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1.) Photoshop 1
assignment -
2.) Introduction to 2
3.) Infrared 3
4.) Broadcast 5
5.) Microwave 6
6.) Communications 8

By Kainaz Patel
Roll no 70
Division B
Introduction to wireless networks

In telecommunications, wireless communication is the transfer of

information without the use of wires. The distances involved may
be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or long
(thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications).
The term is often shortened to "wireless". It encompasses various
types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular
telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless
networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS
units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless
computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and
cordless telephones.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range

communications, that are impossible or impractical to
implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly
used in the telecommunications industry to refer to
telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and
receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network
terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio
frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light,
acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the
use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over
both short and long distances.
Infrared Wireless Transmission

"Transmission of data signals using infrared-light


These infrared-light waves are at a frequency too low for

human eyes to receive and interpret. Infrared ports can be
found in digital cameras, laptops, and printers as well as
wireless mouse.

Infrared technology allows computing devices to

communicate via short-range wireless signals. With
infrared, computers can transfer files and other digital data
bidirectional. The infrared transmission technology used in
computers is similar to that used in consumer product
remote control units.

• No cords
• Less cost involved

• Line-of-sight communication is required-there must be
an unobstructed view between transmitter and
• Short range of communication
Infrared communications span very short distances. Place
two infrared devices within a few feet (no more than 5
meters) of each other when networking them. Unlike
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, infrared network signals
cannot penetrate walls or other obstructions and work only
in the direct "line of sight."

Infrared technology used in local networks exists in
three different forms:

• IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates

up to 115 Kbps

• IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data

rates up to 1.15 Mbps

• IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates

up to 4 Mbps
Broadcast Radio

• Broadcast radio is a wireless transmission medium

that sends data over long distances (regions, states,
countries) at up to 2 megabits per second (AM/FM

• Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of

electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those
of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by
means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass
through the air and the vacuum of space. Information
is carried by systematically changing (modulating)
some property of the radiated waves, such as
amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When
radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the
oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the
conductor. This can be detected and transformed into
sound or other signals that carry information.

• Audio frequencies occupy the range from a few tens

of hertz to three hundred gigahertz, although
commercially important uses of radio use only a small
part of this spectrum. Other types of electromagnetic
radiation, with frequencies above the RF range, are
microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays
and gamma rays. Since the energy of an individual
photon of radio frequency is too low to remove an
electron from an atom, radio waves are classified as
non-ionizing radiation.

Microwave Radio

• Transmission of voice and data through the

atmosphere as super high-frequency radio waves
called microwaves. These frequencies are used to
transmit messages between ground-based stations
and satellite communications systems.
• Microwave transmission refers to the technology of
transmitting information by the use of the radio waves
whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in
small numbers of centimeters, by using various
electronic technologies. These are called microwaves.
This part of the radio spectrum ranges across
frequencies of roughly 1.0 gigahertz (GHz) to 30 GHz.

• In the microwave frequency band, antennas are

usually of convenient sizes and shapes, and also the
use of metal waveguides for carrying the radio power
works well. Furthermore, with the use of the modern
solid-state electronics and traveling wave tube
technologies that have been developed since the
early 1960s, the electronics used by microwave radio
transmission have been readily used by expert
electronics engineers.
• Microwave radio transmission is commonly used by
communication systems on the surface of the Earth, in
satellite communications, and in deep space radio
communications. Other parts of the microwave radio
band are used for radars, radio navigation systems,
sensor systems, and radio astronomy

Communications Satellites
• Communications Satellites are microwave relay
stations in orbit around the earth.

• A communications satellite (sometimes

abbreviated to COMSAT) is an artificial satellite
stationed in space for the purpose of
telecommunications. Modern communications
satellites use a variety of orbits including
geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other
elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar)
Earth orbits.

• For fixed (point-to-point) services,

communications satellites provide a microwave
radio relay technology complementary to that of
submarine communication cables. They are
also used for mobile applications such as
communications to ships, vehicles, planes and
hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio
broadcasting, for which application of other
technologies, such as cable, is impractical or


The first and historically most important

application for communication satellites was in
intercontinental long distance telephony. The fixed
Public Switched Telephone Network relays
telephone calls from land line telephones to an
earth station, where they are then transmitted to a
geostationary satellite. The downlink follows an
analogous path. Improvements in submarine
communications cables, through the use of fiber-
optics, caused some decline in the use of
satellites for fixed telephony in the late 20th
century, but they still serve remote islands such as
Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Diego Garcia,
and Easter Island, where no submarine cables are
in service. There are also regions of some
continents and countries where landline
telecommunications are rare to nonexistent.

Satellite television

Television became the main market, its demand

for simultaneous delivery of relatively few signals
of large bandwidth to many receivers being a
more precise match for the capabilities of
geosynchronous comsats. Two satellite types are
used for North American television and radio:
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), and Fixed
Service Satellite (FSS).