. Cartier from
France explorers Canada and founds Quebec
• Spanish search for wealth begins Cortes’ conquest of Aztec Mexico
• Aztec Empire originally strong, sophisticated, heart of civilization, but destroyed by Cortes in 2 yrs
• Bad crops and symbolic disasters unnerved and demoralized Aztecs, plus their religion that called for constant
warfare resulted in my recently defeated tribes (Totonacs) ready to revolt and help Cortes
• Montezuma welcomes Spaniards to Tenochtitlan (capital) in February 1519, who take him hostage, but later kill
him after losing men to Aztecs
• Alvarado’s harsh rule while Cortes was gone temporary drove revolts- Cortes returned and beat them (thanks to
Aztecs allowing them to rejoin due to ceremonial beliefes)
• Systemic conquest of Mexico began with Cortes’ victory over Aztecs near Lake Texcoco
• Even more amazing was the Inca’s defeat by Pizarro of Spain
• Inca’s civilization rivaled Europe’s- roads, gov, tax, no disasters, troops, seclusion
• Believed claims in being sent by God (Virocha, Inca’s God)
• Atauhualpa wins battle for Incan crown  too confident and goes to meet Spaniards unarmed
• Spain collects huge ransom, then kills Atauhualpa  decades of violence/resistance, but Spain wins

Henry the • Portugal Prince, strong supporter of exploration despite failures, led to Portugal’s success
Navigator
Oviedo • General History of the Indies gave detailed account of New World- captured imagination
Geography • Ptolemy’s synthesis of geographical knowledge- errors (no America) but led to new maps
John II • Under him, Portugal penetrated to Timbuktu, Africa, gaining control over African gold
Diaz • Portugal explorer rounded Cape of Good Hope at southern tip of Africa, but turned back
da Gama • Portugal explorer found sea route to Indian Ocean trade by rounding Africa
• Brought back spices but no trade alliances (hostility, esp from Muslims)
Columbus • Voyages to America for Spain
Santa Fe • Named Columbus viceroy over any of his discovered territories and gave him rewards
capitulations
Vespucci • Wrote about Venezuela discovery- first to describe America as separate from Asia
• America named after him, although Columbus was first to discover it
Tordesillas • Pope Alexander VI’s treaty gave Spain W and Portugal E of imaginary line in Atlantic
• Gave Portugal advantage when it found Brazil  Spain attempts to take its spice trade
Magellan • Sent by Spain to find direct route to spices of SE Asia  ended up going round the world
• Killed in Philippines, only 1 out of 5 ships returned after 3 years of troubles
• Proved earth to be larger and more dangerous
Cortes • Began conquest of Aztec Mexico and capital Tenochtitlan
Pizarro • Began Spanish conquest of Peru and the Incas

15.3 Europe and the Wolrd After Columbus Pg 504-

• Spanish insanely mistreated natives after carving out huge sugar estates in New World
• Exploitation, disease (little resistance to Old World diseases like smallpox), crop suffering, malnutrition, starvation,
high infant mortality, etc killed thousands
• A lot of converts to Christianity, but few in full understanding
• Amerindians mythed to be frail and weak due to deaths
• Slave trade continued despite papal threats, in favor of $, although originally w/ white slaves
• Ottoman capture of Constantinople end white slavery; people turn to Africa
• Native Indians originally used until so many died people turned to Africa
• Sugar plantations taken to Atlantic and required labor- connected sugar history w/ slave history
• Portugal dominated in slave trade (300-2000 slaves/year), brought to Lisbon to be sold
• DWIC transports slaves to Brazil and Caribbean; RAC of England gets involved
• 20% slaves died on cramped voyages full of diseases like dysentry
• Spain evolved to high standard: influential, wealthy, etc.
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• Discovery of silver in Incas  Potosi yields 60% of all silver (16 mil kg of silver to Spain in 150 yrs)
• Population increase  demand for goods  economy suffered as Jews/Muslims expelled
• Inflation, but not directly due to silver imports, more due to population
• When population declined, so did inflation, but left economy in shambles
• Inflation spread to rest of Europe when Phillip II pays debts using silver
• China controlled world trade in silver
• Phillip II did not favor religious tolerance  responses to rebellion in Netherlands
• Originally preoccupied with Ottoman invasions and Mary’s plot to kill Elizabeth
• Crippled with gout and fighting Ottoman Turks while planning invasion of Spain
• Decisive battle: quality of Spanish fleet improves, but spirit of defeatism remains
• England however is enhanced by the “David/Goliath legend”
• Eventual truce agreed recognizing United Province independence

Encomienda • Spanish system allow conquerors rights to “employ” natives; more like legalized slavery
Las Casas • Opposed bad treatment of natives  finally convinced Charles V to abolish abuses
Columbian • Age of exchange of stuff following Age of Discovery
Exchange • Immigrants sought to turn New World into Old- settled on wheat in Mexico, grapes in Chile/Peru,
olives in coastal Chile/Peru, sugar, rice/bananas to Brazil, and plants
• Columbus introduces animals, for food and travel
• Cereal/corn from Mexico, potatoes from Peru, and beans/squash/pumpkins/avocados and tomatoes
back to Europe- corn being the most important
Price revolution • Stabilization of prices after inflation and population pressure that strained budgets
Mary • Phillip II’s wife plotting to kill Elizabeth I- later executed, prompting invasion of Eng
Spanish • Phillip’s invasion of Eng- defeated by smaller, faster ships
Armada

15.4 Changing Attitudes and Beliefs Pg 513-

• New ideas about race developed from slavery


• Accounts depicted Africans as savages, sexually aggressive, primitive
• Christians believed in primitive blacks; enslavement supposedly benefited by bringing them to Christ

Skepticism • New ideal that total knowledge is never attainable; skeptics are cautious, critical, etc.
Montaigne • Concerned with cultivation of mind- retired from army to write books on the mind
• Essays proved insight on mind of civilized man
• Remained Catholic but was detached, independent, and open
• Rejected notion that one culture better than another
• Began era of doubt
Elizabethan / • Described new literature of their reigns (Elizabeth I and James I)
Jacobean • Sidney (Astrophel and Stella) influenced later poets, Spenser (Faerie Queen) was great moral epic,
Marlowe (Tamburlaine and Jew of Malta) paved way for Shakespear
Shakespeare • Original characters, diverse plots, understand psychology, gifted in language
• Julius Caeser/Pericles- classical subects/figures
• 9 history plays (Richard II, Henry IV) expressed national consciousness
• Tragedies (Macbeth/Hamlet) had many interpretations: character flaws, ambition, revenge.
Tempest • Best and last play mirrored reality in imperialism and criticized it
KJV • New Authorized translation of Bible into modern English vernacular
• Represented urge for laypeople to read; quickly popular

Packet: Witch Hunts-

• Primarily an imagined crime that reflected society’s inner fears for the “unusual”
• Tensions of high population, capitalism, plague, transformation of morals/family life  set stage
• Essentially in rural places; high numbers in urban places probably were rural people brought into city

  15  
• Some males accused, often for “political sorcery”- but mostly women (morally weaker)
• Witches supposedly sharp-tongued, huge temper, senile, myth maniacs, immoral, rebels

• Healers and cooks thought to be able to practice magic, cook potions, and blamed for deaths of patients
• Old women accused- accusations mounted over hears, too wise, gossipy, weakened sight, fearful, sexually experienced,
more lust (especially widows) satisfied by demons
• Younger women accused of love magic, heredity power, not subject to father/husband
• Married middle age accused of conflicts with family, family turning in women, etc
• Poor accused for using demons for $ or other projecting their guilt

Unit 4 Study Guide- Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe:


16.1 17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding Pg 523-

• “Age of crisis” after growth in 16th century


• From climate change, religious divide, gov pressure/power, huge army, revolts
• Poor peasants (majority of Europe): independent farmers (small # of leaders with own land), small landowners (not
self-sufficient; employed and marketed), and rural proletariat (laborers)
• Colder wetter climate  short farming season  recurrent famines  disease
• Wool textiles down, prices up, unemployment up (though not universal in all of Europe)
• Peasants and urban poor take action, attacking and taking food to resell “fairly”
• Often led by women (motherly role)- vision of moral economy (community needs > profit)
• Europe divided: France/Spain/Central Austria are absolutist, England/Dutch constitutional
• Despite political differences, common projects of protect/expand/taxes/state control shared
• Over time, government power added up to sovereignty- monopoly over justice/force
• Obstacles in authority: conveying orders slow, lack of information (census), hard to police/tax, cultural/linguistic
differences, little willingness to obey distant, and nobles
• Nobles (and church, councils, etc) shared in authority- HUGE obstacle
• Some monarchs broke noble power, others cooperated
• New sources of revenue needed
• Bargains with nobility ($ for tax exemption), higher alternate taxes
• Bureaucracies for taxing developed with officials solely accountable to king (more efficient)
• Warfare drove state-building
• Monarchs took over command- officers loyal to monarch, not themselves
• Growth in army size (France from 5000 to 340000 in 9 years)
• New army style in France: mercenary based, not royal armies
• Noble officers  high death rate; honorable position but costly (had to self-fund army)
• Other European countries followed France (Britain = largest navy)  marker of absolutism
• Popular revolts rose due to tax and prices, to a point of frequency in France that it was common
• Philip IV of Spain faced revolt in Catalonia and Portugal
• Palermo (Spanish Sicily) revolts  gov subsidized bread/made loaf lighter  uprisings continue
• Revolts wanted food, less taxes, participation in gov, but usually failed due to lack of unity/strength
• Limit of royal authority gave some leverage, but not for long.

16.2 Absolutism in France and Spain Pg 528-

• Absolutists ruled by “grace of God” and divine right (supported by Leviathan, Hobbes)
• Henry IV set the stage (nicknamed Henry the Great) from 1589-1610 (Edict of Nantes)
• Ruled with duke of Sully (Bethune) as chief minister – restored public order before being murdered
• Richelieu, Louis’ minister, was greatest servant of state- goal to subordinate competitors to monarch
• Reshuffled royal counsel  eliminated potential power, esp nobility
• Genius admin system divided France into 32 districts held by royal intendants (“noblesse de robe”)

  16  
• Reasserted principle of under one faith- attacked La Rochelle (Hugenots)
• Foreign policy to destroy Habsburgs by supporting their foes (even Protestants; treaty w/ Adolphus of Germany)
• Used raison d’etat as justification- God allows all state actions
• Louis XIV (1643-1718): longest and peak of absolutist development- wanted to enhance glory
• As boy king, Mazarin was chief minister, continuing centralizing policies
• Fronde uprisings begin w/ robe nobility (refused to rescind judicial salaries)  spread to capital
• Cont. w/ noblesse d’epee (angered by gov power)  Conde openly led war  less civil order
• Compromise needed for sword/robe nobility and king for civil order
• Received good education (spoke Italian/French/Spanish), believed in divine right, Catholic
• Ruled personally (attended councils of state), worked hard at it, no intention to share power
• Professional bureaucrats served to king but didn’t share in power
• Never used Estates-General & minister: nobility became powerless
• Spying, terror, secret force (opening letters) for control
• Revoked Edict of Nantes, destroyed Huguenot churches  departure of several skilled subjects
• Considered religion political- tool of nat unity (hated division)  won praise from aristocrats
• Colbert became controller of finances, was a financial genius
• Applied mercantilism- gov regulates economy, self sufficient, sell > buy, etc instead of pure $
• Attempted self efficiency by supporting old industries (textiles)- reinforced regulation @ industries, more
immigration/female workers, tariffs, shipping line (Company of the E Indies)
• Explored Canada for agricultural land, minerals (Louisiana)
• system: provincial estates = hard to tax (ppl paid no property taxes = burden on poor & $ stolen)
• Colbert cracked down on inefficiencies and corruption
• Kept France at war for 33 out of 54 years, pursuing title of conqueror, using “defense” as an excuse
• Tellier: secretary of state for war  professional standardized army; potential to dominate
• New methods of recruit (men off streets, conscription, lottery)  army grew
• Won Flanders/Franche-Comte/Holland (fail) @ Treaty of Nijmegen  invincible but @ limit
• War and bad harvests strained resources; Peletier succeeded Colbert as controller of finances
• Had to devalue currency, sell offices and give tax exemptions, raise taxes on commoners
• Got $ from nobels in exchange for confirming social hierarchies
• War of Spanish Succession shattered peace after agriculture crisis, less pop, less workers, isolation = seeds
• Charles II dies, will gives Philip (Louis XIV’s grandson) crown- violates treaty dividing Spain between France
and Holy Roman  Grand Alliance (Eng/Dutch/Austria/Prussia) VS Louis XIV
• Peace of Utrecht (1713) ends war on principle of partition: France/Spain never unite, France loses land,
balance of power, completes decline of Spain, ends trade expansion, expands Britain, bankrupts France
• Spain: standard features of absolutist monarchy based on silver
• Inquisition continued Catholic orthodoxy (converted Muslims expelled, destroying society)
• Seeds of disaster  Crown devalued coins, bankrupt, cancelled nat debt  nat credit plummeted
• Agricultural crisis, loss of workers/population, failure to invest well, isolation
• Colonies began own trade/industries  trade falls 60%, less metals
• Tiny middle class (moneymaking was “bad”)  ppl sought unproductive professions  inflation
• Aristocrats increased rents  peasants leave  more beggars
• Weak kings had no solutions (Philip III selfish, Philip IV did nothing, Charles II worse)
• Olivares, count-duke, managed Spain for Philip IV: new sources of revenue, but clung to imperial tradition 
Thirty Years’ War  more disaster
• Revolts in Catalonia and Portugal (led by John IV), crushed by France in Treaty of the Pyrenees
• War of Spanish Succession = fall of Spain; French victory
• Could not look to future; lacked will to reform and focused too much on strength of 16th century
• Cherished slave-produced gold/silver, military glory, strong Catholicism, pessimism/fatalism
• Cervantes tells novel about decline (idealist but impractical) in Don Quixote
• Crown divided New World land into 4 viceroyalties
• Viceroy in each over audiencia (12-15 judges), directly sovereign to Spain
• Charles III introduces intendants from France, responsible to Spain, not viceroy
• Mercantilism: colonies existed for $ for Spain (Crown got quinto- 1/5- of all metals); no native ind.
• Portugal governed Brazil in similar manner after combining with Spain
• Corregidores held judicial/military power, restrictions on ind/labor, mixed culture

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16.3 The Culture of Absolutism Pg 539-

• Culture became instrument of state power


• Glorified monarchs; everything reflected growing power of French Crown
• Court of Versailles turned into magnificent palace of grandeur, vastness, and elegance
• Model of rationality and order- overawe subjects and display greatness to public
• Required all nobles to spend time in cramped palace- elaborate rituals and honors in palace
• Baroque art/music developed “odd-shaped and imperfect pearl”- high point of culture
• Important role of Church (art to appeal senses and kindle faith)- from drama of Catholic Reformation
• Strong in Catholic countries, but Protestants had good examples also
• Rubens- most outstanding and representative of baroque painters (glorified monarchs, nudes, devout Catholic,
Christian subjects)- high social status
• Bach- not fully appreciated, but great religious cantatas/organ music
• Patronage: higher ranks protected lower in return for loyalty/services
• King had resources; favored treatment valuable  cooperation of elites
• Louvois through family ties (father Le Tellier was secretary of war) bought offices for future
• Women had influence, but no public offices (ex Maintenon, wife)
• French Classicism: emphasis on culture since Richelieu; resembled Renaissance and rejected Baroque
• French Academy began dictionary to standardize French language
• Louis favored Lully (orchestra), Couperin (regal grandeur), Charpentuer (solemn religious)
• Poussin’s art featured clarity, logic, order, and line over color
• Stage: Moliere (comedies based on social observances attacking mostly bourgeoisie- Tortuffe, Le Bourgeois
Gentilhomme, Les Precieuses reidicules), Rachine (dramas of Greek/Roman legends, good vs evil, women, and
passion- Mithridate, Britannicus)

16.4 Constitutionalism Pg 542-

• In Constitutionalism, gov is limited by law; balance between power of gov and rights of subjects
• Constitution, whether written or not, gets binding force from gov acknowledgement
• Not complete democracy- most men could not vote
• Charles I: Complete turnaround led to rebellions
• Commons gained power and money with dissolution of monasteries
• Puritans wanted to purify Anglican church of all Catholic elements- mostly Calvinist (capitalism?)
• Sympathetic to Catholics: married Catholic Maria, supported Laud (insisted on church uniformity- Court of High
Commission with new prayer book and bishoprics  Scottish rebellion
• Dissolved Parliament after quarrels- financed through illegal ways (“ship money” tax in inland areas)
• Not trusted with army: Long Parliament called to get army against Scots, but refused to cooperate
• Triennal Act forces him to summon Parliament every 3 years, impeached Laud, abolishes Court of High
Commission  Charles accepts out of fear
• Rebellion in Ireland (Catholic) pushes Charles over the edge
• Charles gives up, moves north, forms army  English Civil War
• Parliament’s New Model Army led by Fairfax and Cromwell wins  Charles refuses defeat
• Cromwell takes control (dismisses oppo. in Parli., creates “Rump Parliament”), executes Charles
• Cromwell abolishes kingship, creates Protectorate (commonwealth, but really military dictatorship)
• Instrument of Gov put executive power to Cromwell and legal to Parli, but later torn up by Cromwell
• Proclaims quasi-martial law, dividing England to 12 military districts, heavily censured
• Some religious freedom (Jews), but crushed Catholics (esp in Ireland)  bloodshed worries others
• Regulated economy: mercantilist (Navigation Act required Eng goods in Eng ships), won vs Dutch
• Restoration begins after Cromwell’s weak son  Charles II tries to get along but fails  Glorious Rev
• Problems still in persecution of religions, and king VS Parliament
• Uninterested  Parli enacts Test Act restricting other religions, but too weak
• “Cabal” of 5 men was beginning of cabinet- linked king to Parliament
• Harmony that Charles summoms Parli, Parli gives $, broken with not enough $  Charles agrees with Louis XIV to
get $ in order to return Catholicism  news sent Catholic fear across England
• Bishops imprisoned for defying king’s orders and the start of a Catholic dynasty  Rebellion
• Bloodless revolution when Mary and William were invited to rule  James flees
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• Glorious Revolution was end of divine right; recognized authority of Parli and “rule by consent of ruled”
• Bill of Rights: Parliament making law, independent jury, no standing army, Protestant
• Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government maintained gov’s function to protect natural rights (life, liberty,
property), right for rebellion, relationship between economic liberty and political freedom, representative
government (men with land only)

Elizabeth I • Political stability, manipulated Parliament, shrewd, etc


• Did not want wife submission  no marriage  no heir
James I • Devoted to divine right (Trew Law of Free Monarchy)
• Contradicted idea of taking away person’s property  enemies with Commons
• Commons guarded $ and refused to give it to James, who wanted power
James II • Succeeded Charles II, but appointed Catholics, reviving absolutism, etc.

Packet: Dutch Republic & Sister Wendy Video-

• Originally structured with oligarchy of wealthy families and provincial courts (ruled by stadholders)
• William II, stadholder of 6 provinces, takes over to make a monarchy, but dies leaving power to regents
• Amsterdam Public Bank opened (banking respected), eased risky commercial investing (Bourse Stock Exchange), good
credit = more loans, foreign merchants, livestock, higher population, etc
• Known for canals, roads, cheap vessels  dominated shipping business (Dutch E India Company)
• Religious toleration (but Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church excluded Catholics/Jews/gypsies)
• High level of prosperity but simple lifestyle: varied diet, real wages, but poor were brutally repressed
• Art reflected emotion/unity, displayed images of the land/house, but discouraged by Church
• Rembrandt- portrayed emotions, unwilling to submit to public’s taste, self-portraits
• Ruisdael- visual effects
• Steen- still lifes of household objects
• Vermeer- painted Delpht (small city), peace, straightforward
• William III forces States General to name him stadholder after wars w/ Eng and France  Orangist line
• Dutch failed to keep up to pace  decline of influence, French culture dominated, corruption in gov (more rigit/distant
and less tolerant), more aggressive army
• Sense of precariousness and vulnerability (floods)”
• Spain’s Golden Age: powerful court/monarchy, led by Philip IV- inspiration from abroad
• Las Menimas by Velasquez: king in mirror, looking at audience, stops time

Unit 5 Study Guide- Age of Absolutism in Eastern Europe:


17.1 Warfare and Social Change in Central and Eastern Europe Pg 559-

• Originating in the 1200s during economic expansion and colonization, serfdom disappeared during the 1300s, only to
reconsolidate in Eastern Europe by the 1500s.
• A battle of landlords vs peasants ended in peasant victory in the West, but landlord victory in East
• Eastern lords had more political power due to chaos- forced kings to give them power
• Eastern monarchs often were a part of serfdom and nobility, and supported both
• Landlords restricted the peasants’ right of freedom of movement, took away their status as free, took more of their
land, heavier labor, forced work without pay, manipulated legal system, all powerful
• Hereditary subjugation- peasants bound to lord from one generation to next
• Estate agriculture grew (incentive to increase production)- serfs made up for bad techniques
• Urban classes suffered- lords sold to foreigners & town importance declined as “right of refuge” died
• Uneasy truce of Peace of Augsburg (faith of prince determined religion of subjects)  30 Years’ War
• Lutherans began acquiring German bishoprics, while Calvinism spread  Protestant Union and Catholic League
formed against each other (blocked religious/territorial advance, dynastic interests)

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• Ferdinand in Bohemia closes Protestant churches  “defenestration of Prague” (Protestants throw two of
Ferdinand’s officers out the window of Prague)  Thirty Years’ War begins
• War in 4 phases: Bohemian (1618-25), Danish (25-29), Swedish (30-35), French/international (35-48)
• Bohemian: civil war in Bohemia (Catholic League & Ferdinand VS Protestant Union & Frederick)  Catholics win
at Battle of the White Mountain  Bohemia becomes Catholic
• Danish: Protestant Christian IV of Denmark lost to Catholic Albert at first, until Albert begins selfishly seeking land
 Catholics divided, but Edict of Restitution wipes out Protestant land & allows only Catholic and Lutheran faiths
 balance of power tipped
• Swedish: Protestant Adolphus in Sweden won in Breitenfeld (ending Habsburg aim to unite Germany), but dies at
Lutzen  Sweden loses at Battle of Nordlingen  France enters
• French: France enters with Protestants to oppose Habsburgs  war on Spain  standstill
• 1648 Peace of Westphalia ended Thirty Years’ War, marking turning point
• Conflicts over religion ends (recognized independence of 300+ German princes- North = Protestant, South =
Catholic); papacy’s political role restricted, only Catholics/Lutherans/Calvinists allowed
• Netherlands recognized, France gets Alsace, Sweden gets German land & $, emperors’ power limited  Holy
Roman Empire loosely knit federation
• Most destructive event so far: 1/3 urban and 2/5 rural died from disease, war, etc  Germany destroyed  Inflation
everywhere  Land lost by poor  lords got failed land/refugees  serfdom

17.2 The Rise of Austria and Prussia Pg 565-

• Royal absolutism grew in the Austrian Habsburgs from a scattered group of territories
• Habsburgs emerged from 30 Yrs War badly- real power in hands of variety of jurisdictions
• Fought against Protestant Bohemian Czechs (dominated Bohemian Estates rep. body) for unity  Ferdinand II
wins for Habsburgs at Battle of White Mountain  new Habsburgs-created Bohemian nobility  Habsburgs
directly rule Bohemia  peasants’ condition worsen (robot- 3 days unpaid labor), Protestantism stamped out,
reorganized  step towards absolutism
• Battle of Mohacs splits Hungary between Ottomans (E- Transylvania) and Habsburgs (W & N)  1540s war
between two  Hungary destroyed  1718 Habsburgs win all of Hungary
• Hungarian nobility thwarts full absolutism by revolting (mostly Protestant, Ottomons had ruled lightly and helped
military, and were nationalistic/independent) under Prince Rakoczy in 1703  Charles VI defeats Rokoczy, and
restores their traditional privileges in return for acceptance  Habsburgs never got full absolute control
• Other achievements include Ferdinand III building state power/centralizing gov, spreading sense of common loyalty
to monarch, consensus with church and nobles, huge standing army (Leopold), rise of German
language/Catholicism, growth of Vienna into center of empire (royal palace Schonbrunn), Charles VI’s Pragmatic
Sanction in 1713 allows his daughter to take control in order to keep unity
• Nobility increases serfdom and takes over more land  economy recovers into capitalist, market-oriented
agriculture  nobles rise even more as smaller landowners fall
• Prussia had a thin edge in the struggle for power, with a greater long term significance of militarism
• Originally ruled by Hohenzollern family through elector of Brandenburg (right to help choose Holy Roman
emperor, but nothing else, and located badly) and duke of Prussia (part of Poland, ethnic groups common, but
reverted to Brandenburg in 1618 when Hohenzollern family dies out)
• After being helplessly destroyed by 30 Yrs’ War, Brandenburg’s power was weak enough for Frederick William
(“Great Elector”) to ignore rights and step towards absolutism
• Long struggle for unification between Great Elector and provincial estates (Brandenburg and Prussia,
dominated by Junkers representative nobility, plus areas of Rhine)  nobles reassert control over taxes 
Elector eventually wins  estates forced permanent taxation w/o consent, estates’ power ⇓, financial
independence, superior force (revenue 3x, army 10x)
• 2 central factors: war (struggle with Sweden/Poland for Baltic, wars of Louis XIV, Tartars of Crimea invasion
in 1656-1657) softened estates and gave excuse for army growing, and nobility accepted Elector in exchange
for own privileges (taxes fell on towns/legal authority over serfs)
• Built on collaboration with elites, large centralized gov bureaucracy, rep. institutions gone (Diet of Brandenburg
didn’t meet)  son named King by Holy Roman emperor as thanks for help
• William I (“Soldier’s King”) completed grandfather’s work in building best army and military state
• Attached to military life and discipline (thought welfare of king/state depended on army)
• Expansion of absolutism (centralized bureaucracy, elimination of parliamentary estates/local gov)  conflict
with Junkers  enlisted them into army as commander of peasantry  peace

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• Hard work built best army with worst resources (38000 to 83000), honest bureaucracy, miserly, peaceful, but on
price of highly rigid society (“Sparta of the North”)

Ferdinand II • Habsburg ruler, defeated Bohemians at Battle of White Mountain, taking their land and redistributing to
loyal nobles, and reducing power of Bohemian Estates
Rokoczy • Led Hungarian nobility into rebellion in 1703 against Habsburgs

17.3 The Development of Russia Pg 572-

• Mongols took over Kievans and ruled all of China/Russia (unified by Khan) by 1242 using Golden Horde army to
terrorize  Mongol Yoke ruled for 200 yrs, w/ capital @ Saray & khan as supreme ruler
• Used “great prince” title for local princes to make them loyal (Nevsky)  hereditary great princes
• Ivan III consolidated power as great Muscovite prince around Moscow and won land (Novgorod)
• Ivan III drew on 2 sources of authority in 1480 to stop acknowledging khan as ruler
• Declared selves autocrats (sole sources of power; took over Mongol tributes and tax/postal/census)
• Claimed political (“tsar” from “caesar”) & religious (Orthodox Christianity) inheritance from Byzantine Empire
(promoted by Orthodox church and Ivan’s marriage to daughter of Byzantine)
• Consensus with high rank nobles- boyars (created new service nobility loyal to tsar and living on their land),
limited gov, & religion as source of nationalism fueled complete power over all people
• Ivan IV ruled as “Ivan the Terrible” (at 16, pushed aside mean boyars/advisers to take title of tsar)
• Selected Anastasia of Romanov family as queen
• Defeated remnants of Mongols in Kazan and Astrakhan (1552-1556)  new land and empire  abolished
distinction between hereditary boyars and temporary land  all nobles had to serve tsar
• 1557-82 waged failed war against Polish-Lithuanian state  argued with boyars (and death of Anastasia in 1560) 
reign of terror (black-clad soldiers, executions, estates broken up and given to lower service nobility, made all
servants of tsar, endless wars)  peasants/traders even more tied to land/tax  royal monopolization of
trade/industry  ⇓ middle class
• Death of Ivan IV without an hier  “Time of Troubles”, plus escaped outlaw armies (Cossacks) rebelled
• Cossacks and peasants (led by Ivan Bolotnikov) called for “true tsar” (one who would restore freedoms, lighten
taxes, etc) while relatives of tsar fought each other (used invading Swedes/Poles)
• Nobles crushed Cossacks and elect Romanov as tsar in 1613- restoration of tsarist autocracy
• Uprisings continued: 1) Nikon attempted to destroy “corrupted” Russian worship traditions  resistance from
religious commoners  “Old Believers” left church and were persecuted, 2) Cossacks revolted under Razin, but
eventually defeated
• State-building obstacles enhanced due to huge size, but Russia gains land (Ukraine and Siberia), grows
army/bureaucracy, foreign expert suggestions
• Peter the Great attempted to continue state building campaign (army and expansion)
• Fascinated by weapons; led 250 nobles on 18 month tour of western Europe to find foreign examples
• Secret alliance w/ Denmark/Poland to wage sudden war vs Sweden  Great Northern War
• Charles XI had built beautiful palace, expanded to N Germany/Finland/Estonia, but new king
• Charles XII surprised Denmark, defeating it in 1700, and proceeded to surprise Russia until 1721
• Despite early defeats, Russia won w/ reforms (new tech) at Poltava  dominant power on Baltic
• Long series of measures to increase power/strengthen army/win in Great Northern War
• Tightened Muscovy’s system: every noble had to serve in army for life, plus special forces of talented
foreigners/Cossacks, many peasants drafted for life  200000 large standing army
• Schools/universities, military-civilian bureaucracy w/ 14 ranks- all had to start low and work up
• Vast numbers of Russians hated Peter’s massive changes, which didn’t do very much anyways
• Constant war consumed 80-85% of all $, and brought only modest territorial expansion
• Western ideas flowed into Russia  required shaving beards, Western clothing, choosing own spouse at parties,
administrative service  new class of Western-oriented Russians
• Nobles hated 5 yr forced education away from home and inheritance of land by 1 son only
• Peasants saw increase in taxes (3x), serfdom bonds (many assigned to gov-owned factories for the war effort),
and the gulf between peasants and nobles
• St Petersburg became capital- showed scope of Peter’s reforms
• 8 yrs of military construction on small Swedish fortress @ Neva River, even more after Poltava

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• Architecture influenced by travels: comfortable/modern city, conforming to gov regulations, social groups
segregated by sections, carefully defined urban plan
• Built with traditional methods of burden on peasants, 25000-40000 drafted each summer w/o pay, huge tax on
wealthy, nobles/merchants forced to settle there  many deserted/died
• Improved after death in 1725 from 6000+ houses w/ Elizabeth naming Rastrelli as chief architect  many
palaces, Winter Palace rebuilt, growing city

Nevsky • Began loyalty of princes to Mongols in 1252


Romanov • Ivan IV’s grandnephew- elected as new hereditary tsar in 1613
Nikon • “AntiChrist”- attempted to strip common people of their religion
Rastrelli • Named by Peter’s daughter Elizabeth as chief architect; came from Italy in 1715 @ 15

Unit 6 Study Guide- Expansion & Daily Life:

19.1 Agriculture and the Land Pg 622-

• Mostly agrarian economy had low output due to climatic conditions that caused famine, illness, etc.
• Soil exhaustion: nitrogen in soil depleted  a year of fallow needed to restore
• Exploitation of peasants due to heavy taxes and high rents varied (bad in E. Europe, better in W)
• Agricultural revolution gradually changed technology and the system of farming
• Open-field system: medieval method of dividing land between peasants in village without enclosures; each family
followed pattern of farming in accordance w/ tradition/village leaders
• Crop rotation developed to counter soil exhaustion: 3-yr rotation (wheat-oats-fallow) replaced 2-yr rotation;
eventually adding nitrogen-storing crops to make up to 10-yr rotations.
• Common lands were open meadows set aside for animals of the community
• Enclosure movement proposed need to enclose lands into individual shares  would destroy common lands and
open field system  hurt poor rurals with little land and found opposition in wary noble landowners  coexistence
of enclosure and open field system
• Low Countries developed agricultural revolution due to dense population and growth of towns/cities
• Forced to seek maximum yields and drain swamps  Dutch experts of draining (Vermuyden, most famous, led
drainage project and reclaimed 40,000 acres of land)  Eng learns from them
• Tull of England develops better farming methods: drilling, use of horses, selective breeding
• English transformation produces 300% more food by using land enclosures  eliminated common rights  reduced
access of poor to land  rise of market-oriented estate agriculture and landless rural proletariat (proletarianization)

19.2 The Beginning of the Population Explosion Pg 625-

• Originally, Europe’s population was in a cyclical pattern with limitations of population until the 1700s
• Black Death causes sharp drop in population in 1350, followed by slow rise in Middle Ages
• 16th century surge in population outgrew food  declining living standards
• 17th century crude balance at rate of 0.5-1% growth, with large increases countered by crises checking population,
including famine, disease, and war (30 Years’ War is a great example)
• Population surged greatly in the 18th century, in all parts of Europe, mostly due to moderated death rates
• New opportunities for employment  earlier marrying age  more babies
• Declining mortality; bubonic plague disappears due to stricter quarantines and isolation
• Most medical advances not important, except inoculation against smallpox (but this was only in Eng)
• Improvements in water supply/sewerage  better public health  reduced insect population
• Transportation advances  better safeguard of food, faster spread of food

19.3 Cottage Industry and Urban Guilds Pg 628-

• Number of rural workers increased  developed of industry in rural areas (cottage industry)

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• Originally did not manufacture goods at large scale for sale, but pressures of rural poverty & need for employment
destroys urban monopoly over industrial production
• Often in putting-out system: merchant “put out” raw materials to cottage workers, who processed them and
returned finished products to merchants (many variations)
• Putting out system had competitive advantages: cheap labor abundant in poor, no regulation = changing
procedures and experiments, all sorts of goods created (sufficient, but not luxury)
• Industrial wages rose in importance, and grew in scale/complexity (many stages)
• English developed most of putting out system (most population rural)  textile industry grew
• Rural worker in small cottage had giant weaver’s loom where whole family worked
• Imbalance in manufacturing: 4-5 spinners to every 1 weaver  alternative sources for spinners, like widows and
single women (“spinsters”), and other women/daughters
• Workers and employers disputed often; much suspicion among each other
• Female workers earned little  usually poor
• Rural labor hard to control, and depended on agricultural calendar  merchants, resenting this, mainted low wages
to force “idle” poor to work  new police powers gained
• Guild system in Europe grew in cities during 17th-18th centuries, mostly in secret
• Colbert of France revived urban guilds and used them to encourage production/collect taxes
• Guild masters had detailed monopolies from Crown, also served social/religious functions
• Membership restricted to local Christian men with experience and $ (also family connections)
• This power varied around Europe (low in England, medium in France, high in Germany)
• Arguably obstructed progress, but were flexible and fostered confidence to stimulate commerce
• Guilds for women grew (Colbert allows all-female seamstress guild in Paris)  new training programs, esp in
needlework  women rise in paid labor market
• Industrious revolution occurs with reduced leisure/more work, more wage workers, and consumption
• Decisions made based on own self-interests with need for cash income, even in poor families
• Women enter labor market (though for low wages), but take control on household decisions; control over surplus
income  spurs growth of textiles that they worked in
• New pattern of all family members working for pay continued until mid-1800s

19.4 Building the Global Economy Pg 634-

• Growth of world trade, led by NW Europe: Low Countries, France, but most of all Britain
• Roots in mercantilism from France; aim to create favorable balance of trade and stockpile $
• Cromwell’s Navigation Acts monopolize trade with colonies (economic war vs Dutch, who lose)
• After victory with France, London becomes largest/richest city with big manufactured goods market
• Gradual lose of sales to Europe is made up for by colonial markets  balanced and diverse exports
• 3 rounds of wars against France (leading military, high population) for an overseas empire
• War of Spanish Succession- France and Spain lose; Peace of Utrecht forces Louis XIV to give Britain land, while
Spain gives Britain W African slave trade control
• War of Austrian Succession- Frederick the Great of Prussia seizes Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria  world
war with Anglo-French conflicts in India/N America  no territory changes
• Seven Years’ War decides competition in favor of Britain- Theresa reattacks Prussia, fails  N American fighting
over Canada (Montcalm of France/Canada vs Pitt of Britain)  Britain uses sea power to destroy French fleet and
choke French commerce
• Treaty of Paris gives Britain France’s colonies in N America  Britain monopolizes empire
• France remains powerful; colonial trade with Saint Domingue (sugar/coffee/slaves)
• British empire in North America = outlet for population  slavery
• Settlers attracted to nearly free/unlimited land vs dense population in Britain  kept what they made
• 10x increase in tobacco production, rapid increase in population, fairly high standards of living
• Demand for labor  growth of slavery (Africans imported by Spain/Portugal, then Dutch)
• Big investments in sugar plantations that spread down  more slaves  majority of population
• Atlantic slave trade develops from high demand, marking the Atlantic
• Huge increase: 6.13 mil- 52% of total- slaves shipped to Atlantic in 18th century (80,000/yr average)
• Contributed to Atlantic economy development: made possible large-scale production (4/5 of all American products)
 hard cash in Americas

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• Change in organization: Britain becomes undisputed leader in slave trade (less fighting among Europe for control)
 shore method of trading (ships on shore wait for slave traders to come out)
• Rising prices for slaves and negative consequences (wars between Africans; more arm sales)
• Dahomey kingdom makes royal monopoly of slave trade
• In kingdom of Congo Portuguese undermines monarchy and causes disorder in search for slaves
• Kidnappers spread far into interior; locally punishments become sale to slave dealers
• Considered legitimate (London becomes merge of escaped slaves) until 1775, when broad campaign vs slavery
began in women and rose to mass political movement  Parliament abolishes in Britain
• Spain revives under Philip V, who brought better leadership, new ideas, peace, authority, etc.
• Colonies increase in size and defense, along with economic improvement (silver mining recovers)
• Creoles (Spanish blood in America) becomes wealthy from mining and controllers
• Debt peonage develops from belief that Native Americas should do field work- system where ranchers kept natives
in debt bondage to work on land (form of serfdom)
• Middle group of mestizos (Spanish and Indian) aspired to join Creoles; made up 30% population
• Europeans vie for dominance in Asian trade, with Portugal in lead until Dutch/England intervenes
• Radical change begins with Dutch success in Indonesian spice trade  Dutch East India Company founded to
capture spice trade from Portugal, also took over land
• Dutch eventually control Indonesia by helping Indonesian princes VS Portugal  monopoly on spice trade, with
operations centered in Batavia (aka Jakarta)  Indian trade becomes dependent
• Failure to diversify from declining need for spices  English East India Company gains power
• Britain uses trade concessions from Mughals, eventually intervening in India (after taking it from France with Treaty
of Paris)  eventually defeats Mughals and has Clive as first governor-general
• Had to overcome vigorous Indian resistance; India becomes jewel in British Empire
• Campaign for free trade rather than mercantilism and monopolies begin
• Creoles and independent merchants wanted bigger position in overseas commerce
• Smith, in Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations establishes bases for modern economics-
preferred free competition and pursuit of self-interest
• Government had only 3 duties: defense, civil order, and sponsoring public works
• Complex capitalist ideas that were the “truth”; supported rise in real wages
• Eventually becomes basic argument for economic liberalism

20.1 Marriage and the Family Pg 653-

• Basic unit of social organization is the family: in 1700s families were late and nuclear
• Misconception- past populations did not grow quickly, and people married older in smaller families (extended 3-
generation family was rare; most lived apart from parents)
• People did not marry young; many didn’t even marry (27 yrs old+ average) due to long wait time before enough
money was made; peasants needed to wait to inherit father’s land and apprenticeships
• Laws needed to control sexual desires  legal permission needed to marry; officials believed marriage freedom =
abandoned children, more $ for welfare, etc.
• Many children worked within families while others left home to work elsewhere
• Boys would begin apprenticeships at 15 and hopefully eventually join a guild
• Other poorer boys drifted between tough jobs for money
• Girls had less opportunities but demand eventually rose  service in others’ households
• Little independence, often exploited (beaten, sexual abuse) with few laws against it
• Unwanted pregnancy  rise in prostitution, which was harshly repressed (made illegal), even though it flourished
with unemployed women  rise in venereal disease
• Still, premarital sex/illegitimate children remained low due to community controls (<1% of births)
• Most cases of premarital sex were followed by marriage
• Community controls in villages looked down on illegitimacy (viewed as grave threat to stability)  premarital sex
not done lightly; pressured by community
• Misdeeds announced loudly and humiliates offender (donkey ride)  deferred any offenders
• No control in families; many children due to primitive birth control methods
• Coitus interruptus (withdrawal) most common, while richer used “sheath” against disease
• Illegitimacy explosion of 1750-1850 from breaking patterns of late marriage/few illegitimate births
• More cases of premarital sex, and fewer men marrying women that they got pregnant

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• Cottage industry creates new opportunities  more independence, easier to get $, more flirting  earlier marriages
for love rather than economic considerations
• Growing population  more moving to cities for work  less village community controls
• Sex in promise of marriage, but many men were insecure and left the pregnant women

20.2 Children and Education Pg 658-

• Children had high mortality rates from disease (5-10%), and often abandoned
• Lower classes breast-fed infants (limits fertility and saves lives), but upper classes didn’t
• Wet-nursing- urban mothers sent babies to rural women who would nurse babies (spread disease, more babies,
higher levels of mortality- 35% died before age 1)
• Common in northern France, with government-supervised distribution network.
• Traditional, and needed as many could not afford the $ and time; few alternatives to breast milk  wet nursing
was safest affordable alternative
• With abortions illegal, many desperate women killed their baby (infanticide), which was illegal
• Other choice was to deposit in foundling homes (government hospitals)
• Became favorite of rich; example of charity, but 1/3 all babies were abandoned  growth of unwanted children
and tendency to abandon kids  demand overtook supply
• Babies in homes often died within a year (90% did not survive at all)  “legalized infanticide”
• As a result, parents could not risk emotional attachments to kids  negligence
• Gibbon wrote about the high rate of deaths leading to more children, in hope one would survive
• Emotional distance develops; Montaigne describes how he cannot love his kids
• Some cherished kids; Jonson wrote a poem about his son’s death
• All led to harsh discipline (Defoe: “spare the rod and spoil the child”, Wesley); parent must conquer children and
bring them to obedience
• Enlightenment calls for tenderness to kids and new teaching methods and freer, simpler clothing
• Rousseau, in Emile, advocates breast-feeding, natural dress, and education based on practical skills, fresh air,
exercise for boys and future domestic responsibilities for girls
• Formal education outside home increased w/ Jesuit-run special colleges, then eventually public schools
• Religious Protestant vs Catholic struggle promoted literacy as means of teaching more effectively
• Prussia led way in universal education, based on Protestant ideal that every person should be able to read the Bible
and serve the state  attendance at elementary schools made permanent in 1717
• Presbyterian Scotland had religious motives of salvation through studying Scriptures  education
• Eventual growth in literacy developed; by 1800 9/10 Scottish, 2/3 French, and ½ English males literate
• Women still lagged behind men, but grew in literacy
• Promoted growth in reading: favorite was Bible, but chapbooks (short pamphlets) were a staple, along with
devotional literature; all mostly religious
• Entertaining stories offered escape from reality, while practical literature was read by all (almanacs)
• Exposure to new ideas  ordinary people found Enlightenment ideals (Paine wrote in Common Sense attacking
evils of government and customs- influenced American Revolution)

20.3 Food, Medicine, and New Consumption Habits Pg 663-

• People still mostly dependent on grain, but diets varied


• Staff of life- bread- often expensive; workers rose in belief of just price- moral economy where prices were fair and
benefited both consumers and producers
• Rural poor had veggies, mostly peas/beans; fruit uncommon and milk usually made to sell
• Commoners loved meat/eggs but had little (harsh game laws and declining standards)
• Merchants had steady variety of foods from markets (bread/beans still the staple)
• Rich had huge, long dinners with lots of meat/wine  gout
• England depended on meat, French more on bread/veggies
• Growth of market gardening (esp in Low Countries/England)  potato became important food after initial
resistance, along with expensive tropical fruits and more sugar/tea as it became cheaper
• People often tried to resemble “respectable” people in their diet (coffee, tobacco, tea, chocolate)
• Growth in consumption and positive attitude on consumer goods led to consumer society
• New marketing campaigns: fancy boutiques, fashion extending down to lower classes also due to cheaper materials
 rise in clothing consumption (mostly women)
  25  
• Gender distinctions in dress change: men down to dark formalwear instead of vibrant colors
• Cramped homes began having inner barriers and specific room purposes, also new levels of comfort (variety of
cutlery, books, glass, coal stoves, etc) made rooms warmer, lit, comfortable, personalized
• Developments mostly in NW European and N American large cities, mostly with elite
• Medical science struggled, but saw rise in competing groups
• Faith healers- tried to drive out demons that caused disease; mostly in countryside
• Apothecaries sold drugs for every possible illness; often complex and expensive, but worked often (purging of
bowels encouraged); advertised and became new commercial culture
• Physicians (men), mostly from rich families, experimented but had to use tradition (purging, blood-letting-
considered medical “cure-all”)
• Surgeons- made a lot of progress and improved their work
• Army surgeons saved lives through amputation
• Invention of forceps  rising influence in birthing world, where men were excluded
• All = declining position of women as midwives/healers (restricted in medicine, surgeons monopolized techniques)
• Eventually, experimentations led to real advances after 1750
• Smallpox inoculation, began by Montagu (who inoculated her son with pus from smallpox), was found too
dangerous, but perfected by Jenner, who used Baconian science to discover that cowpox matter could be used as
inoculation  laid foundation for immunology
• Many patients still died from unsanitary operations without painkillers

20.4 Religion and Popular Culture Pg 671-

• People remained committed Christians; church hierarchies remained


• Local parish church remained basic unit; went beyond sermons/Communion into center of life
• Local administrative tasks of bookkeepers, charity distribution, orphanage, educator, etc
• Resident full time priest worked with assistants worked as middleman everywhere as last link of state hierarchy that
tried to control religion everywhere
• German princes put themselves at head of churches after Reformation; carefully regulated; crushed Anabaptists
(belief in church/state separation) with Catholic help, etc
• Catholic power increased: reforms in Russia (increased state control) & Spain (Spanish Inquisition)
• Jesuits displayed state power with their destruction by Louis XV and a reluctant pope
• Theresa of Austria displayed practical contribution to life: restricted entry to “unproductive” orders; successor
Joseph II used Edict on Idle Institutions to limit orders only to practical works
• Removal of images in churches and a lack of enthusiasm led to a Protestant revival
• Began in Germany, known as Pietism, calling for a 1) warm, emotional religion for everyone, 2) priesthood of all
believers (reduced gulf of clergy and laity, plus emphasized literacy/individual religious development), 3) practical
power of Christian rebirth in everyday lives  high appeal
• Wesley’s personal troubles with corrupted church (favoritism, skepticism, etc)  mystical, emotional “conversion”
 believe that anyone can have the same heartfelt conversion and blessed assurance to salvation  Methodism
(methodical devotion, rejected predestination)
• Catholicism flourished with visual contrast and intense religion/enthusiasm
• Popular strength  integration into culture  religious festivals like Palm Sunday, individual saints’ days,
pilgrimages, etc.  used as escape from work and recreation
• Jansenism, Catholic’s own form of Pietism, originated with Flemish theologian Jansen, calling for return to early
Christianity (heavy weight of original sin, predestination, etc)  outlawed
• Attracted Catholics eager for renewal, esp in French elite
• Poor experienced different form that brought people together in worship
• Urban phenomenon- many peasants held obscure faiths (magical powers, superstitions, etc)
• Others sought to purify religious practice of superstitions
• Most preferred compromise of purity and piety; attack varied widely
• Celebrations were both religious and recreational
• Carnival- time of excess preceding Lent: wild day of sin and upside-down social orders
• Urban fairs attracts variety as amusements (usually cost $)
• Blood sports- popular sports like bullbaiting and cockfighting
• Culture remained largely oral; families gathered around fireplaces to share stories; taverns developed

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Unit 7 Study Guide- Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment:
18.1 The Scientific Revolution Pg 590-

• The Scientific Revolution was the origin of a modern world and mentality
• Considered “natural philosophy”- asked questions about nature and purpose, incorporating religion
• Less rigid line between matter and spirit (unlike present time)
• Natural philosophers relied on experiments, reason, and math, not the Bible
• Held roots in long term European culture developments
• Medieval university had philosophy as major subject, more critical thinking
• Renaissance recovered works, stimulated progress by forcing people to resolve ancient controversies
• Renaissance patrons supported scientists
• Navigational problems stimulated development of scientific instruments
• New scientific method of Bacon/Descartes joined observing and experiments with general laws
• Religion and science wove together: Protestants supported questioning individual conscience
• All Western religions opposed Copernicus to some extent (tho Protestant ended up more supportive)
• Eventually became accepted in England after 1640
• Rise of new and expanding social group- scientific community: focused on expanding knowledge, competitive due to
rewards, and government support (rise in rationality)
• Did not change traditional inequalities between sexes (Curie barred from Academy), though some exceptions
(Italian academies); women still thought to focus on arts
• Generally, few practical applications; little change in everyday life

Aristotle • 4th century BC Greek philosopher; ideas formed basis of 1500s philosophy
(400s BC) • Was an understandable explanation and fit neatly with Christianity (chain of being)
• Ideas recovered and brought into harmony with Christianity by Aquinas in Middle Ages
• Motionless earth @ center of universe, w/ 10 crystal spheres around it (Heaven beyond)
• Celestial spheres of perfect “quintessence”; our world of 4 imperfect elements
• “light” (air and fire) moved up, “heavy” (water and earth) down  made up physics
• uniform force moved object at constant speed
Ptolemy • 2nd century BC astronomer- worked out rules explaining irregular movements
(200s BC) • Changing relationships between planets and stars influenced events on earth
Copernicus • Polish; desired to explain and glorify God’s work (Ptolemy’s rules were not perfect enough)
(mid 1500s) • Worked off old Greek idea that sun was at center; never Q’d sphere idea & circular orbit
• Held off publishing ideas until last year (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres- 1542)
• Copernican hypothesis: stars at rest, huge universe, earth not special
• Ideas condemned by Protestants, Calvin, later Catholics
Brahe • Leading astronomer in late 1500s- best observatory and took notes for 20 years
(late 1500s) • Limited math power  lots of data but few conclusions
• Believed all planets revolved around sun, which in turn revolved around the earth-moon
Kepler • Brahe’s assistant- took his data and made three laws using tons of math
(late 1500s – • Orbits were elliptical
early 1600s) • Planets not moving at uniform speed
• Time to make complete orbit related to distance from sun
• Mathematically proved relations of a solar system, destroying Aristotle and Ptolemy’s works
Galileo • Florentine in 1600s used controlled experiments- experimental method
(late 1500s – • Two New Sciences  described experiment with wood to prove uniform acceleration in gravity
mid 1600s) • Law of inertia proved rest was not natural; motion continues until stopped by another force
• Siderus Nuncius discovered “spheres” not perfect, and found 4 moons of Jupiter
• Dialogue on the 2 Chief Systems of the World openly defended Copernicus  tried for heresy, forced to
renounce his “errors” (Pope Urban VIII)
Newton • Late 1600s, intensely religious, integrated all ideas into one system with math
(late 1600s) • Principia showed law of universal gravitation: every body attracts every other body in a precise
relationship; force of attraction proportional to mass and inversely proportional to square of distance
between (unified whole universe in one system)

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Bacon • New experimental method via empirical research- compare and analyze results: empiricism/“induction”
(early 1600s)
Descartes • Necessary to doubt everything and use deduction to prove laws
(mid 1600s) • Reduced everything to physical and spiritual: Cartesian dualism

18.2 The Enlightenment Pg 598-

• Enlightenment shaped modern mind with rise of rationalism, belief in capability of discovering laws of society (social
science), and belief in progress  improvements
• Science brought into conflict with religion; some believed work exalted God, others tried to explain God
• Question of religious truth rose (Thirty Years War = destruction, people asked if it was worth it)
• Different customs revealed  questioning what’s “completely right”
• Enlightenment and philosophes reach highest in France
• French was international language of educated; culturally led Europe
• After Louis XIV, there was slightly more freedom (books burned, but authors not killed)
• French determined to reach and influence all, not just speculate
• Radical works circulated in satires and double meanings, and manuscript form.
• New institutions and practices helped spread Enlightenment
• Growth of books, and shift from religious books to history, law, arts, and sciences
• Censorship  “under the cloak” sales from outside  growth of criticism – often on immoral women who gained
power through charm (reading revolution)
• Salons held by women were places to talk unrestrictedly, started in Paris
• Rise in women’s power (new rococo art style developed) allowed salon development
• People like Tencin, Geoffrin, and Lespinasse were famous
• Restricted to well known, talented, etc
• New public sphere with several ways of open talking (coffee houses)
• Most new ideas didn’t reach the masses (believed to be children who needed guidance), but with cheap books ideas
spread (Menetra was low, but rose up)
• Turning point in ideas about racial difference; attempted to classify nature
• Europeans changed from grouping by nation to grouping by biological differences (own race at top)
• Claims challenged by people like Beattie and Herder, arguing all races just as worthy

Fontenelle • Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds demonstrated his attempt to make science fun
(late 1600s – • Skeptical about religion; Eulogies of Scientists: rational science vs prejudiced priests
mid 1700s)
Bayle • Historical and Crucial Dictionary concludes nothing could be known beyond doubt- skepticism became
(late 1600s) influential (open minded toleration)
Locke • Essay Concerning Human Understanding says all ideas derived from experience; birth mind is blank
(late 1600s) (tabula rasa), and ideas come from environment, which writes on the tablet
Montesquieu • The Persian Letters social satire criticized existing practices and beliefs
(early 1700s) • Opposed informal power of women in absolutism
• The Spirit of Laws argued for separation of powers to escape despotism, with strong upper class and
high courts (parlements) to defend liberty
Voltaire • More than 70 witty volumes against legal injustice and unequal treatment
(1700s) • Imprisoned for insulting regent of France; shared Montesquieu’s enthusiasm for England
• Hired to write Age of Louis XIV, praising him; also praised Frederick
• Believed in citizens depending on laws protecting freedoms and checking ambitions, also wanted
religious tolerance and a distant God who built an orderly universe
Chatelet • Housed Voltaire and studied physics/math, but still excluded
(early 1700s) • Translated Principia as greatest work, with commentary
Diderot & • Diderot, beginning as hack writer with skeptical religion, with Alembert, leading science/math, together
Alembert edited the Encyclopedia to change thinking
(mid 1700s) • Not all revolutionary, but temporarily banned by gov and Church; 17 volumes eventually published
after 15 years in 1765
• Showed humans could expand via reason, and promoted spread of knowledge

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Hume • Star of Scottish Enlightenment (after Act of Union), argued religious skepticism
(mid 1700s) • Human mind nothing but bundle of impressions; reason can’t go past experience
• Of Natural Characters said negroes and others all inferior to whites
Rousseau • Lonely outsider, suspicious and committed to ind freedom (basic goodness of ind)
(mid 1700s) • Wanted rigid division of genders (passive women)
• The Social Contract: general will (sacred) and popular sovereignty
Kant • What is Enlightenment argued that freedom to exercise reason publicly  enlightenment
(late 1700s) • Insisted laws must be obeyed; critical public sphere supported authority
• On the Different Races of Man claimed 4 races, originating from “white brunettes”
Linne • System of Nature argued that nature organized by God in an hierarchy to be discovered
(1735) • A Natural History said African blackness was a variation of originally white skin
Geoffrin • “Godmom” of Encyclopedia- broke out of cage from husband, developed salon

18.3 The Enlightenment and Absolutism Pg 609-

• Enlightenment ideals spread to enlightened absolutism, mostly in Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, Spain, Portugal,
Denmark, but mostly Prussia/Russia/Austria.
• Absolutists believed in change, but only modestly improved life; some argue not sincere, others argue nobility blocked
changes  conclusion that they were committed to reforms, but humanitarian ones were secondary to the needs of the
state and themselves

Frederick II • Embraced culture/literature (rebellious at first), used army to advantage


(Prussia) • Invaded Theresa’s Habsburg land (defying Pragmatic Sanction)  War of Austrian Succ.
(mid 1700s) • Easily doubled population to become Great Power
• Theresa counters in Seven Years’ War  Russia backs out, saving him
• After spending a lot of time fighting, began strengthening state via humane policies
• Allowed freedom of belief for subjects
• Promoted knowledge (publication, schools)
• Simplified laws, abolished torture, fair/quick judging  hard work and honesty
• Set example as “servant of the state”
• Could not change social structure; condemned but didn’t change serfdom, relied on nobles, continued
oppressing Jews
Catherine • Plotted with Orlov against husband Peter, becoming empress
(Russia) • Ruled in enlightened manner; still considered absolute monarchy best form
(late 1700s) • Continued bringing Western culture (Encyclopedia, Voltaire, art) to nobles
• Better laws, restricted torture, allowed limited religious toleration, improved education/local gov
• Expanded to Mongols, Poland (shared it with Austria/Prussia)  kept nobles happy
• Savagely destroys Pugachev’s serf rebellion; gave nobles complete control of serfs and exalted them to
highest position
Theresa • Introduced reforms to strengthen state and improve efficiency
(Austria) • Limited papacy’s political influence, strengthened bureaucracy, smoothed out differences, revamped
(mid 1700s) tax system fairly, improve agricultural production
Joseph II • Controlled Church, religious toleration, rights to Jews, abolished serfdom
(Austria) • Ended up hurting both nobles and serfs  violent rejection
(late  1700s) • Reforms cancelled by brother Leopold II after death

Movie: Sister Wendy-

• French were fantasy, sensual: “let them eat cake”; Island of Love showed leaving a magical world
• House of Cards (Chardin) shows obsession with house of cards as waste “what are we obsessed with?”
• Darvide: enthusiastic revolutionary artist; Death of Merloe was death of man who wanted liberty
• Ingre: classical painter obsessed with the female back

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Movie: Mozart-

• Born in Salzburg, in 1756- brilliant prodigy but troubled


• 3 yrs old: starts piano after hearing sister learn, 4: starts playing minuets, 5 (1761): first composition (Kirshill I:
Minuet), 6 (1762): musical debut in Vienna, court of Francis and Theresa, 8 (1764): composes 1st symphony
• 1763-1764: dad’s tour to Germany/Paris/London begins, with kids as opening acts- very profitable, but dangerous;
dad cared more about $ than health; 1769-1773: father and son tour to Italy- plays for Pope Clement in 1770, gets to
memorize special court song
• 1774: mother and son to Paris to search for work/fame
• 1777: Mannheim to wait out winter- love with Aloysia (father disapproves), begins to get mad
• Anger rises from not being recognized, having to write for flute, etc
• 1778: mother dies (Piano Sonata for her), dad blames him and tells him to come home
• 1780: in Salzburg, extremely discontent with father and Archbishop, 1781: Sent to Vienna, discovers fame there,
and stays against others’ wishes, 1782: Marries Constanze, Aloysia’s sister, in Vienna
• 1782: Writes 6 string quartets for Hadyn (supported him)- one had Constanza’s labor pains in it, 1782: Cann
Concerto (deep and troubled) and Chamber Composer of Prague (fake title), 1785: Marriage of Figero begins,
1788: 2 symphonies, #40 sensual, 1791: “Magic Flute” opera
• 1783: visit and rejection in Salzburg; after their son dies they leave and never return
• 1787: father dies bitter, will goes to sister, String Quintet written in guilt
• 5 Dec 1791: dies after illness, a funeral song incomplete (thought he was writing for self)
• Shows rapid growth in skill in teenage years, once rejected for being too complicated, music often written without
correction, freelance writer; no strong source of money
• Attraction to cousin (dirty letters) shows many sides of him (ex 5th Concerto has wild Turkish dance)
• Very compatible with Vienna’s interest in new music
• Devoted to Constanze but probably had many mistresses

Unit 8 Study Guide- The French Revolution and Napoleon:

21.1 Background to Revolution Pg 683-

• France was originally divided into 3 estates (clergy, nobility, everyone else) – Old Regime
• 100000 clergy: owned 10% land, voluntary “tax”, taxed landowners
• 400000 nobles: owned 25% land, manorial rights (hunting, monopolies, honorific privileges)
• commoners: 97%, some successful (bourgeoisie) but most peasants and urban laborers
• two views, both based on rising social tensions in France and general move towards revolution
• one idea of 2 competing social groups (bourgeoisie and nobility) as the former challenged the latter
• reality, both groups grew together with internal tensions: robe and sword nobility for example
• three new ideas: a) more became nobles, b) both opposed gov, c) both had similar economic ways
• Louis XV & the Duke of Orleans led France into political/financial/social trouble (desacralization)
• Parlements’ (high courts) right to public decrees re-established  robe nobility in charge turned into “private
property”  opposition to absolute power
• War of Austrian Succession- financial crisis; 5% income tax rejected by Parlement of Paris
• Seven Year’s War- emergency taxes led Parlement to challenge authority; monarch lost again
• People turned against him morally- mistress Pompadour was too influential and of low birth; Barr was a common
streetwalker, rumors of teenage girls as porn  stripped of sacred status
• Maupeou given job to crush opposition- Maupeou parlements exiled all others and taxed all
• Louis XIV, eager to please, followed, but also made many mistakes (American Revolution & finances)
• Dismissed Maupeou and destroyed his work, wavered on economy- weak monarchy
• American Revolution bankrupted France and inspired them
• Americans revolted politically- wanted say in laws and increased taxes
• Townshend Acts  monopoly on tea to East India Company  excluded America  Boston Tea Party 
Coercive Acts closed Boston/expanded British power  First Continental Congress (1774, Philadelphia) tried

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for compromise (fails)  Second Continental Congress (1776) declared independence (Jefferson wrote) against
King George III (natural rights and sovereignty)
• French wants revenge on Britain- supplies arms, volunteers to fight (Lafayette), formally aligns w/ US, Spain,
& Dutch VS Britain (Russia responds with League of Armed Neutrality to protect shipping but Britain refuses)
• Britain gave in with Treaty of Paris  lesson that rational beings could win against authority
• 50% budget went to interest for borrowing $, 25% to military, 6% to king, <20% to help state  >_>
• Too weak to declare partial bankruptcy (most debt held by bourgeois)
• No central bank/paper $ = could not print more $  had to increase taxes
• Assembly of Notables called to impose general property tax  notables opposed and demanded control over all
gov spending  refusal and dismissing notables = Parlement declared king void  Louis XVI gave in and called
for Estates General (first since 1614)

21.2 Revolution in Metropole and Colony, 1789-1791 Pg 689:

5/5/1789: Estates-General meets and prepares list of grievances (church heirarchy, social status, prestige, guaranteed
liberties, constitutional monarchy with Estates General in power, loosened economic regulations), but political division in
nobles (1/3 liberals vs conservatives), lack of non-gov/poor representatives, and the dominance of the noblility/clergy houses
 consensuses denounced (Sieyes’ What is the 3rd Estate)

6/17/1789: 1200 3rd Estate delegates win over parish priests and declare themselves the National Assembly

6/20/1789: Oath of the Tennis Court pledged to not disband until new constitution made  Louis urges reconciliation, then
disbands them all by force (temporarily)

7/14/1789: After commoners experience economic hardship (price to 4 sous/loaf, 1 in 8 extremely poor, 150000 in Paris
without work) and hear rumors of king would invade, they storm the Bastille (prison) for weapons- 98 commoners killed by
guards, but they win; governor of prison hacked to death, Paris lost to king (who withdrew troops) and Lafayette named
commander (National Assembly saved, army defeated)

7-8/1789: Great Fear as peasants, afraid of outlaws & army, turns to chaos- ransacking manors, burning feudal documents,
defied orders, refused to pay taxes

8/4/1789: Faced with chaos but afraid of king, liberal nobles surprisingly abolish all noble privileges (serfdom, hunting,
monopolies, etc)- French peasantry got huge victory

8/27/1789: National Assembly issues Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen- guaranteed equality before law, rep gov, ind
freedom  2 page long important document (more deadlock in terms of king’s power)

10/5/1789: 7000 poor women of Paris, seeking bread, march 12 mi to Versailles & invade royal houses- killed bodyguards,
nearly killed queen Antoinette (saved by National Guard), forced king to return to Paris  consolidation of liberal revolution

11/1789: National Assembly confiscates Church lands and gives it to peasants for $

7/1790: National Church established, and Louis XVI forced to accept constitutional monarchy

• Abolished French nobility; king head of state but law power for National Assembly (upper half of French males)
• Women’s rights to divorce/property/finance rose, but still not allowed to vote/hold office (believed that they should be
limited to domestic duties, & that politics was corrupt due to immoral women who charmed men to gain power)
• Provinces replaced with 83 departments, metric system in 1793, trade barriers/monopolies/guilds out
• Religious freedom to all, tried to nationalize church and force oath to state, condemned by Pope and failed  deep
religious divided and first major failure

1790-1791: Social tensions in Saint Domingue led to revolts

• Huge slave population vs few whites, free people of color vs poor whites (Code noir granted them same status as
whites but was being violated) along with inspirations led to revolt
• National Assembly refused to extend French constitution to colonies- each colony must draft own constitution, and
reaffirmed French monopolies over colonial trade  planters and slaves angry
• Oge (free man of color) raises army in 1790 and sends letters declaring rights, but is defeated & killed
• 5/1791 National Assembly grants political rights to free people of color  angers whites  violence
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21.3 World War and Republican France, 1791-1799 Pg 694-

6/1791: King Louis XVI tries (and fails) to escape- arrested

8/1791: Austra and Prussia issue Declaration of Pillnitz threatening intervention in France to calm it down

8/22/1791: Slave rebellion in Saint Domingue begins, huge armies raised in little time

4/1792: Committed to Revolution  patriotic fury (young, reckless Jacobin Club)  fail war on Austria

4/4/1792: Assembly passes new decree trying to get loyalty of free men of color in St Domingue

8/10/1792: crowd attacks royal palace- King flees to imprisonment at Legislative Assembly, which suspends his powers and
calls forth a National Convention

9/1792: rapid radicalization (2nd Revolution)  September Massacres as crowds invade prisons for arms

9/21/1792: National Convention proclaims France a republic, abolishing monarchy

• new popular culture glorifying new order (new calendar, open democratic festivals)  nationalism
• all republican, most Jacobin: Girondists vs the Mountain (led by Robespierre and Danton)
• Mountain sat in top left benches, undecided in “Plain” below

1/21/1793: Louis XVI executed due to Mountain’s victory over Girondists

11/1792-2/1793: After Prussians stopped @ Valmy (Sep 1792), France starts invading Savory, Nice, & Netherlands, chasing
princes, abolishing feudalism, taking plunder  1st Coalition forms (Britain, Holland, Spain added to Austria and Prussia)

2-6/1793: sans-culottes (laborers) revolt from draft, led by Roux for bread, got Mountain’s support

6/1793: Robespierre ends conflict by using sans-culottes to arrest Girondist leaders and take over all power

9/1793: Britain invades Saint Domingue; Spanish in Santo Domingo and Britain unite to support rebel slaves  L’Ouverture
(free slave) becomes important general for Spain/Britain

1793-1794: Committee of Public Safety established with emergency dictatorial power

• Planned economy aids sans culottes in price control in exchange for war materials
• Nationalization of many workplaces and materials  embryonic emergency socialism
• Reign of Terror used revolutionary terror to execute all against revolutionary gov (40000 dead)
• Nationalism rose: drew power on patriotic dedication
• Drafted 800000 soldiers- no brain, all brawn (Hocke)

2/1794: slavery abolished  L’Ouverture switches sides  France regains control, but future remains wary

Spring 1794: French defeats First Coalition, becomes victorious on all fronts

7/1794: After threatening Convention and turning on own allies, Robespierre is arrested and executed  Thermidorian
Reaction; middle classes regain power

1795: Another constitution creates a 5 man executive Directory, and puts middle class at top

• Economic controls abolished  sans culottes oppressed, religion returns


• Military expansion: less unemployment, living off territories  call for peace  dictatorial gov

Burke • Reflections on the Rev in France defended European conservatism; glorified English Parliament
(arguably unrepresentative) and condemned French Revolution  conservatism later on
Wollstonecraft • Vindication on the Rights of Man & “ of Women: high standards for women, co-education, 2 sexes
mutually benefitted- birth of modern women’s rights movement
Gouges • Woman of the people (Rights of Women)- no special treatment, full equal rights

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21.4: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 Pg 703-

• Napoleon, rising rapidly in the army, organizes takeover and new constitution (approved 11/9/1799)
• Civil Code, Bank of France, etc gain appeal of peasants
• Amnesty to elite, new imperial nobility- accepts and strengthens position of French bureaucracy
• Concordat of 1801 w/ Pope Pius VII keeps people happy and gives Napoleon more power
• Women lost gains, freedoms of speech/press violated (newspapers down to 4, propaganda)
• Fouche led brutal spy system, almost like the Terror
• Imperial ambitions of the Grand Empire (France, satellites, allies), plus crowned emperor in 1804
• 2nd Coalition (Austria/Britain/Russia) against France in 1798 broken upon peace with Russia, Austria’s loss of Italy
in Treaty of Luneville, and peace with Britain in Treaty of Amiens
• War with Britain again in 1805- Battle of Trafalgar = loss for French/Spanish against Nelson’s army
• 3rd Coalition (Francis II-Austria, Alexander I-Russia/Sweden) loses at Battle of Austerlitz (12/1805)
• Reorganized German states into German Confederation of Rhine, abolishing Holy Roman Empire
• Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 in Niemen River follows 2 victories VS Frederick William III of Prussia in Jena and
Auerstadt (1806)  Prussia loses land and Russia becomes ally
• Napoleon lost control of Haiti
• L’Ouverture in West VS Riguard in South (free slave vs free colored elite- who believed L’Ouverture was being
racist)- L’Ouverture and Dessalines attack and win
• Napoleon opens door for slavery  L’Ouverture rebels and drafts own Constitution  Leclerc from France attacks
 L’Ouverture cooperates but is arrested and dies in France
• Dessalines unites resistance and beats France out  official independence of Haiti (first major win)
• Exposed US and French limits (Jefferson refused to recognize Haiti): economic > freedom/equality
• Napoleon’s tyrannical attitude to conquered lands and overconfidence led to his downfall
• Spanish revolt in 1808: guerrilla warfare, with British support
• Attempt to block Britain’s trade (Continental System) turns on France when British counterblockade
• Great Army of 600000 attacks Russia recklessly  draw at @ Borodino  failure at Moscow  retreat in winter
and guerrillas kill army to 100000
• Refuses Metternich’s (Austria’s) offer for peace  Treaty of Chaumont in 3/1814 (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and
Britain) allies to defeat Napoleon
• Treaty of Chaumont forces Napoleon off throne in 4/4/1814 to exile on Elba
• Bourbon dynasty revived with Louis XVIII and Constitutional Charter
• Accepts revolution, grants liberties, but less voters for new Chamber of Deputies
• Unpopular and old  political unrest  Napoleon escapes Elba in 2/1815
• March to Paris  many supporters  Louis flees  Hundred Days gamble for power
• Crushed at Waterloo on 6/18/1815, faced with British and Prussians
• Imprisoned on St Helena by Treaty of Paris II; Louis XVIII returned; spent time writing memoirs

Unit 9 Study Guide- The Industrial Revolution:

22.1 The Industrial Revolution in Britain Pg 718-

• Before 1850, the revolution was limited mostly to certain industries in Britain (20% of world’s goods)
• Due to good economy, high market for British goods, control of cheap water shipment, canals, lack of tariffs  free
trade, productive agriculture, higher standard of living  more demand for goods, effective bank/credit markets,
stable government with few controls, huge potential labor force
• Industrial Revolution begins with burst of inventions and technical changes, quickening annual rate of industrial
growth from 0.7% to 3% in the early 1800s
• 1851 London (Crystal Palace) became site of industrial fair – workshop of the world
• People as a whole increased wealth (4x), pop boomed (9 to 21 mil)  more mobile labor force
• Ricardo’s iron law of wages predicts wages always at lowest possible and Malthus’ idea that population would
always > supply  economics = “dismal science” (though they were wrong)
• When the strong putting out system began to fail, inventions flocked to fix the problems
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• Cotton-spinning jenny & water frame  better wheel  fixes shortage of thread  increases output value rate to
13%  10x as much cotton in 1790
• Cotton cheaper, more classes could afford body linen (soft linen underwear)
• Hand loom weavers grew richer (need for yarn less) until early 1800s.
• A lack of energy leads to more breakthroughs
• Before, society relied on plants/humans/animals  by 18th century, wood was running out
• Coal industry grew, but not used to power machines, despite huge potential (27 horsepowers/day)  coal mines
filling with water  pumps to remove water  steam engines in 1705 invented to do so
• Watt’s new steam engine in 1769 (almost unlimited power and complete success) drained mines, made more coal,
replaced waterpower, led to other breakthroughs
• Iron became cheap, basic building block after steam engine marked transition to coke (smelted pig iron and coal)
and Cort’s inventions  17000 (1740) to 260000 (1806) tons of coal per year
• Second half of 18th century featured attempts to improve transportation (shipping too expensive)
• Experiments with steam cars (10 mph) failed (too noisy/heavy, damaged roads)
• Rails used on wagons improved to locomotives  more experiments  Stephenson’s Rocket went down
Liverpool-Manchester Railway @ 16 mph (first important railroad) in 1830  more lines
• Railroad reduced cost/uncertainty  larger markets  cheap shipping, also demand for unskilled labor  growing
class of urban works, all led to new and awesome age
• Painters tried to capture new sense, engineers became idols, everyday speech became railroaded

Hargreaves • Spinning jenny (1765) was simple, cheap, more efficient (24 spindles at a time)
Arkwright • Water frame (1765) used waterpower to spin hundreds of spindles
Crompton • 1790- technique on water frame that was too much for humans  factory work
Cartwright • Power loom (1785), but worked poorly until early 1800s
Savery & Newcomen • Primitive steam engine (1705) to remove water from coal mines (inefficient but used)
Watt • Drew up plans for a more efficient steam engine, but had trouble making it
• Partnered with English toymaker and found mechanics, manufacturers (Wilkinson), etc
• 20 years later the steam engine came into full use- most fundamental advance in tech
Cort • Puddling furnace in 1780s, refined them into coke
Turner/Monet • Painters of railroad revolution
Brunel/Brassey • Leading railroad engineers, became public idols
Malthus • Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) argues population > supply; “prudential restraints”
of war/famine/disease checked growth
Ricardo • Iron law of wages said wages always sinks to lowest possible due to pop. growth

22.2 Industrialization in Continental Europe Pg 727-

• Industrialization nationwide proceeded gradually with variations, due to many reasons


• 1750: all countries close together, Britain leads by 1800, gap widens by 1850 (2x US, 3x France)
• Variations in timing: Belgium (iron and coal) surged in 1830-1860, France gradually grew, Germany and US surged
after 1860  Conclusion: E/S Europe began process later than NW/Central Europe
• All European states eventually grew, unlike non-Western world which de-industrialized
• Momentum not as strong (French Revolution caused bad trade, inflation, social anxiety, relied on Napoleon’s
“special favors”)  huge gap; Britain’s tech was already too advanced
• Despite British resistance, other countries had advantages which fueled their expansion: a putting out enterprise (skilled
capitalists/artisans), no need to develop own tech, and strong independent gov
• Talented artisans like the Cockerills (who set up industrial center in Belgium) slipped out of Britain
• Entrepreneurs like Herkort adopted factory tech slowly
• Tariff protection against Britain protected home economy (used by French)
• 1830s State-support railroads (Began in Belgium, supported by List, to Prussia/France)  little risk
• Old idea of investment as risky changed when gov granted Belgian banks limited liability  promoted industry 
French/German banks set up: Credit Mobilier in Paris advertised and worked
• Rapid economic growth (5-10%/year) closing gap with Britain by 1870s

Cockerill (1817) • Escaped Britain and built cotton spinner in Belgium, expands to center of new inventions
  34  
Harkort (1832) • Rare radical business pioneer- built steam engines at great cost (“Watt of Germany”)  fails
Lizt (1841) • Growth of modern industry most important- rep. nationalism (economic nationalism)
• National System of Political Economy: practical ideas (Zollverein union), infant industries
Perieres (1835) • Brothers set up Credit Mobilier of Paris- many activities (railroads) and advertising

22.3 Relations Between Capital and Labor Pg 732-

• Class-consciousness (sense of own class) develops as new groups of factory workers & capitalists grew
• Factory owners/manufacturers continuously fought for new machines/profit (conquer or die)
• Came from varied backgrounds, but often used family/friends for labor and money
• Declining opportunities  need for expensive education  businesses often inherited
• Wives/daughters did not participate in “undignified work”- ladylike gentility valued
• Much larger group of factory workers  anti-capitalist sentiments  few versus many
• Often tied by blood/kinship (subcontractors were close and provided easy jobs to friends)- particularly
important to newcomers (Irish moved in and thrived in 1817)
• Men emerged as primary wage earner (women were limited, and only employed were poor)
• Generally confined to low paying, part-time, dead-end jobs
• Some say due to tradition, others due to biology, but mostly due to 1) working was hard on married women
with babies/kids, 2) running household was hard enough (shopping), 3) males wanted to monopolize best
opportunities  considered reasonable by some
• People not afraid to strike anymore (1825 Bradford strike, Luddites, Chartists, etc) for own identity
• Working conditions were horrible at the beginning, and destroyed rural way of life  revolts
• Cottage workers moved to cotton mills- not used to discipline and “prison-like” working for food and lodging
(usually could procrastinate until Sat- due day); hours increased from 250 days/yr to 300; most holidays (Saint
Monday) stopped being observed
• Abandoned pauper children for labor- badly treated/overworked, though socially accepted till 1802
• New working people began modifying system- came as family units and worked together  made work more
tolerable, allowed parents to discipline kids
• Sometimes young children only employed to keep family together  protests to the long hours
• Later on the pattern broke when children employment was limited by law
• Working girls pushed to physical limits (esp underground), plus lack of supervision  pregnancies
• Luddites (handicraft workers) attacked whole factories to protest in 1812  Combination Acts (1824) outlaws
unions/strikes  capitalists ignores work rules  Acts widely disregarded  eventually repealed in 1824
• Writers like Black, Wordsworth, Strutt, Owens and Engels supported workers’ plight
• Eventually things lightened up for the workers, around after 1840
• Real wages began to rise, diets varied, clothing improved (mostly after wars)
• Ure and Chadwick wrote about upcoming improvements in conditions
• Factory Act of 1833 limited hrs (8 hrs for 9-13 yrs old, 12 hrs for 14-18), required school for < 9
• Mines Act of 1842 prohibits underground work for all women and boys under 10
• Small workshops survived (handicraft skills)  alternative to factories
• After Combination Acts repealed, Owen begins Grand National Consolidated Trades Union- one of largest and
most visionary early national unions, though collapsed  others sprung up (Amalgamated Society of Engineers) 
unions became accepted into industrial scene
• Chartists demanded for right to vote and more (sense of own identity)

Blake • Romantic poet protested on hard life


Wordsworth • Lamented on destruction of rural life and pollution
Engels (1844) • The Condition of the Working Class in England said the new poverty was the worst; capitalists
were to blame (relentless competition)  socialism
Ure/Chadwick (1835) • Conditions were improving in factories; majority of people could buy more
Strutt • Protested against children under 10 working in his mills, but gave in to “family unit”
Owen • Testified that child labor was injuring kids and not helping owners
• Began Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834; led social reformers

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Unit 10 Study Guide- Ideologies and Upheaval:

- Dual Revolution: economic and political changes fusing, reinforcing each others’ growth (EX growth of industrial middle
class and drive for representative government)

23.1 The Peace Settlement Pg 749-

• Quadruple Alliance / Great Powers (Russia/Prussia/Austria/Britain) beats France  Congress of Vienna


• General longing for peace  balance of power to discourage any more fighting
• Formidable barriers around France: Belgium/Holland united w/ Dutch, Prussia grew (sentinel on the Rhine),
Germany united, but generally lenient to France (so as to not cause revenge)- Louis XVIII restored, payment of only
700 mil francs, army of occupation for only 5 yrs
• Metternich (Austria) trades Belgium and S Germany for N Italy and Poland, Castlereagh (Britain) keeps colonies
and outposts, Talleyrand (France) accepted moderate punishments, Prussia and Alexander I (Russia) wanted to
restore Poland  near war VS France/Britain/Austria, but Russia/Prussia moderates  peace (Russia takes small
part of Poland, Prussia part of Saxony)
• Met periodically to maintain peace after Congress of Vienna  beginning of “congress system”
• Metternich began a crusade for conservatism against the dual revolution from 1815 to 1848 (Holy Alliance of
Russia/Austria/Prussia formed for this cause)
• Firmly believed that liberalism was responsible for war/suffering (ideas came from Austrian history)
• Born into nobility and aristocracy  defended class’ traditional views and idea that liberalism = nationalism =
revolution against his class  Austria’s multiethnic state would break up
• Believed liberalism (ex US and France)  war (liberal middle class stirs up lower class)
• Supported by Russia (Holy Alliance) and somewhat Ottomans (shared characteristics of absolutism, large
armies, expansion/conquest, multiethnical, etc)
• Interferes when liberal revolutions succeeded in Spain/Sicily in 1820  monarchies restored
• Generally effective, though cases like Latin America and France/Belgium slipped by
• Used German Confederation (loose union of 38 independent states) to pass Carlsbad Decrees- required states to
root out liberal ideas using spies and punishment

23.2 Radical Ideas and Early Socialism Pg 753-

• Liberalism (liberty and equality) continued to demand rep gov, equality before law, & indiv. freedoms
• “Classical” liberalism supported laissez-faire (see Smith); modern supports regulated economy
• Used during Indus Rev to defend right to run factories and right to work  labor unions banned
• Economics severely criticized and rise of more radical ideals  lost its “edge”
• Associated with narrow class interests (property qualification  limited voting to successful
landowners/businessmen before spreading to middle class after 1815  more radicals
• Nationalism developed in French Rev & Napoleonic wars (ambiguous)
• People had cultural unity (more of dream than reality for a while)  divided diverse states while unified others, and
political reality (well defined boundaries of nation-states)
• Fit poorly with conditions, but successful due to development of complex industrial society (promoted standardized
language/communication), emergence of united nation-state communities
• Dynamically changed: 1815-1850, tied with liberalism/radical democratic republicanism (common faith that a
united people were source of gov)  indiv liberty and free nation overlapped
• Early nationalists believed in right to exist in freedom  harmony and unity of all people
• Also had differences among people: “we” vs “they” (looked down on “enemies”)
• Socialism began in France: need to reorganize society to establish cooperation and sense of community
• Economic planning: help the poor, private property regulated, economic equality
• Workers cherished memory of radical phase of French Rev, opposed laissez-faire (denied workers right to organize)
 genuine socialism in Paris as workers developed sense of class
• Marx and Engels wrote Communist Manifesto- bible of socialism, argued that middle class (bourgeoisie) always vs
working class (proletariat), splitting society, eventually winning
• United historical ideas (history as process of change, driven by economics)

Mazzini • Italian patriot: believed laboring for country = laboring for Humanity

  36  
Michelet • French historian: spoke of superiority of France
Saint-Simon • Parasites (court/aristocracy/lawyers/church) to give way to doers (scientists/industrial)
• Morals: improve conditions for poor
Fourier • Unrealistic socialist utopia of mathematically precise communities (1620 ppl each)  fails due to teens
• Marriage was prostitution (wanted abolition of marriage- free unions of love)
Blanc • Organization of Work urged workers to have universal voting rights (right to work sacred)
Proudhon • What is Property- nothing but theft from worker (feared power of state, anarchist)
Hegel • Each age characterized by dominant set of ideas; dialectics

23.3 The Romantic Movement Pg 758-

• Characterized by revolt against classicism- advocate of feeling, freedom, national goodness


• Belief in emotional exuberance (Sturm and Drang)- bohemian lives, intense emotion, spirituality
• Interest in nature: awesome, spiritual, etc.; hated modern industry, loved history
• Literature began in Britain- mostly poetry, but France was limited by Napoleon
• Literary romanticism and early nationalism reinforced each other (romantics looked into own history)
• Abandoned well-defined structures in music in favor of free expression and emotion
• Tripled size of orchestra, crashing chords, (Revolutionary Etude), despair (3rd Symphony)
• Changed from complimenting a service to being a passion in itself

Wordsworth • Lyrical Ballads- ordinary speech, Daffodils: simple, love of nature


Scott • Fascinated with history, influenced by Germans
Goethe • German Gotz von Berlichingen play: romantic drama about a knight
Stael • Urged French to change to romanticism (On Germany)- powerful impact
Hugo • Broke out romantic impulse in France: Hunchback of Notre Dame
• Equated freedom in literature with political/social liberty (contrasted with Wordsworth)
Dupin • (“George Sand”)- search for self-fulfillment, individualistic: Lelia autobiography
Grimm • rescued German fairy tales
Pushkin • Rejected 18th century Russian “classical straitjacket”
Delacroix • French painter, master of dramatic/colorful scenes (exotic subjects), supported freedom
Turner • Fascinated by nature’s power and terror (storms, sinking ships)
Constable • Fascinated with nature’s gentle emotion (environment)
Liszt • Greatest pianist of his day (1811-1886)
Beethoven • Range and output amazing, 1770-1827, bridged classical to romantic, deaf

23.4 Reforms and Revolutions Pg 761-

• Greece succeeded in 1830 after gaining support as a “holy” cause against Ottomans
• Greeks united by language/religion, revolted under Ypsilanti in 1821
• Great Powers (Metternich) supported Ottomans, but popular support in Britain/France/Russia  these countries beat
Turkey  Greece independent and Russia gains Romania
• After Parliament got manipulated, and only 8% could vote, British were interested in some reforms
• French Rev  aristocracy panicked  Tory Party defended aristocracy’s rule and repressed protests
• Corn Laws (regulating foreign grain trade, helped aristocracy) revised to selfishly prohibit all foreign grain trade 
protests and demonstrations  suspension of traditional rights (assembly, habeas corpus) by Tory & Six Acts (taxed
press, eliminated mass meetings)  Battle of Peterloo huge but organized protest at Saint Peter’s Fields (savagely
broken up by government)
• 1820s less frightened Tories & industrialization  better urban admin, ↑ economic liberalism, equality, etc 
encouragement for middle class to call for more liberal reforms
• Whig Party (aristocrats that were more responsive to economic interests) attempts to pass Reform Bill of 1832 
House of Lords initially rejects, then gives in to House of Commons
• Shift in population to N manufacturing countries and new urban society  House of Commons becomes more
important (new industrial areas of country gain influence)
  37  
• Number of voters increase to 12%, lets urban middle class and substantial farmers in
• Chartist movement for universal male suffrage, huge petitions in 1839, 1842, & 1848 (all rejected)
• Anti-Corn Law League founded in 1839 by liberals, argued ↑ jobs and ↓ prices depended on repeal of Corn Laws 
Tory prime minister Peel joins Whigs and repeals Laws in 1846  no famine =D
• Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited workday to 10 hrs (represented competition of aristocrats vs middle class for
working class’ support  healthy competition  peaceful evolution)
• Irish depended almost solely on the potato (fed a lot, saved space, 10 pounds/day, extreme poverty, no incentive to
improve)  Great Famine when crop fails (diseases) in 1840s kills 1.5 mil
• Shattered pattern of population growth: 1 mil fled, 1.5 mil died, pop drops from 8 to 4.4 mil in 1911
• Government slow to act  continued to collect taxes  anti British feeling  nationalism
• After Louis XVIII dies, leaving behind the Constitutional Charter of 1814, revolution continues in 1830
• Charter was liberal attempt to protect gains from French Rev, but not democratic (only 100,000 could vote, even
though diverse; & ministers were moderate royalists)
• Charles X succeeded, wanted to bring back old older  Algeria conquered by France from 1830-1847  convinced
Charles for a 1830 military attempted coup to take out Charter  immediate revolution (“three glorious days”) 
gov collapses, Charles flees
• Louis Philippe seated by upper middle class, accepts Charter, admits to being “king of French people” (though still
relatively unfair; vote ↑ 70,000, but elite more powerful)

23.5 Revolutions of 1848 Pg 768-

• “Prerevolutionary outbreaks” in Poland, Switzerland, Italy, etc


• Louis Philippe’s incompetent monarchy  class injustice, popular revolt in Paris, 1848  2nd Republic
• Louis Philippe abdicates, provisional republic w/ 10-man executive takes over, constitution drafted
• Commoners could reform, right to vote to every adult male, death penalty abolished, 10-day workday
• Battle between moderate liberal republicans (opposed any more radical measures) VS radical republicans (somewhat
socialist, led by Louis Blanc)  argument for gov-sponsored workshops for poor  compromise of national public
workshops in Paris (satisfied no one, immediately popular)
• First vote: Constituent Assembly of 500 moderate republicans, 300 monarchists, and 100 radicals  violent reaction
from middle/upper classes and peasants (scared of socialism)  Blanc dropped, new gov mostly opposed to
socialism  invasion of Assembly by socialists (failed)  workshops dissolved  even more uprising, class war,
“June Days”  Republicans win
• Revolution failed  Louis Napoleon takes over w/ strong executive
• French revolts influenced Austrian popular revolts  monarchs collapse but come back
• Hungarian nationalism demands more rights, forces Ferdinand I to give in
• New coalition not stable; people not politically interested  more socialist vs middle classes fighting
• Leaders attempt for liberal unification  minorities rebel  ethnic division
• Ferdinand I and aristocrats reassert strength (archduchness Sophia organized), crushed revolution (starting with
Prague on June 17, to Vienna by October) using loyal army and ethnic division
• Francis Joseph (Sophia’s son) crowned emperor; with Nicholas I (Russia) helping, Hungary is taken
• Fall of Louis Philippe  encouraged Prussian liberals  Frederick William IV gives in
• Urban workers wanted more, aristocracy less  new Prussian Constituent Assembly (liberals, middle class body) 
distracted by Frederick VII (Denmark) vs German provinces motivated by nationalism (they took German side) 
liberal constitution with Frederick William emperor
• Frederick William reasserts royal authority, disbands revolutions, German Confederation returns

Tocqueville • Democracy in America- moderate republican of French Rev of 1848 (predicted it)
Cavaignac • Led republican army during June Days

24.1 Taming the City Pg 779-

• Huge growth in urban population  overcrowded and unsanitary cities (especially Britain)
• People drawn to cities (jobs) even without Industrial Revolution  every scrap of land used  crowded, no toilets
(“living in shit”), “walking city” (no public transportation), gov slow to react (don’t know how)
• Britain: 2.5 mil/17% (1801) to 15.6 mil/54% (1891) in cities, increasing 40-70% per decade
  38  
• Need for reform: public health concerns, urban planning, public transportation
• Old miasmatic theory (disease spread by odors) gives way to idea of spread through filth (1850s)  gov accepts
some responsibility  research/planning identifies organisms responsible for certain diseases (led by Germany) 
declining mortality rate, more public transport, cleaner hospitals, sterilization
• France leads urban planning under Napoleon III  destroyed old buildings in favor of broad boulevards (free flow
of traffic), better houses, destroyed slums, new quarters on outskirts, open spaces, better sewers  Paris becomes
model for modern urbanism after 1870  Vienna/Cologne follow example
• Eased movement, encouraged urban expansion, mass public transportation (electric streetcar gets 6.7 bil riders by
1910), allowed for new improved housing

Bentham • Benthamite: radical idea that public problems should be solved w/ science, “greatest good for greatest #”
Chadwick • Benthamite, convinced disease/death caused poverty, and prevented by sanitation  reports on sanitary
conditions & solutions in 1842 + cholera epidemic of 1846  basis of Britain’s first public health law
Pasteur • Germ theory: fermentation depends on growth of organisms, which can be killed by heat (pasteurization)
Koch • Developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria, described life cycles  massive increase in research of germs
Lister • Connection between aerial bacteria and wound infections  antiseptic principle to sterilize hospitals
Haussmann • In charge of Paris: boldly rebuilt Paris into new model of urbanism

24.2 Rich and Poor and Those in Between Pg 786-

• Real wages double from 1850-1906, but didn’t eliminate hardship/poverty (richest 5% gets 33% of $, few taxes on rich,
etc)  huge gap between rich and poor, society fuses in new social groups- complex hierarchy
• Middle class (getting 50% all $) grew in diversity and range, but generally had upper/middle/lower middle classes
• Upper middle class of successful business families drawn to aristocratic life rather than radicalism: small (5%) but
welcomed by dying landed aristocrats (traded with them)
• Large middle middle class of diverse industrialists, merchants, professionals, etc: solid, comfortable, without great $
• Expanded to include specialists (engineers, architects, dentists, etc) and managers
• Lower middle class of shopkeepers, traders, tiny manufacturers: sometimes did no better than skilled workers
• Expanded into independent business people & “white collar employees” (mixed group of traveling staff w/o
property and paid little), teachers, nurses
• Closer to working class, but committed to ideal of moving up in society (long nails distinguished some)
• All loosely united by culture: food, housing, clothing, education, morals
• Food got the most money (10% $ on meat, 25% on food)  dinner parties, importance of maids
• Rented homes, women attentive to fashion, good education (books, music, and travel), code of morality (hard
work, discipline, achievement, Christian, sexual purity- right vs wrong)
• 4/5 people belonged to rapidly industrializing working class, even less unified: highly skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled
• Highly skilled workers (15% of working class): labor aristocracy; earned 2x unskilled: bosses, foremen, crafters
• Constant pressure: traditional crafters replaced by semiskilled factory workers  constant flux
• Developed distinctive values: family, finance, education, housing, morality (“led” working class)
• Semiskilled: carpenters, bricklayers, and other established crafts, & increasing group of factory workers
• Unskilled: laborers, “helpers”, self employed workers – unorganized, divided, united only by meager earnings
• Many servants were women- limited independence, danger of sexual exploitation  despite that, girls attracted
to safety of city work, and possibility of marriage into working class wife/mother (without, had to go into
“sweated industries”- working at home, no job security, pitiful wages)
• Emphasis on fun/recreation: drinking in public got accepted and social/friendly (even by women), modern spectator
sports (rather than cruel sports), gambling, opera/theater/music
• Emphasis in religion as meaning: Pietism and Methodism carried over; religious revival until late 1800s
• By late 1800s, religion declined from lack of churches in new cities, link of churches to conservatism (more
radical working class defied “territorial churches”)  urban working class developed vague anti-church (“not
our kind of thing”) yet still pro-religion
• Pattern in US different: working people saw church as ethnic identity; church and state separate

24.3 The Changing Family Pg 797-

• Ideal of romantic love triumphed over courtship  new styles of marriage & sexual lives (triumph of illegitimacy)
  39  
• Financial considerations important to middle class > working class: dowries, used to increase financial position
• Girls watched carefully, while boys usually experienced sex w/ maids or prostitutes  illegitimacy explosion
• By 1840s, 1/3 births outside of marriage; urban working class saw little wrong in illegitimacy
• Didn’t affect some urbanized/religious cities (young people internalized values)
• Reversed by late 1800s, but only cause expectant mothers would marry, & condoms  family strengthened
• 155000 registered prostitutes in Paris alone, supported by middle/upper classes
• My Secret Life provides picture of man obsessed with sex, buying pleasure: dark side of sex
• Men thought of wives as $, purchased love; for poor women prostitution was a stage of life
• Family life emphasized kinship ties, gender roles (separate spheres), and emotional ties
• Ties to relatives much stronger, relied on them to help cope w/ problems & share
• Husbands became wage earners, wives stayed home (women only worked when really poor)  prejudice in
working world, lack of rights, subordinate to men  many rebels  some victories (1882, English women get full
property rights) but slow and hard won
• Socialist women led path to liberate women by liberating entire women class
• Increased control of home: education, religion, and finance all controlled (“power behind throne”)
• Generally lacked appeal of working outside home; running household was hard + small piecework at home
• Rise in emotional importance of home and family: shelter; ties to each other and children
• Affection and eroticism became more central; love key to human happiness (women pampered husband), follow
their hearts, “right to orgasm”: women have rights for intimacy
• Growing love and concern for infants  better mothers (breast fed, wave of specialization on child
rearing/hygiene)  fewer illegitimate abandonments, protective shelter of emotion, ⇑ quantity for ⇓ quality
• New theories in child rearing developed, from economic position to sex to development
• Want to improve finance of their kids; children no longer financial asset  less kids (more contraception)
• Excessive control & belief that own emotions carried on to kids (little scope for individual development)  need for
greater independence, emotional pressure cooker  relations between father and child often tragic (too demanding)
• Masturbation, diet, clothing, activities, etc. all regulated (surgery for masturbators)
• Freud: hysteria originates in bitter childhood experiences of repressed strong feelings (especially sexual)
• Oedipal tensions from son’s competition w/ father for mother’s love
• Defense mechanisms kept unconscious emotional needs from conscious awareness
• Working class youths broke from family more easily when oppression occurred

Dostoevski • The Brothers Karamazov: four sons work to destroy farther; “Who doesn’t wish his father dead?”
Droz • Mr, Mrs, and Baby: love as key to human happiness, also specialized on child rearing

24.4 Science and Thought Pg 804-

• Breakthroughs in technology stimulated science  theories turn into material improvements for general population
• Physics branch of thermodynamics (relationship between heat and mechanical energy)  law of conservation of
energy  application to engineering, chemistry, etc (physical world governed by firm laws)
• Chemistry expanded: organic chemistry (study of compounds of carbon)  ways to transform coal tar into dye
• Resulted in economic growth (R&D got $), ordinary people got introduced to science, little room for divinity/human
will, prestige of scientists over poets/saints
• Science was applied to the study of society, leading to new ideas
• “Social scientists” used massive gov stats to create theories  positivist method (scientific method) could uncover
laws of human relations
• Idea of evolution developed through multiple people, cumulating in Darwin’s journey in 1831 on the Beagle 
collection of species  Origin of Species asserts life had evolved from common ancestor in struggle for survive
• Supported by scientists (“Newton of biology”) and secularists, attacked by religion
• Developed from “survival of the fittest” into Social Darwinism: society was a “war for survival”  attempts to
kill off weak humans, anticommunist (helping poor is bad), eugenics (human selective breeding), idea of one
race better than others
• Realism depicted life exactly as it was: observing and recording everyday life
• Often looked into taboo subjects, hastily reported ugliness of society
• Determinists: unalterable natural laws governed humanity
  40  
• Began in France, soon spread to England/Russia, arrived late to United States

Marshall • “Science was put in the service of industry”


Mendeleev • Periodic law, periodic table in chemistry
Comte • System of Positive Philosophy says all intellectual activity progresses through stages that shift
Lyell • Uniformitarianism: same geological processes at work today slowly formed Earth’s surface over time
Lamarck • All forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment
Spencer • Unending struggle determined “survival of the fittest”: Social Darwinism
Balzac • The Human Comedy series portrays characters from society: Darwinian struggle for power
• Le Pere Goriot: society’s pervasive greed and feverish ambition
Flaubert • Madame Bovary masterpiece portrays middle class as petty/smug/hypocritical
Zola • Animalistic view of working class, sympathized with socialism (Germinal)
Evans • Deeply felt version (Middlemarch shows how people are shaped)
Hardy • Tess of the D’Urbervilles & Return of the Native were “Zola style”; fate and bad luck
Tolstoy • Moralizing works (War and Peace of Napoleon’s Russian invasion) – messages of love/trust
Dreiser • Sister Carrie in US outraged morality  withdrawal

Unit 11 Study Guide- Age of Nationalism:

25.1 Napoleon III in France, 1850-1860 Pg 815-

• Louis Napoleon revived and extended a combination of national feeling with authoritarian rule
• Universal male suffrage  easy election wins thanks to legendary name, tough appearance (to counter socialism),
and positive “program” popularized by pamphlets
• Strong leader that represents people and helps them economically, linked by direct democracy, envisioning national
unity and social progress  all classes benefitted
• Elected for 4 years, sharing power with conservative National Assembly  1851 illegally dismisses Assembly and
seizes power in coup d’état  army crushes protests  voted for presidency by 92%
• As Emperor Napoleon III, he succeeded with economy, and held nationalism in high regard
• Greatest success economically: banks, railroads, expansion of public works, improved urban environment  some
reduction of tensions (workers given right to form unions/strike)
• Restricted but didn’t abolish Assembly- members elected every 6 years
• Took elections very seriously: ads, spread of word, etc  electoral victories in 1857 and 1863
• Attempt to reorganize Europe nationalistically  criticism from Catholics and middle class liberals  began
liberalizing empire to satisfy public (Assembly more powerful, more freedom, etc)
• Eventually granted new constitution of parliament and hereditary emperor  voted through

25.2 Nation Building in Italy and Germany, 1860 Pg 818-

• Italy, never been unified before, was brought together under the kingdom of Sardinia
• Reorganized in 1815 @ Congress of Vienna into different countries (Lombardy/Venetia to Austria,
Sardinia/Piedmont to Italy, Tuscany to small states, Central Italy to papacy)  goal of unified Italy
• 3 Approaches: radical Mazzini’s idea of centralized democratic republic, Catholic Gioberti’s call for a federation of
states under a pope, and those who looked to leadership from Sardinia
• 3rd approach supported when Austria defeats Mazzini and Pope Pius IX was driven out of Rome, but Sardinia,
under Emmanuel, retains liberal constitution from 1848  more attractive
• Sardinia’s statesman Cavour, who made alliance between aristocracy and middle class, whose national goals were
limited/realistic  consolidation of Sardinia as liberal constitutional state (railroads, civil liberties, etc)  more
support for Sardinia as leader
• Secret alliance w/ Napoleon III against Austria  1858 Austria goaded into attacking Sardinia  Napoleon
helps at first then abandons Cavour  French makes compromise with Austria  Sardinia receives Lombardy,
rest stays same  Cavour furious, but resigns

  41  
• Moderates in central Italy brought Cavour back to power and Napoleon’s support bye giving him Savoy/Nice
 central Italy votes to join Sardinia  success
• Garibaldi believed unification still not done; romantic nationalism, called for liberation of 2 Sicilies
• Supported by Garibaldi; guerrilla band of Red Shirts attacks Sicilies, 1860  wins, proceeds to Rome 
Cavour turns around and intercepts Garibaldi (attacking Rome = war with France)  Garibaldi did not oppose
Cavour  South joined Sardinia  union of N and S (more like conquered than unified)
• Cavour had succeeded in controlling Garibaldi, turning popular nationalism into conservatism, unification of Italy
under parliamentary monarchy of Emmanuel (but social divisions remain)
• German states locked in stalemate; tensions between Austria and Prussia grew for German Confederation
• German union Zollverein in 1834 did not include Austria in its trade stimulation  Austria, jealous, failed to
destroy it  new economic block on Austria while Prussia rose
• National uprising in Italy  possibility of it in Prussia  convinces William I in 1861 to enforce major army
reforms  bigger defense budget and higher taxes  rejection from wealthy middle class  parliament vies for
more power  liberal triumph  Bismarck called to head new ministry
• Bismarck was a master of politics- devoted to sovereign, flexible, desired power- cleverly expanded size
• Began as high ranked diplomat, strong but unfavorable; lashed out at middle class (wanted gov to rule w/o
parliament) & reorganized army  voters opposed  search for success abroad
• Schleswig-Holstein area (part of Denmark)  Prussia and Austria joins to defeat Denmark
• Convinced Prussia needed to control all of N Germany  Austro-Prussian War of 1866 quickly drives Austria out
of Germany @ Battle of Sadowa in Bohemia  peace terms were generous
• Attempted to change nationalism into unity under conservative leadership  federal constitution for new N
Germany (local gov stayed, William became president, popular participation allowed)  “olive branch” of peace to
parliamentary opposition  liberals jumped @ chance to cooperate
• Patriotic war with France (“reason” was whether or not William’s cousin could be king of Spain)  S Germany
supported  victory at Sedan on 9/1/1870  Jan 1871 war ends when Paris surrenders  humiliating peace terms
for France (relations were poisoned forever)
• German Empire came to be (William I crowned in Hall of Mirrors), patriotic surge

Pius IX • Supported papal rule of Italy, until driven from Rome in 1848
• Syllabus of Errors in 1864 denounced rationalism, socialism, secularism, liberty, etc
Mazzini • Radical idea of centralized democratic republic
Gioberti • Catholic priest- called for federation of states under pope’s rule
Emmanuel • Sardinia’s monarch
William I • Replaces Frederick William IV in 1858, in Prussia

25.4 Modernization of Russia 1900 and the Ottoman Empire 1830 Pg 826-

• Russia was backwards (serfdom still basic  moral issue rises), needed modernization
• Crimean War (1853-1856) vs France/Britain over control over Christian shrines in Ottomans  humiliating defeat
 turning point (hardships cause massive peasant rebellion) into path of change
• Freeing of serfs in 1861: peasants still difficult to leave village = reforms limited
• Zemstvo local govs set up: elected by 3 class system, dealt w/ local problems (attempt to lead to elected
national parliament, but failed as zemstvo remained subordinate to nobles)
• Legal system more successful, education liberalized, censorship relaxed
• Most strides were economic: railways, construction booms, class of modern factory workers
• Territorial expansion to S and E  excited nationalists
• Some economic modernization continued under Alex III (mostly due to nationalism)
• Witte (minister of finance) built state railroads, established high tariffs to protect Russian industry, used West to
catch up w/ West (encouraged foreigners to build in Russia)  successful
• Vigorous territorial expansion into Manchuria (failure, defeat by Japan)  revolution of 1905
• Pointed out incompetence of gov (gov fired on workers in Jan 1905 at Bloody Sunday), political parties openly
attacked until tsar gives in: October Manifesto granted full civil rights and Duma parliament  split
opposition (middle class switched to gov side, for monarchy to survive)

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• First Duma opens in May 1906, Fundamental Laws issued (tsar had many powers like absolute veto, but
universal male suffrage appeared)  middle class liberals disappointed  cooperation ceases  Duma
dismissed  new electoral law
• New law increases power of higher classes  landowners support gov  majority wins in 1907, 1912 
Stolypin able to push through agrarian reforms  Russia is partially modernized
• Ottomans were falling behind west, and losing its land
• Serbia (1816)/Greece (1830) independent, France invades Algeria, Russia pushes into Danube River
• Janissary corps (slave army) corrupt  Mahmud III makes janissaries revolt & destroys them (1826)  new army
• Muhammad Ali rises in Egypt, attacks in 1831 and 1839 but forced to withdraw by Europeans
• Liberal statesmen launch in 1839 into radical era: Tanzimat parliament to remake empire into West
• Equality of religions, modern administration/army, free importation of goods, Western education
• Partial recovery but fell short of goals due to growth of nationalism, an appetite for Western imperialism, and
religious disputes (split Muslims, distracted gov)
• Tyranny from Abdulhamid and disputes  resurging modernization impulse among patriots (Young Turks),
who seize power in 1908 and forces reforms

Alexander II • 1855-1881 ruled beginning of social change and Crimean War


• Assassinated in 1881- era of reform ended w/ new tsar
Alexander III • Reactionary; era of reform ended but some modernizations continued
Witte • Minister of finance from 1892-1903, inspired by Lizt (believed industry must improve)
Stolypin • Chief minister after electoral laws of 1907, pushes through agrarian reforms & creates kulaks
Mahmud III • 1808-1839 reform-minded
Muhammad Ali • Ottoman governor in Egypt, supported by France to attack Mahmud II
Abdulhamid • Supported Islamic conservatives, long and repressive reign

25.5 The Responsive National State, 1870-1900 Pg 831-

• Growth in loyalty to firm state thanks to growth in voting: for men, 1914 became rule not exception, for woman, suffrage
movement succeeded in 1913 in West US, with more in 1914  more parliaments and multiparty system, laws
alleviated problems  generally, ppl became “part of the system”
• Ended up causing international tension and imaginary enemies  cumulated to WWI
• Proved gov couldn’t get loyalty until they control national feeling (EX, Norway breaks from Sweden in 1905,
Ottoman Empire was hopeless)
• German Empire ruled by chancellor and popularly elected lower house (Reichstag)
• Bismarck relied on National Liberals from 1866-1878 to maintain parliamentary majority
• Attacked Catholic Center Party (Kulturkampf- struggle for civilization) after being alarmed by Pius IX’s
declaration of the papacy being always right in 1870 (challenged national power), but abandoned in 1878 
Bismarck enacts high tariffs on grain (wins over Catholic Center farmers AND Protestant Junker landholders) 
mutual but uneasy economic alliance
• Return to protectionism (high tariffs)  nationalism  international tension, trade wars
• After law that controls socialist meetings fails to destroy socialism in 1878 (drove them underground, but still
organized), Bismarck pushes through modern social security laws that help satisfy socialists
• 1883-1884: First laws establish sickness/accident insurance & 1889: old age pensions, retirement benefits 
small protection from uncertainties of complex urban world
• William II in 1890 forces Bismarck to resign, and changes policy: socialism legalized, but still grows- 1912 German
Social Democratic Party gains great electoral victory  shocked
• Despite that, German socialists were less “radical”- focused on gradual reform, and patriotism
• France once again seems hopelessly divided in 1871, after defeat by German Empire
• Frustration  Paris Commune in 1871 (vaguely radical, wanted to govern Paris w/o influence from countryside) 
National Assembly, led by Theirs, crushes Commune  in 1848, Paris VS provinces
• Slowly led to new national unity, stabilizing in 1914 thanks to luck (republic retained despite argument over who’s
king: Bourbon candidate, who wished to rule under white flag of ancestors), but Thiers shows that Third Republic
can also be conservative by attacking radicals (Commune)

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• Moderate republicans (majority in upper and lower houses) won hearts of next generation: 1879-1886 establishes
free compulsory education, expanded schools  secularism disturbs Catholics
• Dreyfus affair splits France apart and revives republican feeling against church  more secularism (Catholic ties
severed, Catholic schools put on their own for $, etc)
• Britain becomes example of peace and success in political evolution
• 1832: males of middle class granted vote, 1867: 2nd Reform Bill extends vote to middle class males and best paid
workers, 1884: 3rd Reform Bill extends to almost every adult male
• Commons (democratic) vs Lords (aristocratic conservatism) in 1901-10; Lords ruled against unions and People’s
Budget (social welfare), but gives in when king supports Commons in 1832
• Lords submit to popular democracy once and for all  extensive social welfare measures (from 1906-1914), ex
Liberal Party (led by George) raises taxes on rich
• After Irish famine, Britain slowly allows rights  Gladstone fails to pass bills for Irish self-gov  brink of self-gov
by supporting Liberals and People’s Budget  civil disagreement between Irish Catholic majority and northern
Protestants from Ulster province (“Ulsterites”)  Ulsterites raise army of 100000 by 1913  compromise home
rule bill that leaves N out in 1914  rejection, original home rule bill passes, but suspended when WWI begins
• After initial defeat by Russia/Austria in 1849, Magyars in Hungary win independence by attacking Austria after it was
defeated by Prussia in 1866  two states remained joined only by a monarch
• Austria faced nationalism problems as Germans, 1/3 of people, fought others (Czechs/Poles/Slavs)  from 1900-
1914, parliament divided by question of gov/educated language  ministries couldn’t get majority  rule by decree
 unsuccessful efforts of peace from both conservatives and socialists
• Constitution of 1848 restored in Hungary in 1867 to dominate peasants and minority  wealthiest ¼ adult males
voted  parliament only of Magyar elite  Magyar language laws rammed into schools  resentment  people
like Croatians and Romanians wanted independence from Hungary
• Jewish civil right gains in after 1791 soon died with anti-Semitism after stock market crash of 1873
• 1848: Jews gain full rights w/ Frankfurt Assembly, 1871: New German Empire consolidated Jewish emancipation
(all restricts abolished, though exclusion from gov and some discrimination remained)  Jews responded
successfully to new opportunities (by 1871, majority had entered middle class)
• After 1873, long traditions of religious intolerance rerose, built on reaction against liberalism (beliefs popular among
conservatives, nationalists, and those threatened)
• Modern political parties degraded Jews (in 1893 Germany, 2.9% votes were anti-Semitics)  reactions by Zionism
and attempt to create Jewish state (Herzl)  Lueger appeals fierce anti-Semitism in Germany, especially to lower
middle class (Hitler)
• Most oppressive in E Europe (poor): Russia uses Jews as scapegoats for gov failure (in 1881-1882, violent pogroms
looted Jews; official harassment)  Zionism for Palestine envisioned, 2.75 mil emigrate to West and US

William II • 1888-1918 young, idealistic new German emperor- big mistake of dropping Bismarck
Thiers • Led National Assembly in brutal fight vs Paris Commune, “gov which divides us the least”
Gambetta • Skillfully led France as moderate republican
Leo XIII • Liberal, limited acceptance of modern world, eased tensions (1878-1903)
Dreyfus • Jewish captain, falsely accused and convicted of treason (supported by intellectuals like Zola)
George • Inspires British Liberal Party to raise taxes on rich to help gov pay for national services
Gladstone • Attempts to pass bills for Irish self gov in 1886 and 1893, fails until 1914
Herzl • Turned from German nationalism to advocate Zionism, creation of Jewish state
Lueger • Mayor of Vienna 1897-1910, appealed anti-Semitism to German lower middle class

25.6 Marxism and the Socialist Movement Pg 838-

• Growth after 1871 was phenomenal  conflict w/ conservative aristocracy/middle class until 1914
• German Social Democratic Party: largest party in Reichstag by 1912
• Russian Social Democratic Party: founded by Swiss in 1883, grew despite internal problems
• French socialists re-emerged in 1880s after Commune’s destruction, unified into French Section of Workers
International in 1905
• 1864 Marx founds International Working Men’s Association, but collapses after support of Commune and other
socialist radicals frightens early supporters

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• Second International founded in 1889, lasts until 1914- great psychological impact (delegates met every 3 years,
annual one day strike on May 1, permanent executive)  growing fear of socialism
• Socialists were less inclined towards radicalism, focusing more on elections rather than revolutions
• Due to workers winning real benefits, spread of patriotism, a rise in standard of living (2x as much from 1850 to
1906 in Britain), and growth of labor unions  workers asked but didn’t take up arms
• Labor unions were originally prohibited (France declared illegal in the name of “liberty” and imprisoned 200 ppl/yr,
Britain considered them criminals)
• Unions gained power: right to exist in 1824-1825 in Britain, emerging practical unions limited to skilled workers
and using collective bargaining/compromise, full acceptance in 1870s (Britain), unions for unskilled workers after
1890, and more acceptance between 1901-1906
• Germany was most unionized: unions granted rights in 1869, antisocialist law repealed in 1890  socialism
combined with unions  3 mil members by 1912
• Characteristic: focused on “bread-and-butter” issues rather than socialism, collective bargaining, gradual
improvement, strikes to convince employers
• Revisionism grew (update Marxian ideas to reflect realities of time), advocated combination of progressive forces to
win gradual gains  denounced as heresy by socialist parties
• Found followers elsewhere (still grew in German unions), like France and Russia (split Marxists)
• Socialism varied: Russia/Austria/Hungary radical, Germany revolutionary but influenced by unions, France
restricted by radical unions, Britain committed to revisionism, Spain/Italy weak

Marx • Capital (1867)- working men have no country; lived poorly and dreamed of revolution
Bernstein • Evolutionary Socialism (1899): Marx’s ideas about poor workers untrue; reforms through democracy
Jaures • French socialist leader, on the outside disagreed with revisionism to maintain unified socialist party, but
in truth a gradualist/optimistic secular humanist

Unit 12 Study Guide- World War I and Imperialism:

26.1 Industrialization and the World Economy Pg 847-

• Industrial Revolution creates “lopsided world”: Third World of Africa/Asia/Latin America suffers in comparison
• Average standard of living in 1750 no higher in Europe  1970, average income 25x poorer countries, Britain leads
until 1950s, Third World only increased after 1950s
• Growth of world economy centered in Europe: trade increased in 1913 to 25x 1800 values, cotton in Britain: 50%
exported to foreign markets w/o tariffs (India bought 25%)  Britain = single best market 1846-1914
• Conquest of distance: rail lines/seaports/steam/steel/canals/telegraph: lower transport costs
• Massive foreign investing: $40 bil abroad, mostly to Europe and US (not the colonies)

China • Traditionally self sufficient (trade w/ Europe regulated)  Britain smuggles in opium trade  war when China
cracks down on it  Treaty of Nanking (1842) forced Hong Kong to Britain, $, & 4 cities opened to trade
• More attack in late 1850s (Beijing occupied and summer palace burned)  China opens up more
Japan • Sealed off in 1640 for 200 years  US wants trade and less hostility  Perry demands negotiation in 1853 w/
threat of war  Japan opens 2 ports (defenseless against naval bombardment)
Egypt • Following Napoleon’s brief occupation, Muhammad Ali, rose to build own state modeled after Europe
• Drafted army, stronger gov/communications, modernization, attracted Europeans, development of agriculture
(peasants suffered in new cash crop landlords)  strong independent Egyptian state
• Ismail (Ali’s grandson) ruled in 1863-1879 as Egypt’s khedive (prince)  more westernization
• Recklessly invested in projects  debt  Euro gov intervenes to oversee Egyptian finances  “ruled” Egypt
• Nationalistic revolts (1879 led by Arabi)  Egyptian Nationalist Party  pressures Ismail to give power to
Tewfiq (son)  bloody anti-Europe riots (1882)  Britain puts down rebellion and occupies “temporarily”
• Khedive became puppet; British rule = tax reforms, better peasant life, at price of Egyptian pride

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26.2 The Great Migration Pg 854-

• Population doubles in a century  60 mil+ people migrate from Europe to colonies (only ½ to US), further supporting
imperialism, esp after WWI  different patterns based on country
• Migrating people generally “traditionals” threatened by industrialization OR skilled technicians moving to new land
(esp true for Britain; 1/3 all migrates) OR as spirit of revolt  great asset to new countries
• Returning home depended on possibility of land in old home: Balkans often, Jews (discriminated) in Russia not
often, Ireland (land held by large estate owners) not often, etc.
• Italian problems/slow growth  swallows spent winter in Argentina for wheat/spring in Italy (saves $ but hard life)
• Depended on family/friend ties; strong individual blazes way for others (migration chain)
• 3 mil Asians migrated before 1920 to escape rural hardship, often as indentured servants (replaced black slaves)
• Strong demand in Cuba/Spanish gov (130000 to Cuba as virtual slaves)
• Asians fled servitude ASAP  Europe demands halt  great white walls discriminate on Asians (“whites only”)

Bjornson • “Forth will I! Forth! I will be crushed and consumed if I stay” (migration as way to “get out from under”)

26.3 Western Imperialism, 1880-1914 Pg 859-

• Rush to create vast political empires rather than economic- new imperialism of 1880-1914  new tensions
• Fueled by economic motives (though limited, as colonies were too poor); crucial to security/power/prestige  harsh
aggressiveness; tech superiority (machine gun, quinine controlled malaria, & steam/telegraph); manipulated public
attention from struggles at home (justified status quo); pushed by special interest groups (religion, slave trade, etc)
• Social Darwinism; believed Europe needed to “civilize” and spread Christianity to “inferior people” (white man’s
burden)  decision to rule rather than liberate  some missionary success, but most disillusioned by racism
• Ruthless seizure of Africa without regard to ethnicity, from 10% in 1880 to all but Ethiopia & Liberia
• In South Africa, Afrikaners (Dutch descendants) make Great Trek into interior after Britain invades Cape Town,
then leads independence vs Britain  Africans lose most of land to rival Afrikaners and British
• British, led by Rhodes, jump over Afrikaner states into interior  bloody South African War  Union of South
Africa created as self governing colony (Afrikaner majority gradually took power)
• Leopold’s intrusion on Congo  French, alarmed, launch protectorate on Congo River  Ferry (France) &
Bismarck arrange Berlin conference to divide Africa (ensuring balance of power), without regard to African
ethnicities and cultural lines
• Germany about faces (used to see little value in colonies)  protectorates in small African tribes, cooperated w/
Britain/France  France into Algeria, Britain into south from Egypt (blocked in Sudan)
• Kitchner leads attack on Sudan again, 10 years later, in Battle of Omdurman (more execution than battle)  France
tries to stop Britain  threat of war convinces France to step down
• Extended political control in Asia: Dutch expands from Java to 3000 miles; France takes Indochina; Russia takes Muslim
areas; US takes Philippines in Spanish American War (1898)  bitter fighting

Rhodes • Led British attack from Cape Colony to over Afrikaner in 1890s
Leopold II • Lust for distant territory: “Sea bathes our coast, the world lies before us”  sends Stanley into Congo Basin
Stanley • Sent to establish trade and sign treaties in Congo basin
de Brazza • Sent by French to counter Leopold; 1880 signs treaty with Teke tribe  French protectorate on N Congo
Treitschke • “Those who fail to participate in this great rivalry [of getting colonies] will play a pitiable role”
Kipling • Wrote White Man’s Burden- support of “civilizing mission”

26.4 Responding to Western Imperialism Pg 868-

• In both Europe and colonies, empire expansion aroused sharp, bitter critics, and attempts to drive foreigners away
• Hobson’s Imperialism (1902) stated imperialism was fueled by unregulated capitalism, but didn’t pay off, and quest
for empires diverted from need for domestic reform, Labouchere mocks Kipling’s poem w/ “Brown Man’s Burden”,
Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1902) told of Europeans’ pure selfishness  moral condemnation of whites (degrading
double standard, failed to live up to own noble ideals)

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• Attempts at revolting usually failed (tech difference)  concentration on preserving culture while some reformed to
copy Europe  “traditionalists” vs “westernizers”- intense struggle, with modernizers usually winning  some
support for Europeans, but shallow (edifice built on sand)  eventually leaders arose to battle Europeans
• Burning desire for human dignity (incompatible with foreign rule), rise of liberalism & modern nationalism,
socialism  eventual anti-imperialist leaders of revolts

India • India, ruled absolutely for a while, attempts Great Rebellion in 1850s  crushed, Britain starts ruling directly by
British Parliament in London & tiny all white service in India  generally tried to keep welfare of Indians, but
had strict job discrimination (racially inferior)
• British women often came with husbands to new land, where they lived in separate communities as manager of
household  some sought to improve lives of Indian women
• Some good changes: system of education, intermediaries for British rulers and Indian people (new elite), unified
powerful state, rise of nationalism; but production eaten up by population increase
• 1885, Hindu Indian National Congress created to gain equality  1907, calling for complete independence
Japan • Feudal society: figurehead emperor, power in hereditary military governor (shogun), supported by warrior
nobility (samurai), governing over hard working peasants
• Samurai, humiliated, begin wave of anti-foreign terrorism  US/Britain/Dutch/French destroy shogun’s power
 samurai restore power of emperor  Meiji Restoration modernizes into unified state w/ equality, capitalism,
free liberal society, modern navy, encouraging to study abroad, foreign experts  feudal rebellion crushed
(1877)  authoritarian constitution modeled after Germany
• Copied imperialism of West: defeats China in war over Korea (1894), attack on Russia (1904)  major
imperialist power by 1910, going for modern Asian nation
China • Qing Dynasty makes a comeback thanks to Tzu Hsi and less foreign aggression (some foreign help also)
• Collapse under Japan (Sino-Japanese War of 1894)  rush of foreign concessions  saved from partition by
jealousy & US Open Door Policy (opposed annexation of China)  hundred days of reform in attempt to
modernize  Sun Yat-sen leads attempt to overthrow Qing and establish republic
• Traditionalists rose as Boxer Rebellion (1900-1903)  harsh occupation of Peking  finally Qing falls in 1912

27.1 The First World War Pg 879-

• New era in international relations, led by Bismarck’s attempts to preserve peace  rival blocs when Bismarck is
dismissed by William II
• Bismarck wanted to isolate the bitter France and calm down E (Austria and Russia)
• Three Emperor’s League in 1873 links Austria, Germany, and Russia in conservative alliance
• Intense peacemaking in 1877-8 (Russian victories w/ Ottomans threaten peace) and Congress of Berlin infuriates
Russia  defensive military alliance w/ Austria against Russia (lasts a long time)
• Italy joins Austria and Germany in 1882, forming the Triple Alliance
• Cajoles both Russia and Austria into secret alliance in 1881: Alliance of Three Emperors until 1887 (replaced by
Russia-German Reinsurance Treaty when Russia declines to renew)
• William II refuses to renew Russia-German Treaty  France/Russia become military allies in 1894
• Britain, originally neutral, gives into bitter Anglo-German rivalry  improved relations w/ US, formal alliance w/
Japan in 1902, Anglo-French Entente of 1904, and Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907 after Moroccan crisis and
internal problems in Russia
• By 1914, it was the Triple Alliance VS the Triple Entente (Britain/France/Russia)
• World War I traces back a long way, with an underlying triumph of nationalism, which gave the Balkans hope, tore apart
Austria, increased international tension (arms race), and liberalism
• Rivalry in markets, Germany’s pursuit of power, Germany’s war fleet as a challenge to Britain’s naval power, & S
African War of 1899-1902 installing anti-British feeling  Anglo-German rivalry
• Germany tests strength of Anglo-French Entente  international conference in 1905 for Moroccan crisis 
bullying forces France and Britain closer together & diplomatic revolution where Germany was seen as a threat, and
others were seen trying to block Germany’s development
• Heightened tensions w/ Germany’s expansion of fleet (Britain had to spend money on battle ships, London’s Daily
Mail in 1909 said that Germany was preparing to destroy Britain)

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• Nationalism was on the rise (Greek independence in 1832, Turkish repression/Russian intervention/Great Power
tensions in 1875, Congress of Berlin in 1878 divides Turkey/gives Austria Bosnia & Herzegovina/gives Serbia,
Bulgaria, & Romania independence)
• Serbia was hostile to Austria; the Slavic country wished for Bosnia and Herzegovina (large Serbian population) to
be independent from Austria, but needed Russian (Slavic people) support
• First Balkan War (1912): Serbia joins Greece/Bulgaria to attack Ottomans
• Second Balkan War (1913): Serbia and Bulgaria quarrel over spoils of victory in Ottomans  Austria
intervenes, forces Serbia to give up Albania  Ottomans break up  more Balkan nationalism and dismayed
Austria (who was in same position)
• “Third Balkan War” (1914): Serbian terrorists kill heir to Austria (Ferdinand) in Sarajevo, Bosnia on 6/28 
Austria presents Serbia with ultimatum on 7/23  Serbia doesn’t agree completely  Austria mobilizes and
declares war on Serbia on 7/28 (desperate but understandable attempt to reunite its falling apart empire)
• Germany supports Austria (hoping Britain remains neutral while Russia supports Serbia)
• Russia, knowing it must fight Germany if fighting Austria, fully mobilizes on 7/29  Germany declares war on
Russia, then France  Germany plans lightning strike on France via neutral Belgium  aggressive act convinces
Britain to join France on 8/3  First World War officially begins
• German aggression from losing control of system after Bismarck (power declining as Triple Entente blocked it);
failure of all European leaders to incorporate Germany peacefully
• Rising socialist movements  German gambled on war to rally masses to its side
• Most people believed the war would be short, even rejoicing for it, but it turned out long and deadly
• Battle of the Marne (9/6): all out France VS tired Germany  French victory
• Trench warfare develops from stalemate  staggering cost of lives (Somme in summer 1916: 1,100,000 men for
125 mi2 for Britain, failed German stampede of Verdun costs 1,400,000 lives)  breakdown of pre-1914 world of
order, progress, and patriotism
• Russia was destroyed @ Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes in 9-10/1914  retreat
• In Austria, enormous armies seesawed: Serbia stands ground but Russians forced to retreat in 1915
• Italy declares neutrality despite being in Triple Alliance (thought Austria had launched war of aggression), then
joins Triple Entente in May 1915 for Austrian land
• Ottomans and Bulgaria join Central Powers in 10/1914 and 11/1915 (Bulgaria to settle old scores with Serbia) 
battle lines shift to Middle East w/ Russia and Ottomans
• Armenians, repressed by Turks, welcomed Russia armies as liberators  Ottomans kill them
• Britain, after failing to take Dardanelles/Constantinople in 1915, bargain with Arab leader ibn-Ali to gain their
forces in 1916 against the Turks (promised an independent Arab kingdom)  successful guerilla war against
Turks; also in Iraq, Britain captures Basra in 1914 and Baghdad in 1917  Sep 1918 Britain enters Syria while
ibn-Ali’s son enters Damascus  Arab rejoicing
• Colonial subjects generally supported foreign masters and seize German colonies (Japanese w/ British attacks
German outposts in Pacific and China, causing tension w/ China), and provide supplies and men
• US sympathy for Entente begins when Germany uses submarine to sink the Lusitania in May 1915  more than
1000 civilian lives, including 139 Americans  Germany forced to relax submarines, but resumes in 1917 as last
ditch gamble  Wilson convinces US to enter in April 1917

Delcasse • French foreign minister, wanted better relations w/ Britain  Anglo French Entente (1904)
Tirpitz • Admiral, persuaded Germany that a large navy was a mark of world power  expansion
Bethmann- • German Chancellor; realized war w/ Austria = war with Russia, both unavoidable
Hollweg • Hoped Russia and France would war, but Britain would remain neutral
Nicholas II • Ordered full mobilization in Russia, declaring general war
Sassoon • “I am staring at the sunlit picture of Hell” (about deaths in Somme)
Remarque • All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) describes War & terror of it
ibn-Ali • Descendant of Muhammad; Arab leader over Mecca who controlled much of Ottoman Empire in Red
Sea (area known as Hejaz); joins forces with Britain in return for Arab state
Lawrence • British leader in 1917 of Arab tribesmen, led highly successful guerrilla war against Turks

27.2 The Home Front Pg 890-

• Economic changes, as war demands for men and weapons  Socialism, esp in Germany (Total War)
  48  
• rationing/priorities/wage/movement controls  socialism as realistic economy rather than utopia
• War Raw Materials Board rations and distributes in Germany; recycling and substitution  more untaxed profits
for private firms  more deficit, inflation, class conflict, black market
• Food rationed based on physical need  bottom 1/3 of Britain actually lived better
• Auxiliary Service Law in Dec 1916 Germany requires to work only @ jobs vital to war  more women workers 
starvation, first totalitarian society
• Ministry of Munitions in 1915 Britain organizes private industry for war (shell shortage)
• Society changed; class lines blurred (war of all peoples, not just soldiers)
• Demand for workers  more power to unions (entered politics by cooperating)
• Women left home and worked visibly (ex, doctors)  more independence and recognition (right to vote given in
Britain/Germany/Austria immediately after war)
• Rationing blurs class lines; sharing of hardships, skilled laborers spared while aristocratic soldiers die
• Governments grew to almost authoritarian power in order to keep up spirits and control
• Bethmann-Hollweg replaced by military leaders Hindenburg and Ludendorff as rulers of Germany
• Censorship and propaganda  rebellions (Easter Rebellion in 1916 Ireland crushed)  Liebknecht shouts “Down
w/ gov, down w/ war” on 5/1/1916 (arrested)
• Soldier mutinies  agreement for no more grand offensives in France  Perain regains control
• Clemenceau emerged as dictator of France in Nov 1917
• Chief minister of Austria and Joseph die  unity disappears in Austria  exhaustion, rebellions
• Entente refuses on peace favorable to Central Powers in Dec 1916  unrestricted submarine warfare (desperate
attempt by Germany, where socialists wanted peace but not conservatives  strikes)

Rathenau • Jewish industrialist; convinced German gov to set up War Raw Materials Board & ran it
Hindenburg/ • German generals @ Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes in Aug and Sep 1914, where initial
Ludendorff Russia attacks on Germany were defeated
• Drove Bethmann-Hollweg from office to become real rulers of Germany in 1917
George • British leader who saw Germany’s expanding fleet as a military challenge
• Set up Ministry of Munitions, eventually becoming British prime minister
Petain • New general in chief of France; restored order after mutinies after failed French offensive of May 1917
by promising no more grand offensives

27.3 The Russian Revolution Pg 895-

1914: Russia enters war unified (Nicholas II vowed never to make peace)

1915: 2 mil casualties  Duma attempts to gain power and lead army  Nicholas distrusts Duma (fails to gain people’s
support and relies on maintenance of supreme royal power)

Sep 1915: Progressive bloc formed from conservative to socialist parties, calling for new government w/ Duma at head 
Nicholas adjourns Duma, travels to war front to inspire soldiers, leaving wife in charge

Dec 1916: Rasputin, with influence on Nicholas’s wife Alexandra in governing, is murdered

Mar 8, 1917: Women riot for bread in Petrograd; soldiers called but join in crowd instead

Mar 12, 1917: Provisional gov set up by Duma; Nicholas abdicates 3 days later

Apr 3, 1917: Lenin returns from exile in Germany, thanks to German support (as secret weapon)  begins radical socialism

• Stressed capitalism destroyed by violent revolution, denounced revisionism, thought that rev could occur in
backwards country like Russia, and believed need for strong leadership
• Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks (who called for democratic, mass
membership party)  Lenin leads Bolsheviks himself
• Saw war as opportunity for class war, and then revolution

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May 1917: Reorganized government with Kerensky at head: Russia is freest country in the world, but continues war 
Petrograd Soviet suspicious of gov  Soviet issues War Order No 1 (strips officers of authority) to weaken provisional
gov  collapse of army discipline  anarchy

July 1917: Attempt by Bolsheviks to seize power fails  Lenin flees  saved when Kornilov leads attack on gov (weak, but
Bolsheviks rearm, and Kerensky looses credit with army)

Oct 1917: Bolsheviks gain majority in Petrograd Soviet  Trotsky convinces them to make military-revolutionary committee
with himself as the leader

Nov 6 1917: Trotsky and Bolsheviks seize power, attacking provisional gov buildings, and using majority in soviet congress
to declare power passed to soviets, led by Lenin

• Won thanks to need for superior leadership in anarchist society, and appeal to soldiers/workers
• Kept power by approving peasants’ revolution (control of factories given to peasants)

Jan 18, 1918: Constituent Assembly, freely elected peasants’ government, promised by Bolsheviks, meet, but when
Bolsheviks win less than ¼ of votes (Socialist Revolutionaries had majority), Lenin disbands them

Mar 1918: Lenin convinces Bolsheviks to accept humiliating Treaty of Brest-Litovsk w/ Germany (1/3 of Russia’s
population given away) in order to keep peace and not be destroyed

Mar 1918: Trotsky re-establishes draft and discipline, rebuilding into Red Army

1918-1920: People, seeing another dictatorship, rise up as the united White opposition to the Bolshevik Reds  Civil War;
18 self proclaimed regional governments fight  Despite near triumph in Oct 1919, Lenin and the Communists win by
spring of 1920, for many reasons

• Controlled center; Whites were on edge, disunited (many social groups), had poorly defined political program, and
much worse army (thanks to Trotsky)
• Bolsheviks established war communism (application of total war to civil conflict)
• Cheka (secret police) re-established  revolutionary terror silenced opposition
• Allies support Whites (because Bolsheviks refused to pay debts), but only weakly (not interested in more war) 
allows Communists to appeal to patriotic nationalism in Russia

Nicholas II • Tsar of Russia during World War I (continued fighting in it), had to abdicate peacefully
Alexandra • Tsar’s wife; ruled during Nicholas’ trip to the front; hated parliaments, ruled absolutely
Rasputin • Advisor to Alexandra; had much power due to mysterious healing powers on Alexis (son)
Kerensky • Became prime minister of provisional government after March Revolution
Kornilov • Kerensky’s commander in chief; led feeble attack on gov
Trotsky • Lenin’s supporter, executed Bolshevik seizure of power

27.4 The Peace Settlement Pg 901-

• Germany, now with a dictatorship, goes on a last ditch attempt for victory, despite inner conflicts
• Spring offensive of 1918 pushed to France, within 35 miles of Paris, but never wins  Battle of the Marne: US
soldiers join fight to push back Germany
• Ludendorff realizes Germany lost, but puts blame on politicians  emperor attempts to form liberal gov to sue for
peace on Oct 4  German people rose up; Nov 3 Kiel Sailor Mutiny; workers begin establishing council based on
Russia; Austria surrenders  emperor abdicates, flees to Holland  Socialist leaders proclaim Republic on Nov 9,
agree to Allied terms of surrender on 11/11/1918
• @ For the Treaty of Versailles, Big Three (US/Britain/France) quarrel over terms, along with other representatives
• Speedy execution in attempt to counter Lenin’s attempts to spread Revolution
• Wilson, of US, wanted Fourteen Points, especially the League of Nations to keep peace
• George, of Britain, personally wanted moderate peace w/ Germany, but went along with public support for harsh
punishment on Germany

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• Clemenceau, of France, wanted revenge (demilitarization, German reparations, permanently weaken them) and
security for France like a buffer state (refused, but instead given alliance w/ US & Britain)
• Faisal (ibn-Ali’s son) attended, representing Hejaz, hoping for Arab independence
• Germany protested vigorously, but with a naval blockade still on, they had to sign the treaty on 6/28/1919 in the
Hall of Mirrors at Versailles
• Germany’s punishments were not unreasonable, but still harsh, sowing seeds for revenge and WWII
• German Revolution of Nov 1918 resembled Russian Rev (popular uprising from below topples authoritarian
monarch, bringing liberal provisional republic), but moderate socialists and liberalists defeat radicals (“half a
revolution”; no communism, but w/ bourgeois revolution)
• Marxian leaders wanted democracy and liberty, w/ gradual elimination of capitalism
• Accepted defeat in War quickly, preventing disintegration of army  easily defeated radicals
• German Communist Party founded by Liebknecht after their defeat/murder, but unlikely success (would have
caused civil war, which would have allowed Allies to take over Germany)
• Colonies lost, minor territory losses (new Polish state), military limited to 100,000 and none in Rhine
• Declared responsible for war and had to pay reparations for everything (actually was vague, in order to make more
moderate after tempers cool)
• In the Middle East, the Allies went against previous promises and chose to expand their power there
• After vague promise of independence, Britain/France divide & rule Ottomans  Arabs felt betrayed
• Balfour Declaration by Britain gave Jews a home in Palestine (appealed to Jews and helped British war effort) 
implied a Jewish state not majority ruled (only 11% Jewish)  out of keeping w/ tradition (religious tolerance) 
Arabs angered again
• Despite US objections, Britain and France rules Syria/Iraq/Transjordan/Palestine as mandates, confirming only the
independence of Hejaz AND creates Jewish national home  General Syrian Congress formed in 1919 by Arabs,
calling for independence  Syrian National Congress forms in 1920, proclaims Syria independent w/ Faisal as king
• French attack Syria from Lebanon in July 1920 while British puts down rebellion in Iraq  Faisal flees, defeated
Turkish land dismembered and occupied  Greece attempts to build empire; teams up with Britain to attack interior
 Turkey’s almost dead
• Kemal appears as the Ataturk (father of the Turks), leads successful defense of Turkey vs Britain; victories 
peace and independence w/ Treaty of Laussane
• Modernizes Turkey with republic, one-party system, secularization, separation of church and state, secular
school system, women’s rights  Turkey becomes top power in Europe
• Most of US rejected Treaty of Versailles, leading to policy of isolationism
• League of Nations required members to collectively fight aggression  Congress denounced as taking away right to
declare war  Wilson rejects compromises  US refuses to ratify
• Leads to Britain also refusing to ratify certain parts, including alliance w/ France

Liebknecht • Radical socialist leader; shouted “Down w/ gov, down w/ war” on 5/1/1916  arrested
• Led, w/ Luxemburg, radical uprising in newly formed Germany after war
Faisal • Ibn-Ali’s son; led army into Damascus
• Represented Hejaz at Versailles, despite French objections
• Later becomes king of independent Syria, but is destroyed and flees
Balfour • Made Balfour Declaration in Nov 1917 in attempt to gain sympathy for British war effort
Lodge • Led refusal to ratify Wilson’s Treaty of Versailles

Unit 13 Study Guide- Age of Anxiety:


28.1 Uncertainty in Modern Thought Pg 913-

• New ideas rejected optimism, favoring existentialism (people were in pointless existence)
• Grew in France and after WWII because of Hitler’s brutal reign and emphasis on choice
• Humans were violent, irrational animals, and tore individual rights to shreds
• Search for moral values in world of terror and uncertainty: define through choice

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• Mostly atheist, but some Christians, who wanted to interpret Bible to support science, bring sinful humans to God’s
forgiveness, and believe in Christian morals/hope (EX: poets Eliot & Auden, novelists Waugh & Huxly, Toymbee,
Lewis, Stern, Planck, and Joad)
• New literature adopted limited, confused view of one person (stream of consciousness)
• Physics shattered by new info (atoms not hard, permanent balls; subatomic particles, including neutron, pass through
other atoms- led to atomic bomb): everything is uncertain, relative, and didn’t answer Qs
• Freud believed behavior was result of rational calculation and repressed sexual desires
• Psychosexual Stages of Development: Oral – Anal – Phallic – Latency – Genital; in each, if “sex” (sucking, bowel
movement, loving parents) are taken away @ wrong time, repressed memories cause insanity in Genital Stage
• Id (devil) vs superego (angel), w/ rational ego as mediator
• Control mechanisms (memory repression, displacement, sublimation, rationalization, regression, & projection) can
overpower and cripple
Existentialists Christian Existentialists Scientists Writers

Valery • “crisis of the mind”: future is dark, cruelly injured


Nietzsche • Rejected Christianity (“God is dead” in 1872, murdered by fake Christians)
• No hope- must accept meaningless and define self, be heroes
• Overemphasis on Western rationalism has stifled passion and creativity
Bergson • Immediate experience vital to understand reality (religious/social experiences included)
Sorel • Marxian socialism was inspiring but not proved: instead, working ppl will strike, and socialism will
defeat democracy, with a revolutionary elite ruling
Wittgenstein • Logical empiricism: rejection of all philosophy as nonsense
• Tractatus Logico Philosophicus (1922): philosophy (God, morals, etc) only expression of one’s personal
thoughts/beliefs  senseless
Sartre • Humans simply exist; “turn up” alone, desperate, without God guidance
• “man is condemned to be free”: define self through own choices
Jaspers & • spread existentialism in postwar university students in Germany
Heidegger • Jaspers: limits of human experience, rejected explicit religion
• Heidegger: anxiety leads to confrontation w/ nothingness & impossibility of finding justification for the
choices he/she makes
Camus • leading French existentialist (The Stranger, 1942)
Kierkegaard • Rejected formal religion- need to commit to a perfect God (1800s)
Barth • Recreate religious intensity: humans are bad, religious truth through God, not reason
Marcel • Leading Christian existentialist: answer to broken world in form of hope of Christ
Maritain • Denounced anti-Semitism w/ Marcel; supported ties with non-Christians
Greene • “One began to believe in heaven because one believed in hell”
Curie/Pierre • radium emits subatomic particples; no constant weight
Pascal • rejected rationalism of Descartes- human life in terms of paradoxes and contradictions
Planck • “quanta”, 1900, (uneven spurts of energy)  matter & energy may be same thing
• “Science is not qualified to speak to this question” (lack of application of science to life)
Einstein • Time and space relative to viewpoint; only speed of light is constant
• Unified infinite universe w/ small subatomic world in 1905
• Matter and energy interchangeable; matter has lots of potential energy
Rutherford • Atom could be split  “heroic age of physics” in 1920
Heisenberg • “principle of uncertainty” (1927)- impossible to predict electron’s behavior
Proust • Remembrance of Things Past (1913-1927): bittersweet novel of childhood memories
Dostoevsky • Notes from the Underground (1864): antihero goes against optimism (unpredictable, self destructive
human nature, only saved by Christian love)
Woolf • Jacob’s Room (1922): bubble of random ideas from patient of psychologist
Faulkner • The Sound & The Fury (1929): drama seen confusedly through eyes of idiot
Joyce • Ulysses (1922): disturbing, most famous stream of consciousness (aimless ordinary man, paralleled
Odyssey- riddles, no grammer, confusing)
Spengler • The Decline of the West (1925): cultures have cycles of up & down; West dying to Asians

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Eliot • The Waste Land (1925) poem: world of growing desolation
Kafka • Trial (1925) and Castle (1926): short stories, helpless individual crushed by hostile forces
Orwell • Ultimate anti-utopia in 1984 (1949): Big Brother dictator strips individuals of dignity
• “If you want to see a pic of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face- forever”

28.2 Modern Art & Music Pg 921-

• Functionalism: buildings practical and efficient to serve their purpose, not showy
• Modern painting rejected French impressionism (which captures overall impression- new postimpressionists
(expressionists) was nonrepresentational; abstract
• Complicated psychology: depicted worlds of emotion, not fact
• Dadaism attacked art standards (Mona Lisa reproduced and ridiculed w/ moustache)
• Surrealism painted world of wild dreams and complex symbols
• Music attracted to emotional intensity, no organization, atonal, twelve tone music, etc

Architecture Art Music

Le Corbusier • “house is a machine for living in”


Sullivan • cheap materials to build office buildings in 1890s w/o exterior decoration
Wright • modern homes of mass-produced materials, open interiors, and low lines
Gropius • design of Fagus shoe factory in 1911 in Alfred, Germany was clean and light
• merged schools of arts @ Weimar into Bauhaus
van der Rohe • directed Bauhus in 1903; Lake Shore Apartments in Chicago (1948, 1951)
Monet/Renair/Pissarro • French impressionists; “superrealism” captured overall feeling of light on real life scene
Gogh • The Starry Night (1889): Dutch painting of moving vision in mind’s eye
Gauguin • Tranquility, mysticism, searched for unspoiled beauty and primitive life
Cezanne • Committed to form and ordered design, but moved to 2D abstract, father of modern art
Matisse • Extreme expressionism  nicknamed “Wild Beast”
Picasso • Cubism: complex geometry, unrepresentative, abstract
• Les Demoiselles d’Avignon most revolutionary, Guernica brutality of Spanish civil war
Kandinsky • Turned away from nature; look at pictures as form and color combinations
Stravinsky • Rite of Spring in 1931 causes chaos from emotional intensity and almost pornographic
Berg • Wozzeck (1925) told tale of soldier murdering wife with harsh atonal music
Schonberg • Developed twelve tone music; no longer united by harmonic keys

28.3 Movies and Radio Pg 926-

• Movies began from small penny arcades (What the Butler Saw) to short films (The Great Train Robbery, 1903) to movie
factories in LA (2 shorts/week), to full films by WWI (Quo Vadis, Birth of a Nation)
• Rise in Germany after WWI (Cabinet of Dr. Caligori, 1919), but US remains dominant till “talkies”
• Entertainment; escape from harsh realities of life
• Radios began w/ “wireless” communication in 1901 by Marconi, to vacuum tube in 1904  major public broadcasting
networks like BBC by 1920s
• Used by government as propaganda (3 out of 4 houses had radio) and indoctrination

Sennett • “Keystone Kops” of 1920s were short slapstick comedies


Chaplin • laughter in a cruel world as the Little Tramp
Melba • sang on 6/19/’20 in Europe via radio ($ from Northcliff & Daily Mail)  launches radio era
Eisenstein • Dramatized communist view for Soviet propaganda
Riefenstahl • Triumph of the Will (1934) brilliantly promoted Hitler’s Nazi reign and speeches

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28.4 Search for Peace and Political Stability Pg 928-

• Germany became key to peace; France’s desire to punish it climaxes with undeclared war in Ruhr, plus political
problems (Communists VS Social Democrats in France & Germany)
• Treaty had failed: hated by Germany, France in fear, ignored by US, Britain undependable
• Too harsh on Germany for reconciliation, too soft for conquest
• Britain needed Germany as economic market  German hardship = world hardship
• France, devastated by war fought on its soil, wanted strict implementation of Treaty
• Called for $ from Germany, made alliances w/ E Europe (Little Entente)  Britain suspicious
• Germany must pay 132 billion gold marks in Apr 1921  in 1922, could not pay anymore  France invades Ruhr
from Rhineland in Jan 1923  passive resistance (Ruhr people stopped working)  Ruhr cut off from Germany 
test of wills (Germany and France suffering)
• Germany prints money to pay bills  massive inflation  middle class savings wiped out  felt betrayed; middle
class virtues of thrift/caution/self reliance mocked  need for radical leaders
• Germany’s new Communists endlessly attack Social Democrats (majority) for betraying revolution; Hitler attempts
to seize control w/ weak National Socialist Party (12 seats in 1928) but fails (writes Mein Kampf in prison)
• French were similar; plus large deficit from rapid rebuilding of country in 1924
• Britain’s best markets lost  2.2 mil (23%) unemployed by 1921
• Slowly, hope reappeared, in the form of compromise and cooperation (even in Germany VS France)
• Stresemann in 1923 led Germany to call off resistance in Ruhr, agreed to pay but asked to re-examine Germany’s
ability to pay (France accepts; their invasion was unpopular)
• Dawes from US leads international finance committee into Dawes Plan (1924), where US sends loans to Germany,
who pays France/Britain based on economic status, who pay US (cycle)
• Cycle was dangerous, but worked (Germany pays $1.3 bil in 1927 and 1928, US got $, etc)
• “Spirit of Locarno”: in 1925 at Locarno, Switzerland gave sense of security and stability
• Germany & France pledge to common border, Britain & Italy give support to France/Germany in case of
invasion, boundary dispute w/ Poland/Czechs peaceful, France agrees to help E Europe
• Germany joins League of Nations in 1926
• Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928: 15 countries condemn war (weak, but optimistic)
• Poincare leads France to slash spending & raise taxes, saving franc from 10% prewar value to 20%  attracted
artists (appealed as combo of small business, family farms, innovation, and traditions)
• British had unemployment benefits, old age pensions, medical aid, subsidized houses  welfare state
• Labour Party in Britain (champion of workers) called for social equality (moderate revisionist socialism),
replacing Liberal Party as opposition to Conservatives
• Reflected decline of liberal ideas of capitalism, limited gov control, indiv. responsibility
• Moved towards socialism gradually and democratically (to not scare middle classes)
• Conservatives in Britain showed same compromising spirit
• Despite strikes (coal in 1926), unrest was limited (1922 Ireland got autonomy after war)

Keynes • Denounced Treaty in Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919)


Poincare • Led invasion of Ruhr by France, and saved French franc
Stresemann • Leader of Germany from Aug 1923- compromising attitudes saves world from war
MacDonald • Lead Labour Party in 1920s towards socialism, but gradually
Baldwin • Led British Conservatives 1920s to compromise; speech Mar ‘25: “Give us peace in our time, O Lord”

28.5 The Great Depression, 1929-1939 Pg 933-

• Great Depression was severe, shattered optimism, led need for radical leaders; largely thanks to lack of leadership, and
bad economic policy (gov stimulate economies; cut budgets instead)
• Inequalities of “real” investment and speculation in stock market  net investment fell ($3.5 bil to $3.2 bil in 1925-
29), but value of shares traded soared ($27 bil to $87 bil)  US market built on borrowed money (buying on
margin)  margin buyers had to sell to pay debts when prices fell  financial panic as everyone sells
• No wealth  less goods bought, prices/production fall, unemployment rises; spiraling decline

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• US lends $ to others  crisis in US  US investors recall loans  gold flows out of Europe  hard to borrow $ in
Europe  panicked citizens withdraw savings from banks  crash of banks (largest bank in Austria dies in 1931)
 general financial chaos & collapse of world prices as ppl sold for $
• World output falls 38%  countries try to go it alone
• Britain refused to convert bank notes to gold, reducing value of $ to make goods cheaper  others follow (US
in 1934)  no one got advantage
• US seals country w/ protective tariffs (1930)  others follow
• Workers lost jobs, had little $ to buy goods  cycle of decline, and lost social spirit (tragedies, hopeless search and
idleness  suicide, falling marriage/birthrates  social powder keg)
• In Britain, unemployment was 12% in 1920s, 18% in early 1930s
• Soared in US from 5% in 1920s to 33% in 1932 (14 mil people)
• Turning point in US; optimism & limited action crushed; worst fears realized (production fell 50%)
• Recovery finally begins in 1933 with focus on pumping money into economy and “socialism”
• Roosevelt’s New Deal reformed capitalism: gov intervenes in economy, much like in WWI
• Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 raised prices and farm income by limited production
• National Recovery Administration reduced competition, fix prices/wages (didn’t work)
• Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1935 created new projects for workers (supported 1/5 US labor force
at one point)  popular; represented shift on stress to welfare of all, not indiv.
• Social security systems, National Labor Relations Act of 1935 gives unions rights  membership doubles from
4 mil to 9 mil from 1935-40
• Helped ordinary people by taking away privileges of wealthy
• Partly successful (1937, unemployment dropped from 15 mil to 7 mil, but rose to 10 mil)
• Social Democrats gain power in Sweden as traditional cooperative community action  large scale deficits to
finance public works, increased social welfare, high taxes  “middle way”
• In Britain, late 1930s were better than 1920s thanks to Britain’s concentration on national market (housing boom w/
low interest, home appliance demands)
• In France, depression came late, but stayed cause of political instability (uncooperative political parties)  scared of
fascists, Popular Front alliance forms in May 1936
• Communists gain power, Socialists led by Blum become strongest, Radicals lose
• First attempt to deal with problems: encouraged unions, program of social reform (popular but sabotaged by
inflation, revolutional fascists, and scared conservatives)
• Civil war in Spain (France divided on who to support), sneaked $ out of France, labor unrest, etc.  Blum
resigns in June 1937, Popular Front collapses, France drifts aimlessly

Fisher • US’s most brilliant economist; optimistic in 1929 but fortune lost when stocks crash
Hoover • Optimism and limited action as response to initial stock market crash
Roosevelt • Won in US in 1932 w/ promises of New Deal- partly successful
Blum • Led Socialists in France through Popular Front and attempts to deal with depression

Unit 14 Study Guide- Rise of Totalitarianism and World War II:

29.1 Authoritarian States Pg 946-

• Conservative authoritarianism was traditional anti-democratic form of government


• Prevented major changes, relied on obedient bureaucracies, vigilant police, trustworthy armies and limited
participation to allies
• Limited power and objectives (goal to survive by keeping status quo, not total control of ppl’s lives)
• With the rejection of parliament and liberalism came totalitarianism
• Spurred on by total war efforts during Great War and Lenin’s model of minority win in Russia
• Modern tech for complete political and social control (deviation from norm = crime)
• Revolt against liberalism (“sentimental slop”); violent, willful, ind less important than state

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• Permanent and unfinished revolution; goals constantly appeared when one was done  endless change and
mobilized society
• Arendt claimed to stem from degrading all humans into one individual to dominate, evil so big it cannot be judged
by law, destroying the moral conscience of men, removing meaning from death, removing “chance” from humanity
(bundle of nerves only)  possibility can tempt miserable men
• Concept of fascism arose to explain radical dictatorships outside of USSR
• Total and revolutionary; criticized for decaying capitalism and class conflict, also accused of powerful capitalists
seeking mass movement VS workers
• Extreme nationalism, antisocialism, alliance w/ capitalists, violence/war, strong leader
• Changes in gov styles following WWI, uniquely in each country (complex)
• Esp in E, lack of democratic tradition, Depression, & ethnicities  dictatorships rise (save land from rebellion)
• Totalitarianism rose after Great War and matured in 1930s USSR/Nazi Germany
• Nazi Germany (extreme nationalism and racism, middle class survived) of Right, USSR (seizing all private property
and destroying middle classes) of Left
• Fascism took power in Italy and Germany (partly Spain)

Halevy • Era of Tyrannies: totalitarianism (fascism, Nazism, communism) as feuding bros w/ war as dad

29.2 Stalin’s Soviet Union Pg 949-

• Following Lenin, Russia’s land and economy was destroyed  chaos for Lenin’s successor
• Lenin launches NEP (New Economic Policy) in 1921- limited economic freedom where peasants could sell surplus-
in order to rebuild industry
• Shrewd but successful: gov not strong enough to take land from peasants; compromise w/ peasants  1926
output surpasses 1913
• Death in 1924 w/o successor  struggle for power: Trotsky VS Stalin
• Trotsky had background (organized Bolsheviks & Red Army), Stalin wasn’t good speaker/writer
• Stalin won because he was able to relate Marxian ideas w/ USSR, focused on socialism in USSR rather than
Trotsky’s wishes for socialist rev everywhere, and opposed the NEP
• Stalin skillfully uses Trotsky’s personal enemies (moderates) to defeat him and radicals, then turns on moderates,
cumulating in condemnation of “all deviation from general party line” in Dec 1927  supreme power by 1927
• Stalin organized a “revolution from above”, the five year plans starting in 1927, to transform Soviet economy/society,
launches war on peasants, and terrorizes people w/ Purges
• Five year plans aggressively set goal at 250% increase for industry, 150% for agriculture, 1/5 peasants into farms
• Motivated by commitment to socialism (stamp out private trade, artisans, property owners), economic concerns,
and catching up with the West
• Agriculture fail, industry success: 4x industry, heavy industry led  urban develops (25 mil to city, 1930s)
• ⇑ investment (taxes), ⇓ unions, individuals can’t move, workers from collective farms, foreign engineers
• Worried about peasants gaining power and rebelling  collectivization war against peasants to bring them under
control and to economically help state
• Individual peasants forcibly sent to large state-controlled enterprises (“second serfdom”) & kulaks (better off
peasants and opposition) liquidated and sent to labor camps
• Chaos (peasants slaughtered crops in protest), collective farms not productive, death (man made famine in
Ukraine as response to 1932 protest)
• Stalin wins: peasants dependent on state equipment  60% into farms (1932), 98% 1938
• Peasants fight back with some success: right to limit family’s labor on farms, to have tiny family plots (22% all
food on 4% of land)
• All opposition was killed in Great Purge of Communist Party  mass hysteria
• Wife and Kirov (#2 man) killed by Stalin  reign of terror  16 Bolsheviks tortured to confession and 8 mil
arrested in 1936  1.5 mil new Communists hired (new generation)
• Stalin’s fears were exaggerated but real (party & population agreed with Stalin  mass hysteria)
• Lack of improvement in standard of living; many sacrifices for state, but not hopeless
• Wages declined to 50% in 1932 & rose slowly to 60% in 1937 (peasants even worse), lived on black bread/old
clothing, shortages of housing and goods

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• Believed in building world’s 1st socialist society while West declined, some social benefits (pensions, medical,
education, employment), can advancement through skills and education (high pay for growing technical elite)
• Women equal to men, sex played down in favor of working (medicine became popular) despite being blocked
from best jobs (also wages too low for one man to support family)  massive mobilization of women
• Culture destroyed: intellect, art, writer all had to be propaganda for Stalin (religion persecuted)

Trotsky • Despite advantages of history, lost mostly due to focus on worldwide revolution (risky)
Kollontai • Sex act had no more significance than “drinking a glass of water”
Kirov • Stalin’s #2 man- murdered in late ’34, setting of reign of terror

29.3 Mussolini and Fascism in Italy Pg 955-

• Italy was new democracy, but soon degraded to Mussolini’s dictatorship following War
• Italy still poor, peasants still attached to local interest rather than state, opposition to liberalism (Catholics,
conservatives, landowners), tense relations between church and state, class conflict, powerful socialist movement
• War disappointed Socialists, nationalists (little land gain), and peasants (no reform)  Russia inspired Italy’s
Socialists  scared property owners, strong Catholic party  opposed to liberalism
• Mussolini expelled from leader of Socialists for advocating Italy helping Allies  organized war veterans into band
of fascists  combo of nationalist and socialist ideas (land expansion, reform for workers & peasants) failed 
1920 used violence (Black Shirts private army attacked Socialists)  Mussolini appears savior of order  support
of conservatives & army
• Oct ‘22 march to threaten king in Rome  Emmanuel gives Mussolini power (dictator for 1 year)
• Mussolini’s new fascist government was between conservative authoritarianism and totalitarianism
• Ministers were old conservatives, moderates, even Socialists  new law giving 2/3 representatives to party w/ most
votes  Fascist Party easily wins majority in 1924
• Murder of Matteotti (leader of Socialists)  opposition demands Mussolini’s violence stop  Mussolini charges
forward w/ repressive measures (freedom of press abolished, fixed elections, rule by decree, arrested all opponents)
 fascist youth movement (“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state”)
• Never destroyed old power structure, compromised w/ conservatives and Catholics in Lateran Agreement (only
interested in personal power), no land reform, not a police state, no racial laws  never really totalitarian
• Lateran Agreement recognized Vatican as state and gives church $  Pope supports Mussolini
• Sexist: no divorce, women to stay at home and make children, bachelor’s tax, limit to 10% good jobs

Matteotti • Leader of Socialists; murdered in ‘24

29.4 Hitler and Nazism in Germany Pg 957-

• Nazism had deep roots, influenced mostly by extreme nationalism and racism
• Historical roots of First Reich (Holy Roman Empire), chaos of Reformation, destruction from Thirty Years War, and
Second Reich (Bismarck)  belief that Germany was destined for greatness
• Intellectual roots in Fichte (German elite), Hegel (State/war is all), Trieischke (brutality), Nietzsche (will to power),
Wagner (operas of mythical heroes), Gobineau (key was race: jewel is Aryan), and Chamberlain (saw demons,
racist, contradicts self, friends w/ Kaiser, first to support Hitler)  ideas of race and “man w/ mission”
• Bad conditions in Weimar Republic (“November Criminals”)  unrest
• From the position of failure in Austria, Hitler managed to work himself up to the position of power
• Dropped out of school, lived lazily in Vienna (soaked up extreme German nationalism), impressed by mayor Lueger
(showed Hitler how to use anticapitalist propaganda); greeted Great War as salvation (war gave life meaning) 
defeat shatters world  Hitler joins tiny extremist group (German Workers’ Party) to fight on  leader of growing
party (10x after 1922)
• Failure of badly organized armed uprising in Munich, 1923  jail time  dictated Mein Kampf
• Upon release, de-emphasized anticapitalism & anti-Semitism to appeal and build up Nazi Party  grew, but slightly
(2.6% vote in 1928)
• Great Depression: Hitler offers economic salvation, advocates gov programs to bring recovery  middle-lower
class voted pocketbooks for Nazis  38% vote in 1932

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• Appealed to youth (“National Socialism is the organized will of the youth”); 40% Nazis < 30
• Popular hatred of gov (Hindenburg ruled by decree, cutting gov spending  worse economy), no cooperation of
Communists and Social Democrats, and backroom politics (support from key people in army who believed they
could use/control Hitler)  Hitler is appointed chancellor on 1/30/33
• From there, Hitler rapidly set up a dictatorship as Fuhrer, and gained the support of the people
• Feb 1933 Hitler sets Reichstag building on fire  Communists blamed  outlaws Communist party  Enabling
Act of Mar 1933 gives Hitler absolute power for 4 years  smashed all independent organizations, all opposition
(even Nazis, like SA)- “Night of the Long Knives”
• One party state, fake elections, Reichstag only served to praise Hitler, everything responsible to Hitler, dual gov w/o
organization (Hitler played gov against each other to maintain freedom), outlawed unions/strikes (replaced by Nazi
Labor Front), blacklists, violent and anti-intellectual
• SA were vying for power  June ’34 Hitler’s SS kills SA leaders  German army swears oath to Hitler  SS
grows under Himmler, absorbs Gestapo, becomes inhumane
• Nuremberg Laws of ’35 persecute Jews  150000 emigrate to escape  Kristallnacht in ’38 (organized wave of
violence against Jews)  another 150000 run
• Delivered on economic recovery (large public works program, Schacht restored credit/business, prep for war creates
jobs)  unemployment drops to 2%, women take jobs, ↑ standard of living/profits
• Socially, barriers of elite relaxed (poor worked way to top), but elite held most of advantages, view on women same
(mobilization only cause of need for workers)
• Germans encouraged by image of superior German nation  rabid nationalism attractive
• Some resistance, but all were unorganized and failed (churches, 1938,1942-44 some army officers)
• Hitler’s beliefs were based on racism, powerful 1000-Year Reich, living space, “man w/ mission”, etc
• Aryans were the master race (blue eyes, blond hair), others were inferior or Aryans had mixed with impure races;
purify Europe of all inferior races
• Future German state is “lord of the earth”; expanded into E and Russia (lebensraum, living space)
• Mein Kampf was random thoughts, but addressed all his beliefs (not immediately successful)
• With supreme power, Hitler’s aggression rose despite “peaceful claims”, challenging the others to fight

Oct ’33: Withdrawal from League of Nations, indicating death of peaceful policies

’33-’34: First attempt to take Austria; Mussolini threatens to fight  Hitler backs down

Mar ’35: Rearmament alerts other countries of danger (they warn Hitler)

June ’35: Guilty/trying to avoid war, Britain adopts appeasement; Anglo-German agreement breaks German isolation

Mar ’36: Occupation of Rhineland; France can’t act w/o Britain

Late ’36: Hitler supports Mussolini in Ethiopia  Rome-Berlin Axis (Japan later joins)

’36-’39: Germany and Italy help Franco’s fascism win in Spain

Mar ’38: Austria forced to put Nazis in control of gov; German occupation

Sep ’38: Hitler demands that Sudetenland be ceded to Germany from Czechs  old treaties force France/Britain to
defend Czechs  Munich Conference  Czechs sold out by West

Mar ’39: Hitler occupies all of Czech lands  Britain/France forced to think about war

Aug ’39: 10 Year Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact (secret section divided E Europe for Germany/USSR)

9/1/’39: Attack on Poland  Britain/France declare war two days later  2nd World War

Lueger • Mayor of Vienna- won support of people and influenced Hitler’s beliefs
Strasser • Leading Nazi: “Make way, you old ones”
Bruning • Chancellor, convinced president to rule by decree  cut back on gov spending  failure
Hindenburg • Appoints Hitler chancellor on 1/30/’33
Himmler • Cruel, inhuman leader of SS (Hitler’s elite personal guard)
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Goebbels • Failure at beginning (crippled), adored Hitler, flattered him, became extremely powerful (Minister of
Propaganda; amazing speaker), open sex life, suicide w/ Hitler
Chamberlain • Britain’s prime minister, policy of appeasement

29.5 The Second World War Pg 966-

• Over 50 million deaths


• Hitler scored initial victories, creating a New Order based on Nazism, and the “Final Solution” for Jews
• Blitzkrieg, lightning war, crushes Poland in four weeks  West digs in for another trench war along Maginot Line
(“Phony War”), but in spring ’40 Hitler goes through Belgium and splits line, trapping Britain at Dunkirk, but Hitler
stalls (afraid army gains too much power)  British troops escape
• France taken by Nazis; Vichy gov accepts defeat  Hitler controls almost all of W Europe w/ allies
• Battle of Britain: constant air warfare to break British morale, but by Oct ’40, Britain was winning in air, and people
stood strong  Hitler turns from Britain, focusing on East/Balkans
• Barbarossa: secret plan to attack USSR in June ’41  immediate success (200 miles of Moscow)  Russian winter
stopped Germans  2nd attack in ’42 destroyed at Stalingrad
• New Order treated Nordic (Dutch, Danes, Norwegians) best, French middle, and Slavs as “subhumans” (forced to
die out); all territories exploited for German benefit
• Germany applied to total war in ’42: enlisted millions of women, POWs, slaves  war production tripled between
’42-’44; all attempts on Hitler failed
• Final Solution for Jews: Holocaust; Jews exterminated (some enslaved) in gas chambers (“showers”)
• At Auschwitz, 12000 Jews killed per day  6 million total by ’45
• Controversy on who to blame: Hitler, or German people as a whole (most didn’t care/participated/indoctrinated
by propaganda); humans had the “sleeping” potential to cause evil
• Anti-Semitic roots in between wars: Jews shirking from army, blamed for betraying Germany and causing
defeat, revolutionaries tied with Weimar, etc
• Bureaucracies fought for survival- to do so, they had to help Hitler (race to build gas chambers)
• Complicated process of organization required modern industrialization
• Supported by discontent soldiers or economically depressed people
• Goldhagen blamed all of German people for being anti-Semitic (very controversial)
• When the US joins on account of Japan, the tide turns; the Grand Alliance eventually defeats Hitler
• US agrees on Europe First: take care of Hitler first before Japan
• Grand Alliance forms: mutual trust by postponing tough politics about peace until after war and adopting principle
of “unconditional surrender” (Hitler could not divide them)
• Military resources amazing: US outproduced rest of world combined in 1943; Britain mobilized, burdens shared
(combined to produce small radar-guided bombers to attack submarines)
• USSR essentially won the war for Allies; whole populations evacuated, reorganized in East  “Great Patriotic
War of the Fatherland”; popularly supported by heroic determination
• Aided by resistance movement in Europe (patriots, Christians, agents, etc)
• In USSR, German Sixth Army (300000 men) surrounded at Stalingrad in ’42; destroyed until only 123000
surrendered in Jan ’43 (Hitler refused to retreat)
• Fighting in N Africa (British defeat Italians @ Battle of El Alamein in May ’42)  Mussolini deposed  new
Italian gov surrenders in Sep ’43  Mussolini rescued by Germans & fighting cont.
• Hitler eventually loses as forces move in to Berlin along both fronts: USSR and US/Britain
• D-Day (6/6/44), greatest naval invasion: US/Britain led by Eisenhower lands on Normandy coast  cautious
move towards Germany over 100 days
• Soviets advancing from E reach Warsaw, Poland by Aug ’44  moved until met US along Elbe in Germany in
Apr ’45  Allies together fight into Berlin
• Hitler commits suicide under Berlin  May 7 1945, German commanders surrender
• Japan, having been expanding in Asia, joins with Germany against Allies, but eventually loses
• Japan still bogged in China (couldn’t defeat it), depended on oil/metal from US/E Indies  free rein to anti-Western
nationalism  claimed freeing Asians (“Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere”), but ⇓ Asian faith in Japan
• New independent gov were shams; Japanese never delivered on promises
• Land was exploited for war needs, living standards plummeted, cruel to POWs and civilians

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• Japan expands further into China, S Indochina  worse relations with US; cut off oil to Japan  w/ only enough
fuel for 18 months, Japan launches surprise attack on US to cripple them, then win war
• 12/7/41 attack on Pearl Harbor destroyed all US battleships, but US aircraft carriers were luckily away  spirit
of anger/revenge  Hitler declares war on US  US isolationism broken
• Japan expands to colonies in SE Asia, eventually hoping for compromise in their favor after war
• US stops Japan from Australia @ Battle of Coral Sea (May ’42), all 4 of Japanese aircraft carriers sank (luck) @
Battle of Midway (June ’42), Guadalcanal taken by US (Aug ’42), greatest battle in naval history destroys Japanese
navy @ Battle of Leyte Gulf (Oct ’44), bloodiest battles of Pacific war @ Iwo Jima (Feb ’45) & Okinawa (June ’45)
• US outproduced Japan (100000 aircraft/year; 2x Japan in entire war), island hopping campaign bombs, bypasses,
and blockades Japanese islands
• Extremely brutal (war without mercy): no POWs, mutual hatred
• Conquest of Japan thought to cost 1 mil US and 10-20 mil Japanese lives, despite Japanese’s weak position  Aug
6 & 9, 1945, US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki  ultimate human destruction  Japanese
surrender on Aug 14, 1945

Petain • Formed new French gov (Vichy) to accept defeat from Germany
Goldhagen • Controversial work stereotyped all Germans to be anti-Semitic, to blame for Holocaust
FDR • US President during war
Eisenhower • Led D-Day invasion

Unit 15 Study Guide- Europe During the Cold War & After:

30.1 Division of Europe Pg 981-

Nov 1943: Teheran conference w/ Big Three (Stalin/Roosevelt/Churchill) – solidify alliance without post war commitments,
determined to crush Germany, US agrees w/ USSR to open French front (to satisfy Stalin)

Feb 1945: Yalta Conference – US weak, bets on USSR to be peaceful, Germany divided & pays $, USSR joins against Japan,
E Europe to have free elections

May 1945: US cuts all aid to USSR; would not recognize governments established by force

July 1945: Potsdam Conference: USSR refuses to allow free elections  key to origin of cold war  Stalin wins (US
hesitant to enter war)

Mar 1946: Iron curtain; US talks tough but demobilizes (belief in atomic power); Stalin determined to spread communism
(Iran, Turkey, Greece, China)

Mar 1947: Truman Doctrine to contain communism, asks to aid Greece and Turkey

June 1947: Marshall Plan offers $ to Europe (Stalin refuses)

Feb 1948: antidemocratic seizure of power in Czech  western fear of USSR

1948: Stalin cuts off W Berlin, but planes supply for 324 days  Stalin backs down

1949: NATO (N Atlantic Treaty Org.) formed for democracies  Stalin creates Warsaw Pact in E Europe

1950-1953: Korean War (MacArthur & US & S Korea VS China & USSR & N Korea)  fragile truce

30.2 Western Renaissance, 1945-1968 Pg 985-

• Economic conditions are terrible (esp in Germany, treated badly)  need for eco & political reform
• Christian Democrats influential in Italy (Gasperi), France, W Germany (Adenauer); united by Christianity, rejected
authoritarians, put faith in democracy, cooperation, and united Europe

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• Socialist grew as eco reform & welfare  Labour Party in Britain establishes “welfare state”
• US aid in Marshall Plan and NATO  US assumes international responsibilities  huge economic growth after
1950s (became standard goal for gov), Keynesian economics (stimulation) applied
• OEEC/Council of Europe are attempts at sovereign Europe parliament, but opposed by Britain
• Common Market develops from attempt to control all Euro steel/coal into (w/ Treaty of Rome 1957) single market
w/ low tariffs and free movement of $  success
• No political unity; Britain opposed OEEC, Common Market  nationalism (France withdraws from NATO and gets
independent under Gaulle)
• Decolonization from lower power difference, more nationalism, less popular interest in bloody conquest, less self
confidence of imperialists
• Gandhi leads nonviolent noncooperation in India  new constitution in 1935  2 individual states of Hindu India
& Muslim Pakistan in 1947
• Philippines from US (1946), Sri Lanka/Burma from Britain (1948), Indonesia beats Dutch in 1949, Syria/Lebanon
from France (1944), Palestine/Israel from Britain (1947)
• Some ties actually get closer (lure of trade & investment): Africans enter association w/ Britain, French Africans had
close ties w/ France (commonwealth)  neocolonialism
• Growth of nationalism and decolonization  civil wars and conflicts
• Mao’s USSR supported radical communists defeat Chiang Kai-Shek’s US supported Guomingtan, uniting China in
strong centralized state w/ collective peasants & 5 year plans
• 1931, 5000 mile march of Mao to escape and set up power base
• Mao’s better organized and widely supported troops force Nationalists to Taiwan in 1949
• Arabs furious at division of Palestine into Arab & Jewish state  chaos
• 1948 Arabs attack but defeated  more Israelis, 4 more wars in 50 years
• Nasser revolts in 1952 Egypt  nationalized Suez Canal in 1956  British/French/Israel attacks  US &
USSR help defeat them  last dying gasp of imperialism
• Arab nationalism encouraged  Algeria war of independence from France  Gaulle gives in 1963 (French
population there flees)

Gasperi • Christian Demo. antifascist in Italy 1948  democracy, economy rebuilding, social reform
Gaulle • Wartime leader of Free French, resigns after re-establishing Fourth Republic in Jan 1946
• Returns to power as part of movement to keep Algeria French  establishes Fifth Republic in 1958-1969,
romantic nationalist, viewed US as threat
• Strong attack on student strike in Paris 1968; new elections vote him back to power
Adenauer • Long successful democratic rule from 1949 on in W Germany; Christian Democrat
Erhard • New free market economy and welfare network in W Germany is success
Monnet • Flexibility, mixed state, private economy  amazing economic development in France
• Led international organization w/ Schuman, 1950, to control steel/coal (Common Market)

30.3 Soviet Eastern Europe, 1945-1968 Pg 995-

• War unites USSR, but Stalin remakes dictatorship & wars on capitalism  back to labor camps, purging of
art/culture/Jews, 5 year plans (1930 again w/o the police)
• Stalin fights war vs capitalism, tries to spread Stalinist system to E Europe
• Yugoslavia, led by Tito, resists successfully in 1948  Stalin furious
• 1953 Stalin died  Khrushchev realizes need to reform fear/hatred/isolation from west
• 1955 Khrushchev beats out conservatives after a split in leadership
• Secret speech at closed congress 1956- all out attack on Stalin
• Genuine deStalinization: party still controlled, but more consumer goods, less worker controls, higher standard of
living, more culture/freedom (denounced but not shot), less foreign tensions (concessions in neutral Austria,
convinced others)
• Stimulated rebellion in E Europe: Poland’s 1956 new gov, Hungary’s 1956 liberalization  Russian invasion,
Hungary falls (wanted US aid but didn’t get it)
• Lost support: Western policy mess (Berlin Wall 1961, Cuban missile crisis 1962, danger to authority)

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• In 1964 Khrushchev falls, Brezhnev begins reStalinization: dictatorship was collective not personal, coercion rather
than terror  good balance
• Stalin’s good points stressed, massive arms buildup, no more liberalization
• Czechs vote in Dubcek  dramatic reforms in liberalization  frightened Communists  Aug 1968 attacks Czechs
 no resistance  Brezhnev Doctrine (USSR can interfere in E Europe)
• Less freedom in culture/art, but punishments not inhumane  solid rule
• Higher standard of living, incentive to do well, more nationalism, more urbanization, more trained experts, more
public educated opinion (sows seeds for revolution)

Pasternak • Doctor Zhivago challenged communism (intellectual triumphs in humanity and Christian spirit) 
denounced by not shot; tested boundaries of new culture
Sotzhenitsyn • One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich damned Stalinist past (story of concentration camp)

30.4 Postwar Social Transformations, 1945-1968 Pg 999-

• Rise of Big Science- using science for difficult problems, very expensive, etc
• Theoretical and practical science joined on massive scale to fight wars (radar, atomic bomb in 1945 – Manhattan
Project)  power, but moral responsibilities
• US led; 5x development, 3% of all money; science always remained strong and not demobilized
• USSR vs US space race: USSR, 1957, 1st satellite  1961 first USSR astronaut  US spacecraft on moon 1969 
huge increase in science in Europe to catch up
• More scientists, more specialization, teamwork, competition, large organizations
• Relaxing class barriers and need for business managers, bigger middle class
• New breed of managers and experts (less family business)  more middle class, harder to define
• Less class barriers; experts from all social classes, less working class, welfare = more equality
• Gadget revolution; more cars, more willing to buy stuff, mass travel for fun
• Growing emancipation of women; working outside home for money
• Transition to early marriage/births, less birth rate  less energy needed for raising kids  more married women
looking for work (extra time)
• Demand for labor in non male fields (service, gov)  20% (1950) to 70% (80s)
• Housekeeping responsibilities  part time employment  hard “double day”
• Pay discrimination  rise in women’s movement (employment is important, sense of injustice)
• Youth counterculture rebels from parents and status quo, led by US youth
• “Silent Generation” began subculture of radical politics, art, experimentation (drugs, sex earlier with new
contraception and “death of social customs”: 4.5% experienced sex in 1945  32% in 1950s)
• Mass communication & travel links countries, baby boom = more influence/purchasing power
• Fused with counterculture to order: romanticism, freedom, simple societies
• Vietnam War was “old people fighting immoral war against small heroes”
• 3x students in universities  crowded classes  sloppy education  revolts (University of Paris 1968)  Gaulle
sends in troops  won but sowed seeds)

30.5 Conflict and Challenges in the Late Cold War, 1968-1985 Pg 1006-

• Vietnam War’s roots in Ho Chi Minh’s communist victory over France  Geneva Accords (1954) divide country into 2
zones  S Vietnam rebels against communists  US intervenes
• US escalates war to break N Vietnam without invading (limited war)  backfires, US people get weary (divides
nation, 1965 student revolts, etc)
• Vietcong Tet Offensive (communists) Jan 1968 failed  US says win in sight  US loses heart after tons of
bloodshed  Johnson calls for negotiations w/ N Vietnam
• Nixon cuts army to 24000, reconciles w/ China, peace w/ N Vietnam (1972), ditching S Vietnam
• Congress gains lots of power  refuses aid to S Vietnam, who lose in 1975 (US confidence shaken)
• Policy of détente (relaxing cold war tensions) rises, but doesn’t win completely
• Brandt in W Germany takes major step to peace  changes hard line policy to communists  direct relations with
East and treaties
• Final Act of Helsinki Conference (1975) confirms current political lines, guarantees human rights
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• USSR ignores under Brezhnev  invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 alarms world
• Carter leads Atlantic alliance, but can’t force in economic sanctions vs USSR  Reagan saves alliance in patriotism
(more arms/navy), w/ Thatcher & Kohn helping in Britain & W Germany
• 1970s birth of feminism thanks to changes socially, more intellect, more banding together
• Beauvoir’s existentialism: trapped by conditions, but could escape and break free  inspiration
• Friedan concluded crisis of identity: women faced sexism from men  founded NOW (National Organization for
Women)  40000 members by 1974
• Attempts to politically change laws (equal pay, maternal leave, day care, divorce, abortion, protection from
violence): success in Italy by 1988
• Influences other groups to mobilize (gays, physical disabilities)
• New economic crisis causes pessimism and less welfare states, need to reform
• US dollar losing gold from sending $ abroad  Nixon stops sale of gold  inflation worldwide
• OPEC embargoes oil to US  prices quadruple in 1973  economic decline as energy industries drag it down 
modest recovery by 1976  second oil shock in 1979 as oil production collapses  creation of misery index (rates
of inflation and unemployment): Europe sucks but Japan does ok
• Government’s high social welfare plans  too much government spending
• Thatcher in 1979 Britain creates free market policies, incentive to buy cheap housing, privatization, captured
Falklands (surge in nationalism)  controversial  soon undone by forcing financial control in city govs
• Reagan cuts income taxes but can’t cut spending (too much $ in arms/welfare)  US debt triples
• Big organizations lost advantages, less materialism, more intellect (Greens in 1979 W Germany for environment) 
healthier lifestyle, postponing marriage w/ threat of no job, more women workers
• Common Market (EEC) survives; Denmark/Iceland/Britain join 1973, Greece 1981, Spain 1986

Ho Chi Minh • Communist Vietnam guerrilla leader in 1954 defeats French, despite US aid to France
Johnson • Expanded US role in Vietnam- massive aid to S, bombing of N, forces to ½ million men
Nixon • US President- ended war in Vietnam w/ Secretary of State Kissinger
• Authorized illegal spying to stop leakage of government stuff to press  one authorized group breaks
into Watergate (Democratic Party headquarters) in June 1972  arrested by local officials  web of
lies exposed to public  Nixon resigns in disgrace, 1974
Brandt • W German chancellor, flew to Poland Dec 1970 to reconcile (lay wreath at tomb of Polish soldier): “ask
pardon for crimes committed in the misused name of Germany”
Reagan • Saved Atlantic alliance, wave of patriotism, USSR as “evil empire”, worked w/ Thatcher
Beauvoir • The Second Sex influenced by Sartre: existentialist view on women
Friedan • The Feminine Mystique study concludes other women were sharing her dissatisfaction
Mitterrand • Attempt at vast program of public investment fails  has to implement austerity measures

31.1-2 Decline of Communism in Eastern Europe & Revolutions of 1989 Pg 1020-

• USSR remains a strong dictatorship, but era of reform spirals out of control into collapse of USSR

Poland • Unruly satellite from beginning (Church thrived  failure to monopolize society)
(Walesa) • Economic crisis in 1970s + Wojtyla elected pope 1978 & preaches rights of man
• Aug 1980 workers strike  Gdansk Agreement where gov gives in, working class wins  Walesa
organizes workers into Solidarity trade union  growth into 9.5 million members by 1981  “self
limiting” (didn’t take power)
• Dec 1981, Jaruzelski attacks, arresting Solidarity (Walesa losing support from moderation)  Solidarity
goes underground and survives thanks to gov’s inability for full scale terror, and increased intellectual
life despite laws
• Pressure in 1988 forces Communists to legalize Solidarity and hold free elections  Communist fails to
win majority it believed it had  stalemate  Walesa gains majority w/ skillful maneuvering 
Walesa chosen as new noncommunist leader, Aug 1989
• New revolutionary changes done step by step to avoid confrontation w/ USSR, but in economy used
shock therapy: abolished all price controls on 1/1/1990 (“big bang”)
USSR • After Andropov worsens economy, Gorbachev in 1985 rises to save communism by reforming, which

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(Gorbachev required better relations with west
VS Yeltsin) • Attack on corruption/alcoholism, perestroika (eased price controls, independent state enterprises, some
profit seeking private companies), glasnost (new cultural openness), democratization (some free
elections, Congress of People’s Deputies in 1989), détente (withdrawal from Afghanistan, Washington
summit Dec 1987 w/ US removes missiles, pledges to encourage/respect E Europe choices)
• Economy falters at “middle point”, reforms ignite demands for more (April 1989 rebellion in Tbilisi) 
Gorbachev draws back from repression
• Independence in Lithuania  economic embargo but no army  less popular support  stalemate 
new constitution abolishing Communism’s power monopoly saves himself
• Yeltsin (radical reform communist) elected leader of Russian Federation 1990  Gorbachev tries new
treaty to link republics in looser confederation  rejection
• Hardliner communists kidnap Gorbachev Aug 1991  Yeltsin wins army’s support  Gorbachev
rescued, returned to head of USSR  failed coup ends up destroying USSR
• Anticommunist revolution  Russia and other Soviet republics leave USSR  USSR ceases to exit
12/25/1991 (replaced by minor Commonwealth of Independent States)
Germany • E Germans flee through newly opened Hungary into W Germany  Berlin Wall opened Nov 1989 to
(Kohl) control situation  reform gov takes power w/ free elections
• Reform communists argue for third way, to keep from unification but closer ties w/ West
• Eventually, Gorbachev and Kohl sign agreement to unify Germany in July 1990
• Opening of Berlin Wall gives E Germans taste of better West
• Kohn in West presents 10 pt plan for unification & economic bonanza (Nov 1989)
• Alliance for Germany in East wins almost 50% votes, negotiates economic union
• Germany sweetens deal w/ USSR: no development of nuclear weapons and $ loans
Hungary • Kadar (communist) replaced in 1988 with reform communist  free elections early 1990 (communists
(Kadar) thought they could win), and opens border to E German and Austria
Czech. • Velvet Revolution Nov-Dec 1989: peaceful demonstrations  power-sharing agreement w/
(Havel) Communists  Communists resign 3 days later  Havel elected president 1989
Romania • Violent and bloody; ironfist Ceausescu ruthlessly slaughters protestors in Dec, but is defeated and
(Ceausescu)   executed  troubled country

• Accelerated end of cold war: Nov 1990 22 countries agree to scale down armed forces, affirm existing borders in Paris
Accords  USSR/US scrap nuclear weapons (’91 both cancel alert status for bombers)
• US emerges as world’s superpower  “new world order”: US & UN working to stabilize world
• Shows superiority in quick war w/ Iraq: Hussein attacks Kuwait Aug 1990  UN mobilizes in naval blockade of
Iraq  US soldiers land in Saudi Arabia to attack Iraq  win but stops from killing Hussein (might = unstable Iraq)

31.3 Building a New Europe in the 1990s Pg 1030-

• Europe slowly unified loosely instead of divided Europe, sharing underlying network of commonality
• Embraced free market capitalism in order to participate in global economy like International Monetary Fund (IMF),
shifting from welfare states (following US/Britain)
• Electronics revolution and reduced costs of distance  globalization  undermining of social achievements,
reduced power of unions, reduced welfare, hurt the poor (low pay, no local industries)
• Triumph of liberal democracy, electoral competition, basic civil liberties
• Resurging nationalism remained limited in terms of bloodshed; most wanted to join European Union (which
isolated states w/ hatred & warfare like Serbia)
• Yeltsin’s attempt to prevent return to communism  shock therapy  economic crisis  Putin’s rise
• Shock therapy freed prices on 90% of goods, rapid privatization of industry
• Prices rose 250% the first day, private companies remained in hands of old communist bosses, production fell 50%
from ’91-’96, inflation raged, life expectancy down from 69 to 58
• Industry were in few huge factories, powerful managers force gov to hand out credits to reinforce positions of
big firms  converted state owned industry into powerful private property
• Social revolution: capitalist elite (concentrated in Moscow), while everyone else became poor
• Yeltsin would not compromise  tanks crush mutiny Oct 1993  consolidated power, come from behind victory
1996  “democracy = corruption”
  64  
• Putin, 2000, rises w/ “managed democracy”: free markets, semi-authoritarian rule (liberals retreat to conservatives),
national resurgence, restricted reports on Chechnya civil war  suited most Russians
• Eastern Europe similar to Russia; social problems, nationalism, attempts to rejoin West
• Former satellites replaced state planning with private property, civilians lost, inequality of rich vs poor rises, more
crime, transition to market economies w/ high social costs, surge of state creation
• Poland/Czech/Hungary most successful, with experience in reforms, control of national tensions (Czechs peacefully
let Slovakia break off in 1993)  fairly easily joins NATO in 1997 (NATO/EU provided security but required proof
of character/stability)
• Romania/Bulgaria weaker, poorer  membership in NATO/EU lies far in future
• Yugoslavia, succeeding under Tito, soon begins breaking up as power shifts to republics
• Milosevic leads attempt to unite all Serbs  abolished self rule in Kosovo 1989 (mostly Albanian) 
Slovenia/Croatia declare independence 1991  Milosevic takes 30% of Croatia  spreads to Bosnia-Herzegovina
(declares independence 1992)  Serbs there refuse to live in majority Muslim land  brutal Bosnian civil war
• West final responds when Serbs overrun UN’s “safe area” for Muslims (Srebrenica)  NATO bombs Serbs 
Clinton creates accord that divides Bosnia between Serbs & Muslims Nov 1995
• Kosovo Muslims gain nothing, form Kosovo Liberation Army to fight  Serbs attack KLA  US leads bombing
on Milosevic March 1999  initial resistance but soon withdraws  pro-Western Serbia votes Milosevic out and
into trial for war crimes
• Movement towards western Europe unity reignites in 1980s w/ development of EU and more
• Difficult integration of E/W Germany despite pumping massive investment
• Unemployment reaches high of 12.8% late 1997 despite welfare, women suffers
• Single Euro Act of 1986 lays down framework for single market  European Community (Common Market)
rechristens into European Union  Mitterrand/Kohl leads pushing for union of EU members  Maastricht treaty
sets strict financial criteria for joining EU, with single currency (Dec 1991)  unified euro currency 1/1/2002 
new constitution w/ single rulebook, president, minister, voting system in June 2004 eventually rejected by
France/Dutch  stalled
• Cautious considering of new requests for EU: Sweden/Finland/Austria got in, while former communist states had to
work hard  Poland/Czech/Hungary/etc enter 5/1/2004 (70 mil ppl)
• Historic, irreversible step to unity w/ widespread skepticism and opposition
• People resented more rules, yielding to distant “Eureaucrats”, and reduction in welfare
• Mitterrand in France forced by Maastricht to cut welfare  unions force gov to pass new law reducing
workweek to 35 hrs  more laws sharing work to reconcile for loss of welfare
• Questions on meaning of unity- Turkey? Evolving US?

Fukuyama • End of History (1992): fascism, Nazism, then communism all beaten by liberalism
Cronin • The World the Cold War Made (1996): fall of communism marks return of nationalism

31.4 New Challenges in the 21st Century Pg 1041-

• Baby bust: birthrates fall (1.6 children average vs 2.1 needed for stability)  less workers, soaring social security taxes,
generational conflict (“ticking time bomb”)
• Due to unemployment, partial rejection of motherhood, impact of rising careers (postponed births to finish
education/have more time until too old)
• 2005 birthrates stabilized due to pressing case for more babies and family support
• Immigration into EU (500000/yr, 300000 into US)  rise of illegal immigration despite rejection when caught (powerful
people smuggling gangs, kidnappers of young women from E Europe)
• Accused of taking jobs, fears of new Muslim immigrants  opposition says Europe needs newcomers, and Europe
needs to reexamine their world role
• People aware of good fortune & guilty for rejecting immigrants  new mission for human rights
• Institutions set moral standards, curb on sovereign rights of states, responsibility to humans, abolished death penalty,
pensions to prostitutes, legalized gay marriage, assisted suicide, US joined EU to intervene in killing in Yugoslavia,
2001 AIDS crisis, etc
• Related to criticism of globalization and unrestrained capitalism  socialists regain power

Gnesotto • Director of EU: historical responsibility to make morality a basis of policy; human > state
  65  
31.5 The West and the Islamic World Pg 1045-

• 9/11/01: hijacked planes crash into Twin Towers  launch of campaign for safety of ordinary citizens
• Terrorist roots in Vietnam’s wave (terror to cripple West: PLO), defeated in 1980s, built up recently as extremist
Islamics (“holy warriors” blamed US for supporting their exile)  current day terrorism
• US joins w/ Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against bin Laden’s al-Qaeda & Taliban  Oct 2001 air strikes
destroy them  “liberators”  plans for new gov while searching for bin Laden
• Cheney, Rumsfeld, and O’Neill build case against Hussein to take him out and change Iraq into democratic, pro-
American, accessible oil (played on US fears of terrorism w/ charges of WMDs)
• Aug 2002 Cheney promises US deposition of Hussein, but Iraq’s weak position  questioning legality of attack on
US  Security Council instead sends inspectors into Iraq  Inspectors find no WMD  US/Britain claim Iraq is
hiding  March 2003 attack Iraq despite bitter opposition  troops turn blind eye to chaos, alienated population,
lack of WMDs  opposition
• Modern Iraq divided into 3: Kurds, Sunnis, Shi’ites  minority Sunni repressed majority  radical Sunnis direct
suicide bombings at US
• Iraqi sovereignty restored July 2004 w/ provisional gov, free elections where Shi’ites win  Sunnis attack even
more (Feb 2005 blowing up of Golden Mosque)  violence, US caught in crossfire
• Worsening relations between West and Islamic world w/ more terrorism
• Muslims in Spain plants bombs May 2004, similar attack in London, stabbing of Theo van Gogh in Dutch 
European debate on immigration of Muslims (likely to double to 30 mil by 2025)
• Immigrants could not fit in & were poor  riots (France, Nov ’05); in US, fit in better (educated, $)
• Few Europeans took religion seriously (< 5% attending church)  cannot understand power of Islam

van Gogh • Mocking Muhammad and denouncing Islamic women  brutal murder
Olivier Roy • Claims Europe must recognize Islam is part of Europe in order to end division

31.6 The Future in Perspective Pg 1050-

• “Great seesaw” of pessimism and optimism extremes: pessimistic cold war/environment/weapons, optimistic end of cold
war/booming economy, pessimistic economic recession/terrorism, etc.
• Remember neither extreme ever proves true; every age has problems and challenges, but we stand at the head of a long
civilization w/ many sacrifices, bla bla bla bla…

Does anyone else think that the last page belongs more in a cheesy inspirational book rather than a Euro textbook? xD

THIS IS IT. THE END OF OUR LONG EURO TEXTBOOK! :D

  66  
A History of Western Society 9th Edition Book Summary:
Unit 1: Middle Ages and the Renaissance-

• Black Death  people not prepared  belief in supernatural causes/cures  Flagellants, persecution of Jews  1/3 of
Europe dead  fall in standards, drop in Church membership but rise in spirituality, lower public morality
• Philip VI (France) tries to take Aquitaine from England  Edward III (England) tries to take French throne  Hundred
Years’ War  early form of nationalism  France rallies under Joan of Arc & Charles VII to win @ Orleans (1429)
• After the Babylonian Captivity, Great Schism divides Christians (Urban VI of Rome vs Clement VII of Avignon)  rise
of reformers (conciliarists, Lollards, confraternities, Brethren of the Common Life)  Constance council (1414) ends it
• Renaissance brings about new changes in society, intellect, and art from 1330-1550
• Rise of balance of power ideal among city states (Venice/Milan/Florence/Papal States/Naples)  no cooperation
• Humanism (importance of humans), individualism (importance of individual), secularism (importance of material
world), Christian humanism (mixed in Christian ethics): Petrach (“living in new age”), Castiglione (The Courtier),
Machiavelli (The Prince), More (Utopia), Erasmus (education), Gutenburg (printing press), Cereta (feminist)
• Rise in artists paid for by patrons, focusing on humanism: Giotto (realist paintings), da Vinci (“genius”; Mona Lisa
& Last Supper), Weyden/Eyck (Christian humanists), Michelangelo (“divine”), Sanzio (frescoes)
• More divisions in society: education, class, women, “blood”, race, orders (“prayers/fighters/workers”), religion
• Monarchs began expanding countries, cutting off nobles, Machiavellian techniques in France, England, and Spain
• France: Charles VII (crowned by Joan, reconciled civil war, gabelle/taille taxes, Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges) 
Louis XI (“Spider King”)  Francis I (Concordat of Bologna)
• England: Henry IV (War of the Roses)  Henry VI (mentally disturbed, authority sank lower)  Edward IV (began
peace)  Richard III (helped Edward)  Henry VII (royal council, Court of Star Chambor, justices of the peace)
• Spain: Ferdinand/Isabella (hermandades, Inquisition against New Christians)  Charles V

Unit 2: The Reformation-

• Anticlericalism (pluralism, resentment of privileges, indulgences)  Luther posts 95 Theses 10/31/1517  rise of
Protestantism (salvation by faith, authority only rests in word of God, church consists of all Christians, all vocations have
equal merit)  Imperial Diet  Lutheran German princes defeat Charles V in Peace of Augsburg
• Spread to Henry VIII in England (set up Anglican Church to get a son)  Mary Tudor (Henry’s daughter, Catholic) 
Elizabeth (2nd daughter, Elizabethan Settlement); in Geneva, Calvin’s predestination idea; in Scotland, Knox
• Counter Reformation, 30 years later, sets up Inquisition & Council of Trent (attempt at reconciliation, but fixed several
clerical problems)  Ursuline order of nuns set up by Merici for women education, Jesuits set up by Loyola to spread
Catholicism (extremely organized group)
• Weber Thesis: capitalism developed from Calvinism’s intense anxiety & triumph of rationality (many critics)

Zwingli • Important early reformer with Luther: against art (only Bible to spread gospel), bread/wine symbolic only
Anabaptists • Radicals that believed in re-baptization of enemies
More • Dissenter of Two Acts in Henry VIII’s England  beheaded
Cromwell • Henry’s chief minister- convinced him to dissolve English monasteries

Unit 3: Religious Wars and the Age of Exploration-

• Technology, spreading Christianity, marvel of new world, escape from poor conditions  Age of Exploration
• Columbus, as “divine agent”, set sail for Asia but instead lands on Cuba in 1492  tons of interest
• Cortes begins conquest of Aztecs in 1519, Pizarro conquests Incas (tech, diseases, naivety)
• Magellan is sent by Spain and goes around world in 1519 (killed in Philippines): proved Earth large and dangerous
• Resulted in Tordesillas dividing world, sugar plantations, slave trade, Columbian Exchange, price revolution
• Reformation and Exploration leads to violent reforms and revolutions in France & Holy Roman Empire
• Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis leads to Huguenots vs Catholics  St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  Henry IV
restores peace by converting to Catholicism & Edict of Nantes
• Charles V abdicates, gives Spain to Phillip II  Council of Blood to execute dissidents in Netherlands  Union of
Utrecht declares independence for Calvinist Dutch
• Phillip II also launches Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I (with help from Mary, inside source)  defeat
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• New ideas about race (Africans are savage primitives), skepticism, Elizabethan/Jacobean literature (KJV)
• Witch hunts reflected society’s fears for the “unusual” (old women, young women not controlled by husband, demons)

Montaigne • Skeptic: era of doubt; one culture is not the best; remained Catholic but “open”; Essays
Shakespeare • Original characters, diverse plots, deep psychology: Caeser, history plays, tragedies, Tempest

Unit 4: Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe-

• During the age of crisis, government power added up to a sovereignty over justice/force (driven by war & revolts) 
growth of absolutism in France
• Henry IV ruled with duke of Sully as chief minister, restoring public order
• Richelieu subordinated competitors to monarch: eliminated nobles’ power, divided France into 32 districts held by
indendants (noblesse de robe), principle of under one faith, destroy Habsburgs, raison d’etat
• Mazarin (chief minister for Louis XIV) experienced Fronde uprisings and civil disorder of noblesse d’eppe vs others
• Louis XIV revoked Edict of Nantes, introduced police terror, kept France at war for 33 years, used religion
politically to increase power, never used Estates-General (nobility became powerless)
• Colbert, Louis XIV’s financial minister, applied mercantilism, new estate system so people pay no property tax
• Peletier, Louis’ next finance, devalued currency/raised taxes/got $ from nobles in exchange for social hierarchy
• Spanish absolutist monarchy based off silver  problems when silver trade falls 60%  fall of Spain
• Tiny middle class, loss of population, weak kings, clinging to traditions, revolts, could not look to future
• Cervantes tells novel about decline (idealist but impractical) in Don Quixote
• New World land divided into viceroyalties and mercantilism applied
• War of Spanish Succession shatters peace  Louis XIV wants his son to take over Spain  Grand Alliance vs Louis
XIV  Peace of Utrecht ends on principle of partition and balance of power: decline of Spain, France/Spain never unite
• Culture of absolutism became symbol of state power: glorified monarch (Court of Versailles displayed greatness)
• Baroque art/music: strong in Catholicism, important role of appealing and kindling faith, “imperfect pearl”
• Patronage: higher ranks protected lower in return for loyalty (king & subjects, Tellier in France, women)
• French Classicism- emphasis on culture: Academy, Poussin’s art, Moliere’s plays
• Constitutionalism develops in England: Charles I (Long Parliament doesn’t trust him, forced to summon Parliament,
dissolves Parliament)  English Civil War (New Model Army vs Charles)  Cromwell (creates Protectorate 
dictatorship & mercantilism)  Charles II (Test Act restricts other religions)  James II (return to Catholicism) 
Glorious Revolution (William and Mary in bloodless revolution take over)
• Bill of Rights created, Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government (natural rights and liberty)
• William II, stadholder of 6 provinces, takes over Dutch to make monarchy  Dutch Golden Age of religious tolerance,
Public Bank, Dutch E India Company (shipping), art (Rembrandt)

Hobbes • Leviathan supports absolutist government; social contract, people in need of strong ruler
Tellier • Secretary of war; son Louvois used family ties to buy French offices

Unit 5: Age of Absolutism in Eastern Europe-

• Serfdom disappears in West but rises in East (hereditary subjugation); eastern lords have more power and support
• Protestant Union vs Catholic League  defenestration of Prague (Protestants throw two officers out window)  Thirty
Years War 1618-1648: Bohemian Phase (Catholics win at Battle of the White Mountain)  Danish Phase (Edict of
Restitution wipes out Protestants)  Swedish Phase (Adolphus wins battles)  French Phase (France enters w/
Protestants)  standstill  Peace of Westphalia marks turning point
• Peace of Westphalia ends religious conflict, recognizes Netherlands, practically destroys Holy Roman Empire
• Development of royal absolutism in Austria (from scattered groups), Prussia (military), and Russia (modernization)
• Habsburgs emerged badly from 30 Years’ War, but Ferdinand II makes a win for Habsburgs, reorganizing the state
to worsen peasants’ condition and stamp out Protestantism  Ferdinand III builds state power (common loyalty to
monarch, agreement w/ church and nobles, huge army, rise of nobles)  Charles VI’s Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
allows his daughter to take control
• Battle of Mohacs splits Hungary between Ottomans and Habsburgs  Habsburgs win in 1718  Hungary still
manages to thwart full control by revolting under Rakoczy (some traditional privileges won back)
  68  
• Frederick William (Great Elector) in Prussia takes over Brandenburg (weak due to war)  struggle for unification
between Elector and estates  Elector wins (beating Junkers in estates) thanks to war in estates and nobility 
William I (Soldier’s King) builds huge military and rigid society
• Ivan III stops acknowledging Mongol Yoke rule and khan in 1480 (claimed political and religious power, and had
help from boyar nobles)  Ivan the Terrible defeats Mongol remnants & terror reign & monopolization  Time of
Troubles (no heir, Cossack rebellions)  Romanov restores tsarist autocracy (uprisings continue)  Peter the Great
begins military expansion & modernization
• Great Northern War vs Sweden (Charles XII of Sweden surprise attack on Russia), Russians win in the end
• Huge standing army and draft, education reforms, 14 rank military-civilian bureaucracy, constant war, western
ideas, taxes, increase in serfdom, St Petersburg construction highlighted Russian westernization

Unit 6: Expansion and Daily Life-

• Agricultural revolution changes technology from open field system to common lands, enclosure movement, and crop
rotation (mostly in Low Countries, but spreads to England; Tull of England develops farming methods)
• Cottage industry develops often as putting out system (merchant puts out raw materials to cottage workers)- mostly
in England (huge textile industry)  poor and hard to control rural laborers  police powers to merchants
• Guild system grew, industrious revolution of more work and consumption (pattern of whole family working)
• Cyclical pattern of population from Black Death to 17th century balance changes to population surge in 18th century
thanks to declining mortality, improvements in public health, etc
• Growth of world trade led by Britain: roots in mercantilism (aim to create favorable balance of trade) and Cromwell’s
Navigation Acts (monopolized trade)  Atlantic slave trade grows (also led by Britain) until controversies rise
• 3 rounds of wars Britain vs France: War of Spanish Succession (France/Spain lose), War of Austrian Succession
(conflicts in N America/India), Seven Years’ War (Britain destroys France)  treaty of Paris solidifies British rule
• Spain under Philip V revives: colonies increase w/ Creoles (Spanish Americans) at top and mestizos (Spanish
Indians) as middle group; debt peonage as form of serfdom
• Competition for Asian trade until Dutch and England take over in Portugal and India respectively
• Controversy leads to campaign for free trade (Smith’s Wealth of Nations)  economic liberalism
• Families were late and close together, children worked at home or elsewhere, premarital sex remained low due to
community controls until illegitimacy explosion of 1750-1850 (sex in promise of marriage)
• High mortality rates and often abandoned/infanticide (wet nursing didn’t help)  low emotional attachment 
Enlightenment (Rousseau’s Emile) calls for tenderness to kids  rise of formal education (led by Prussia)  growth
in literacy  Bible reading, exposure to new ideas
• Diets varied from bread (for all), peas/beans for poor, meat/eggs for commoners (though little), variety for merchants,
huge dinners for rich (gout)  growth of market gardening as England depends on meant, potato, etc.
• New consumer society as growth in consumption, new just price idea (moral economy where prices were fair)
• Science rose in competing groups (midwives give way to surgeons, apothecaries, physicians, tech, etc)  smallpox
inoculation by Jenner lays foundation for immunology
• People remained Christian (church basic unit of life), Theresa shows practical contribution to life  Protestant revival
(Pietism in Germany and Methodism by Wesley) favoring warm emotional religion for all  Catholicism flourishes
(Jansenism calls for renewal, Catholic version of Pietism)
• Celebrations religious (Carnival preceding Lent; wild day of sin) and for fun (blood sports)  oral culture

Unit 7: Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment-

• New revolution of natural philosophy: asking questions about nature and purpose, but incorporating religion (focus on
reason)  religion and science wove together  new scientific community focusing on expanding knowledge
• Roots in European culture and Renaissance recovering works; problems ask for technology
• Enlightenment marked rise of rationalism and belief in progress  high point by philosophes in France (international
leader of culture)  spread by public sphere, reading revolutions, salons held by women, rococo art
• Racial difference ideas: many argued that whites are the best (Kant & Linne) while others argued all races are worthy
• Enlightenment ideals spread to enlightened absolutism: belief in change but only modestly improved life; humanitarian
reforms second to needs of self and state
• Frederick II of Prussia embraced culture/literature (invades Theresa in War of Austrian Succession), strengthening
state humanely (freedom of belief, education, honest laws, servant of state) but couldn’t change social structure

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• Catherine of Russia brought in Western culture, better laws, less torture, limited religious toleration, education,
expansion, but completely destroys serf rebellion and supports nobles
• Theresa of Austria introduced state strengthening reforms and improved efficiency
• Joseph II of Austria controlled Church, introduced religious toleration, radically abolished serfdom  violent
rejection  reforms undone after death (hurt both nobles and serfs)

Aristotle • 400s BC ideas fit Christianity: motionless Earth, perfect quintessence of heavenly spheres, uniformity
Copernicus • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1542)  Copernicus hypothesis: sun @ center (condemned)
Kepler • Brahe’s assistant: mathematically proved relations of universe, 1619 (elliptical orbits, not uniform speeds)
Galileo • Experimental method, law of inertia, Dialogue on the 2 Chief Systems of the World (1632) openly
defended Copernicus  tried for heresy, forced to renounce “errors” by Pope Urban VIII
Newton • Law of universal gravitation in Principia (1687), religious, integrated all ideas into 1 mathematical system
Bacon • New experimental method via empirical research- comparing & analyzing results: empiricism, early 1600s
Descartes • Doubt everything & use deduction; Cartesian dualism reduced everything to physical and spiritual (1619)
Locke • Tabula rasa: mind born blank, ideas come from environment to write on tablet (1690)
Montesquieu • Spirit of Laws (1748) argues for separation of powers to defend liberty & social satire
Voltaire • Satires against legal injustice and inequality, imprisoned, enthusiastic to some (England, Louis XIV, etc)
Diderot • Worked on Encyclopedia (1765) to spread knowledge and promote reason
Rousseau • Social Contract (1762): general will is sacred, rigid division of genders, suspicious, indiv. freedom
Geoffrin • Godmom of Encyclopedia; broke out of cage from husband, led largest salon
Mozart • Child prodigy- rejected for being complicated, freelance writer, many sides of him

Unit 8: The French Revolution and Napoleon-

• Old Regime of 3 estates (clergy, nobility, everyone else) was extremely unfair to commoners  Estates General called
for first time since 1614  list of grievances  3rd Estate declare themselves National Assembly and declare Tennis
Court Oath to make new constitution  commoners storm Bastille for weapons after rumors of king’s invasion  Great
Fear among peasants  chaos  Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen by National Assembly  women march 12
miles and nearly kill queen Antoinette  Louis XVI forced to accept constitutional monarchy in July 1790
• Bourgeoisie and nobility both rise with inner tensions, fusing together (similar economic ways), opposing gov
• Desacralization of king: Louis XV led into trouble and debt (Maupeou parlements try to crush opposition)
• American Revolution: Townshend Acts  Continental Congress & Declaration of Independence  French join for
revenge on Britain  British give in @ Treaty of Paris  France bankrupt and inspired for revolution
• Assembly of Notables called to impose property tax  opposition  Louis XVI forced to call Estates General
• New constitutional monarchy abolished nobility, religious freedom, many rights, but somehow fails  rapid
radicalization leads to 2nd Revolution  Girondists vs the Mountain (Robespierre)  Louis XVI executed by Mountain
(worked with sans-culottes)  Robespierre launches Committee of Public Safety and Reign of Terror
• Declaration of Pillnitz by Austria/Prussia threatening France to calm down
• Young, reckless Jacobin Club, committed to Revolution, begin 2nd Revoltuion
• Reign of Terror: planned economy, rise of nationalism, revolutionary terror, 40000 dead
• Thermidorian Reaction after Robespierre is arrest/executed in July 1794  5 man executive Directory formed
• Napoleon rises in army and takes over Directory in dictatorship 11/9/1799  Grand Empire, but eventually loses
• Civil Code, Concordat of 1801 (keeping people happy religiously), drop in women’s rights, spy system
• 2nd Coalition (Austria/Britain/Russia) breaks up after many treaties, Britain loses at Battle of Trafalgar, 3rd Coalition
(+Sweden) lose at Battle of Austerlitz, end of Holy Roman Empire
• Attempts to block British trade backfire, Spanish revolt succeeds, Great Army attack on Russia fails and dies during
winter  Treaty of Chaumont forces Napoleon off throne 1814 to exile on Elba
• Hundred Days gamble for power, crushed at Waterloo 6/18/1815, imprisoned, replaced by Louis XVIII
• In Saint Domingue, social tensions lead to revolts: free people of color vs poor rights
• National Assembly grants political rights to free people of color (1791)  whites respond violently
• Slave rebellion in 1791  L’Ouverture switches from British to French side and wins  later, free slaves
(L’Ouverture) vs free colored elite  Haiti finally wins and beats France/Napoleon

Burke • Reflections on the Revolution in France defends conservatism and condemns French Revolution
  70  
Wollstonecraft • Vindication on the rights of Man & of Women (1790) begins modern women’s rights movement
Gouges • Women of the people in Rights of Women- no special treatment, full equal rights

Unit 9: The Industrial Revolution-

• Burst of inventions and technical changes (Crystal Palace of London) begins mostly in Britain but soon spreads
• British good economy, high market for goods, control of shipment, free trade, demand, labor force- all help
• Attempts to fix putting out system & get more energy: cotton spinning jenny (Hargreaves), water frame (Arkwright),
body linen, Watt’s steam engine in 1769, transition to cheap iron and coke (iron + coal)
• Transportation improvements in Stephenson’s Rocket (1830), railroads  larger markets
• Britain leads huge gap by 1850, but after that, countries catch up (East slower than West though)
• Other countries had advantages of putting out enterprise, already available tech, tariff protection, strong gov
• Class consciousness as new groups of factory workers (always fighting) and capitalists (few vs many, rise of men) rose
• Working conditions (young children and girls working underground, abandoned paupers, long hours)  revolts
(Luddites attack factories)  Combination Acts (1824) outlaw unions/strikes  massive opposition  Acts repealed
(1824)  Factory Act of 1833 limited hours, Mines Act of 1842, etc

Malthus • Essay on the Principle of Population (1798): population > supply; prudential restraints check growth
Ricardo • Iron law of wages: wages always sink to lowest possible due to population growth
Lizt • Economic nationalism: growth of modern industry most important, 1841
Engels • Condition of the Working Class in England: new poverty was worst; capitalism to blame  socialism
Ure/Chadwick • Conditions were improving in factories; majority of people could buy more
Owen • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834; led social reformers (turned into Chartists)

Unit 10: Ideologies and Upheaval-

• Quadruple Alliance beats Napoleon  Congress of Vienna to keep peace (congress system) and check powers (France)
• New radical ideas in dual revolution (economic and political changes fuse and help each other)
• Metternich’s Holy Alliance set up against liberalism & defend traditional conservatism  interferes in revolutions
like Spain/Sicily/Germany (Carlsbad Decrees passed to root out liberals)
• Liberalism demands equality, laissez faire (from Smith), narrow class interests
• Nationalism: cultural unity, tied w/ liberalism (indiv. liberty & free nation together), “we” vs “they”  conflicts
• Socialism in France: reorganize society for community: economic planning, workers’ support of radical phase of
Revolution, bourgeoisie vs proletariat (Marx & Engels’ Communist Manifesto, 1848)
• Saint Simon: parasites give way to doers, Fourier: utopia, Blanc: right to work, Proudhon: property is theft
• Sturm and Drang (emotional intensity) leads to romantic movement (revolt vs classicism): emotion, love for history
& nature, hate industry, began in Britain, coupled w/ nationalism
• Wordsworth/Hugo/Grimm poems/literature, Pushkin (breaking Russian straitjacket), Delacroix/Constable art
• In music, huge orchestra, crashing chords, despair (Beethoven)  from background to main event
• Realism depicts life as is: taboo subjects, ugliness of life (began in France & spread)  Zola’s animalistic view of
working class & sympathy with socialism in Germinal (1885)

Greece • Holy cause vs Ottomans (backed by Metternich), public support  independence in 1830
Britain • Six Acts & Corn Laws infringe rights & give power to Tories  protests: Battle of Peterloo (1819)  harsh
government repression (Tories afraid of change)  Whig Party forces Reform Bill of 1832 through
• Shift in power from Lords to Commons, more suffrage, triumph of liberalism
• Chartist movement for universal suffrage (fails in 1840s), Anti Corn Law League, Ten Hours Act
Ireland • Great Famine of 1840s kills 1.5 million dependent on the potato  Britain doesn’t help  nationalism
France • 1830: Charles X tries to bring back old days in military coup  revolution (3 glorious days)  Louis Philippe
takes over w/ acceptance of liberal Charter of 1814 that protects gains of French Revolution
• 1848: Philippe’s bad rule & abdicates  2nd Republic of 10 man executive  battle between moderate liberal
republicans and radical republicans (somewhat socialist)  failure of compromise in public workshops  June
Days revolt by socialists  failure  Louis Napoleon takes over with strong executive

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Austria • Influenced by France: Hungarian nationalism creates weak new coalition  Ferdinand I reasserts strength w/
powerful army & manipulating ethnic divisions  Francis Joseph (Sophia’s son) crowned new emperor
Prussia • Prussian liberals create Prussian Constituent Assembly but Frederick William IV regains power

• Crowded, unsanitary cities  need for reform (Benthamites support science to solve public problems)  miasmatic
theory gives way to Pasteur’s germ theory/antiseptics  Paris leads modern urbanization under Napoleon III
• Huge gap of rich & poor, fluctuating social structure, changing family w/ emphasis on emotion
• Upper middle class (almost aristocratic), middle middle class (specialists), lower middle class (traders): all self
distinguished by lots of food, moral code, education, fashion, idea of moving up in society
• Highly skilled workers (labor aristocracy), semiskilled, unskilled (laborers)
• Emphasis on fun (drinking), recreation (spectator sports), religious emotion faded (church linked to conservatism)
• Triumph of romantic love  rise of prostitution and illegitimacy  importance of emotional ties to family & kids
 heavy family controls & pressure on kids (home as shelter)
• Separate spheres develop: gender roles within family (women @ home, men working)  women’s rights movement
• Scientific theories applied to society: thermodynamics, organic chemistry, positivist method to solve social problems
• Freudian psychology: hysteria originates in bitter childhood experiences kept unconscious by defense mechanisms

Unit 11: Age of Nationalism-

• Growth in loyalty to firm state thanks to growth in voting (people became “part of the system”)
• Anti-Semitism grows after 1873 (despite many gains previously in rights) thanks to reaction against liberalism and stock
market crash  Zionist (by Herzl) attempts to create Jewish state  repression by Lueger (mayor of Vienna) & Russia
• Growth after 1871 of socialism: German/Russian Social Democratic Party, International Working Men’s Association
(1864), Second International (1889)  growing fear of socialism (varied in countries)
• Rise of revisionism to update Marxian ideas (workers start winning benefits, rise in standard of living/unions)

France • Louis Napoleon elected with universal suffrage & strong representative leader, but in 1851 becomes Emperor
in coup d’etat  success in economy, restricted Assembly, serious elections, high regard of nationalism
• Divided after defeat by Prussia  civil war in 1848  new national unity thanks to luck by 1914
• Moderate republicans won hearts of new generation: education, secularism
• Dreyfus affair (Jew falsely accused) splits France  more secularism
Italy • Goal of unified Italy after divided at Vienna  3 approaches (Mazzini’s radical republic, Gioberti’s religious
federation, Sardianian leadership)  Cavour leads Sardinia in eventual consolidation of Italy
• Alliance with France vs Austria  1858 Austria attacks  Napoleon abandons  after war, no change
• Moderates vote for central Italy to join Cavour  Garibaldi & Red Shirts attempt to attack Rome to
liberate two Sicilies  Cavour intercepts, together agree to unify N and S (leaving Rome intact)
Germany • German union Zollverein ignores Austria  Prussia rises  need for reforms  Bismarck called to power
• Joins w/ Austria to defeat Denmark, Austro-Prussian War (1866) drives Austria out of N Germany  new
North Germany  Franco-Prussian War (1870) gets S Germans to join patriotically  German Empire
• Olive branch of peace to parliamentary opposition  popularly elected lower house Reichstag
• Bismarck attacks Catholics in Kulturkampf) but fails  high tariffs on grain to make uneasy alliance
• Return to protectionism  international tensions, trade wars, nationalism
• Modern social security laws to satisfy socialists (1880s)  doesn’t really work
• William II forces Bismarck to resign in 1890 (bad move)  attempts to control socialism still fail
Russia • Crimean War, 1850s (humiliating defeat)  need for modernization, led by Alex II until his murder (1881)
• Freeing of serfs (1861), zemstvo local governments to deal with local problems, liberalized education, etc
• Some economic modernization under Alex III (Witte builds railroads, used West to catch up with West)
• Russo-Japanese War (1904) ends in another defeat  revolution of 1905 (gov kills workers on Bloody
Sunday)  tsar gives in w/ October Manifesto, granting civil rights and first Duma  Fundamental Laws 
Duma dismissed  new electoral law led by middle class liberals
Ottomans • Losing land slowly  corrupted janissary corps  Mahmud II destroys them (1826)  new army
• Muhammad Ali rises in Egypt, attacks Ottomans but forced to withdraw by Europeans, 1830s
• Tanzimat parliament to westernize during radical era: religious freedom, free imports, education, etc.
• Young Turks patriots seize power in 1908 and force reforms
Britain • By 1884, 3rd Reform Bill is universal male suffrage  Commons (democracy) defeat Lords (conservatism)
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by 1900s  extensive social welfare, Liberal Party raises taxes on rich
• Gladstone introduces bill to give Ireland self government (late 1800s)  civil war in Ireland of Ulsterites
(Protestants, don’t like home rule bill giving country to Catholics) and Catholics  issue suspended in 1914
Austria- • Magyars in Hungary win virtual independence by attacking weakened Austria (1866)  Constitution of 1848
Hungary restores Hungary to dominate peasants/minority  resentment to Magyars
• Austria faces nationalism problems as Germans fight other races  division in Parliament  falling apart

Unit 12: World War I and Imperialism-

• Industrial Revolution creates lopsided world: Third World suffers in comparison; world economy led by Britain from
1846-1914 thanks to conquest of distance and massive foreign investing (but barely any to colonies)
• New imperialism of 1880-1914 based on political empires rather than economic
• Fueled by limited economic motives, attempt to keep attention away from struggles at home, justify status quo,
spread of religion, white man’s burden (Kipling) to civilize “inferior people”
• Bloody wars and tense situations (esp at France vs British in Sudan, 1900), but stop short from attacking each other
• Great Migration as population jumps (traditionals threatened by new industry, skilled technicians, in spirit of revolt) 
Italian swallows jump around to save money  great white walls designed to keep Asians out (3 million immigrants)
• Draws many critics: moral condemnation of whites  revolt attempts (usually failed due to tech difference)  rise of
modern socialism/nationalism  traditionalists (preserve culture) vs modernizers  usually westernizers win struggle

China • Rigid trade laws  Britain smuggles in opium  war  Treaty of Nanking (1842) forces “opening”
• Collapse under Japan (saved from partition by US Open Door Policy)  hundred days of reform to modernize
• Traditionalists in Boxer Rebellion (1900-1903) crushed  harsh occupation  Qing falls in 1912
Japan • Perry (US) demands negotiation in 1852 w/ threat of war  Japan opens 2 ports (defenseless, tech diff)
• Feudal society of emperor, shogun, and samurai humiliated  samurai take power over shogun, begins Meiji
Restoration to modernize (crushed feudal rebellion)  authoritarian government
Egypt • Muhammad Ali builds European state  Ismail continues westernization  huge debt  western intervention
to manage finances  nationalistic revolts (Egyptian Nationalist Party)  Britain occupies to put down revolts
Africa • Ruthless division in Berlin Conference (arranged by Bismarck & Ferry in France) w/o regard to ethnic lines
• Afrikaners vs British vs natives in South Africa  South African War (1900)  Afrikaners “win”
• Germany about faces and establishes territories, France in Algeria, Britain in Sudan (Battle of Omdurman)
India • Great Rebellion in 1850s  crushed, Britain rules absolutely (discrimination but some good changes like
education and gov system)  calls for equality from British women and Hindu Indian National Congress (1885)

• WWI traces back a long way, with an underlying triumph of nationalism & fight for liberalism
• New era of alliances (started by Bismarck’s Three Emperor’s League of Austria/Germany/Russia, 1873) creates two
rival blocs of Triple Alliance (1182, Austria/Germany/Italy) and Triple Entente (Britain/France/Russia)
• Anglo-German rivalry (Germany’s challenge to ship power) in addition to worldwide rivalry in arms race
• Serbia, wishing to get Bosnia/Herzegovina to be independent (they had Serbian people) from Austria, challenges Austria
in First and Second Balkan Wars (1912-1913)  Serbian terrorists kill Ferdinand, heir to Austria on 6/28/1914 
Austria sends crazy ultimatum  Serbia cannot agree to EVERYTHING  Austria declares war (attempt to reunite
empire)  Russia must support Serbia (also lots of Serbians)  Germany must support Austria (aggressive)  WWI
• Battle of the Marne (9/6/14) to French, Battles of Tannerberg & Masurian Lakes (late 1914) destroy Russia, etc.
• Ottomans and Bulgaria join Central Powers (shifts battle to Middle East; British enter Iraq & compromise w/
Turks), India joins Triple Entente, colonies helped with goods, US joins after Lusitania (passenger ship) is sunk by
Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare (last ditch attempt in 1917)
• 2nd Battle of the Marne: US soldiers join and destroy Germany  German Revolution creates Republic to surrender
• Most believed war would be short, but soon develops into long and deadly Total War, changing society & politics
• Trench warfare: huge cost of lives  need for gov controls (War Raw Materials Board in Germany) to organize
society to improve production for war (food rationing  “socialism”; based on physical need  poorer got more)
• Class lines blurred by war of all peoples: more union power, more women workers, sharing of hardships, skilled
laborers spared while aristocratic soldiers died
• Gov grew to almost authoritarian w/ new control: censorship/propaganda, clamping down on soldier mutinies 
rebellions in Austria  people like Bethmann-Hollweg & Clemenceau rise as dictators of Germany & France

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• Treaty of Versailles was attempt to keep peace, but many quarrels ensued, sowing seeds of revenge and WWII
• Wilson wants League of Nations, George wants moderate peace, Clemenceau wants revenge/security, Faisal wants
Arab intelligence  harsh punishment on Germany (reparations, war guilt, army)  vigorous protesting but forced
• German Revolution of 1918 was “half a revolution”: radical communists defeated by moderate socialists
• Balfour Declaration gave Jews a home in Palestine  Arab anger  Britain and France occupy Ottoman lands 
Arabs feel betrayed  revolts  Syrian National Congress & Turkey (defeated)  Kemal as Ataturk leads
successful defense & modernization of Turkey
• Rejected by US (League of Nations as taking away right to declare war)  alliance with France broken
• Russia’s failures in war (not modernized, Rasputin has too much influence after Nicholas II leaves)  Lenin returns
from exile and leads Bolsheviks (split from Mensheviks)  radical violent revolution w/ strong ruler
• March Revolution: tsar abdicates, Kerensky takes over as provisional government  Petrograd Soviet against gov
and War Order No 1 results in anarchy and collapse of discipline
• Trotsky and Bolsheviks seize power in November Revolution  Constituent Assembly set up then disbanded by
Lenin  Treaty of Brest Litovsk ends war with Germany  rise of new dictatorship: war communism (total war
applied to civil conflict), Cheka (secret police), revolutionary terror
• Russian Civil War (1918-1921) as Red Army (communists) vs White Army  Red Army more organized & win

Unit 13: Age of Anxiety-

• Existentialism thought: people in pointless existence, humans violent & irrational, search for morals in bad world
• Mostly atheist, but some Christians, who wanted to support science w/ Bible, bring sinful humans to God, morality
• New literature adopted limited, confused view of one person (stream of consciousness): Woolf & Joyce
• Physics shattered by new information (atoms not permanent, neutrons, atomic bombs)  everything is uncertain
• Modern art based on functionalism (rejecting French impressionism of catching overall impression/abstract), dadaism
(attacking art standards; ridiculing Mona Lisa), and surrealism (world of wild dreams and symbols)
• Music attracted to emotional intensity (Stravinsky), no organization, atonality, twelve-tone music (Schonberg), etc.
• Movies began from small penny arcades to movie factories to full films by WWI, radios rose as propaganda

Nietzsche • Rejected Christianity (God is dead), no hope, must accept meaninglessness and be heroes, stifled creativity
Wittgenstein • Logical empiricism: rejection of all philosophy as nonsense; philosophy is only one’s personal beliefs
Marcel • Leading Christian existentialist: answer to broken world in form of hope of Christ
Einstein • Time and space relative to viewpoint; unified infinite universe w/ small subatomic world
Freud • Psychosexual stages of development: (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital)- repressed memories by
control mechanisms (memory repression/displacement/sublimation/rationalization/regression/projection)
end up causing insanity in Genital Stage
• Id (devil) vs superego (angel), with rational ego as mediator
Orwell • Anti-utopia in 1984: Big Brother dictator strips dignity away: “boot stamping in human face forever”
Gropius • Clean and light designs  merged schools of art in Germany into Bauhaus
Picasso • Cubism, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon most revolutionary, Guernica brutality of Spanish civil war
Cezanne • Father of modern art: committed to form and ordered design, but moved to 2D abstract
Melba • Sang in 6/19/1920 in Europe via radio (paid for by Daily Mail)  launches radio era

• Germany became key to peace: France’s desire to punish it climaxes with undeclared war, plus political problems
• Treaty failed: too harsh yet too soft, destroyed world economy
• France invades Ruhr when Germany cannot pay bills  passive resistance  test of wills in undeclared war
• Massive inflation, need for radical leaders; Communists vs Social Democrats, Britain loses best markets
• Hope slowly appears in form of compromise and cooperation (even in Germany and France)
• Stresemann calls off resistance in Ruhr and agrees to pay given reexamination of ability to pay
• Dawes Plan by US to send loans to Europe: dangerous cycle, but worked (Germany to France/Britain back to US)
• Spirit of Locarno: pledges at Locarno, 1925, give sense of stability; Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) denounces war
• Development of welfare state in Britain (social security), France slashes spending to save franc from inflation
• Great Depression was severe, shattered optimism, led to need for radicalism (thanks to bad leaders/economic policy)
• Stock market crash (panic as everyone sells) 1929  world output falls 38%  countries “go it alone”

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• Roosevelt’s New Deal reforms capitalism: gov interferes to pump $ into economy (“socialism”) w/ Works Progress
Administration in 1935 (new projects for workers) & social security  partly successful
• Social Democrats gain power in Sweden  large public works & spending & social welfare (middle way)
• French forms Popular Front of socialists/communists/radicals against fascists  initial success then collapse

Unit 14: Rise of Totalitarianism and World War II-

• Concepts of totalitarianism (revolt on liberalism; complete control, permanent revolution, evil so big it can’t be judged)
rather than conservative authoritarianism (limited objective of keeping status quo) & fascism (radicalism) rise
• Following Lenin’s NEP (limited economic freedom) and death, Stalin defeats Trotsky to lead the USSR (related
Marxian ideas with USSR & focused on USSR rather than world)
• Revolution from above: five year plans in 1927 (aggressive but relative success in industry)
• Collectivization war against peasants to bring them under control (kulaks liquidated)  chaos, but Stalin wins
• Great Purge of all dissidents in Communist Party  reign of terror, mass hysteria
• Lack of improvement in standard of living, culture destroyed, but hope continued as world’s 1st socialist society
• Disappointment from war and tense conditions  Mussolini’s Black Shirts gain approval through violent attacks on
Socialists  support from conservatives and army  Emmanuel gives Mussolini dictatorship power for 1 yr, 1922
• Terror reign w/ propaganda, fascism, repression, sexist, but never destroyed old power structure (Lateran
Agreement compromises with Catholics); more interested in personal power  not really totalitarian
• Nazism had roots in historic belief that Germany’s destiny, intellectual belief in racism/brutality/power of war/will
to power/man with a mission, and bad conditions of Weimar Republic (“November Criminals”)
• Hitler leads tiny extremist group (German Workers’ Party) in failed armed uprising in Munich  jail time in
1923  dictated Mein Kampf  used Great Depression to offer economic help  appointed chancellor 1933
• Set up dictatorship as Fuhrer: sets Reichstag building on fire  blamed Communists  Enabling Act gives
Hitler absolute power  smashed all other parties in Night of Long Knives  Hitler’s personal SS kills SA
leaders  Nuremberg Laws persecuting Jews  delivered on economic recovery  rabid nationalism
• Beliefs of racism, 1000-Year Reich, living space, Aryans as master race, lord of the earth, New Order, etc.
• Hitler’s aggression slowly rose as “peaceful claims”, eventually to the point of WWII (9/1/1939)
• British appeasement gives Hitler anything to keep peace (esp at Munich Conference  Hitler gets Sudetenland)
• Rome Berlin Axis in late 1936 after supporting Mussolini: Japan joins later
• Blitzkrieg lightning attack on Poland, crushing it in 4 weeks, used again on Britain after Phony War (fails in Britain)
• Barbarossa: plan to violate nonaggression pact & invade USSR: initial success, then stopped by winter & Stalingrad
• British defeat Italians in May 1942  Mussolini deposed, but rescued by Germany and fighting conginues
• Grand Alliance forms when US joins: Europe First  massive assault on Germany before Japan  D Day (6/6/44)
as US/Britain move in from Normandy and West while Soviets advance from East  Germany surrenders on 5/7/45
• Grand Alliance had mutual trust and unconditional surrender, huge resources, USSR’s power, etc
• Final Solution for Jews: Holocaust; 6 million Jews killed in concentration camps  controversy on who to blame: Hitler
or Germans as a whole (potential to do evil); Goldhagen blamed all Germans in controversial book
• Japan’s expansion in Asia turns into WWII when they bomb Pearl Harbor in December 1941  US isolationism broken
• Generally hated in China; “Greater E Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere” was a sham, land/people exploited, etc
• Japan stopped in Coral Sea and turning point at Midway; US outproduced Japan; island hopping
• Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Aug 1945  Japan surrenders in Conference of San Fran

Unit 15: Europe During the Cold War and After-

• Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam Conferences all show division of Europe among Big Three between Stalin and
Roosevelt/Churchill: USSR refuses to allow free elections in E Europe  key to origin of cold war
• Truman Doctrine containing communism, Marshall Plan offers $ to Europe, Stalin cuts off W Berlin (backs down),
NATO formed for democracies, countered by Warsaw Pact
• Korean War (North communists vs South) ends up in fragile truce at 37th parallel (1953)
• Mao defeats US supported Nationalists in 1949 w/ stronger support & better organization
• Vietnam War of Northern communists vs South  US loses heart after Vietcong  Nixon withdraws forces (1972)
 South eventually lose to North in 1975  US confidence badly shaken
• USSR invades Afghanistan in 1979  Atlantic alliance falters, but saved by Reagan’s patriotism

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• Tensions decline during Khrushchev (1950s), rose again with Brezhnev, declined greatly w/ détente in 1970s
(Helsinki Conference & Brandt’s flight to East Germany) & rise of Gorbachev, and ending w/ Paris Accords (1990)
• Rise of western renaissance: focus on economic and political reform to unify Europe
• Christian Democrats rejected authoritarians, put faith in democracy/cooperation/united Europe
• Rise of welfare state in Britain, US aid in economic growth, Keynesian economics (stimulation), OEEC
• Common Market develops w/ Treaty of Rome 1957 (single market w/ low tariffs and free movement of $) 
economic but not political unity (Britain opposed)  renamed European Community (EEC)  renamed European
Union 1990s  Maastricht treaty sets strict financial criteria for joining  unified euro currency 1/1/2002  new
constitution in June 2004 rejected  stalled  focus on including more countries  some resentment & questions
• Decolonization from lower power diff, more nationalism, less interest in conquest by war, less self confidence 
Gandhi of India gains independence (1947), Philippines, Algeria, etc.  neocolonialism of colonies becoming
political “allies” of the host countries (like Africans w/ Britain, French Africans w/ French commonwealth)
• After cold war, triumph of capitalism in order to participate in global economies like IMF & EU
(Poland/Hungary/Czech peacefully and easily join NATO in 1997, though Romania/Bulgaria had it harder)
• New changes in society due to rise of science, technology, globalization, immigration, human rights, etc.
• Rise of Big Science: expensively using science to solve difficult problems (roots in atomic bomb)  space race
• Relaxing class barriers and need for managers  bigger, harder to define middle class, more equality
• Women start transitioning to less energy needed for raising kids  demand for labor rose  hard “double day” 
pay discrimination  1970s birth of feminism: Beauvoir (women need to break free; existentialist), Freidan (crisis
of identity) founds NOW  some changes, not a lot, influences other groups to mobilize
• Youth counterculture rebels from parents and status quo: death of social customs, experimentation (drugs/sex), baby
boom of mass communication, fused w/ romanticism/freedom  revolts in France 1968, nearly topples Gaulle
• Baby bust as birthrates fall in 2000s (ticking time bomb) due to importance of careers, but stabilize by 2005
• Rise of illegal immigration  accusations of taking jobs/other fears, esp Muslims  need for Europe to reexamine
world role (accept Islam as a part of Europe now in order to end divisions)
• New mission for human rights: UN intervening killing Yugoslavia, 2001 AIDS crisis, etc  re-rise of socialism

USSR • Return to Stalin’s dictatorship after WWII  a lot of anger


• Khrushchev leads deStalinization: need to reform fear/hatred/isolation from west  some freedoms, less
controls, higher standard of living  Berlin Wall, Cuban missile crisis, rebellions  lost support
• Brezhnev brings back reStalinization: dictatorship became collective, coercion > terror, good balance, less
freedoms but humane punishment, higher standard of living, incentive, experts, etc.  solid rule
• Brezhnev Doctrine after Czech crisis states that USSR can interfere when needed in E Europe
• Gorbachev tries to save Communism through reformation (perestroika on economy, glasnost on society,
democratization on politics, détente on foreign relations)  failures; economy falters  attempts to save
himself fail  hardliners kidnap him 1991
• Yeltsin (radical reform communist) elected Russian Federation president 1990, saves Gorbachev, votes to
withdraw from USSR  all other satellites do same  USSR ceases to exist 12/25/1991
• Shock therapy creates economic crisis (large state companies turn into capitalist elite)  corruption
• Putin rises with “managed democracy”: free markets, semi-authoritarian (suited most Russians)
France • Gaulle reestablishes 4th Republic (1946), loses power, then returns in 1958 to establish 5th Republic 
romantic nationalistic; viewed US as threat  withdrawal from Common Market, independent
• New elections vote him back to power after strong attack on student strike in Paris 1968
• Mitterrand leads vast program of public investment (socialist)  failure, has to implement austerities
Britain • Thatcher (1979) creates free market policies, privatization (Keynesian), Falklands capture  controversy
US • Nixon authorizes illegal spying to stop gov leakage  Watergate scandal (spies arrested)  resigns 1974
• Reagan cuts income taxes but can’t cut spending (too much $ in arms/welfare)  US debt triples
• Emerges from Cold War as only superpower  shows superiority in quick war with Iraq  new world
order of US and UN working to stabilize world announced (1990)
• Terrorist attack on Twin Towers (9/11/01)  US joins with Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against bin
Laden  case against Laden built (WMDs, oil, etc)  despite resistance from world, US invades
Poland • Gdansk Agreement  Solidarity led by Walesa (1980)  Jaruzelski attacks Solidarity  Solidarity
survives underground (gov too weak)  1988 reemerges and pressures Communists into free elections 
Walesa elected as new noncommunist leader, Aug 1989
• Shock therapy used (“big bang” 1/1/1990 abolished all price controls), but other changes step by step

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Germany • Brandt of West reconciles with East in flights (1970), Berlin Wall opened Nov 1989 in attempt to control
emigrates  thousands pour through to West, attempts at a “third way” between unification & isolation
• Kohl of West presents 10 point plan for unification  Alliance for Germany in East wins votes  July
1990 Kohl and Gorbachev sign deal to unify Germany again
• Suffers after cold war: unemployment reaches high despite welfare and pumping in massive investment
Hungary • Attempted 1956 liberalization fails when Russia invades brutally (US didn’t help them)
• Communist party votes in reform communist (1988)  free elections by 1990, border opens
Czech. • Attempt at liberalization in August 1968 crushed by Brezhnev
• Velvet Revolution of 1989: peaceful demonstrations  Communists resign  Havel elected president
Romania • Violent and bloody revolution overthrows ironfist Ceausescu w/ protests in December 1989
Yugoslavia • Tito leads successful break from USSR in 1948, creating successful multiethnic nation
• Milosevic attempts to unite all Serbs in 1989  Bosnian civil war  UN intervenes when Serbs overrun
Muslim safe area  bombing on Serbia  Kosovo Liberation Army of Muslims supported by UN 
Milosevic defeated in 1999, pro-Western Serbia created
Egypt • Nasser leads revolts in 1952  nationalization of Suez Canal  colonial powers defeated once and for all
Middle East • Arabs furious at division of Palestine into Arab/Jewish  after 1948 initial war & defeat, 4 more wars
• OPEC embargoes oil to US  4x prices in 1973  economic decline  another oil shock  creation of
misery index (rates of inflation & unemployment)  Europe needs change to recover
• US/British attack in 2003  chaos, alienated population, violent attacks between minority Sunni and
elections where Shi’ites win  Sunnis attack Golden Mosque, Feb 05  more fighting
• Increasingly bad relations with Western world after terrorism: 9/11, Spain, stabbing of van Gogh, etc.

• “Great seesaw” of pessimism and optimism extremes: pessimistic cold war/environment/weapons, optimistic end of cold
war/booming economy, pessimistic economic recession/terrorism, etc.
• Remember neither extreme ever proves true; every age has problems and challenges, but we stand at the head of a long
civilization w/ many sacrifices, bla bla bla bla…

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