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The 12 th

five year plan

The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and
Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

a h a r mo n io u s s oc ie t y

China’s five
year plans
In recent years, not only and Social Development
has the methodology of since the 6th plan period
China’s plan formulation (1980-1985), and the
been modified, but the word “plan” ,[ 计划 ] was
Key elements were also replaced by “program”
enriched to accommodate [ 规划 ] since the 11th
the on-going social plan period (2006-2010).
and economic changes. Meanwhile, the planning
For example, the Five- process is becoming
Year Plan for Economic increasingly open and
Development was standardized.
renamed as the Five-
Year Plan for Economic
China’s 11th Five year plan Figure 1. Flow chart of the formulation of general/national plans
Case 1:
In China’s 11th five year plan Recent Changes in the formulation of China’s Five-Year plans
environmental concerns, both pollution
Pre-analysis (2 years ahead of the plan period)
1. The Five-Year Plan was renamed as the Five-Year Program since the 11th plan
and the use of natural resources were period;
given a central role. In many ways the
11th five year plan was probably the
2. The center of plan formulation shifted from setting growth targets to putting Basis principles (year ahead of the plan period)
forward development strategies. In line with the strategies, policies are made
first major governmental planning
to meet the needs of governance reform and public goods provision. For

document in the world that put the
environmental protection purposes, binding targets are introduced to save energy Plan draft starts (1 year ahead of the plan period)

global resource constrains at the very
centre of economic planning. Many
and reduce greenhouse gas emission;
of the targets where formulated in 3. A simple general plan is expanded to a comprehensive plan set, with special
a way that made them very specific long-term plans and spatial plans playing an increasingly important role. Content details Target setting Draft framework
and ambitious when compared with Efforts are made to keep plans of various kinds inter-consistent and mutually
other governments who often have complementary.
very general language related to 4. De-centralized decision-making is promoted to give local governments more Plan draft completed (prior to the plan period)
the environment in the overarching autonomy in the formulation of local plans.
economic plans. The challenge 5. The planning process is changed from a closed one to an open one, with a high
with the 11th five year plan from degree of transparency and public participation. For example, As many as 160
an environmental perspective can
Revision Approval Review
pre-study projects of the 11th Plan were contracted out to institutes at home and
be divided into two parts. First, the
abroad. An office was set up at NDRC to collect suggestions and opinions from
less planned economy resulted in a
the public.
challenge to implement the over all Publication (approved by local congresses in the first year of the plan period)
6. The planning process and procedures come increasingly standardized.
targets. The second challenge is related
to the fact that few foreign companies
and foreign governments did very much OBJECTIVE METHODOLOGY Evaluation (during the plan period)
to support China’s target. WWF’s 12th five-year plan project has 12th National five-year plan
three objectives: From summer 2008 and until the time
As China’s role in the world economy is
1. To provide information about the 12th five year plan is published,
becoming increasingly important, the
the process and structure for the WWF will run the project and develop
need to support sustainable policies will
formulation of China’s Major Plans reports and workshop in order to Two cases as illustrations Research For further information:
increase. In order to illustrate the different plans The research is being conducted by About the study done by NDRC:
and Programs 2008-2010 and provide a supplementary forum for
onwards. stakeholders, either from the public and projects two fictive cases will be the Institute of Social Development Mr. Xinghua CHANG
The energy efficiency targets and Director, Institute of Social Development
2. To clarify where in the process formal or private sector, to integrate and used. Research(ISD), National Development
renewable energy target that are Research,NDRC
input for the different plans and implement sustainable development A. Sustainable building: Special focus and Reform Commission(NDRC).
included in the 11th five year plan are
programs are to be expected. into strategic planning practice and on Export opportunities from
only two examples of targets that have
3. To clarify when Chinese decision continually decrease the gap between solutions and equipment associated About WWF’s work in China to support
a global dimensions as delivery on these
makers might look for different intention and implementation in the to sustainable buildings. China’s 12th five year plan:
targets will help the global environment.
kinds of information so that groups field of natural resources and energy. B. Videoconferencing/Virtual meeting Ms. Nan LI
Especially so as much of the energy Trade & Investment Officer, WWF China
who want to support the Chinese As a first step WWF will publish a report service: Export opportunities of
used in the Chinese economy is used Programme Office
Government with information can that highlights the different steps in the sustainable ICT solutions
in the exporting sector and the CO2
make information available at the process leading up to the final 12th year Information about these two “case
is embedded in products that are
right time. plan and where environmental concerns studies” will be collected by About WWF’s international work to
exported to the rest of the world.
might be included. interviews with key stakeholders and support China’s 12th five year plan:
The focus will be in the national plan Mr. Dennis Pamlin
and special attention will be given to Global Policy Advisor, WWF-Sweden
how this will be implemented.
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs

The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

1. China’s planning system: Organization and function

China’s planning system is currently divided into three tiers and three categories.
By administrative tiers, there are national plans, provincial plans, and local (city and
county) plans. By target and function, there are general plans, special plans, and
regional plans. In practice, however, the number of planning tiers can exceed three.
For example, governments of townships and development zones sometimes make
their own special or regional plans. Cross-regional plans are not uncommon as well.
By function, there are also other plan categories such urban development plans, land
use plans and corporate development plans.

The Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development is the most important plan
at the national level in China, which sets general targets of economic and social
development for a period of 5 years. Special plans1 are more detailed to address
specific or individual areas of the general plan. Regional plans deal with issues
of regional development or the spatial distribution of major state-funded capital
investment projects.

Figure 2. Flow chart of plan formulation in China

By sector
National plans
Special plans By ministry
By trade
General plans Provincial plans
Regional plans Cross provincial
Cross municipal
Municipal/county plans
Cross county

Township plans

2 Development zone plans 3

Order of Formulation

Such as 11th Five-year plan on Education Development, 11th Five-year plan on Environment Protection, National Program for Medium-to-Long-Term Scientific and
Technological Development (2006-2020)
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

2. The formulation of general plans

In recent years, not only has the methodology of China’s plan formulation has
been modified, but the Key elements were also enriched, to accommodate the
on-going social and economic changes. For example, the Five-Year Plan for
Economic Development was renamed as the Five-Year Plan for Economic and 2.3.1. Pre-analysis
2.3. Flow chart of the general
Generally, the pre-analysis starts two
Social Development since the 6th plan period (1980-1985), and the word “plan” plan formulation years prior to the commencement of
was replaced by “program” since the 11th plan period (2006-2010). Meanwhile, the Governments at the national, provincial, the new plan. Its main tasks include:
planning process becomes increasingly open and standardized. and local levels are responsible for a) analyzing the major issues relevant
organizing the formulation of general to economic and social development;
plans at the corresponding level, b) setting the growth targets of
while the development and reform national economy and key areas, and
commissions are responsible for plan estimating related ratios and rates; and
drafting at the same level. c) undertaking feasibility appraisal of
Two years prior to the publication state-funded major capital investment
of a Five-Year plan, the National and infrastructure projects. The process
Development and Reform Commission can take different forms such as internal
(NDRC) starts to identify major issues investigation, external contracting,
relevant to future development, set public hearing and discussion, and
growth targets of key areas, estimate calling for suggestions.
related ratios and rates, and undertake
2.1. Definition and duration
feasibility appraisal of major state- 2.3.2. Plan drafting
The Five-Year Plan, or a general plan
funded capital investment projects. As Upon a notice of NDRC on plan drafting,
at the national level, is a strategic,
a result, a series of basic principles are relevant ministries and departments put
programmatic and comprehensive
put forward for the economic and social forward plan suggestions based on their
plan, which provides a foundation for
development during the plan period. own circumstances. NDRC works out
the formulation of other special plans,
Under the guidance of the State Council, first area-specific plan drafts based on
regional plans, annual plans as well as
NDRC works on a plan draft in line with these suggestions, and then a general
relevant policies. All subordinate plans
the principles, with the assistance of draft framework after negotiation,
have to observe the principles of the
other ministries and departments. The coordination and overall balancing.
general plan.
draft is then reported to the National Major plan targets of economic and
General plans at the national and
Congress for approval. Finally, the social development will be listed in the
provincial levels are valid for 5 years,
approved plan is published by the State framework.
with possible forecast of 10 years. The
Council for implementation. The plan
duration of local plans is flexible to meet
implementation is subject to monitoring
actual needs.
and supervision of relevant authorities.
NDRC will organize an interim evaluation
2.2. Methodology and form in the mid-plan period as well as a
China’s planning process has changed final evaluation at the end of the plan
gradually from closed to open in implementation.
order to meet the requirements of
4 transparency and public participation.
Plans are published in text, supported
with tables and charts.
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

3. The formulation of regional plans

Regional plans are those formulated for economic zones that may cross administrative
boundaries. Therefore, regional plans aim to break up regional division, make full
use of regional potential, carry out large infrastructure construction projects in a
2.3.3. Review, approval and
coordinated way, and promote environmental protection. Through efforts like division
The completed plan draft is subject of labor and mutual complementation, it is expected to improve competitiveness and
to review and appraisal of officials at achieve a balanced development of the region. Regional plans serve as a base for
different levels, from ministries to the the formulation of subordinate plans, such as urban development plans and land use
State Council and to the Party Central
Committee. The final version will be
reported to the National Congress for
approval after two rounds of substantial In comparison to other plans, regional plans attach more importance to the spatial
review and revision. The plan becomes
distribution of production factors, regional differentials, resources endowment, and
a legally binding document once
approved by the National Congress, the the relation between man and nature. The 11th Five-Year Plan gives top priority to
country’s highest authority. the formulation of regional plans by initiating at the national level 3 major regional
development plans for the Yangtze Delta region, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei city ring and
2.3.4. Publication and
the North-East region.
Once the Five-Year plan is approved
by the National Congress, the State
Council will take the responsibility to
organize the plan implementation by
allocating plan tasks to governments are employed, as well as qualitative time. A general plan normally includes
and departments at various levels. A ones. Supervision is exercised either following sections: review of the past
sound organization is essential to the by the People’s Congress and the plan, key issues to be addressed in
success of plan implementation, which Political Consultative Conference over future, external environment faced by
includes steps such as task allocation, government departments or by the future development, targets and policies
social mobilization, coordination and planning authority over economic for the future 5 years in general and
information management. activities of various kinds. It is expected in particular areas (such as economy,

to introduce in future a mechanism of science and technology, education

2.3.5. Monitoring, supervision, review, evaluation and examination. and human development, population,
evaluation and examination Evaluation results should be publicized resources and environment, reform
Monitoring, supervision, evaluation and to enhance plan implementation. and open-up, people’s living standard,
examination are procedures designed moral and cultural progress, democracy
to assess the performance of plan and the legal system, and national
2.4. Key elements of general/
implementation. The examination defense), and the procedures of plan
targets not only the general national plans implementation.
performance of the national economy The content of the general plan is
but also the specific performance consistent with the plan’s nature, roles,
6 7
of individual sectors, departments and tasks. However, each plan can have
or regions. Quantitative indicators its own priority to meet the needs of the
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

3.1. Scope and duration Figure 3. Flow chart of the formulation of regional plans
Regional plans target economic zones
that may cross the boundaries of Survey and data collection
provinces, cities or districts. By the size of
economic zones, there are three kinds of
regional plans: a) cross-province plans,
such as the North-East Revitalization Internal External
Plan which was drafted by NDRC with
assistance of relevant ministries and
the governments of Liaoning, Jilin and
Development targets
Heilongjiang; b) cross-prefecture plans,
such as the Hangzhou Bay Regional
Plan and the Central China City Group
Plan, which are drafted by provincial Studies and recommendations
NDRC with assistance of relevant
provincial departments and local
governments; and c) cross-county plans
which are drafted by municipal NDRC Plan drafting
with assistance of relevant municipal
departments and county governments.
Most regional plans are long-term ones.
Review and apraisal
Some serve as supplements to Five-Year
plans or Ten-Year programs, and others
are designed more strategically for 20-50
years. Report and approval


3.3. Output of the planning 3.4. Flow chart of the regional

process plan formulation
A complete regional plan consists of The preparation starts from the set-up
3 parts: the text, a glossary of terms of a leading group and a drafting team.
and supporting charts and tables. The Major procedures include: a) Survey and
3.2. Nature plan text is a legally binding document data collection; b) Target setting based
Regional plans are mostly indicative which includes clauses concerning on extensive analyses and projections; c)
in nature, with sometimes a few plan targets, ways and methods of Sector-specific studies; d) Plan drafting,
mandatory provisions. Major policies set implementation, rules and penalties, with charts and tables if necessary; e)
in regional plans for issues, such as factor right to final interpretation, and legal Review and appraisal by officials and
distribution, resource exploration and validity. The glossary explains the terms experts, with possible revision; f ) Report
8 and indicators used in the document. and approval by higher authorities; g) 9
environmental protection, can provide
guidance to the region’s economic and Charts and tables offer a graphic Implementation, evaluation and feed-
social development. illustration of the plan. back.
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

3.5. Key elements of regional 3.5.3. Urban system construction

Propose the overall framework of
regional urban system construction,
3.5.1. Regional development
based on the prediction on the regional
urbanization during the planning period; 3.5.8. Regional policy
The overall orientation of regional
Construct the structure of regional urban recommendations
development includes: 1) the
system in terms of rating scale, space Regional policies have guaranteed
orientation of the nature and
and functional division; Coordinate the implementation of regional plans,
function of the development, 2) the
urban construction land, with proposals including industrial policies, investment
positioning of economic growth and
for harmonious development in urban and financing policies, financial and
phase development; 3) the overall
and rural areas. taxation policies, pricing policies,
performance assessment of economic
. environmental policies, and land
competitiveness and targeting, in
3.5.4. Infrastructure construction policies.
which the essential component is the
and layout planning
orientation of the nature and function of 3.5.5. The development and 3.5.6. Environmental protection protection and ecological construction
Infrastructure includes the construction
the development. utilization of resources and and ecological construction should be stepped up.
and layout planning of transportation,
protection planning planning
telecommunications, electricity and
3.5.2. The industrial labor division The research areas in focus are 1) The focal points in research are: 1) 3.5.7. Regional Space management
water conservancy facilities.
and layout planning the status quo of water, soil, mineral the overall assessment of the status Focus on main areas in regional
Propose the general concept and goals resources, the protection of economic quo of ecological environment space management, the classification
of industrial development; Design the and social development, and the and its problems, 2) the goals of management plan of harmonious
corresponding industrial chain in view bearing capacity of status quo; 2) the regional environmental protection regional development
of the regional competitive industries sustainable model of utilization and R&D and ecological construction, 3) the
(the pillar industries and key industries); of future resources; 3) the demand and prediction and analysis of ecological
Coordinate the space layout of various satisfaction level of economic and social environment bearing capacity, 4) the
industrial sectors; Propose the model development for the above-mentioned construction of ecological landscapes,
to optimize the regional industrial natural resources and its bearing 5) the functional division of ecological
10 capacity in future; 4) the solutions to
space structure in order to promote the areas and the construction of ecological
harmonious development of regional solve the problems regarding water, soil, demonstration zones. Countermeasure
industries. mineral resources. and solutions for the environment
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

4. The formulation of special plans

Special plans are designed for specific or individual areas of economic and social 4.4.5. Implementation
The plan goes into effect after approval
development. They can also be seen as a detailed version of the general plan for a and the identification of supervisors. The
specific sector. Governments use these documents as justification or reference when government departments carry out plan
making major policies, reviewing key projects, making investment decisions, or clauses step by step under enhanced
allocating budget funds to the sector concerned.
4.4.6. Evaluation
A mid-term evaluation will be
conducted if necessary to assess the
progress. Suggestions will be put
4.1. Area and sector: 4.3. Planner and outcome forward for amendment.
Special plans are made largely for the Relevant ministries and commissions 4.4.3. Document matching
areas or sectors which a) are extremely are responsible for formulating special During the plan drafting, the team
relevant to economic and social plans for their respective areas and must take efforts to “match” the special
development; b) need huge state sectors in order to make the plans more plan with other key plans, such as the
investment fund or the approval of the operational, friendly and transparent. National Five-year plan and special plans
State Council on investment projects; Special plans are published in text, with in other related areas. That means, the
and c) need government regulation possible charts and tables. key elements of the special plan should
or financial assistance. These areas be consistent with that stated in other Figure 4. Flow chart of the formulation of special plans
documents, such as judgment on the
include agriculture, water resources, 4.4. Flow chart of the
energy, transport, communication, status quo, demand forecast, major
formulation of special plans indicators, the direction and key areas of
resource exploration and conservation, Study on necessity
development, key construction projects
environmental protection and ecological
4.4.1. Preparation and so on. Work plan
conservation, disaster reduction, science
The drafting team starts from a The draft should be evaluated by
and technology, education, public Pre-studies
working plan, which includes steps qualified agencies or experts, including
health, social security, and national
like pre-studies, an activity plan and the environment impact assessment
a timetable. Pre-studies look at major required by law. The plan will be finalized Plan drafting Basic ideas
issues confronted by the sector in future after possible revision.
4.2. Duration and nature Suggestions and recommendation
development and put forward basic
Special plans are valid normally for 5 principles based on review, survey and Framework
4.4.4. Publication
years, parallel to the Five-Year plan. If investigation. National special plans, for example
necessary, there can be strategic forecast
the National Plan for Education Document matching Matching of documents
for longer periods. 4.4.2. Plan drafting Development during the 11th Five-Plan
The guidelines, principles, targets and The drafting team works out a list of key
Expert review, finalization
Period, will be approved and publicized
strategies listed in the special plans are ideas based on the pre-study results and by the State Council, while sector-special
not mandatory in nature, aiming just suggestions from relevant departments. plans will be publicized by the ministries
to show the government’s attitude The outline expands to a draft work after
and position and provide guidance at
concerned. Approval, publication
consulting experts and the public.
macro level to the sector’s development.
12 However, subordinate plans or policies
should observe these guidelines and Implementation Evaluation
The 12th five year plan
The Formulation of China’s Major Plans and Programs 2008-2010 and onwards

5. The formulation of corporate plans

4.5. Key elements 4.5.3. Strategies 4.5.5. Impact assessment:
The contents of the Special Plans vary Map out general strategy or clarify key Deeply assess both positive and
from related department and industry areas and transform the main targets negative impacts, especially the short-
and generally include following key into strategies and related development and-long term impacts of key projects
elements. paths. The general strategy is also in order to give advice to the financial
treated as philosophy and criteria of key decision.

4.5.1. Status quo and problems projects and programs. 5.1. Duration and form planning process goes as following: 5.3. Key elements
Mapping current development, main 4.5.6. Supporting measures The duration of corporate plans is the government instruction on plan 5.3.1. History and status quo: history,
problems, domestic and international 4.5.4. Key projects Include financial, policy, institutional, relatively flexible, ranging from 3 to formulation, setting up a drafting team, status quo (assets, ownership and
situation and national requirements as Combining general strategy with and management measures. 5 years. The plan normally takes the working out basic ideas and principles, property right, business scope),
evidences for planning. priority, feasibility and efficiency of the form of text document with a possible completing the draft and reporting organization, law person structure and
project, select key projects and compile appendix. to the State Assets Management rights and responsibilities (decision
budget and financial plan. Commission (SAMC) for approval, making level, executive level, supervision
4.5.2. Plan targets
implementation, and evaluation. The level, consultation level), second-tier
Main targets include anticipated and 5.2. Flow chart of the
mandatory targets. Anticipated targets plan formulation of other enterprises companies analysis, major economic
formation of corporate plans follow similar procedures. However, and production indicators from financial
indicate the orientation and prediction,
There are two kinds of enterprises there is no need for SAMC approval. reports (assets, capital, income, profit,
while binding targets must be met.
in China: those controlled by the staff and personnel).
central government and those run by
others. For central-run enterprises, the
Figure 5. Key elements of special plans

Problems Status quo

Targets Predictive


Strategy Strategy and policies

Projects Key project A

Key project B

Key project C

Supporting measures Financial

14 15
Development environment: Policy
and legal environment, economic
environment, technological conditions,
international and domestic competition
and opportunities, market analysis
(market share, demand forecast). 5.3.4. Corporate reorganization
and action plan: corporate reform
Competitiveness analysis, including plan (transformation, upgrading),
• The company’s advantage, potential management improvement plan,
and weakness in areas such as financing plan, technical innovation
corporate structure and organization, plan (R&D), internationalization plan,
geographical allocation, access to corporate culture advancement plan,
resources, management, employee and so on.
and staff, technology and marketing
network and so on.
5.3.5. Suggestions and
• Economic and technical indicator recommendations
analysis and comparison: Total assets,
total sales.
• Core competitiveness analysis: Special
technology, production costs, assess
to resources, marketing network,
independent intellectual property,
patent, sustainability and so on.
• Existing problems:

5.3.2. Development strategy and

guiding principles

5.3.3. Development targets: mid-term

and long term targets (restructuring
and optimization targets, property
right reorganization targets, product
mix adjustment targets, human
development and personnel
reorganization targets), annual
break-downs, items of performance
examination forms, with possible charts
and tables.
图 1 总体规划编制流程图


中国的“十一五”规划 形成基本思路(规划期之前一年左右)
中国的“十一五”规划中,环 中国“十一五”规划的变化

境和资源问题是一个重要的甚至是 进入编制阶段(规划期之前一年左右)

核心的问题。作为总体的政府规划, 1. 从“十一五”开始,实行了半个世纪的“五年计划”改为“五年规划”;
“十一五”规划在很多方面对全球 2. 规划制定的工作重点从注重产业发展要求转到分析发展趋势和研究发展
范围内资源约束问题进行了表述 ,
思路。根据发展思路研究确定重大举措和政府要办的大事,反映政府职 目标设计 确定框架 明确内容
了节能减排的约束性指标,并提出了目标要求。 完成规划初稿(规划期开始之前)
非常具体的鼓舞人心的目标。通过 3. 从单一的综合计划到多元的复合规划,扩展了规划体系。综合性、战略性、
“十一五”规划中环境问题的表述, 空间性的区域规划和关系长远发展战略要求的专项规划占有越来越重要
审核 批准 调整
我们注意到两点:首先,实现整体 的地位。“十一五”规划还要求加强各类规划的相互衔接,形成功能清晰、
目标需要一定的计划性或者统筹考 相互配合的规划体系。
虑;其次,目标的实现也需要一些 4. 从全国统一计划转为分层次决策,体现了地方规划的相对独立性。
国外企业甚至政府的支持。 公布实施(规划期第一年人代会通过后)
5. 规划编制从封闭性转向开放性,提高了规划编制的社会参与度和透明度。
160 多个重大课题进行了研究。在全国开展了“十一五”规划建言献策 规划评估(规划期中)
展的政策也会随之增强。 活动;发展改革委设专门办公室统一处理社会公众意见和建议。
6. 规划编制方法和程序逐步走向规范化。
案例研究 项目研究单位 项目实施相关信息
意义,实现这些目标将有助于全球 目的 方法
WWF( 世 界 自 然 基 金 会 ) 实 2008 年夏天开始直到“十二五” 通过两个案例说明不同的规划和项 国家发展和改革委员会社会发展研 项目研究:
行“十二五”规划研究项目有 3 个 规划正式发布期间,WWF 将通过 目: 究所 常兴华 国家发改委社会发展研
的,出口产品中也包含了化石能源 究所研究室主任
目的: 研 究 报 告、 研 讨 会 等 活 动, 为 来 1. 节能建筑:从解决方案和设备方
的消耗。 邮箱
1. 提供中国规划体系和结构的相 自政府和企业界的相关者搭建平 面,特别着重于出口机会。
关知识和信息; 台,将可持续发展理念融入到战略 2.视频 / 虚拟会议服务:信息和
2. 厘清不同规划所处不同阶段的 规划实践,以求不断缩小资源和能 通信技术 ICT 解决方案及其出口 项目执行:
机会。 李楠 世界自然基金会(瑞士)北
期望投入; 源使用方面预期目标和实践的差
将通过与相关行业座谈或召开研 京办事处贸易和投资官员
3. 分 析 中 国 决 策 者 的 信 息 需 求, 距。WWF 首先将发布一份研究报
讨会等方式获取这两个“案例” 邮箱
便于一些机构和组织在适当的 告,其中将关注实现“十二五”规
时机提供信息支持。 划中环境目标的各个工作阶段及其 的信息。
丹尼斯 · 帕姆林 世界自然基金
重点是国家级规划并对其实施 进展。 会(瑞典)全球政策顾问
予以特别关注。 邮箱

随 着 经 济 和 社 会 的 发 展, 计划)。规划编制逐步从封闭转
中国国民经济社会发展规划(从 向开放,规划编制方法和程序在
“十一五”开始,中国把实行了 逐步走向规范化。
a harmoni o u s s o c i e t y ® “WWF” and “living planet” are WWF Registered Trademarks 10.08 (20 M)
The 12th five year plan

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The Formulation of China’s Major Plans
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