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sustainability

Article
Interpretation of a Local Museum in Thailand
Jirawan Sirivanichkul 1, *, Koompong Noobanjong 1 , Supornchai Saengratwatchara 1 ,
Weeranan Damrongsakul 2 and Chaturong Louhapensang 1
1 Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang,
Bangkok 10520, Thailand; koompong.no@kmitl.ac.th (K.N.); supornchai.sa@kmitl.ac.th (S.S.);
klchatur@kmitl.ac.th (C.L.)
2 Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University,
Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand; weeranan.dar@mahidol.ac.th (W.D.)
* Correspondence: 55630223@kmitl.ac.th; Tel.: +66-82-332-1414

Received: 25 April 2018; Accepted: 19 July 2018; Published: 21 July 2018 

Abstract: This paper considers the interpretation of a local museum in Thailand using the local museum
of Thai Bueng Khok Salung as a case study. Data collection was carried out from 9 September 2015 to
22 January 2018. The collected data were derived from related documents, previous studies, in-depth
interviews and observations. This present research aimed to investigate the interpretation of the case
study through the management of “persons, places, and things”. The findings revealed that there are two
major types of interpretation at the museum: the interpretation for the people in the community (that is,
indigenous curators, local visitors, and local people) and the interpretation for the people outside the
community (that is, general visitors and specific-purpose visitors). The results of the study indicate an
appropriate and effective interpretation system for the specific community context which encourages
people—both locals and foreigners—to be aware of the value of the community. Consequently, as a result
of their awareness, people would increasingly cherish their community and work in collaboration with
other people for the sustainable development of the community.

Keywords: local museum; interpretation; community engagement; sustainable development; local


awareness; local identity; Thai Bueng Khok Salung; Thailand

1. Introduction
A local museum is treated as a representative of the history, origin and identity of a community.
Such a museum offers development and preservation opportunities for the local community, which
might be adversely affected by globalization. The impacts of globalization might cause the local
identity of the community to disappear. Consequently, to lessen the effects of globalization, some
communities have begun to prioritize localization that promotes self-reliance and cooperation between
the people in a community [1]. The government, moreover, has reformed the laws which support
the right to preserve local communities. According to the constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand,
which was enacted on 11 October 1997 (Chapter III, Rights and Liberties of the Thai People, Section 46),
“persons assembling as to be a traditional community shall have the right to conserve or restore
their customs, local knowledge, arts or good culture of their community and of the nation and
participate in the management, maintenance, preservation and exploitation of natural resources and the
environment in a balanced fashion and persistently as provided by law” [2]. Furthermore, there is also
another constitutional article supporting the local community which was enacted on 24 August 2007
(Community Rights, Part 12, Section 66) that prioritizes biological diversity in a balanced and
sustainable fashion [3]. Thus, the local museum has gradually changed according to the social
conditions and social context with the objective to promote the preservation of the local community.

Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563; doi:10.3390/su10072563 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability


Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 2 of 33

In Thailand, numerous local museums have emerged because local people have become aware
of their own culture, traditions, and identity that seem to have almost disappeared. Moreover, the
growth of tourism also accelerates the emergence of local museums in Thailand, because a local
museum could be considered as a tourist attraction that differentiates one community from others.
According to the Thai museum database of the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology
Centre, there are 1479 local museums in Thailand [4]. The center also presented six factors affecting
recent local museum emergence as follows: “1. Country context changes 2. The effects on the
local community 3. Discovery of antiques within the community area 4. As a symbol of honorable
and famous people 5. Building good relationships between younger and older generations 6.
Collecting artifacts” [5]. However, many local museums in Thailand have already closed or lack
visitors. The causes of the problems can be divided into two major points. The first is management
problems. Apparently, being unable to have good planning for a museum is one of the significant
problems. There is no established systematic plan for museum administration, and there are no
funds for museum activities. In addition, museum specialists and designers are supported by either
the government sector or the private sector, and museum administration and maintenance were
found to be lacking. Interpretation planning, including the opening and closing times of museums,
is the second problem. Without good interpretation planning, activities inside the museums are not
performed continuously and are not sufficient to help interpret the local community’s interesting
features. Furthermore, the contents of the museums are hard to understand and the exhibitions are
presented unimaginatively [6]. Therefore, the study of the interpretation system of local museums
might shed some light on effective developmental methods for local museums. The information on
interpretation systems in this study was collected at the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung in
the Patthana Nikhom District (Lopburi Province) in Thailand. The museum is an example of a local
museum that has been successful in terms of development and management. The local museum of
Thai Bueng Khok Salung is run by local people who are encouraged to be a part of its management.
It is one of the local museums that is regularly supported by government or private organizations.
This paper begins with the background on the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung.
The explanations of the interpretation systems, the indigenous curators, visions, strategic plans,
and working principles of the museum are then described. The definitions of local museum and the
physical characteristics of a museum are then presented. This paper also presents information on the
interpretation for the people both in- and outside the community. The results from this research may
benefit those who manage local museums, particularly in regard to practical developmental knowledge.
By learning about interpretation, the target group could determine the interpretation system that is
most appropriate to their local context. In applying this knowledge, people in such communities
are encouraged to be aware of their local identity. Consequently, the sustainable development of
the community would occur. Moreover, the target group would also better understand the best
interpretation system that is suitable for people outside their community. As there are various reasons
for visiting a local museum for different groups of visitors, an appropriate interpretation system is
needed to promote the sustainable development of the local museum and community. The objectives
of this study were to study:
1. the management planning of the interpretation system of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok
Salung; and
2. the interpretation system of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung.

2. Materials and Methods


Data collection in this research was conducted by applying a purposive sampling technique to
help collect information from five key informants, i.e. community leaders who possess knowledge
on the strategic planning methods of interpretation at Thai Bueng Khok Salung local museum.
Furthermore, they have also been collaborating with the museum since its establishment in 1999.
Data were collected from 9 September 2015 to 22 January 2018.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 3 of 33

2.1. Data Collection Approach


The method of data collection was informal interview with semi-structured questions adopted
from widely accepted and related research studies [7–9]. The purpose of this interview was to elicit
factual information.
The questions were divided into five sections: (1) General information on the informants.
(2) Management and strategic planning methods of Thai Bueng Khok Salung local museum: In
this second part, sub-questions were presented such as “How, and for what purposes or reasons was
the museum established? Who were the target audience, locals or visitors?”, “How was the planning
conducted, strategically and as a vision?”, “Who was involved in the planning and organization of the
museum?”, “How were the working groups formed and what were their roles and responsibilities for
the museum?”, “What were the working procedures” and “How were the activities held?”. (3) Content
and the exhibition plans were examined with sub-questions such as “what approaches or method were
used for creating information?”, “How was suitable information selected for the target audience?”,
“What current information was chosen for presentation?”, “How and where was the data/information
collected?”, and “How was the data researched, and how was the information based on the activity
knowledge in the local learning centre recorded and kept?” (4) The planning of interpretation/channel
included the following sub-questions: “Could you tell me the overall image and detailed procedures of
how learning at the Thai Bueng Khok Salung local museum was established since the very beginning?”,
“How would you interpret meaning to the targeted groups?”, “What were the learning procedures of
the activities?”, “How were the messages or information arranged in the museum or in the community
learning center?” and “What were the methods of presentation that corresponded to each targeted
group?” (5) The following questions were asked regarding “visitors”: “What does the museum want
the targeted group to acquire, a sense of knowledge and/or a sense of feelings?” and “What were
the behaviors of the targeted group, museum workers, people in the local community, and visitors?”.
In addition, under the topic of “evaluation planning”, the following questions were asked: “What
approaches were used for evaluation in terms of knowledge, feelings, and targeted group behaviors?”
and “How were data acquired from the evaluation managed?”
A participant observation approach was conducted during the interpretation and planning
procedures of museum working staffs (message, channel, and receiver), whereas the evaluation
procedures of audience needs were conducted (non-participant observation) by applying an
interpretation procedure at the museum for the targeted group. The procedure was conducted by
observing outside the group. The data were collected by following John W Creswell’s (Creswell, 2007:
207–211) [10] observation procedures including prolonged engagement, member checking and rich,
thick description. Through these procedures, the data analysis was performed as a descriptive research.

2.2. Literature Review

2.2.1. Definitions and Concepts of Local Museum


The definition of museum has evolved as a result of social change. The reason might seemingly
result from how different societies and cultures around the world look at the museum and its influence.
The definition of local museum is also considered as a process that was influenced by the changes
and evolution of society. However, “museum” could be defined by applying several factors including
human-kind, culture, and the environment. It could be said that there are now more opportunities for
people to participate in museum development, preservation, research, exhibition and communication
as found by the ICOM (International Council of Museums) [11].
The terms mentioned in this study are defined as follows:
• “Indigenous curator” of the local museum refers to a local person in the community who plays
a part in preserving the natural environment and cultural or traditional heritage. They are also
responsible for passing on the value of their culture to the next generations to make them aware of
the value and to carry on the conservation of their community. According to the experts from the
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 4 of 33

local museum project of the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City (as cited in Tojarat
Phongsari [12]), a local museum is a museum where people in the community are in charge of
sustainability. A local museum is a museum that is established, developed, and managed by the
community, for the community. According to Panita Sarawasi, a local museum or folk museum is
a museum which local people and organizations created with the objective of developing the local
community [13]. Moreover, according to Srisak Wanlipodom’s statement about the indigenous
curators of a local museum, “a local museum belongs to the local people; there is no one other than
the local people that own it, not any individual, not any government organizations, and not any
other outsiders” [14]. The above notions are similar to the three major functions of a local museum
proposed by Liu and Lee: community participation, local development, and in-situ preservation.
These main functions could promote sustainable development [15]. Additionally, according to
Sutter, Sperlish, Worts, Rivard, and Teather, a local museum is the product of the community.
Thus, the museum needs to be initiated, crafted, and managed by local residents [16].
• The meaning of “Places” of the museum: It could be said that, nowadays, the definition and
importance of the term “area” at a local museum has been stressed by many museum stakeholders
including curators and educators but each defines the term slightly differently when compared to
those in the past. At first, curators gave importance to the area inside the buildings and the area
of the museum itself. Later, the meaning of the term “area” at a local museum changed. Area has
been termed as a place not only inside the buildings but also the community in which it is situated,
which in turn suggests the importance of culture including natural resources, local ponds and
rivers, houses, important places within the area, etc., which corresponds to how Riviere (as cited
in Davis, 2005: 402–415) [17] and Tojarat Phongsari [9] used the terms.
• “Things” refer to the local history, archaeological evidence, tools, architecture, cultural resources,
wisdom, culture, tradition, the natural environment, songs, local points of view, memories of the
previous generation, and local plants and animals. In different communities across the world,
there are different kinds of artifact that could be included in a local museum. This is because each
community has its own characteristics. The indigenous curator is responsible for interpreting the
artifacts for both people in the community and outsiders. The indigenous curator also needs to
be aware of the importance of preserving those artifacts and developing the community at the
same time.
• There are a lot of terms for museums that have the objective to interpret the value and manage
the system of a particular community: local museum, community museum, regional museum,
folk museum, and ecomuseum. Sometimes, the word “museum” is not included in the name, for
example, cultural center and learning center. Nevertheless, these names refer to the same kind of
museum. In this study, the word “local museum” is used.
• The local museum, in this study, is treated as a “tool” for preserving the community. This tool
helps to interpret the value of a particular community. It encourages people in the community to
acquire knowledge and cooperate with each other. The tool could help the local community to be
strong. It is also a life-long learning tool.

To conclude, a local museum in this study refers to a museum that is established by the people
in the local community, where the presentation, development, and preservation of the community
occurs. The local museum pays attention to the preservation of all of the places of interest in the
community. It is a life-long learning tool which interprets history and the value of the community
for the next generation and encourages them to preserve the identity of the community continually.
A local museum could also be called a community museum, a folk museum, an eco-museum, or others.

2.2.2. Definition of Interpretation


Interpretation is defined in two major ways: conceptually and methodologically. In the conceptual
notion, interpretation is a communicative system that comprises emotions, intellectual pursuits,
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 5 of 33

audience interest, and the meaning of artifacts. According to Thanik Lertcharnrit, interpretation is
a method for creating understanding. It is a process that translates the meaning of any artifact or
knowledge into understandable language for the visitors to comprehend [18]. Dean and Edson (1994)
proposed three main definitions of interpretation: (1) to explain or clarify; (2) to translate (as from
one language to another); and (3) to perform or present according to one’s artistic understanding [7].
Those definitions are similar to the definition of interpretation by the Department of Conservation,
which stated interpretation is an explanation of the natural, cultural or historic values attached to
places. It enables visitors to gain insight and understanding into the reasons for conservation and
the ongoing protection of the heritage [19]. Moreover, Ham (1992) also said that “interpretation”
“involves translating the technical language of a natural science or related field into terms and ideas
that people who are not scientists can readily understand. Additionally, it involves doing it in a way
that is entertaining and interesting to these people” [20].
In the methodological sense, interpretation refers to the process of presenting particular
information, the value, and the significance of historical sites or artifacts using proper methods
and elements. This means interpretation is a method that not only offers the visitors basic information,
but also sends particular messages to the visitors to make them appreciate the value of the thing
that is presented. According to Sataporn Tiangtam [21], interpretation is a kind of activity which is
a medium to build understanding between people. It corresponds with the definition of Tilden that
explains interpretation as “an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of original objects, by first-hand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than
simply to communicate factual information” [22]. All of the definitions of interpretation above
conform to the ICOMOS Interpretation Charter’s definition, which defines interpretation as all
of the activities that intend to support the awareness of preservation by people in general and to
strengthen the understanding of people towards cultural heritage sites. There are five major elements
of cultural heritage site interpretation according to the ICOMOS Interpretation Charter: “Interpretation,
Presentation, Interpretive infrastructure, Site interpreters, Cultural Heritage Site” [8].
Cultural heritage site interpretation could also refer to the concepts of local museum interpretation
as local museums not only interpret value to people in the community, but also to tourists or visitors.
In addition, at present, a local museum is seen as a cultural heritage site. According to Keawta
Muangkasem, cultural heritage site interpretation means interpretation in the context of tourism. It is
communication that arouses tourist interest and encourages them to be aware of the value of significant
locations, history, and culture. This awareness adds value to the tourism product. Moreover, it can
build positive attitudes towards sustainable preservation and tourism development [23].
To conclude, interpretation is a method for educational purposes. Its objectives are to
communicate particular messages and relationships by using media or channels as explanation tools.
Interpretation also illustrates the connection between humans, the environment, culture, tradition, and
other things within the community.
From all of the preceding mentioned definitions, the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung
can be a good example of a local museum that applies the concepts of both tangible and intangible
cultural heritage interpretation as presented in the subsequent sections of this article.

2.3. Research Framework


The researchers employed an adaptation of Dean and Edson’s interpretation loop [7] in this study,
in which there are five main parts of interest: the sender, the message, the channel, the receiver, and
the receivers’ response. The sender refers to the local museum that presents the local ways of life,
wisdom, heritage, and history. The message refers to the information or meaning that the curators
prefer to interpret. The channel refers to the medium for interpretation (for example, exhibitions at the
museum center and learning activities in the community). The receiver refers to both people in the
community and visitors who attend the activities of the museum. Lastly, the receivers’ response refers
to the reflection of the receivers towards the activities that they took part in.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 6 of 33

3. Results
Thai Bueng Khok Salung community is currently located 60 km away from the central region
of Lopburi Province in the Pasak Jolasid River area where an abundance of natural resources and
antiques as well as evidence of archeological sites were also found. From 3000 to 4000 years ago, it was
evident that the place was rich with forestry and abundant natural resources available for both humans
and animals. In addition, mineral resources such as ore were also discovered on the west side of the
mountains nearby. Sandstone had also been used to build religious sites and other structures. Based on
the historical evidence, humans were there from time to time and groups of nomads called Thai Bueng
were there since the time of the Ayutthaya Era [24].
“Thai Bueng people, who are believed to have originated from Thai Dueng or Thai Korat nomads,
were found to possess Thai central regional accents with minor differences from their counterparts”.
This is evident in Korat, Burirum, and Lopburi Provinces [25].
The community of Thai Bueng Khok Salung was originally a steep hill area which often experienced
flooding. In Thai, it is called “Khoak”. “Khoak” was found to have minerals for mining (iron ore waste from
mining is extracted in different areas around the villages and great plains). This was why people called
the place “Khoak Talung Rare” and later changed it to “Khoak Talung”, before ending up with “Khoak
Salung”. At present, Thai Bueng is a 260-year-old community (as mentioned in a brochure) with its
own unique culture. People in the community usually end their last names with “Salung” and they
craft their own traditional clothes. They mostly worked as rice farmers, sugar cane growers, fishermen
and house-hold handcrafters while their houses were built of hard wood. However, they had to move
to the present location because of the development of the Pa Sak Jolasid Dam. The construction of the
dam greatly affected their traditional style of living as some areas that used to be their agricultural
areas were flooded. This problem caused the Thai Buengs to migrate to other places. However, they
received a lot of compensation from the expropriation of their properties, as the construction of the
dam took place unexpectedly and they had no time to prepare anything. Consequently, the Thai Bueng
local traditions and culture were nearly destroyed.
To alleviate the problem, a group of Thai Buengs who were the backbone of the community
started to take action by establishing a local museum in Thai Bueng Khok Salung in 1999. The objective
was to restore the local traditions and culture of the Thai Buengs. The museum runs according to three
main missions: to preserve and restore the local culture and wisdom, to develop leadership to support
the working system, and to communicate to others to pass on and develop the Thai Bueng culture
in the long term [25] through various activities (for example, local art exhibitions, local culture- and
wisdom-based learning activities, observation activities in the actual community and surroundings,
and activities in homestays).

3.1. Interpretation at the Local Museum of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung
Interpretation at the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is performed by the
indigenous curator and the people in the community who are responsible for interpreting particular
messages to people both inside and outside the community. The museum gives priority to three
elements—management, places, and artifacts—to interpret any messages. Management is important
to interpretation. The indigenous curator takes the museum’s visions and strategies as the goals of any
work. The indigenous curator also prioritizes the places in and around the museum (for example, the
museum center and learning sources in the community) and cultural artifacts around the community
(see Figure 1).
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 7 of 33
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 32

Figure 1. The management of interpretation at the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source:
Figure 1. The management of interpretation at the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source:
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).

3.1.1. Indigenous Curator


3.1.1. Indigenous Curator
All of the work in the museum is managed by the local people of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung
All of the work in the museum is managed by the local people of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung
community. All of the rights to the buildings and any real estate at the museum belong to the local
community. All of the rights to the buildings and any real estate at the museum belong to the local
people in the community (see Figure 2).
people in the community (see Figure 2).
 Strategic planning group
• Strategic planning group
The strategic planning group works under the name of Thai Bueng Khok Salung Developing
Institute. The group
The strategic is responsible
planning for planning
group works andname
under the designing theBueng
of Thai strategies
Khokused at the
Salung museum.
Developing
There are seven main people in this planning group [26]. However, there
Institute. The group is responsible for planning and designing the strategies used at the museum. are also three
representatives,
There frompeople
are seven main the weaving group, the
in this planning homestay
group group, and
[26]. However, the
there arecoarse rice representatives,
also three manufacturing
group,the
from who sometimes
weaving group,participate in strategic
the homestay group,planning
and themeetings. Themanufacturing
coarse rice strategic planning group
group, whois
accountableparticipate
sometimes as the leader of the museum
in strategic planning formeetings.
which special characteristics,
The strategic planningsuch as high
group responsibility
is accountable as
andleader
the sacrifice, are museum
of the required.for which special characteristics, such as high responsibility and sacrifice,
are required.
 Local intellectuals group
• Local intellectuals
intellectuals group
are local experts who are respected by the local people in the community.
They are responsible for passing on local wisdom to the next generations and to everyone who is
Local intellectuals are local experts who are respected by the local people in the community.
interested in learning. Most of the local intellectuals are elders or adults. Children and youths in the
They are responsible for passing on local wisdom to the next generations and to everyone who is
community are responsible for being assistants to the local intellectuals at the learning bases. A local
interested in learning. Most of the local intellectuals are elders or adults. Children and youths in the
intellectual might be an expert in more than one area of wisdom; for example, an expert in local songs
community are responsible for being assistants to the local intellectuals at the learning bases. A local
might also possess the ability to intertwine mats, weave, and make paper flowers.
intellectual might be an expert in more than one area of wisdom; for example, an expert in local songs

might Career group the ability to intertwine mats, weave, and make paper flowers.
also possess
1. Homestay group refers to a group of people who take care of homestays for visitors. This
group is responsible for: (1) conducting strategic planning meetings to develop the
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 8 of 33

• Career group
1. Homestay group refers to a group of people who take care of homestays for visitors. This group is
responsible for: (1) conducting strategic planning meetings to develop the homestays and AAR
meetings 2018,
Sustainability after10,the stay
x FOR PEERof REVIEW
visitors; (2) learning working systems from outsources; (3) cooperating 8 of 32
with other groups in planning and arranging activities; and (4) adjusting and developing their
homestay homestays
continually.and A AAR meetings
homestay is after
a toolthe stay
that of visitors;
could make (2) learning
income for working
people in systems from
the community.
outsources; (3) cooperating with other groups in planning and arranging
The people qualified to run a homestay ought to be selfless local people who enjoy doing this activities; and (4)work
adjusting and developing their homestay continually.
as the community could become chaotic if people cared only about their profits. “A homestay is
not onlyAa tool homestay is a tool that could make income for people in the community. The people
that can make money, but is also a tool that can develop people” [27].
qualified to run a homestay ought to be selfless local people who enjoy doing this work as
2. Weaving group refers to the group of people who weave local textiles as a side job alongside
the community could become chaotic if people cared only about their profits. “A homestay
their agricultural
is not only work.
a tool thatSome people
can make in this
money, butgroup
is alsohave
a toolathat
weaving career
can develop as their
people” main job.
[27].
Some 2. ofWeaving
the local textiles
group refersare sold
to the at the
group of museum,
people whoand some
weave are
local sold at
textiles as atextile markets
side job alongsideby the
makers themselves.
their agricultural work. Some people in this group have a weaving career as their main job.
3. Textile manufacturing
Some of the local group refers
textiles are to theat group
sold of people
the museum, who are
and some turn local
sold textiles
at textile into design
markets by
productsthe makers
(for example, themselves.
loincloths, scarves, shirts, and bags). The products are both used in the
3. Textile
community andmanufacturing group refers to the group of people who turn local textiles into design
sold to visitors.
products (for example, loincloths, scarves, shirts, and bags). The products are both used in
4. Coarse rice manufacturing group refers to the group of people who produce chemical-free
the community and sold to visitors.
rice—Riceberry and Jasmine rice—and let the museum conduct the merchandising.
4. Coarse rice manufacturing group refers to the group of people who produce chemical-free
• rice—Riceberry
The Maled and Bueng
Kao Pluek Thai Jasminegroup
rice—and let theof
(a group museum conduct
children the merchandising.
and youths)
The The Maled
Maled KaoKao PluekThai
Pluek Thai Bueng
Bueng group
group(awas
group of children to
established andhelp
youths)
in the development of the
children in theMaled
The community.
Kao PluekTheThai
group encourages
Bueng group waslocal children to
established to know
help inabout their background
the development of the and
the community’s
children in theidentity. The name
community. The group“Maled Kao Pluek”
encourages local(paddy)
children istoaknow
metaphor
aboutthat
theircompares
background a child
with and the community’s
paddy, where the childidentity.
grows The inname “Maledand
knowledge Kao in
Pluek” (paddy)
physical andismental
a metaphor that[28].
abilities compares a
The group
child with paddy, where the child grows in knowledge and in physical and mental
was started by some middle-school students from two local schools—the Khok Salung school and abilities [28]. The
group was
the Nhong startedschool—which
Ta Ming by some middle-school studentsby
were selected fromthetwo local schools—the
strategic Khok Salung
planning group. school Kao
The Maled
and the Nhong Ta Ming school—which were selected by the strategic
Pluek Thai Bueng group is responsible for teaching working procedures that relate to theplanning group. The Maled
work of
Kao Pluek Thai Bueng group is responsible for teaching working procedures that relate to the work
the museum for the next generation. Children in the group learn about setting up camp procedures,
of the museum for the next generation. Children in the group learn about setting up camp procedures,
cooperative working, and other knowledge taught by outsourcers. After they join the group, they gain
cooperative working, and other knowledge taught by outsourcers. After they join the group, they
the necessary knowledge
gain the necessary for work
knowledge for(for
workexample, the knowledge
(for example, the knowledgeof filming a short
of filming documentary
a short documentary about
the community and the procedure of setting up a camp).
about the community and the procedure of setting up a camp).

Figure 2. The role of the indigenous curator of the local museum in Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source:
Figure 2. The role of the indigenous curator of the local museum in Thai Bueng Khok Salung
Adapted from the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung).
(Source: Adapted from the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung).
3.1.2. Visions, Strategic Plans, and Working Principles
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 9 of 33

3.1.2. Visions, Strategic Plans, and Working Principles


Not only are the people in the strategic planning group obliged to know about the museum’s
visions, strategic plans, and working principles, but the people in the community are also involved in
the working system of the museum. The visions, strategic plans, and working principles of the local
museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung are as follows:

• The visions of the museum are to make a delightful community and make people happy based on
Thai Bueng culture. The ultimate goal is the happiness of all people in the community.
• There are six strategic plans as follows:

1. Developing people and the learning system by improving the latency of children, youths,
and all the people in the community
2. Preserving, restoring, continuing, and developing local wisdom, culture, and traditions, and
making the learning resources in the community a “living museum”
3. Transforming the local cultural value into economic value by developing the cultural tourism
of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community, improving the capacity of the homestay group,
and creating various advertisements for the museum
4. Managing natural resources and the environment in the long term by improving the
community’s food resources, continually following up and cooperating in making a principled
city plan for the Lopburi Province and Khok Salung District, and watching out for unscrupulous
businessmen who might take advantage of the community
5. Preparing people in the community to be ready for social change by establishing the Thai
Bueng Khok Salung Developing Institute
6. Managing the community’s welfare by developing a social welfare system

The working principles of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung are working for the
benefit of others, being selfless, and having public consciousness. The quality of the work is regarded
as more important than quantity. Any working procedure is able to be adjusted according to different
situations. However, there should be continuity in development and operative work.
The work at the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung aims to interpret the identity of the
community with experts who best understand the interpretation of heritage and are members of the
community. The learning activities of the museum increase awareness about local values. They also
encourage people in the community to develop themselves based on their own culture. At the same time,
academic works and research by curators, scholars, and researchers, also offer additional knowledge on
the self-development of the community. Furthermore, the community also employs such research when
requesting support or budgets that could help the community to work. This system corresponds to the
“big town strategy” [29] which is a strategy that prioritizes the acceptance of people outside the community.
When outsiders admire the value of the community, the people in the community are motivated to be
aware of their own value. Then, genuine sustainable development can take place.

• Definitions of “the Local Museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung”

The definitions and significant elements of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung,
as defined by the Indigenous curator, are as follows:

1. The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung symbolically presents the identity of the Thai
Bueng Khok Salung community as it is a medium that connects the Thai Buengs with those who
are not from the community. The museum is also a symbol of the improvement and development
of the museum itself. In an interview, Prateap Aonsalung said that “if the museum seems to
be neglected, that means the work that has been done was not successful. On the other hand,
if the museum is clean and constantly has activities, it illustrates its development. The great
development of the museum indicates that good work has been done here” [27].
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 10 of 33

2. The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is the center for people in the community and
the center of learning. It is a place that inspires and develops the local people of the Thai Bueng
Khok Salung community.
3. The local2018,
Sustainability museum
10, x FORof Thai
PEER Bueng Khok Salung is a “living museum”. That means people
REVIEW 10 of 32 can
physically encounter the culture of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community. The museum not
3.onlyThe local museum
presents of Thai
historical Bueng but
artifacts, Khok Salung
also is a “living
employs local museum”.
people to That means
be part people
of the can
exhibitions.
physically encounter the culture of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community. The museum not
“One example is that of the cultural learning activity in which the local elders are the teachers.
only presents historical artifacts, but also employs local people to be part of the exhibitions. “One
This concept of working could help the local people to improve themselves. In addition, it could
example is that of the cultural learning activity in which the local elders are the teachers. This
attract locals who are not working at the museum to be aware of their own culture” [29].
concept of working could help the local people to improve themselves. In addition, it could
4. Theattract
local locals
museum whoofareThai Bueng Khok
not working at theSalung
museum is to
a lifetime
be awarelearning center.
of their own culture” [29].
5. 4. The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is a lifetime learning center. tools in teaching and
The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung uses cultural assets to be
5.learning
The local museum
about of Thaiboth
the culture, Buengin Khok Salung uses
the museum andcultural assets to be tools in teaching and
in the community.
6. Thelearning about the
local museum ofculture, both in
Thai Bueng the museum
Khok Salung isand in the community.
responsible for community services that involve
6. The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is responsible for community services that
passing on and sustaining the stories of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung, encouraging local people to be
involve passing on and sustaining the stories of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung, encouraging local
aware of their own culture and community value, and encouraging the local people to be happy.
people to be aware of their own culture and community value, and encouraging the local people
to be happythe definitions and significant elements presented above, the local museum of
To conclude,
Thai Bueng Khok Salung
To conclude, is the center
the definitions for people
and significant who are
elements interested
presented in the
above, thelocal
same targetsofofThai
museum driving
development
Bueng Khokin the localiscommunity.
Salung It is
the center for also awho
people learning center that
are interested in brings
the same people in the
targets community
of driving
and development in the local
outsiders together community.
by using It isassets
cultural also aas
learning center
tools for that brings
learning about people in the community
and interpreting the value
andand outsiders
identity together
of the by using cultural
community. The local assets as toolsatforThai
museum learning
Buengabout and Salung
Khok interpreting the avalue
is also life-long
and identity
learning of the
place that community.
could improve The local people
the local museumand at Thai
makeBueng
themKhok
moreSalung
aware is of also
theira self-value.
life-long
learning place that could improve the local people and make them more aware of their self-value.
3.1.3. The Physical Appearance of the Local Museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung
3.1.3. The Physical Appearance of the Local Museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung
The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is divided into two parts: the museum center and
The local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is divided into two parts: the museum center and
the learning center (see Figure 3).
the learning center (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. The physical appearance of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source: Adapted
Figure 3. The physical appearance of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source: Adapted
from the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung).
from the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung).
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 11 of 33

Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 32


• The physical
Sustainability 2018, 10, xappearance of the
museum center
FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 32
 The physical appearance of the museum center
 The museumappearance
The physical
buildings arethe
museum buildings of
constructed according to traditional Thai Bueng Khok Salung
museum center
are constructed according to traditional Thai Bueng Khok Salung
architecture, called Ruen Fha Kho, combined with modern construction. The museum illustrates
architecture, called Ruen
The museum Fha Kho,
buildings combined with
are constructed modernto
according construction.
traditional The
Thaimuseum illustrates
Bueng Khok the
Salung
the specific characteristics of the traditional local community where historical sites were discovered
specific characteristics of the traditional local community where historical sites were discovered
architecture, called Ruen Fha Kho, combined with modern construction. The museum illustrates the (see
(see Figure 4).
Figure 4).
specific characteristics of the traditional local community where historical sites were discovered (see
Figure 4).

Figure 4. The physical appearance of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source:
Figure 4. The physical appearance of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source: Anuntaset
Anuntaset
Figure Setteethorn,
4. The physical2018).
appearance of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung (Source:
Setteethorn, 2018).
Anuntaset Setteethorn, 2018).
The local museum of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung’s museum center is comprised of seven parts
The
(see Figure local
The local museum
5).museum
The first of of theisThai
part
the Thai Bueng Khok
the Bueng
museum Khok Salung’s
building
Salung’s museum
thatmuseum center
consists center
of twois isfloors
comprised of seven
sevenzones.
of exhibition
comprised of parts
parts
(see
(see Figure
The first
Figure 5).
floor The
5). of
The first
thefirst part
exhibitionis the
part is the museum
consists
museum building
of various
building that
zones consists
thatthat display
consists of two floors
posters
of two floors of exhibition
presenting zones.
the history
of exhibition zones.
The
of first
the floor
Thai of the
Buengs exhibition
in Baan consists
Khok of various
Salung, the zones
Thai that
Buengs’ display posters
traditional presenting
clothes,
The first floor of the exhibition consists of various zones that display posters presenting the history the the
Thaihistory
Buengs’of
the
of Thai
careers,
the Thai Buengs
localBuengs in Baan
vegetables, Khok
working
in Baan Salung,
Khoktools the Thai
including
Salung, Buengs’ traditional
the traditional
the Thai clothes,
handloomsclothes,
Buengs’ traditional the Thai
of the Thai Buengs’
the Buengs, careers,
other
Thai Buengs’
local
tools vegetables,
careers,forlocal
weaving, working
and local
vegetables, tools
working including
foods.
tools the traditional
Moreover,
including there arehandlooms
various
the traditional of the
local
handlooms wisdomThai
of theBuengs,
learning other tools
bases;
Thai Buengs, for
other
for weaving,
example, the and local
learning foods.
base for Moreover,
local toys there
made are
out various
of sugar local
palm wisdom
leaves,
tools for weaving, and local foods. Moreover, there are various local wisdom learning bases; for learning
the learningbases;
basefor
forexample,
making
the
Puanglearning
example, the base
Mahod, and forthe
learning local
base toys
learning made
for local outmade
basetoys
for of sugar
cooking palm
outlocal
of leaves,
foods.
sugar This
palm the learning
exhibition
leaves, base for
zone
the learning making
could
basealso bePuang
used
for making
Mahod,
Puang and
as a multi-purposethe learning
Mahod, and activity base
the learning for
courtbasecooking
whichforthe local foods.
staff could
cooking This exhibition
use as This
local foods. a dining zone
or meeting
exhibition could
zone areaalso
could be
(see used
Figure
also as6).
be used a
multi-purpose
as a multi-purpose activity courtcourt
activity which the staff
which could
the staff use as
could usea as
dining or meeting
a dining or meeting area area
(see (see
Figure 6). 6).
Figure

Figure 5. The physical appearance of the museum center (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Figure 5. The physical appearance of the museum center (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Figure 5. The physical appearance of the museum center (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 12 of 33
Sustainability 2018,
Sustainability 2018, 10,
10, xx FOR
FOR PEER
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REVIEW 12 of
12 of 32
32
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 12 of 32

(a)
(a) (b)
(b) (c)
(c)
(a) (b) (c)
Figure
Figure
Figure 6.6. The
6. The first
The first floor
first floor of
floor of the
of the museum
the museum building:
museum building: (a)
building: (a) the
(a) the Ruen
the Ruen Fha
Ruen Fha Kho
Fha Kho Exhibition;
Kho Exhibition; (b)
Exhibition; (b) the
(b) the cultural
the cultural
cultural
Figure 6. The first floor of the museum building: (a) the Ruen Fha Kho Exhibition; (b) the cultural
activities
activities
activities related
related
related to
to
to Ruen
Ruen
Ruen Fha
Fha
Fha Kho;
Kho;
Kho; and
and
and (c)
(c)
(c) local
local
local textile
textile
textile weaving
weaving
weaving (Source: Jirawan
(Source: Jirawan
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Sirivanichkul).
activities related to Ruen Fha Kho; and (c) local textile weaving (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
The second
The second floor
floor of
of the
the building
building displays
displays aa reproduction
reproduction of
of Ruen
Ruen Fha
Fha Kho
Kho (that
(that is,
is, the
the bedroom,
bedroom,
The second
The second floor
floor of
of the
the building
building displays
displays aareproduction
reproduction of
of Ruen
RuenFha
FhaKho
Kho(that
(thatis,
is,the
thebedroom,
bedroom,
multi-purpose room,
multi-purpose room, workspace,
workspace, kitchen,
kitchen, and
and courtyard).
courtyard). (see
(see Figure
Figure 7)
7)
multi-purpose room, workspace, kitchen, and courtyard) (see Figure
multi-purpose room, workspace, kitchen, and courtyard). (see Figure 7) 7).

(a)
(a) (b)
(b) (c)
(c)
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 7.
Figure 7. The
The Ruen
Ruen Fha
Fha Kho
Kho Exhibition,
Exhibition, the
the second
second floor
floor of
of the
the museum
museum building:
building: (a)
(a) the
the bedroom;
bedroom;
Figure
Figure 7.
7. The
The Ruen
Ruen Fha
Fha Kho
Kho Exhibition,
Exhibition, the
the second
second floor
floor of
of the
the museum
museum building:
building: (a)
(a) the
the bedroom;
bedroom;
(b) the
(b) the multi-purpose
multi-purpose room
room and
and workspace;
workspace; andand (c)
(c) the
the kitchen
kitchen (Source:
(Source: Anuntaset
Anuntaset Setteethorn,
Setteethorn, 2018).
2018).
(b)
(b) the multi-purpose room and workspace; and (c) the kitchen (Source: Anuntaset Setteethorn, 2018).
the multi-purpose room and workspace; and (c) the kitchen (Source: Anuntaset Setteethorn, 2018).
The second part
The part is aa meeting
meeting room. The The room provides
provides an area area for managing
managing various activities.
activities.
The second
second part is is a meeting room.
room. The room room provides an an area for
for managing various
various activities.
The
The third
The part
secondis the
part cultural
is a court
meeting that
room. allows
The people
room in the
provides community
an area for to arrange
managing outdoor
various activities.
activities.
The third
third part
part is
is the
the cultural
cultural court
court that
that allows
allows people
people inin the
the community
community to to arrange
arrange outdoor
outdoor activities.
activities.
The fourth
The third partpartisisthe
a souvenir shop that
cultural court selling localpeople
allows products thatcommunity
in the present thetoidentity
identity
arrangeofoutdoor
the community;
activities.
The fourth
fourth part
part is
is aa souvenir
souvenir shop
shop selling
selling local
local products
products thatthat present
present thethe identity of of the
the community;
community;
for
The
for example,
fourth satchels,
part is a scarves,
souvenir loincloths,
shop selling and
localkey chains
products that
that are
presentmade
the from local
identity of textiles.
the (see
community; Figurefor
for example,
example, satchels,
satchels, scarves,
scarves, loincloths,
loincloths, andand key
key chains
chains that
that are
are made
made from
from local
local textiles.
textiles. (see
(see Figure
Figure
8) The
example,
8) fifth part
satchels,is the building for
scarves, loincloths, local textile manufacturing
and key manufacturing
chains that are made and the museum staff’s
from local textiles workspace.
(see Figure In 8).
8) The
The fifth
fifth part
part isis the
the building
building for
for local
local textile
textile manufacturing and and the
the museum
museum staff’s
staff’s workspace.
workspace. In In
this
The
this building,
fifth part isthere
the is also
building a
for residential
local textile area for the
manufacturing indigenous
and the curators
museum and
staff’s visitors,
workspace. such
In as
this
this building,
building, there
there is is also
also aa residential
residential areaarea for
for the
the indigenous
indigenous curators
curators andand visitors,
visitors, such
such asas
professors, researchers,
building, there
professors, is also aand and undergraduate
residential trainees.
area fortrainees. The sixth
the indigenous sixth part is
curators is and
a kitchen
kitchen andsuch
visitors, the last
last part is
is the
as professors,
professors, researchers, and undergraduate trainees. The sixth part is a kitchen and the last part is the
researchers, undergraduate The part a and the part the
toilets.
researchers, and undergraduate trainees. The sixth part is a kitchen and the last part is the toilets.
toilets.
toilets.

(a)
(a) (b)
(b) (c)
(c)
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 8.
Figure 8. The
The museum
museum center:
center: (a)
(a) the
the meeting
meeting room
room (activity
(activity room);
room); (b)
(b) the
the cultural
cultural court;
court; and
and (c)
(c) the
the
Figure 8.
Figure The museum
8. The museum center:
center: (a)
(a)the
themeeting
meeting room
room (activity
(activity room);
room); (b)
(b) the
the cultural
cultural court;
court; and
and (c)
(c) the
the
souvenir
souvenir shop (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
souvenir shop
souvenir shop (Source:
shop (Source: Jirawan
(Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Sirivanichkul).

• The
The
The
physical
The physical
physical
appearance
physical appearance
appearance of
appearance
of the
of the
of
learning
the learning
the
center
learning center
learning center
center
The
The learning
Thelearning center
learningcenter of
centerof the
ofthe local
thelocal museum
localmuseum
museumofof Thai Bueng Khok Salung is divided into two parts as
The learning center of the local museum ofofThai
Thai
Thai Bueng
Bueng
Bueng Khok
Khok
Khok Salung
Salung is
is divided
Salung divided into
is divided
into two
into
two parts
two as
parts
parts as
follows:
follows:
as follows:
follows:
1.
1. The houses of
The of local intellectuals
intellectuals
1. The houses
houses of local
local intellectuals
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 13 of 33

Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 32


1. The houses
Sustainability ofxlocal
2018, 10, intellectuals
FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 32
One of the houses of local intellectuals is the house of Uncle Chao, who teaches forging. The
One of the houses of local intellectuals is the house of Uncle Chao, who teaches forging. The products
products of from this house are various kinds ofthe knives andof shovels that could be usedforging.
for various
fromOne
this house theare
houses of kinds
various local intellectuals
of knives andisshovels house
that could Uncle
be usedChao, forwho teaches
various purposes. Most Theof
purposes.from
products Mostthisof the customers
house are of Uncle
various kinds Chaoof are local
knives and people
shovels in thethat community.
could be In many
used for of the
various
the customers of Uncle Chao are local people in the community. In many of the houses of local intellectuals,
houses of local
purposes. Most intellectuals,
of the customers people learn
Uncleto weave traditional textiles,
in thewhich are made into various
people learn to weave traditional of textiles, Chao
which are
are local
madepeople
into various community.
products such Inasmany of the
satchels or
products
houses of such
local as satchels
intellectuals,or loincloths.
people learnSuchto skills
weave can be learned
traditional at
textiles, the house
which of
are Miss
made Bumrung,
into the
various
loincloths. Such skills can be learned at the house of Miss Bumrung, the house of Grandmother Teaw, the
house of Grandmother
products such as satchels Teaw,loincloths.
the houseSuch of Grandmother Rod, andatthe house ofof
Grandfather Lhi. The
house of Grandmother Rod,orand skills can be
the house of Grandfather Lhi.learned
The housethe house
of Uncle Miss Bumrung,
Ga teaches how to make the
house
house of
of Uncle Ga
Grandmother teaches
Teaw, how theto make
house oflocal toys
Grandmother from sugar
Rod, palm
and theleaves.
house The
of house
Grandfatherof Uncle
Lhi.Sook
The
local toys from sugar palm leaves. The house of Uncle Sook teaches wood and coconut shell carving and
teachesofwood
house Uncle and teaches
coconuthow shelltocarving andtoysalsofromteaches how to make Puang Mahod, a religious
also teaches howGa to make Puang makea local
Mahod, religious ceremony sugar palm
decoration leaves.
item. The Thehouse
house ofofGrandmother
Uncle Sook
ceremony
teaches wooddecoration item. The house of Grandmother Ape teaches the performance of local arts such
Ape teaches theand coconut shell
performance carving
of local arts suchandasalsolocalteaches howdancing,
songs, tone to makeand Puangpaper Mahod,
cutting.aThe religious
house
as local
ceremony songs, tone
decoration dancing, and paper cutting. The house of Uncle Yong teaches how to intertwine
of Uncle Yong teachesitem.
how to The house of bamboo
intertwine Grandmother Ape teaches
into household the performance
objects such as Kraboong of local arts such
(a basket for
bamboo
as local into household
songs, tone objects
dancing, and such
paper as cutting.
Kraboong The (ahouse
basketoffor vegetables
Uncle Yong or other
teaches howitems),
to Takra (a
intertwine
vegetables or other items), Takra (a basket which people mostly use to store things to receive merit at a
basket which
bamboo people mostly
into household usesuch
objects to storeKraboong
things to (a receive merit at a temple), Kradong (a threshing
temple), Kradong (a threshing basket),as Soom Kai (a coop basket for vegetables
for chickens), and Saior(aother items),
trap for Takra
catching (a
fish).
basket),
basket Soom
which Kai
people(a coop
mostly for chickens),
use to store and Sai
things (a
to trap
receivefor catching
merit at fish).
a The
temple), house
Kradong of Grandmother
(a threshing
The house of Grandmother Ruem teaches about the Boon Ta Krai ritual. The Boon Ta Krai ritual is a local
Ruem teaches
basket), Soom Kai about coop
the Boon Ta Krai ritual. The Boonfor Ta Krai ritual is aThe
local belief
of in which local
belief in which local(apeople for chickens),
perform and Sai
to understand (a
thetrap
cause(s)catching fish).
of any problem house
they encounter,Grandmother
such as the
people
Ruem perform
teaches to
about understand
the ritual,
Boon Ta the cause(s) of any problem they encounter, such as the cause of
cause of sickness. In the theKrai
personritual.
whoThe leadsBoon the Ta Kraicalled
ritual, ritualMho is a Boon,
local belief in which
explains local
the cause(s)
sickness.
people In the ritual, the person who leads the ritual, called Mho Boon, explains the cause(s) through
throughperform
a medium to called
understand
Ta Krai. theThecause(s) of any of
last example problem
the houses theyofencounter, such asis the
local intellectuals the cause
house of of
a medium
sickness. In called
the Ta
ritual, Krai.
the The
person last
who example
leads the of the
ritual, houses
called Mho of local
Boon, intellectuals
explains the is the
cause(s) house
through of
Grandfather Mhun. This house demonstrates local medicine, such as the local ways to treat broken bones
Grandfather
aormedium Mhun. TaThis house demonstrates local medicine, such as the local ways to treat broken
sprained called
ankles (see Krai.
FigureThe9). last example of the houses of local intellectuals is the house of
bones or sprained
Grandfather Mhun.ankles. (see Figure
This house 9)
demonstrates local medicine, such as the local ways to treat broken
bones or sprained ankles. (see Figure 9)

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Figure (a) (b) that are learning bases:
9. The houses of local intellectuals (c)(a) the forging base; (b) the(d)
local toy
Figure 9. The houses of local intellectuals that are learning bases: (a) the forging base; (b) the local toy
base;
Figure(c) the intertwining base; and (d) the paper flower base (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
base; (c)9.the
Theintertwining
houses of local intellectuals
base; and (d) thethat areflower
paper learning bases:
base (a) the
(Source: forgingSirivanichkul).
Jirawan base; (b) the local toy
base; (c) the intertwining base; and (d) the paper flower base (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
2. Important landmarks of the community
2. Important landmarks of the community
2. Important
Historical landmarks
stories andoffolklore
the community
of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community are transferred
Historical
through variousstories and
landmarks folklore
withinofthe
the community;
Thai Bueng Khok Salung community
for example, the Kok are transferred
Samran temple, through
the Kok
Historical stories and folklore of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community are transferred
various landmarks
Salung train station, within the
the Pa Sak community;
Jolasid for example, the Kok Samran temple, the Kok Salung train
through various landmarks within thedam (see Figurefor
community; 10), and the Pho
example, Luang
the Kok Pech shrine.
Samran Moreover,
temple, the Kok
station,
the localthe Pa of
ways Sak Jolasid
life are dam
also (see Figure
described 10), and
through the the PhoofLuang
houses local Pech shrine.
people and Moreover,
the local the local
market.
Salung train station, the Pa Sak Jolasid dam (see Figure 10), and the Pho Luang Pech shrine. Moreover,
ways of life are also described through the houses of local people and the local market.
the local ways of life are also described through the houses of local people and the local market.

(a) (b) (c)


(a) important landmark learning bases:
Figure 10. The (b)(a) the Kok Samran Temple; (b) the(c) Pa Sak Jolasid
Dam; and The
Figure (c) the Kok Salung Train Station (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Figure 10.
10. The important
important landmark
landmark learning
learning bases:
bases: (a)
(a) the
the Kok
Kok Samran
Samran Temple;
Temple; (b)
(b) the
the Pa
Pa Sak
Sak Jolasid
Jolasid
Dam;
Dam; and
and (c)
(c) the
the Kok
Kok Salung
Salung Train
Train Station
Station (Source:
(Source: Jirawan
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Sirivanichkul).
3.1.4. Things, Information Sources, and Presentation
3.1.4.The
Things, Information
museum collects Sources, and in
information Presentation
the form of files, books, research, reports, and projects. The
information is compiled in the museum.
The museum collects information in theIt includes
form ofvarious formsresearch,
files, books, as follows:
reports, and projects. The
information is compiled in the museum. It includes various forms as follows:
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 14 of 33

3.1.4. Things, Information Sources, and Presentation


The museum collects information in the form of files, books, research, reports, and projects.
The information is compiled in the museum. It includes various forms as follows:
• Articles from outsources about skill development, the knowledge of working procedures, and
tools for local community development
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 32
• Research from researchers outside the community from which the museum uses the knowledge
to be a working framework or manual
Articles from outsources about skill development, the knowledge of working procedures, and
• The museum’stools forprojects and research
local community which offer valuable information about the way to develop
development
 Research from researchers outside the community from which the museum uses the knowledge
the community
to be a working framework or manual
• Textbooks
 The museum’s projects and research which offer valuable information about the way to develop
It should the
be community
noted that the information collecting system of the museum is incomplete as there is
 Textbooks
some information that still needs to be collected. However, the museum is studying and developing
It should be noted that the information collecting system of the museum is incomplete as there
the data collection system continually.
is some information that still needs to be collected. However, the museum is studying and developing
In Figure 11,collection
the data the research author intended to provide symbols that represent those who are
system continually.
audience or involvers
In Figure or11, so-called “receivers”,
the research andtothe
author intended different
provide levels
symbols thatof attention
represent that
those whothose
are receivers
give. This audience
symbol or isinvolvers
representedor so-called
as the“receivers”,
receiver and thediagrams,
in all different levels
thusof attention that those
explanation receivers
about this symbol is
give. This symbol is represented as the receiver in all diagrams, thus explanation about this symbol
provided so that readers can relate their understanding to relevant contexts and diagrams.
is provided so that readers can relate their understanding to relevant contexts and diagrams.

Figure 11. The levels of accessibility and priority for each focus group (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Figure 11. The levels of accessibility and priority for each focus group (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
In Figure 11, the inner circle refers to the museum and learning sources in the community. Level
1 refers
In Figure 11, to the
theindigenous curator
inner circle who istothethe
refers person closest toand
museum the museum.
learningLevel 2 refersinto the
sources people
community.
in the community and the outsiders who participate in the learning activities of the museum. Level 3
Level 1 refers to the indigenous curator who is the person closest to the museum.
refers to the group of people, both inside and outside the community, who do not participate in any
Level 2 refers to
people in the community and the outsiders
activity, but acknowledge what the museum does.who participate in the learning activities of the museum.
Level 3 refers to the group of people, both inside and outside the community, who do not participate
3.1.5. Interpretation for People Living Inside the Community
in any activity, but acknowledge what the museum does.
There are five concepts of interpretation for people in the community as follows:
3.1.5. Interpretation for People
1. The museum Living
provides Inside the toCommunity
the developments people by enhancing awareness about their local
knowledge (for example, history, lifestyle, culture, traditions, language, foods, and wisdom)
There arethrough
five concepts of interpretation for people in the community as follows:
the process of working in the museum and community.
1. 2. All theprovides
The museum work of thetheindigenous curators isto
developments a channel
peopleforbytheenhancing
indigenous curators
awarenessthemselves
abouttotheir local
gain and understand local knowledge. Moreover, the local visitors to the museum are also
knowledge (for example, history, lifestyle, culture, traditions, language, foods, and wisdom)
treated as trainers of the indigenous curator, who encourages them to develop their work to be
through the process
better and to of workingpractice
continually in the their
museum and community.
local wisdom to pass on the wisdom to the next
2. generations.
All the work of the indigenous curators is a channel for the indigenous curators themselves to
gain and “All of the activities train us to be aware of our own culture. We ought to learn more. We ought
understand local knowledge. Moreover, the local visitors to the museum are also treated
to develop our own capacity. When we have that knowledge, we will understand our own
as trainers of theprocess.
working indigenous
Then, allcurator,
the workwho encourages
in the museum willthem to developcompleted
be successfully their work to be better
as the
and to continually
responsibilitypractice
of each their localiswisdom
individual to pass Additionally,
done efficiently. on the wisdom to the have
participants next the
generations.
opportunity
“All of the activitiestotrain
develop
us totheir
beskills
awareevery
of time
our they
ownwork” [29]. We ought to learn more. We ought to
culture.
3. The indigenous curators are encouraged to be aware of their own value and that of their local
develop our own capacity. When we have that knowledge, we will understand our own working
culture. The museum also offers the indigenous curators with a feeling of cherishing and
process. Then, all the work in the museum will be successfully completed as the responsibility of
each individual is done efficiently. Additionally, participants have the opportunity to develop
their skills every time they work” [29].
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 15 of 33

3. The indigenous curators are encouraged to be aware of their own value and that of their local
culture. The museum also offers the indigenous curators with a feeling of cherishing and
ownership of all the places in the local community. Moreover, the generation gap between
children and elders is lessened because they are working together as a team.
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 15 of 32
4. The preservation of the traditional Thai Bueng Khok Salung way of life is carried out alongside the
changes in lifestyle of
ownership in all
modern
the placestimes. Thelocal
in the museum accepts
community. the need
Moreover, theto adapt itself,
generation and to determine
gap between
whether the children
localandways elders
of is lessened
life, wisdom,because they are working
or economic value,together as a team.
following the change, are for the greater
4. The preservation of the traditional Thai Bueng Khok Salung way of life is carried out alongside
good of all the people in the community. “We do not deny that a culture could change over time.
the changes in lifestyle in modern times. The museum accepts the need to adapt itself, and to
We are not determine whether but
conservatives, we are
the local waysaware
of life, of whichorthings
wisdom, economicwevalue,
should protect
following theand which
change, are things we
should adjust. However, in changing something to increase its cultural value, the things that are
for the greater good of all the people in the community. “We do not deny that a culture could
altered havechange over convey
to still time. We theare not conservatives,
traditional but we
identity ofare
theaware
ThaiofBuengs”
which things we should protect
[27].
and which things we should adjust. However, in changing something to increase its cultural
5. The museum value,provides a cultural
the things that are alteredlearning curriculum
have to still convey the for the schools
traditional identityin
of the community.
the Thai Buengs”
[27].
• Level 5.1: The
The Interpretation
museum providesLoop of the
a cultural Indigenous
learning Curator
curriculum for the schools in the community.
 Level 1: The Interpretation Loop of the Indigenous Curator
The indigenous curator of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung is the person involved in
The indigenous
managing, planning, curatorall
and doing of the
the local museum
activities atofthe
Thaimuseum.
Bueng Khok Salung
They areis the
the person involved
closest to the working
in managing, planning, and doing all the activities at the museum. They are the closest to the working
process of the museum and take the part of both the sender and receiver.“(Figure 12).”, etc.
process of the museum and take the part of both the sender and receiver.“(Figure 12).”, etc.

Figure 12. The interpretation loop of the indigenous curatorial group (Source: Adapted from Dean,
Figure 12. D.,The interpretation
& Edson, G., 1994). loop of the indigenous curatorial group (Source: Adapted from Dean,
D., & Edson, G., 1994).
1. Interpretation system management

1. The interpretation
Interpretation system management for people in the community is comprised of the self-
system management
interpretation system of the museum itself and cooperation with both internal and external networks.
Preparation phase: The museum gives precedence to the preparation phase to manage the
The interpretation system management for people in the community is comprised of
interpretation system by arranging meetings before any actual work. The meetings allow the curators
the self-interpretation system
to see the big picture of the
of the work thatmuseum itself
is going to be carriedand cooperation
out. The with isboth
preparation phase countedinternal
to and
external networks.
be 70% of all of the work done in one job, following the working concept of the curator who said: “if
there is good
Preparation phase:preparation, there is a good
The museum givesresult” [27].
precedence to the preparation phase to manage the
Presentation phase: The presentation phase is the step that presents the various activities of the
interpretation system by arranging meetings before any actual work. The meetings allow the curators
museum (for example, the museum learning activities and annual fair). This phase is counted to be
to see the big
10%picture of work
of all of the the work
done inthat
one isjob.going to be carried out. The preparation phase is counted to
be 70% of all ofAfter
the the
work done
action in one
review phase: job,Thefollowing
remaining the20%working
is the afterconcept of the
action review curator
(AAR) whichwhois said: “if
conducted
there is good immediately,
preparation, thereor is
nota later
good than an hour[27].
result” after any activity is conducted. This phase uses the
method of aesthetic dialogue, which is a method that allows people in the meeting to talk, one person
Presentation phase: The presentation phase is the step that presents the various activities of the
at a time, combined with a regular style of meeting.
museum (for example,
Focus group: theThe
museum
focus group learning
is withactivities and curator
the indigenous annualandfair). This phase
is divided is counted
into three age to be
10% of all of the work
groups: childrendone in oneadults,
and youths, job. and elders.
After the Time
actionperiod: The time
review periodThe
phase: of this management
remaining is throughout
20% one’saction
is the after life. review (AAR) which is
conducted2.immediately,
Messages of or not
Thai laterKhok
Bueng thanSalung
an hour after anyIdentity
Community’s activity is Working
and conducted. This of
Procedure phase
the uses the
Museum
method of aesthetic dialogue, which is a method that allows people in the meeting to talk, one person
at a time, combined with a regular style of meeting.
Focus group: The focus group is with the indigenous curator and is divided into three age groups:
children and youths, adults, and elders.
Time period: The time period of this management is throughout one’s life.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 16 of 33

2. Messages of Thai Bueng Khok Salung Community’s Identity and Working Procedure of
the Museum

The working procedure of the museum and the community is as follows


Dialogue procedure: According to Prateep Onsalung (2018), “society nowadays seems to be in
disarray. That makes most people only talk but not listen to others. When they do not listen, it is
impossible to acknowledge what the others really want to express” [27]. Therefore, the dialogue
method is used for communication in the museum, whether it is a planning meeting or the AAR phase.
The dialogue method is what Prateep Onsalung called the way in which a person pays attention to
listen to others to learn what the other people really want to say. “If we really pay attention to listen
when someone talks, we would know what that person really wants to express. It is because he or she
might not always explicitly say something out loud” [27].
Systematic thinking: Systematic thinking is the way to link the relationships between things,
instead of looking at one thing in particular. In the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung, the
indigenous curators have to think about the people or organizations that are involved in a certain job;
for example, the relationship of each individual in the community or any outside organization and the
local textile production system.
After action review: After action review is a kind of meeting that promotes self-reflection of the
recent group work. According to Prateep Onsalung, “the rule of AAR is that one is not allowed to
entangle other people with his or her own contemplation. It is essential that one has to look upon
only him/herself about what he/she has done in the recent job. Additionally, if the work is finished
successfully, we are going to be proud together. However, if it is not like we hoped for, we are going to
brainstorm what might have been wrong and try to come up a way to alleviate the problem that might
affect the next job” [27].
It is noted that some academic language which might be too hard to understand for the locals
should be altered to make it easier to comprehend.
Additional work training: The indigenous curators are obliged to train themselves to be
storytellers who interpret their wisdom or knowledge for other people. They have to acquire
the characteristics of a storyteller, the process of storytelling, and the right way to question and
answer issues with the visitors. Moreover, the indigenous curators might train themselves to be local
intellectuals of fields other than the one that they are already an expert in. The training is conducted by
observing other local intellectuals on the way they teach, the way they make products, and the history
behind the wisdom.
Mind mapping: A mind map is a tool that records various thoughts of the people in a curatorial
group into a single paper that could be used to help them understand each other in the same way.
The curatorial group uses mind mapping in the planning and concluding work of the museum.
Collaboration: The museum promotes collaboration between all people in the community.
The indigenous curators are encouraged to learn about the procedures and benefits of collaboration.

3. Channels

The indigenous curatorial group learns through actual activities and working, outside-community
observation, studying with experts, observation by him/herself, and self-training (for example, to
train to communicate in a meeting and to train how to exchange ideas).

4. Receiver Response

The receivers—the indigenous curators—could respond in six ways: focus group conversations,
dialogue procedures, systematic thinking, observations, AARs, and making mind maps (see Figure 13).
community observation, studying with experts, observation by him/herself, and self-training (for
example, to train to communicate in a meeting and to train how to exchange ideas).
4. Receiver Response
The receivers—the indigenous curators—could respond in six ways: focus group conversations,
Sustainability
dialogue 2018, 10, 2563
procedures, 17 of 33
systematic thinking, observations, AARs, and making mind maps (see Figure
13).

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 13. The indigenous curatorial group meeting: (a) the meeting atmosphere; (b) mind map
construction by a representative of the indigenous curatorial group; and (c) an example of a mind map
(Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).

In the interpretation system of the “indigenous curators”, the researcher discovered from the
observations of this group’s dialogue procedures that the continuance of working in the museum,
attending courses to develop knowledge, and cooperation between the curators allowed them to
accumulate specific knowledge in regard to conducting the local museum’s tasks. The continuance
also allowed the indigenous curators to change their perspectives and behaviors to be more suitable to
work in modern society. For example, they became more confident to reflect and express their thoughts
to others. This is a good alteration, resulting from the opportunities to express one’s opinions provided
by the museum’s system. The researcher also discovered the reasons why most of the indigenous
curators still work in the museum. (1) It is because of the curators’ love, understanding, attachment,
and happiness towards the local museum itself, as Teaw Salungyu stated; “I love that place (the local
museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung) like my own home. I love Uncle Mued (a community leader).
If we do not help him, who else will? I think this way. I like it. I am happy here. We laugh together
like we are relatives, and that makes me happy. I am much more mature than before because Uncle
Mued taught me well. He said that we live in the same community. Thus, we should help each other
in all work. If there is any mess, we should clean it up. Here I never mind the income”. (2) It is because
they want to develop their hometown. (3) They also remain working at the local museum because the
museum is able to manage a team-work system. This system promotes understanding among curators.
(4) They can see tangible results which are continually improving. (5) It is because they have hope and
focus. (6) They want their heirs to carry on the work of the museum. (7) They are also aware of their
responsibilities, both as a person in community and as a Thai citizen. Prateep Onsalung, a leader of
the community, stated;
“The reason why I am still working at the museum is responsibility. I am Thai. I am a Baan Khok
resident. It is wrong if I count on others to take care of my own community. Thus, I have to do it if I
want to live happily. I have to do it if I want my children to live happily in the future. Besides, the
reason that forces me to work this much is because there is only income from government provided
for the museum. If I quit when other people in the community do not possess enough strength to take
my position, this community may turn into a slum or a bad place. However, if all the people in the
community help in taking care of the museum, this place will turn into a learning centre that gathers
together people who want to develop their own community.”

• Level 2: Interpretation Loop of Local Visitors

1. Interpretation system of general local visitors


The focus group of this level of the interpretation loop includes local students and local
organizations. Throughout the year, local schools provide opportunities for students to learn about their
local traditions and culture (for example, learning how to cook local foods or how to make traditional
local toys) at the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung. For people in local organizations,
besides learning about the local traditions and culture similar to the group of local students, they
also learn about the working procedures of the museum, which they could adapt to use in their
own organizations.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 18 of 33

2. Interpretation system of the museum’s projects and research


It is not only the museum that is involved in this interpretation loop; it also includes various
organizations outside the community which are linked to various sources of knowledge and funding
from external stakeholders. Moreover, this interpretation also takes various organizations in the
community (for example, local primary and secondary schools) into account.
To conduct any project, the museum always considers how the project is going to benefit the
community, and the obtained knowledge should help in continuing or developing the completed
Sustainability
projects or2018, 10, x FOR
strategies PEER
that REVIEW
have already been planned (see Figure 14). 18 of 32
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 18 of 32

Figure 14. The interpretation loop of projects and the research of the museum (Source: Adapted from
Figure 14. The interpretation loop of projects and the research of the museum (Source: Adapted from
Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
Figure 14. The interpretation loop of projects and the research of the museum (Source: Adapted from
Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
The museum has completed many projects. The first example is the project that supports healthy
local foods. The results of this project are, firstly, that the new generation can carry on the local
Themuseum
The museum has hascompleted
completed many projects. projects. The Thefirst
firstexample
exampleisisthe theproject
projectthatthatsupports
supportshealthy
healthy
wisdom about Thai Bueng’s many healthy foods, which suit all kinds of people (for example, adults,
local foods.
local foods. The results
The elders,
teenagers,
of this
resultspregnant project
of this women, are,
projectand firstly,
are,women that
firstly, the new generation
thatbreastfeeding
in the the new generation can carry
stage). Localcan
on the
carry
schools
local
haveonalsowisdom
the local
about Thai Bueng’s
included the healthy
healthy foods,
local food which
list fromsuit
theall kinds
project in of people
their lunch
wisdom about Thai Bueng’s healthy foods, which suit all kinds of people (for example, adults,(for example,
menu. The adults,
second teenagers,
example is the elders,
pregnant women,
developing and women
project of in the
instructional breastfeeding
media about stage).
local Local
folktales. schools
The
teenagers, elders, pregnant women, and women in the breastfeeding stage). Local schools have also have
focus also
group included
of this the
project healthy
includes
local food children,
listhealthy
from the youths, local
project intellectuals, schoolsThe in the Khok Salung District, and the people project
of
included the local foodin their
list from lunch menu.
the project second
in their lunch example
menu. is Thethesecond
developing
example is the of
the community.
instructionalproject
mediaof By
about using the local
local folktales. folktales
Theas a channel,
focus this project
group of this projectencourages people
includes in the focus
children, youths,
developinggroup to exchange instructional
local knowledge, media about
to acknowledge local
theirfolktales.
backgroundThe and focus
identity,group of athis
to collect data project
local intellectuals,
includesset children, schools
youths, in the Khok Salung District, and the people of the community. By using
about Thai Bueng’slocal
tales,intellectuals,
to present Thai schools in the Khok
Bueng’s traditions to theSalung
public, toDistrict,
developand the people
the capacity of
the local folktales
the community.
to carry onBy as a
theusingchannel,
the local
local folktales this project
of folktales
the youthsas encourages
a channel,
in the Thai Bueng people in the
thiscommunity, focus
project encourages group
and to buildpeopleto exchange
a network in for local
the focus
knowledge,
group tothe to acknowledge
preservation
exchange their
of knowledge,
local the local background
folktales (see Figure
to acknowledge and15).identity, to collect aand
their background data set about
identity, Thai Bueng’s
to collect a data
tales,
set to present
about Thai Bueng’s
Thai Bueng’s tales, to traditions to the
present Thai public,
Bueng’s to develop
traditions thepublic,
to the capacity to carrythe
to develop on capacity
the local
folktales
to carry onofthe
thelocal
youths in the of
folktales Thai
theBueng
youthscommunity, and to community,
in the Thai Bueng build a network
and for the preservation
to build of
a network for
the local folktales (see Figure 15).
the preservation of the local folktales (see Figure 15).

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Figure 15. The local folktale instructional media creating activities: (a) the modeling clay lesson; (b)
the painting activity; (c) the motion picture creating activity; and (d) the presentation of local folktales
in the forms of books and videos (Source: Payom Onsalung, 2017).

(a) (b) development through the


The third example is the children’s (c)local wisdom project that promotes
(d)
four abilities—health, mind, human relations, and intelligence—by using local entertainment and
Figure 15. The local folktale instructional media creating activities: (a) the modeling clay lesson; (b)
Figure as aThe
toys 15. local folktale
channel. instructional
The objective of thismedia
projectcreating activities:
is to prepare (a) thefor
children modeling
standardclay lesson; (b)
education (forthe
the painting
example,
painting activity;
(c) (c)
Elementary
activity; the motion
theSchool
motion picture
Division
picture creating
(Grades 1-3))
creating activity;
[27]. and
activity; and
(d)(d)
thethe presentation
presentation of of local
local folktales
folktales in
in the forms of books and videos (Source: Payom Onsalung,
the forms of books and videos (Source: Payom Onsalung, 2017). 2017).
3. Interpretation system of annual fair

The thirdTheexample
objectiveis
ofthe
the children’s
local museum at Thai Bueng
development Khok Salung’s
through annual
the local fair isproject
wisdom to present
thatwhat
promotes
Thethethird example
indigenous is the children’s
curators development through thebuilds
localawisdom project thatfor promotes
four abilities—health, mind, have
humandonerelations,
throughout the year.
and The fair
intelligence—by betterlocal
using understanding
entertainment and
four abilities—health,
the people who mind,
do nothuman relations,
know exactly whyandthe intelligence—by
curators did certainusing local
things. entertainment
Furthermore, this isand toys
toys as a channel. The objective of this project is to prepare children for standard education (for
beneficial
as a channel. Thewhen the museum
objective of thisrequests
projectaisbudget from the
to prepare government
children because iteducation
for standard is evidence(for
of the
example,
example,activities
Elementary
and
School
the costs.
Division (Grades 1-3)) [27].
Elementary School Division (Grades 1–3)) [27].
There are threesystem
3. Interpretation messages of that the annual
annual fair fair conveys: to present work results, to present Thai
Bueng Khok Salung’s identity, and to arouse the interest of outsiders (for example, scholars and
Theresearchers)
objective of the the
about local museum
museum and at Thai Bueng
community. TheKhok
themeSalung’s annual
of the fair changesfair is toyear;
every present
for what
example, curators
the indigenous local food have
was the theme
done of the annual
throughout fairyear.
the for one year,
The fairand the next
builds year, the
a better theme was
understanding for
changed to local textiles. This interpretation has six channels: the talking stage, the performance of
the people who do not know exactly why the curators did certain things. Furthermore, this is
beneficial when the museum requests a budget from the government because it is evidence of the
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 19 of 33

3. Interpretation system of annual fair


The objective of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung’s annual fair is to present what the
indigenous curators have done throughout the year. The fair builds a better understanding for the people
who do not know exactly why the curators did certain things. Furthermore, this is beneficial when the
museum requests a budget from the government because it is evidence of the activities and the costs.
There are three messages that the annual fair conveys: to present work results, to present Thai
Bueng Khok Salung’s identity, and to arouse the interest of outsiders (for example, scholars and
researchers) about the museum and community. The theme of the fair changes every year; for example,
local food was the theme of the annual fair for one year, and the next year, the theme was changed
to local textiles. This interpretation has six channels: the talking stage, the performance of local
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 19 of 32
entertainment, local wisdom bases, exhibitions, local tradition activities, and the work resulting
from thelocal
cooperation
entertainment, between the museum
local wisdom and outsiders
bases, exhibitions, (for example,
local tradition activities,a and
local
thetextile fashion show).
work resulting
The museum,
from the moreover,
cooperation gives priority
between to the arrangement
the museum of meetings
and outsiders (for example, abetween thefashion
local textile curators,
show).people in
The museum,
the community, moreover, gives
the researchers, priority
and to the arrangement
the outside organizations.of meetings between the
The meetings helpcurators,
in the people
development
in the community,
of the community itself as thethe
researchers, and acquired
information the outsideat organizations.
each meetingThe meetingsthe
enhances help in the
understanding
development of the community itself as the information acquired at each meeting enhances the
between all of the people involved (see Figure 16).
understanding between all of the people involved. (see Figure 16)

Figure 16. The interpretation loop of the local museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung’s annual fair
Figure 16. The interpretation
(Source: loop D.,
Adapted from Dean, of the local G.,
& Edson, museum
1994). at Thai Bueng Khok Salung’s annual fair (Source:
Adapted from Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
The time duration of each annual fair is approximately 1–2 days. The receivers of this
interpretation are the inside-community organizations and all of the people in the Thai Bueng Khok
The time duration of each annual fair is approximately 1–2 days. The receivers of this
Salung community. Examples of inside-community organizations are local schools, the sub-district
interpretation are theorganization,
administration inside-community organizations
and the strategic and all
planning group. Theofreceiver
the peopleresponsesin theareThai Bueng Khok
recognized
Salung community. Examples of inside-community organizations
by observation, questioning, and the receivers’ comments in a visitor’s book. are local schools, the sub-district
administration organization,
In terms and the strategic
of receiver response, the museum planning
has beengroup.
applying The receiver questioning,
observation, responses are andrecognized
the
receivers’ questioning,
by observation, signing a visitor’sandbook themethods.
receivers’ Forcomments
observation,in the
a museum
visitor’sobserves
book. the behaviors and
feelingsofofreceiver
In terms the audience and predicts
response, their potential
the museum participation
has been applying in the future. For interviews
observation, questioning, withand the
government officials, the museum curators do not interview them formally but rather exchange their
receivers’ signing a visitor’s book methods. For observation, the museum observes the behaviors
opinions with the interviewees and hope to find an opportunity to work with them in the future.
and feelings
Besides,ofletting
the audience anddown
visitors write predicts
their their potential
opinions participation
in the museum guest book in istheonefuture. Forways
of the best interviews
with government officials, the museum curators do not interview
to discover their thoughts and what the museum should improve based on their opinions.them formally but rather exchange
their opinions Thewith
successtheofinterviewees
the interpretationandsystem
hope to findannual
at this an opportunity to work
festival cannot with instantly
be achieved them in butthe future.
Besides,rather
lettingtakes much write
visitors time asdown
it is necessary to repeatin
their opinions thethe
message
museum repeatedly to attract
guest book the attention
is one andways to
of the best
discoverraise
theirthe awareness of the audience and visitors as to what the museum is trying to do. This is what
thoughts and what the museum should improve based on their opinions.
the museum is attempting to do by interpreting the value to the locals and government
Therepresentatives
success of the interpretation system at this annual festival cannot be achieved instantly but
(if it attracts outsiders, locals should be able to appreciate the value of what they own
rather takes much time
and its interpretation).as itThis
is necessary
is an example to repeat
of whatthethe message repeatedly
museum receives whento attract
they thetoattention
are able make and
raise thethe
awareness of the audience
official representatives realizeandthevisitors
value of as
theto what the
locality. Withmuseum is trying
collaboration between to do. This and
museum is what the
museumgovernment
is attempting agencies,
to do concrete results are
by interpreting thepossible,
value tofor theexample when
locals and schools around
government the Khok
representatives (if it
attracts Salung
outsiders,area locals
allow their
shouldstudents
be able to wear traditionalthe
to appreciate Khok Salung
value clothes
of what theyandown take and
theirits
traditional
interpretation).
Khok Salung bags to school. Some of the students even let the museum craft their school uniforms
This is an example of what the museum receives when they are able to make the official representatives
for them while families with garment making skills produce apparel for their children. It could be
said that traditional garment making is a symbol of participation in the community’s traditional way
of life and positively influenced the sense of belonging and awareness in children, schools, and the
locals themselves. (see Figure 17)
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 20 of 33

realize the value of the locality. With collaboration between museum and government agencies,
concrete results are possible, for example when schools around the Khok Salung area allow their
students to wear traditional Khok Salung clothes and take their traditional Khok Salung bags to school.
Some of the students even let the museum craft their school uniforms for them while families with
garment making skills produce apparel for their children. It could be said that traditional garment
making is a symbol of participation in the community’s traditional way of life and positively influenced
the sense of belonging and awareness in children, schools, and the locals themselves (see Figure 17).
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 20 of 32

Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 20 of 32

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 17. The annual fair of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung: (a) the talking stage of
Figure 17. The annual fair of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung: (a) the talking stage of local
local value; (b) the local food learning activity; and (c) local product stalls (Source: Jirawan
value; (b) the local food learning activity; and (c) local
Sirivanichkul). (a) (b) product stalls (Source: Jirawan
(c) Sirivanichkul).
Figure 17. The annual fair of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung: (a) the talking stage of
• 
Level 3:local
Level Interpretation
3: value; (b) the loop
Interpretation local of
ofnon-participants
loopfood non-participants who(c)
who
learning activity; and have
local the
have potential
theproduct
potential toparticipants
to be be participants
stalls (Source: Jirawan
in thein the
future
future (local(local people)
people)
Sirivanichkul).
The focus group of this interpretation loop is non-participants who have the potential to be
The focusLevelgroup of this interpretation
3: Interpretation loop is who
loop of non-participants non-participants
have the potential
participants in the future (local people). They monitor what is going on at the museum and their
who have
to be the potential
participants in the to be
participants future
in the (local people)
community, but future
are not (local
involved people). They monitor
in any activity. what that
The messages is going on at the
the museum museum
sends and their
to this focus
community, but
The are
focus not involved
group of this in any activity.
interpretation loop The
is messages that
non-participants the
who
group are about local traditions that have nearly disappeared such as the Tak Bart Lookom traditionmuseum
have the sends
potential to
to this
be focus
group participants
are about in
local the future
traditions (local
thatpeople).
have They
nearly monitor what
disappeared is going
such ason at
the
(the tradition of offering candy to Buddhist monks) and the flower parade tradition, the attention the
Tak museum
Bart and
Lookom theirtradition
of
community,
the outsiders
(the tradition but are not
(for example,
of offering involved
candy scholars in
to Buddhist any activity.
and researchers)The messages
monks) andtowards that the
the parade
the flower museum
community, sends
and the
tradition, to this focus
theattention
attentionofof the
the group
outsiders Thai are aboutway
(for Bueng
localoftraditions
example, scholars life, and that have
culture, andnearly
researchers)
disappeared
traditions
towards from such as
themass
the Tak Bart Lookom
communication
community,
tradition
businesses.
and the attention ofThethe Thai
(the tradition of offering candy to Buddhist monks) and the flower parade tradition, the attention of
interpretation
Bueng way is recognized
of life, culture, through
and scholars
traditions three channels: the various activities of the museum (for
the outsiders (for example, andfrom mass communication
researchers) towards the community,businesses.
and theThe interpretation
attention of
example, local fairs, traditional practices, and learning bases around the community), various
is recognized
the Thai through
Bueng way threeofchannels:
life, culture,theand
various activities
traditions of the
from mass museum (forbusinesses.
communication example,The local fairs,
television programs and videos in social media that portray the story of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung
traditional practices,isand
interpretation learning
recognized bases three
through around the community),
channels: various of
the various activities television
the museum programs
(for and
community, and the positive changes within the community. The receiver responses are recognized
videos example,
in social local fairs, traditional practices, and learning bases around
media that portray the story of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community, and the the community), various
through the observation of changes in the community (see Figure 18).
television programs and videos in social media that portray the story of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung
positive changes within the community. The receiver responses are recognized through the observation
community, and the positive changes within the community. The receiver responses are recognized
of changes in the community (see Figure 18).
through the observation of changes in the community (see Figure 18).

Figure 18. The interpretation loop of non-participants who have the potential to be participants in the
future (local people) (Source: Adapted from Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
Figure 18. The interpretation loop of non-participants who have the potential to be participants in the
Figure 18. The interpretation loop of non-participants who have the potential to be participants in the
future (local people) (Source: Adapted from Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
3.1.6.
futureInterpretation
(local people)for PeopleAdapted
(Source: Living Outside the Community
from Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
3.1.6.
ThereInterpretation
are two parts forof
People Living Outside
the interpretation the Community
concept for people outside the community: knowledge
and emotions. The knowledge part is comprised of attempts
There are two parts of the interpretation concept for people to encourage
outside thevisitors to theknowledge
community: museum to
understand the Thai Bueng Khok Salung identity and the working procedures
and emotions. The knowledge part is comprised of attempts to encourage visitors to the museum of the indigenous
to
curators. This part also encourages the visitors to adapt the knowledge
understand the Thai Bueng Khok Salung identity and the working procedures of the indigenousthey acquired from the
museum to develop
curators. This parttheir
also own community.
encourages “If onetoknows
the visitors adapt how to change they
the knowledge one’sacquired
community fromtothe
be a
better place,toone
museum could
develop be own
their in any place happily”
community. [27]. For
“If one knows howthe part ofone’s
to change emotions,
community the to
museum
be a
encourages bothone
better place, visitors
couldandbepeople
in anyinplace
the community to beFor
happily” [27]. happythe as a result
part of the various
of emotions, activities
the museum
encourages
of the museum. both visitors and the
Furthermore, people in theare
visitors community
encouragedto beto
happy as a result
recognize of the various
the value activities
of the Thai Bueng
of the museum. Furthermore, the visitors are encouraged to recognize the value of the Thai Bueng
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 21 of 33

3.1.6. Interpretation for People Living Outside the Community


There are two parts of the interpretation concept for people outside the community: knowledge
and emotions. The knowledge part is comprised of attempts to encourage visitors to the museum
to understand the Thai Bueng Khok Salung identity and the working procedures of the indigenous
curators. This part also encourages the visitors to adapt the knowledge they acquired from the museum
to develop their own community. “If one knows how to change one’s community to be a better place,
one could be in any place happily” [27]. For the part of emotions, the museum encourages both
visitors and people in the community to be happy as a result of the various activities of the museum.
Furthermore, the
Sustainability 2018, 10,visitors
x FOR PEERare encouraged
REVIEW to recognize the value of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung identity. 21 of 32
Moreover, the indigenous curators ought to appreciate the visitors because they are an important part
Khok
in the Salung
developmentidentity. Moreover,
pf the community.the indigenous curators ought to appreciate the visitors because
they are an important part in the development pf the community.
• Interpretation loop of general visitors
 Interpretation loop of general visitors
The objective
The objective of of this interpretation is
this interpretation is to
to present
present Thai
Thai Bueng
Bueng Khok Salung’s identity
Khok Salung’s identity to
to outsiders
outsiders
who
who visit the museum to learn about the culture of Thai Bueng Khok Salung and the working
visit the museum to learn about the culture of Thai Bueng Khok Salung and the working
procedures
procedures ofofthe themuseum.
museum. TheThe
focus group
focus of this
group ofinterpretation loop includes
this interpretation teachers teachers
loop includes and students,and
community developers,
students, community and people
developers, andwho are interested
people in cultural
who are interested value (for
in cultural example,
value Thai people,
(for example, Thai
foreigners, and non-governmental
people, foreigners, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)).(NGOs)).
organizations
The interpretation
The interpretation loop loop planning
planning forfor general
general outsiders
outsiders isis work
work which
which involves
involves the
the indigenous
indigenous
curators and the visitors planning the activity pattern together. The
curators and the visitors planning the activity pattern together. The main learning objective main learning objective of
of visitors
visitors comesthe
comes before before the planning,
planning, but it hasbut it has
to be to be theofbaseline
the baseline what theofcommunity
what the community
has to offer.has to offer.
Outsiders
Outsiders could choose the learning and activity bases by themselves. This act of
could choose the learning and activity bases by themselves. This act of giving options to the visitors giving options to the
visitors could promote independent thinking skills and allow the visitors to learn
could promote independent thinking skills and allow the visitors to learn about what they really want about what they
really want
to learn. to learn.
It should It should
be noted thatbe noted
any that any
planning planningoforactivities
or changing changinghasoftoactivities
be done has to be
before thedone
day
before the day of the visit because the work needs time
of the visit because the work needs time for preparation (see Figure 19). for preparation (see Figure 19).

Figure 19. The


Figure 19. The interpretation
interpretationloop
loopofof general
general visitors
visitors (Source:
(Source: Adapted
Adapted fromfrom
Dean,Dean,
D., &D., & Edson,
Edson, G.,
G., 1994).
1994).
Interpretation Procedures for General Visitors
Interpretation Procedures for General Visitors
1. Welcoming process
1. Welcoming process
The museum
The museum has
has aa concept
concept ofof making
making the
the visitors
visitors happy
happy when
when they
they are
are at
at the
the museum
museum because
because
everyone,
everyone, including
including the
the visitors,
visitors, is
is important
important to
to the community and
the community the museum
and the museum itself.
itself. “The
“The museum
museum
starts to impress the visitors in order to make them happy from their first step into the community”
starts to impress the visitors in order to make them happy from their first step into the community” [26].
[26].
To start the welcoming process, the indigenous curator prepares a bunch of flowers made of
Pandan leaves to be a welcome gift for visitors. The Pandan flower is also one of the interpretations
from the museum because this is a local plant. After visitors have received the flowers, they are led
to another welcoming amenity, which is local herbal drink (for example, Pandan juice and Roselle
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 22 of 33

To start the welcoming process, the indigenous curator prepares a bunch of flowers made of
Pandan leaves to be a welcome gift for visitors. The Pandan flower is also one of the interpretations
from the museum because this is a local plant. After visitors have received the flowers, they are led to
another welcoming amenity, which is local herbal drink (for example, Pandan juice and Roselle juice).
According to Prateep Onsalung, the welcoming process is conducted “in order to make the visitors
acknowledge
Sustainability 2018,
Sustainability
the
10,friendliness
2018, x10,
FOR PEER
x FOR
that
REVIEW
PEER
all the people in the community offer” [27] (see Figure 20).
REVIEW 22 of 32
22 of 32

(a) (b) (c)


(a) (b) (c)
Figure 20. The welcoming process of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung: (a) the local
Figure 20. The welcoming process of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung: (a) the local
Figure 20. The
people welcoming
giving process
Pandan flowers of the
to the local (b)
visitors; museum
Pandanofflowers;
Thai Bueng
and (c)Khok Salung:
the local herbal(a)drinks
the local
people giving Pandan flowers to the visitors; (b) Pandan flowers; and (c) the local herbal drinks station
people giving
station Pandan
(Source: flowers
Jirawan to the visitors; (b) Pandan flowers; and (c) the local herbal drinks
Sirivanichkul).
(Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
station (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
In cases where visitors stay overnight, there is another welcoming gift at the homestay, which is
aIngarland
In cases that each
where
cases where homestay
visitors
visitors stay threads in there
stayovernight,
overnight, different ways.
thereisisanother
another The local flowers
welcoming
welcoming (for
giftat
gift at
theexample,
the homestay,
homestay, red which
and
which is
is yellow
a garland
a garland Ixoras,
thateach
that Marigolds,
eachhomestay Bougavilles,
homestaythreads Ervatamias,
threadsinindifferent and
differentways. Crown
ways.The Thelocalflowers)
local flowers are
flowers (for used to make
(for example,
example, red the and
welcome garland
yellow because they are easy to find and andshow the flowers)
identity ofarethe community. There is
yellow Ixoras,
Ixoras,Marigolds,
Marigolds, Bougavilles,
Bougavilles, Ervatamias,
Ervatamias, Crown
and Crown flowers) used aretoused
maketo the welcome
make the
another
garland form of interpretation involved in the case of the homestay, which is the calling of the name
welcomebecause
garlandthey are easy
because theytoare
findeasy
and to
showfindthe
andidentity
show of thethe community.
identity of the There is another
community. There formis
of the owners of the homestay. If the owner is a female, the visitors are encouraged to call her “Mae”
of interpretation
another involved
forminofEnglish) in
interpretation the case of the homestay, which is the calling of the name of the owners
(mother followedinvolved in the
by her name; forcase of theMae
example, homestay,
Bumlungwhichor MaeisTiew.the calling of the isname
If the owner
of the owners
homestay. If the owner is athe
female, the visitors are encouraged to call her “Mae” (mother in
a male, the visitors call him “Pho” (father in English) followed by his name; for example, Phoher
of the homestay. If owner is a female, the visitors are encouraged to call Aon.“Mae”
English)
(mother followed
in English) by her name;
followed by for
her example,
name; forMae Bumlung
example, Mae or Mae
Bumlung Tiew.or If
Maethe
This name calling could be interpreted as the feeling of staying at home for visitors (see Figure 21). owner
Tiew. Ifis a
the male,
owner the
is
visitors call visitors
a male, the him “Pho”call (father in English)
him “Pho” (father followed byfollowed
in English) his name;
byforhisexample,
name; forPho Aon. This
example, Phoname
Aon.
calling could
This name be interpreted
calling as the feeling
could be interpreted as of
thestaying
feelingatofhome foratvisitors
staying (seevisitors
home for Figure (see
21). Figure 21).

(a) (b)
Figure 21. The welcoming process at homestay: (a) the visitors receiving the local flower garlands;
and (b) the local flower garlands (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
(a) (b)
2.
FigureDialogue
Figure 21. Thefor
21. The expectations
welcoming
welcoming interviews
process
process at homestay:
at homestay: (a) (a) the
the visitors
visitors receiving
receiving thethe local
local flower
flower garlands;
garlands;
and (b)
and (b) the
Thethe local flower garlands
local flowercurator
indigenous garlands (Source: Jirawan
(Source: expectations
conducts Sirivanichkul).
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
interviews by using the aesthetic dialogue
procedure, which is a method that allows only one person to talk at a time, before the visitors attend
2. any
2. Dialogue
learning
Dialogue foractivity
for expectations interviews
of the interviews
expectations museum. The results of the interview reveal the expectations of the
visitors towards the museum.
The indigenous curator conducts An example of this procedure
expectations interviewsis the
by three-step
using theprocedure
aestheticofdialogue
the
The indigenous
expectations curator
interview. conducts
The first expectations
step is the formation of interviews
groups of twoby using
people the about
to talk aesthetic dialogue
each one’s
procedure, which is a method that allows only one person to talk at a time, before the visitors attend
procedure, whichabout
expectations is a method
the museum thatfor
allows
5 min.only
The one person
second tothe
step is talkformation
at a time,ofbefore
groupsthe visitors
of five attend
people.
any learning activity of the museum. The results of the interview reveal the expectations of the
This step takes about 5 min. The last step is the presentation of each group. While
any learning activity of the museum. The results of the interview reveal the expectations of the visitors each group is
visitors towards
presenting theideas,
their museum.
the An example
curators note down of the
thismain
procedure
ideas on isa the
mindthree-step
map. The procedure
results of of the
the
towards the museum. An example of this procedure is the three-step procedure of the expectations
expectations
interview interview.
lead The first step is the formation of groups of two22).people to talk about each one’s
interview. Thecould
first step to the
is the adjustment
formation of of groups
some activities
of two (see Figure
people to talk about each one’s expectations
expectations about the museum for 5 min. The second step is the formation of groups of five people.
about the museum for 5 min. The second step is the formation of groups of five people. This step takes
This step takes about 5 min. The last step is the presentation of each group. While each group is
about 5 min. The last step is the presentation of each group. While each group is presenting their ideas,
presenting their ideas, the curators note down the main ideas on a mind map. The results of the
the curators note down the main ideas on a mind map. The results of the interview could lead to the
interview could lead to the adjustment of some activities (see Figure 22).
adjustment of some activities (see Figure 22).

(a) (b) (c)


visitors towards the museum. An example of this procedure is the three-step procedure of the
expectations interview. The first step is the formation of groups of two people to talk about each one’s
expectations about the museum for 5 min. The second step is the formation of groups of five people.
This step takes about 5 min. The last step is the presentation of each group. While each group is
presenting2018,
Sustainability their
10,ideas,
2563 the curators note down the main ideas on a mind map. The results 23 ofofthe
33
interview could lead to the adjustment of some activities (see Figure 22).

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 22. The dialogue process for expectations interviews: (a) the visitors present their expectations;
(b) the representative of the curatorial group creates a mind map; and (c) a mind map of visitors’
expectations (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).

3. Messages

There are two messages in this interpretation system. The first message is the Thai Bueng Khok
Salung’s identity; for example, the history of the community, the local ways of life, local costumes, local
wisdom, local foods, local traditions and beliefs, local entertainment, and local handicrafts. The second
message is the working procedure of the museum that encourages learning about community development.

4. Channels

The museum interprets the focus messages through three channels: places, persons, and methods.
The visitors acknowledge the messages via places, including the museum center and the various
learning bases within the community (for example, the houses of local intellectuals, Khok Samran
temple, Khok Salung train station, Pa Sak Jolasid dam, the community market, and local homestays).
The messages are also represented through the local people, such as local guides and local intellectuals.
Moreover, various methods presented at the museum (for example, the arrangement of exhibitions and
learning bases, learning by doing, and the way of presenting any information) could be also treated as
a channel to interpret the focus messages.

5. Receiver responses

The museum receives the receiver responses by questioning or interviewing the visitors about
their knowledge and feelings using the aesthetic dialogue procedure. Moreover, the responses are
identified by observations.
It should be noted that the above interpretation procedure for general visitors is a complete
procedure that could be altered according to the planning of the museum and different focus groups.
All of the details of each activity (for example, the presentation method and time duration) are
considered differently in each focus group. For example, if the visitors are children, the learning
activities would focus only on basic or easy procedures; that is, the indigenous curators could minimize
the ingredient mixing step in the Kanom Bueng (a kind of Thai dessert) learning base, which is
moderately complicated, and provide readymade ingredients for the children to make Kanom Bueng.
In the interpretation system of visitors who visit to study and participate in activities about
local wisdom at both the local museum and the learning center in the community, the researcher
discovered from the observations of this group’s dialogue procedures that most of the visitors felt like
they were back at home. It is because the people in the community took care of them as though they
were at home. It is also because the way of life in this community and the local culture was similar
to their own. Furthermore, most of the visitors were impressed by the “people” in the community,
whether it was the way they welcomed the visitors, their friendly personality, their way of life, or the
conversations with them; the “places” in the community, such as the dam, the train station, the natural
surroundings, and the guest houses; and “Things” in the community. Both happiness and enjoyment
were expressed by the visitors when they talked about their participation in activities or their time
spent in the community.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 24 of 33

Moreover, the visitors were also able to adapt the knowledge gained from the museum, whether
about the museum’s working procedure or the sense of unity and belonging, to use in their own
community or workplace. A visitor stated, “In this place, everyone is an owner. No one is a boss.
This method could be applied to use when working as a group. It is good that we promote equivalent
rights when we are working together”. (Dialogue procedure observation, 1 June 2017).

Recommendations
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 24 of 32
A visitor suggested the activity bases at Khok Samran temple should be adjusted: the allocation
Recommendations
of exhibition areas should be more appropriate and more systematic. He stated, “This place has
various cultures
A visitorand a longthe
suggested history.
activity Ibases
learned a lot
at Khok abouttemple
Samran ancient culture
should and historical
be adjusted: sites and
the allocation
artifacts from thisareas
of exhibition temple. Now,
should if we appropriate
be more are able to andhighlight these key features,
more systematic. He stated,culture and history,
“This place has
various cultures and a long history. I learned a lot about ancient culture and historical
and make them accessible for people to explore, this temple can be one of the tourist attractions in sites and
artifacts from
the community. It this
can temple.
even beNow, if we areofable
a landmark theto highlight these
community whichkeycould
features, culture
attract and history,
tourists to visit the
place.and make themwe
Afterwards, accessible for people
can include social to explore,
media this temple
to promote thecan be one
place. Forof the tourist
example, weattractions
can createina fan
page the community. It can even be a landmark of the community which could attract tourists to visit the
or website. It is also a good advertising when the visitors check in the place in any social media”
place. Afterwards, we can include social media to promote the place. For example, we can create a
(dialogue procedure observation, 8 October 2017).
fan page or website. It is also a good advertising when the visitors check in the place in any social
• media” (dialogue
Interpretation procedure
loop observation, 8visitors
of Specific-purpose October 2017).
 Interpretation loop of Specific-purpose visitors
Specific-purpose visitors are different from general visitors as the objective in visiting the museum
is not onlySpecific-purpose visitors
to learn about Thai are different
Bueng from culture,
Khok Salung general but
visitors
also as the objective
to study in visiting
the museum the the
and use
museum is not only to learn about Thai Bueng Khok Salung culture, but also to study the museum
acquired information for their research, report, thesis, or project. This group of people usually learns
and use the acquired information for their research, report, thesis, or project. This group of people
about specific topics that the museum provides (see Figure 23).
usually learns about specific topics that the museum provides (see Figure 23).

Figure 23. The interpretation loop of specific-purpose visitors (Source: Adapted from Dean, D., &
Figure 23. The interpretation loop of specific-purpose visitors (Source: Adapted from Dean, D., & Edson, G., 1994).
Edson, G., 1994).

The interpretation
The interpretation process
process of of thisgroup
this groupstarts
starts with
with students,
students, scholars,
scholars, researchers,
researchers,andand
people
people
from mass communication businesses who are interested in specific information
from mass communication businesses who are interested in specific information that the museum that the museum
provides,
provides, for example,
for example, a group
a group of of studentsvisiting
students visitingthe
the museum
museum to tostudy
studythethehistory of the
history Thai
of the Bueng
Thai Bueng
Khok Salung community for their school project.
Khok Salung community for their school project.
There are also university students who visit the museum for their research, thesis, or
There are also university students who visit the museum for their research, thesis, or independent
independent study. The students are from various majors (for example, sociology, pedagogy,
study. The students are from various majors (for example, sociology, pedagogy, medicine, history,
medicine, history, architecture, mass communication, accountancy, and social psychology) at various
architecture, mass They
universities. communication,
study variousaccountancy, and social psychology)
kinds of knowledge; for example, at various
the historyuniversities.
of the Thai They study
Bueng
various kindsthe
people, ofdevelopment
knowledge; for example,
of the community,the history of the Thai
local medicine, Bueng
local textilepeople, the development
manufacturing of the
procedures,
local entertainments, local culture and traditions, the local language, and the working procedures of
the museum and community.
Moreover, there are groups of scholars and researchers who visit the museum to study specific
knowledge. Nowadays, there are many projects about the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community that
have been conducted by these groups of people. Examples of those projects are the human
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 25 of 33

community, local medicine, local textile manufacturing procedures, local entertainments, local culture and
traditions, the local language, and the working procedures of the museum and community.
Moreover, there are groups of scholars and researchers who visit the museum to study specific
knowledge. Nowadays, there are many projects about the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 25 of 32
that have been conducted by these groups of people. Examples of those projects are the human
developmental research called the future leader project and the developmental project for local textile
developmental research called the future leader project and the developmental project for local textile
production. The latter project developed a local textile called E-Heew, which is used mostly by elders
production. The latter project developed a local textile called E-Heew, which is used mostly by elders
although people of every age are able wear it. The developmental products are called the “E-HEEW
although people of every age are able wear it. The developmental products are called the “E-HEEW
Collection”. This collection was presented at the annual fair of the local museum of Thai Bueng
Collection”. This collection was presented at the annual fair of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok
Khok Salung in 2017. The project is a co-operation between the museum and a researcher called Mr.
Salung in 2017. The project is a co-operation between the museum and a researcher called Mr. Niwet
Niwet Phuanthim (see Figure 24).
Phuanthim (see Figure 24).

(a) (b)
Figure
Figure 24.
24. The
The “E-HEEW
“E-HEEW Collection”
Collection” fashion
fashion show:
show: (a)
(a) the
the original
original style
style of
of the
the E-Heew
E-Heew Clothes;
Clothes; and
and
(b)
(b) the
the Developmental
Developmental Products
Products from
from E-Heew
E-Heew Textiles in the
Textiles in the 2017
2017 annual
annual fair
fair of
of the
the local
local museum
museum ofof
Thai
Thai Bueng
Bueng Khok
Khok Salung (Source: Jirawan
Salung (Source: Sirivanichkul).
Jirawan Sirivanichkul).

The last specific group of visitors is people from mass communication business. The objective of
The last specific group of visitors is people from mass communication business. The objective of
visiting the museum for this group is to make television or online programs about Thai Bueng Khok
visiting the museum for this group is to make television or online programs about Thai Bueng Khok
Salung culture and traditions. An example of these programs is an episode of a television program
Salung culture and traditions. An example of these programs is an episode of a television program
called Kon Thai Huajai Mai To on Thai television Channel 5, which presented the local traditions and
called Kon Thai Huajai Mai To on Thai television Channel 5, which presented the local traditions
culture of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community on 14 September 2017. Another example is a
and culture of the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community on 14 September 2017. Another example is a
Japanese travel documentary for the NHK channel that filmed the local wisdom of the Thai Bueng
Japanese travel documentary for the NHK channel that filmed the local wisdom of the Thai Bueng
Khok Salung community (that is, local textiles and Kanom Bueng) on 22 January 2018.
Khok Salung community (that is, local textiles and Kanom Bueng) on 22 January 2018.
To conduct any study or film any program, the focus group must contact the museum center
To conduct any study or film any program, the focus group must contact the museum center first.
first. The indigenous curators of the museum are responsible for coordinating between the focus
The indigenous curators of the museum are responsible for coordinating between the focus group and
group and the community, providing information, and facilitating the focus group to obtain what
the community, providing information, and facilitating the focus group to obtain what they are looking
they are looking for. The time duration of any work depends on the focus group. The channels for
for. The time duration of any work depends on the focus group. The channels for this interpretation
this interpretation are documents in the museum, advice and responses from the curators,
are documents in the museum, advice and responses from the curators, explanations of information or
explanations of information or activities, various demonstrations, actual local entertainments, and
activities, various demonstrations, actual local entertainments, and actual places in the community.
actual places in the community.
After the people from the focus group have received the required information from the museum,
After the people from the focus group have received the required information from the museum,
they produce their work. The work of the focus group is usually presented in the form of paper
they produce their work. The work of the focus group is usually presented in the form of paper
documents, online databases, and television programs in which the focus group usually sends a copy
documents, online databases, and television programs in which the focus group usually sends a copy
of the work back to the museum to be presented to other people afterwards.
of the work back to the museum to be presented to other people afterwards.
4. Discussion
4. Discussion
The present study investigated the interpretation of a local museum in Thailand using the local
The present study investigated the interpretation of a local museum in Thailand using the local
museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung as the case study. The study investigated two target groups for the
museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung as the case study. The study investigated two target groups for
interpretation of the museum: the local people and people outside the community. Furthermore, the
the interpretation of the museum: the local people and people outside the community. Furthermore,
study examined the interpretation management, messages, and learning activities of the museum.
the study examined the interpretation management, messages, and learning activities of the museum.
There are two major issues that are discussed as follows.
There are two major issues that are discussed as follows.

4.1. The Local Museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung According to the Traditional Definition of Local
Museum and the Prioritizing of Interpretation for People in the Community
The museum prioritizes the interpretation of “person”. This means that the indigenous curator
of the museum is a local person who works co-operatively to develop individuals in the community
continually as well as the working capacity of the museum and the community itself. This
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 26 of 33

4.1. The Local Museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung According to the Traditional Definition of Local Museum
and the Prioritizing of Interpretation for People in the Community
The museum prioritizes the interpretation of “person”. This means that the indigenous
curator of the museum is a local person who works co-operatively to develop individuals in the
community continually as well as the working capacity of the museum and the community itself.
This developmental work is consistent with the definitions of the local museum as specified by
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 26 of 32
the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City (as cited in Tojarat Phongsari [12]), Panita
Sarawasi [13],
Sarawasi [13], Srisak
Srisak Wanlipodom
Wanlipodom [14], [14], Liu
Liu and
and Lee
Lee [15],
[15], and
and Sutter
Sutter et al. [16].
et al. [16]. The
The groups
groups organized
organized
by the indigenous curators of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung
by the indigenous curators of the local museum of Thai Bueng Khok Salung can be divided into can be divided into three
three
age groups: children and youths, adults, and elders. The group of children and
age groups: children and youths, adults, and elders. The group of children and youths is responsible youths is responsible
for learning
for learning new newknowledge
knowledgethat is going
that is goingto be
to useful in developing
be useful their own
in developing theircommunity.
own community.The people
The
in this group are expected to be successors who carry on the work of
people in this group are expected to be successors who carry on the work of the museum. The the museum. The group
group of
adults is responsible for strategic planning and teaching the children and youths
of adults is responsible for strategic planning and teaching the children and youths about the work about the work of the
museum.
of the museum.Last, the
Last,group of elders
the group is responsible
of elders for teaching
is responsible the next
for teaching thegeneration to be aware
next generation of the
to be aware
identity of the community. This group of indigenous curators also helps with various
of the identity of the community. This group of indigenous curators also helps with various activities activities of the
museum
of the museumas localasintellectuals (see Figure
local intellectuals 25). 25).
(see Figure

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 25. The
Figure 25. Theindigenous
indigenous curators
curators of local
of the the local
museummuseum
of Thaiof ThaiKhok
Bueng Bueng Khok(a)Salung:
Salung: (a) the
the indigenous
indigenous
curatorial group of children and youths; (b) the indigenous curatorial group of adults; and adults;
curatorial group of children and youths; (b) the indigenous curatorial group of (c) the
and (c) the indigenous curatorial group of elders (Source: Jirawan
indigenous curatorial group of elders (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul). Sirivanichkul).

The museum also prioritizes the interpretation of “place”. This means that the indigenous
The museum also prioritizes the interpretation of “place”. This means that the indigenous
curators not only highlight the interpretation of messages via exhibitions at the museum center, but
curators not only highlight the interpretation of messages via exhibitions at the museum center, but
also appreciate all the learning places in the community (for example, the houses of local intellectuals
also appreciate all the learning places in the community (for example, the houses of local intellectuals
and other important places) as interpretation channels. This notion of bearing all the places in the
and other important places) as interpretation channels. This notion of bearing all the places in the
community as parts of the local museum is consistent with the definition of a local museum of Riviere
community as parts of the local museum is consistent with the definition of a local museum of Riviere
(as cited in Davis [17]), Tojarat Phongsari [12], and Ratchadaporn Ketanon Neawheangtham [9].
(as cited in Davis [17]), Tojarat Phongsari [12], and Ratchadaporn Ketanon Neawheangtham [9].
Moreover, the museum also prioritizes the interpretation of “Things”. The indigenous curators
Moreover, the museum also prioritizes the interpretation of “Things”. The indigenous curators
consider artifacts in the community as not only ordinary objects, but as media for presenting the
consider artifacts in the community as not only ordinary objects, but as media for presenting the
community’s identity. The artifacts, including cultural heritage, traditions, local wisdom, local ways
community’s identity. The artifacts, including cultural heritage, traditions, local wisdom, local ways of
of life, natural resources, geophysics, and vernacular architecture, could promote the collective
life, natural resources, geophysics, and vernacular architecture, could promote the collective memories
memories of people. According to Davis (1999) [30], the indigenous curator of a local museum ought
of people. According to Davis (1999) [30], the indigenous curator of a local museum ought to prioritize
to prioritize the cultural narrations of their community in the same way as additional knowledge
the cultural narrations of their community in the same way as additional knowledge from outsources
from outsources about community management which would promote the sustainable development
about community management which would promote the sustainable development of individuals
of individuals and the community management system.
and the community management system.
4.2. Interpretation for People outside the Community
4.2. Interpretation for People outside the Community
Management and strategic planning: The indigenous curators are responsible for preparing and
Management and strategic planning: The indigenous curators are responsible for preparing and
planning the museum’s interpretation system using learning activities as media to interpret
planning the museum’s interpretation system using learning activities as media to interpret particular
particular messages. The activities could be planned together with the visitors based on Thai Bueng
messages. The activities could be planned together with the visitors based on Thai Bueng Khok
Khok Salung’s culture.
Salung’s culture.
Place: There are two learning places at the museum, i.e. the museum center and the learning
center in the community. Both places present physical cultural heritage sites to the visitors.
Technique and method: The museum offers the interpretations of the traditions and culture of
the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community through cultural exhibitions and reproductions of local
architecture. There are a lot of informational posters (that is, posters that present local wisdom
descriptions, the history of local intellectuals, information on historical artifacts, and the history of
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 27 of 33

Place: There are two learning places at the museum, i.e. the museum center and the learning
center in the community. Both places present physical cultural heritage sites to the visitors.
Technique and method: The museum offers the interpretations of the traditions and culture of
the Thai Bueng Khok Salung community through cultural exhibitions and reproductions of local
architecture. There are a lot of informational posters (that is, posters that present local wisdom
descriptions, the history of local intellectuals, information on historical artifacts, and the history of
local temples) throughout the community. The museum, moreover, offers the visitors various academic
papers about culture, traditions, and the natural resources of the community (see Figure 26). 27 of 32
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 27 of 32

(a) (b) (c)


(a) (b) (c)
Figure
Figure 26.
26. (a)
(a)The
The information
informationposter;
poster;(b)
(b)the
themap
mapof of food
food resources
resources in
in the
the community;
community; and
and (c)
(c)
Figure 26.
brochures (a)
aboutThe
theinformation
community poster;
(Source:(b) the
Jirawan map of food
Sirivanichkul).
brochures about the community (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul). resources in the community; and (c)
brochures about the community (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Educational activities: Tour guides and local intellectuals are representatives of the museum to
Educationalactivities:
Educational activities:Tour
Tourguides
guidesand
andlocal
local intellectuals
intellectuals areare representatives
representatives of the museum
interpret particular messages to visitors. The interpretation could be in the of the
form museum
of to
lectures,
to interpret
interpret particular
particular messages
messages to to visitors.
visitors. TheThe interpretation
interpretation could
could bebeinin the
the form
form of
of lectures,
lectures,
explanations, demonstrations, and learning-by-doing activities (see Figure 27).
explanations, demonstrations,
explanations, demonstrations, and
and learning-by-doing
learning-by-doing activities
activities (see
(see Figure
Figure 27).
27).

(a) (b) (c)


(a) (b) (c)
Figure 27. The educational activities: (a) the local dessert cooking activity; (b) the local toy lesson by
Figure
local 27. The educational
intellectuals; activities:
and (c) the boon Ta(a) theRitual
Krai local dessert cooking activity; (b) theSirivanichkul).
local toy lesson by
Figure 27. The educational activities: (a) the locallearning base (Source:
dessert cooking Jirawan
activity; (b) the local toy lesson by
local intellectuals; and (c) the boon Ta Krai Ritual learning base (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
local intellectuals; and (c) the boon Ta Krai Ritual learning base (Source: Jirawan Sirivanichkul).
Reflection of visitors: There are two kinds of reflection for visitors that the museum conducts,
Reflection ofand
i.e. pre-reflection visitors: There are two
post-reflection. kinds of reflection
Pre-reflection is the methodfor visitors that the museum
of interviewing conducts,
visitors about their
Reflection ofand
i.e. pre-reflection visitors: There are Pre-reflection
two kinds of reflection for visitors that the visitors
museum conducts,
expectations about thepost-reflection.
museum. After receiving theisresponses, the method theofindigenous
interviewing curators makeabout their
a mind
i.e. pre-reflection
expectations about and
the post-reflection.
museum. AfterPre-reflection
receiving the is the method
responses, the of interviewing
indigenous visitors
curators about
make a their
mind
map and use it in planning meetings. After the learning process has been completed, post-reflection
expectations
map use about the museum. AfterAfter
receiving the responses, the
hasindigenous curators make a mind
of theand it in
visitors’ planning
knowledge meetings.
and emotion isthe learning
conducted. process
Both kinds been completed,
of reflection usepost-reflection
the dialogue
map and use
of the visitors’ it in planning
knowledge meetings. After the learning process has been completed,
and emotion is conducted. Both kinds of reflection use the dialogue post-reflection of
procedure to obtain visitor responses.
the visitors’
procedure knowledge
to obtain and
visitor emotion
responses. is conducted. Both kinds of reflection use the dialogue procedure
The above notions of the interpretation for people outside the community are consistent with
to obtain visitornotions
The [22]
above responses.of the
Tilden’s explanations of interpretation for people
educational activities andoutside
the use theofcommunity are consistent
direct experience. They with
also
The [22]
above notions of the interpretation for people outside theofcommunity are consistent with
correspond with the five notions of interpretation, presentation, interpretive infrastructure, also
Tilden’s explanations of educational activities and the use direct experience. They site
Tilden’s [22]with
correspond explanations of educational activities and the use ofinterpretive
direct experience. They also
interpretation, andthethefive notions
cultural of interpretation,
heritage of Silberman [8]. presentation, infrastructure, site
correspond with
interpretation, andthethe five notions
cultural of interpretation,
heritage of Silberman [8]. presentation, interpretive infrastructure, site
interpretation,
5. Conclusions and the cultural heritage of Silberman [8].
5. Conclusions
5.1. Interpretation Management and Planning of the Local Museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung
5.1. Interpretation Management and Planning of the Local Museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung
To establish and understand the true meaning of museum, initially, indigenous curators as a
group Toofestablish
people who anddedicate
understand the true
themselves tomeaning
preserving of and
museum,
protectinginitially,
their indigenous
communities curators as a
must equip
group of people
themselves withwho dedicatecreativity,
knowledge, themselvesand to preserving
devotion. “The and protecting
meaning of their communities
museum must equip
can be interpreted
themselves
in many ways withbut knowledge, creativity,
for me museum and devotion.
represents people“The whomeaning
are living of together
museum harmoniously
can be interpreted
and
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 28 of 33

5. Conclusions

5.1. Interpretation Management and Planning of the Local Museum at Thai Bueng Khok Salung
To establish and understand the true meaning of museum, initially, indigenous curators as a
group of people who dedicate themselves to preserving and protecting their communities must equip
themselves with knowledge, creativity, and devotion. “The meaning of museum can be interpreted
in many ways but for me museum represents people who are living together harmoniously and
peacefully together and what we are doing and having happiness together right now, to us this is the
meaning of life” said Prateep Onsalung. [27] From his words, “Happiness” might sound simple but,
in reality, the very creation of Thai Bueng Khok Salung museum has become something exceptional
through the influence of the word, “happiness”. People in the community helped to establish the
museum by writing a strategic plan, reinforcing the plan, helping each other out, collaborating with
outsiders and devoting themselves to the prosperity of their museum and community.
The purpose of organizing activities in the local museum was to help communicate the true meaning
of the museum creatively, knowledgeably, and thoughtfully to create love and dedication to their own
community. “Today, it has become widely accepted in development circles that, in order for development
efforts to be sustainable in the long run, they must take local people’s values, traditions, knowledge,
and resources into account” [31] (Kreps, C., 2008). Additionally, it could also be assumed that museum
management should be conducted by its own people to survive. Without the locals’ awareness of their
own culture and traditions, the true sense of museum will seemingly deteriorate and finally diminish
for good.

5.1.1. Planning on Creating New Museum Indigenous Curators


To make the local museum thrive continuously, indigenous curators and community development
should be considered. Knowledge received from training such as ideas processed from actual fieldwork
should be passed on to local (or potential) indigenous curators. The more the locals appreciate these
ideas, the more locals will collaborate with the museum, which could eventually raise awareness about
preserving and protecting their community. It could be concluded that the process would start with
the leaders and spread to the people in the community.
The traditional Thai Bueng Khok Salung museum is one of the best examples of how a community
is protected by its own people; however, a few problems are still evident. People and community
development, the improvement of knowledge and ideas, and raising awareness need a lot of time and
patience to achieve. Furthermore, the small number of local participants could also be considered as one of
the main problems.
To solve the problem, local museum representatives have visited the community, provided
necessary knowledge to the locals and built cooperation between the museum and the community.
As Payom Onsalung mentioned:
“Planning for creating local participation could be done by bringing cultural tools and applying
them to the community. What we are going to do is a lot of people from other places already knew
about Thai Bueng, but the people in the community themselves still don’t feel a sense of belonging and
therefore, we will be trying to use traditional intellect as a way to provoke the interest of locals who
are currently residing in the community. This method I think somebody called the “Palormmueng”
theory, or “Muenglormpa, something like that. We would try to introduce jobs to them by spotting
the target areas, but not in a scattered way. We will try to bind our relationships with the locals and
make one of them a leader so it would be easier for us to initiate ourselves with other locals in the
area. In the case of Uncle Song, we told him that we will be going into the community and hoping to
talk to them about how we could improve the community. This was started by bringing in portable
theatres, then teaching them how to make “Kanom Bueng” Thai traditional dessert, and how to create
the puag-ma-hode clothing pattern. I asked Uncle Song to find me 5 to 6 local participants and it was
just to try to create a hype for the locals” [26].
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 29 of 33

Currently, the museum is planning and trying to execute the plan in the very near future by
asking village leaders or elders who are well-respected in the community to help in bringing in locals
to learn. The museum believes this would really attract the locals to participate in activities.

Problems in Creating a Sense of Belonging for the New Generation


Related to the problem, even though the museum has been attempting to provide knowledge for
children and young adults in the community, it takes a long time for the museum to increase the sense
of belonging for these youngsters towards the community. This is because the teenagers who have
already been trained by the museum need to go to schools or work in places far from the community.
The museum hopes to bring them back to help improve their homes and community, but, when that
time comes, they will choose what they really want to do.
“We hope to bring our children back . . . but if we expect them to be back, it seems like we are too
selfish. We really want them to learn what we are trying to teach them. We hope the experience will
root deep in their identities and make them a better person. As you can see from Non and Jane, Jane
is a teacher teaching at Kao Kwang school nearby. She has her own life objectives. She just wanted
to come back and help her family. She didn’t come back here to help the community but she did her
best to teach her students. For Non, all of the experience he has got right now is all because of this
community. He always says that. He has set his goal that in about 5 years, he will become a vice school
director and he will move back here to Khok Salung Wittaya school. We always believe whether our
children came back here or not, we have implanted those goodness in them which will eventually
flourish somewhere; it could be here in Khok Salung or somewhere else and that could help our society
in one way or another” (Payom Onsalung) [26].

5.1.2. Planning an Interpretation System


• Design and collaborative learning between the local museum and activity participants

It is evident in many local museums that, to encourage visitors to visit the place, making scheduled
appointments and arranging group meetings between visitors and museum caretakers must be
prioritized to determine who will be participating and their objectives and reasons in order to offer
appropriate learning opportunities. Furthermore, the museum also has sufficient staff who can arrange
the place for convenience purposes. As mentioned in the book of Falk and Dierking, a successful
museum must be able to recognize who their audiences are and what background knowledge they
have to understand and realize what should be focused on to help the audience achieve what they
want from the museum. [32] (see Falk, J. & L. Dierking 2000)

• Interpretation process

1. Content
The content of locals could be categorized into eight types: (1) local community history; (2) their
ways of life; (3) jobs and careers; (4) local food; (5) working tools; (6) beliefs; (7) traditional music,
plays, and crafts; and (8) geography and knowledge on local community and museum development.

Database System of the Local Museum, Problems on Community Knowledge Database


It could be assumed that most data are stored in the form of documentation but not as a digital
database. From observations, digital data for the locals and visitors is inadequate and there is a lack of
systematic planning on data storage. The curators have been trying to collect information from the
community and turn it into digital data but much time is required. However, the indigenous curators
of the museum have been trying to create a systematic plan for collecting data by cooperating with the
National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC).
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 30 of 33

2. Channel
Direct experience based learning is how learners learn from real people and real fieldwork
experience through interactions between learners and their interlocutors including observation,
demonstration, and practice.

• Exhibition Organization

Even though there are many existing theories and principles in organizing museum exhibitions,
local curators were not aware of this existing knowledge. The Thai Bueng museum curators prefer to
design and organize their museum by representing how houses and community were designed and
built back in the past using their memories. They attempted to recall what materials had been used
and what types of architecture had been used for designing and, therefore, the exhibition arranged by
the locals seems simple yet very accommodating to their needs.

• Factors That Affect the Museum’s Exhibition for Indigenous Curators

Problems in understanding how to organize museum exhibitions and to preserve antiques.


To take care of the museum, the indigenous curators should have suitable knowledge on the museum’s
display items and possess enough knowledge to realize the importance of museum arrangement.
3. Targeted learning group
1. Indigenous Curator group (people living inside the community)
This group of people acquired their actual experience from learning at the museum and time is the
key factor that helps create experience. Through the repetition of learning and experience, knowledge
has accumulated until it becomes wisdom for the curators.
2. Museum activity participants (people living inside the community and people living outside
the community)
These groups of people participated in activities for different purposes: Group 1, acquisition of
general knowledge; Group 2, acquisition of specific knowledge; and Group 3, providing knowledge to
the museum.
Group 1 includes groups that intend to acquire specific knowledge at the museum. This targeted
group takes quite a lot of time to learn and has its own specific purpose. They are able to learn on
their own without any assistance such as those who want to learn about traditional woven garments,
beliefs, and knowledge on traditional wisdom, which corresponds to Falk, J. & L. Dierking who said
“Free-choice learning tends to be nonlinear, is personally motivated, and involves considerable choice
on the part of the learner as to what to learn, as well as where and when to participate in learning” [32].
Group 2 learns at the museum for only a couple of days and their objectives are to learn about the
culture and the museum’s working process to help them understand and implement such knowledge
in their own organization. These people are usually representatives from universities and schools
including teachers, students, and trainees who want to learn more about the local community. It could
be assumed that these people learn interactively, progressively, and independently. This particular
group must follow the instructions of the leader of their groups about what the curators have already
arranged for them and it is quite hard for them to learn something new. It could be concluded that, for
this group to learn something from the museum, they must follow what “the people” want them to do;
“the place” and “the area they cannot choose”; and eventually “funds” from their organization could
also be one of the key factors.
Group 3 includes people who come to pass on their knowledge to the museum. This might result
from research they have conducted on the museum and when the research is published, they attempt
to use the knowledge to help the museum, such as by producing modern woven products that would
help create product value.
Sustainability 2018, 10, 2563 31 of 33

Group 4, distant observers, do not participate in any activities created by the museum but rather
observe from a distance through televised or social media, but this group may eventually collaborate
with the museum in the future.
4. Evaluation of target audience awareness
The evaluation of working progress in the local museum is started by gatherings between the
leaders of each community. They would sum up what activities they had been working on and what
had already been done through a process of dialogue. This process will help each community leader
to convey the knowledge they have acquired outside to the people in the community. This type of
evaluation is a reinforcement intended to help in the exchange of ideas, by learning from each other, and
solving problems together without making each member feel neglected in the group. Other evaluation
approaches are based on numbers, making people in meeting feel stressed and making the meeting
emotionally meaningless.
The results of the study indicate an appropriate and effective interpretation system for the specific
community context which encourages people—both locals and foreigners—to be aware of the value
of the community. Consequently, as a result of their awareness, people would increasingly cherish
their community and work in collaboration with other people for the sustainable development of
the community.

• Recommendations

1. Further study is suggested to investigate the interpretation systems in various cultures to compare
the strengths and weaknesses of each community. Comparison would provide a larger picture of
the interpretation systems for local museums in Thailand that could develop the existing local
museums in Thailand and in other countries.
2. Further study is also suggested to investigate the data collection system at local museums,
develop a system that could prevent the loss of local cultural heritage, and develop a stronger
interpretation system.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization, J.S., K.N. and S.S.; Data curation, J.S.; Formal analysis, J.S.and K.N.;
Investigation, J.S.; Methodology, J.S., K.N., S.S., W.D and C.L.; Project administration, J.S.; Resources, J.S., K.N.,
S.S.and W.D; Supervision, J.S.and K.N.; Validation, J.S., K.N., S.S.and W.D; Visualization, J.S.; Writing – original
draft, J.S.; Writing – review & editing, J.S., K.N., S.S.,W.D.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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