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Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the most promising developments to come out of recent AI research are "expert" systems or computer programs that simulate the problem-solving techniques of human experts in a particular domain.

The first presents an example of interaction with an expert system; the second lists major systems that are currently in use or under development in the categories of bioengineering, chemistry, computer hardware, computer software, education, engineering, general purpose systems and artificial intelligence utilities, law, manufacturing and industry, mathematics, medicine, the military, and resource exploration.

1. Introduction:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science, which focuses on the development of computer systems to simulate the processes of problem solving and duplicate human brain functions. Expert systems (ES) are a category of programs based on the theory and methods of artificial intelligence.

In 1941, the most intelligent machine was an invention in the form of the electronic computer. Who would have thought 60 years from then that the same computer would be perfected beyond leaps and bounds and be used to control other machines, as well as be part of day to day living? In 1956, John McCarthy, considered the father of Artificial Intelligence, organized a conference where intellectuals gathered to learn of this phenomenon. This laid the foundation for the advancements in artificial intelligence today.

Today artificial intelligence is used in our homes and sophisticated establishments such as military bases and the NASA space station. NASA has even sent out artificially intelligent robots to grace some planets and to learn more about their atmosphere and habitat, the intention being to investigate if there is a possibility of humans living on

other planets.

Expert systems were introduced by researchers in the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project, Edward Feigenbaum, PI, with the Dendral and Mycin systems. Principal contributors to the technology were Bruce Buchanan, Edward Sbortliffe, Randall Davis, William vanMelle, Carli Scott, and others at Stanford. Expert systems were among the first truly successful forms of AI software. The topic of expert systems has many points of contact with general systems theory, operations research, business process reengineering and various topics in applied mathematics and management science.

2.What is Artificial Intelegence ?

Computational techniques to automate tasks that require human intelligence and the ability to reason.



















The branch of computer science which aims to create intelligent machines; the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.

3.What is Expert Systems?

A type of application program that makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field by using knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field.

A computer program that uses knowledge and reasoning techniques to solve problems that normally require the abilities of human experts. Software that applies human-like reasoning involving rules and heuristics to solve a problem

A domain specific knowledge base combined with an inference engine that processes knowledge encoded in the knowledge base to respond to a user's request for advice.

4.Types of expert systems:

Expert systems fall into a number of major categories (not exclusive) described below. There are many applications not covered , and some manufacturers and vendors could fit in multiple categories, but due to space limitations, they are only included in one.

Acquisition and interpretation of data. These categories retrieve, analyze, filter and restore missed data, as well as mine data, transform data in another format, and so on. Examples of this category include:

a) Netrics Data Quality Software :

It enables cleansing of mission-critical data. Netrics products deliver near-perfect accuracy no matter how "dirty" and error-prone the data is.

b) Nuggets :

It is an application which builds models to uncover hidden facts and relationships. These models can predict new data; allow generalizing and revealing which indicators (i.e. variables) most impact decisions.

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence:

Machines can be used to take on complex and stressful work that would be otherwise performed by humans

Machines can complete the task faster than a human assigned to do the same task

Use of robotics to discover unexplored landscape, outer space and also be useful in our home activities

Less danger, injury and stress to humans as the work is done by a artificially intelligent machine

Aiding of mental, visually and hearing impaired individuals

Used for games to create a atmosphere where you don't feel like you are playing against just a machine

Understanding complex software can be made in to easy-to-understand types with the aid of artificial intelligence

Less errors and defects

Minimized time and resources. Time and resources are not wasted but effectively used to achieve the end goal

Advantage of Expert Systems:

Provides consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks

Holds and maintains significant levels of information

Encourages organizations to clarify the logic of their decision-making

Always asks a question, that a human might forget to ask

Can work continuously (no human needs)

Can be used by the user more frequently

A multi-user expert system can serve more users at a time

increased distribution of expertise

broader job description for individual workers

new services

a new communication channel for knowledge

more efficient education

faster adaptation to changing conditions

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence:

Lacks the human touch. Human qualities are sometimes ignored

The ability to replace a human job. This gives rise to humans feeling insecure and may have the fear of losing their job

Human capabilities can be replaced using a machine and therefore can foster feelings of inferiority among workers and staff

Artificial Intelligence can malfunction and do the opposite of what they are programmed to do

May corrupt the younger generation

There is no filtering of information

This type of technology can be misused to cause mass scale destruction

Disadvantages of Expert Systems:

Lacks common sense needed in some decision making

Cannot respond creatively like a human expert would in unusual circumstances

Domain experts not always able to explain their logic and reasoning

Errors may occur in the knowledge base, and lead to wrong decisions

Cannot adapt to changing environments, unless knowledge base is changed