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Apollo [ AND S YIOPSIS Program-

i

TECHNOLOGY

OF Summary

THE

FOE

APOLLO

CSCL

Report

LUNAR

22A

G3/12

M7S-21314

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Program - i TECHNOLOGY OF Summary THE FOE APOLLO CSCL Report LUNAR 22A G3/12 M7S-21314 Unclas
JSC-09423 APOUO PluxRAM SUMMARY BEPORT NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER

JSC-09423

APOUO PluxRAM SUMMARY BEPORT

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER HOUSTON, TEXAS

April 1975

The Earth above the lunar horizon, photographed during the Apolio 8 mission with a 70-rnm electric camera equipped with a medium telephoto (250-mm) lens.

I

iii

\

a

This report

FOREWORD

is intended

to summarize the major

activities of Apollo and to provide sources of ref-

erence for those who desire to pursue any portion to a greater depth. Personal recbgnition is not given in any case except for the crewmen who were assigned to the missions. Indeed, any step beyond this would literally lead to the naming of thousands of men and women who made significant contributions, and, un- avoidably, the omission of the names of many others who played an equally significant part; however, all of these people must undoubtedly have a feeling of satisfaction in having been a part of one of man's most complex and, at the same time, noble undertak-

ings.

.

.

t

 

CONTENTS

4

Sectiw

1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

FLIGHTPROCRAM

 

2.1 SATURN IAUNCH VEHICLE AND APOLLO SPACECRAn DEVELOPMENT FLIGHTS

2.1.1 Mission SA-1 .

2.1.2 Mission SA-2 .

2.1.3 Mission SA-3 .

2.1.4 Mission SA-4 .

2.1.5 Mission SA-5 .

2.1.6 Mission A-101

2.1.7 Mission A-102

2.1.8 Mission A-103

2.1.9 Mission A-104

2.1.10 Hission A-105

2.2 APOLLO SPACECRAET ABORT TESTS

2.2.1 Pad Abort Test 1

!

2.2.2 Mission A401

2.2.1 Pad Abort Test 1 ! 2.2.2 Mission A401 2.2.3 Mission A-002 2.2.4 Mission A403 2.2.5

2.2.3 Mission A-002

2.2.4 Mission A403

2.2.5 Pad Abort Test 2

2.2.6 Mission A404

2.3 UNMANNED APOLLO/SATURNFLIGHTS

2.3.1 Mission AS-201

2.3.2 Mission AS-203

2.3.3 Mission AS-202

2.3.4 Apollo 4 Hission

2.3.5 Apollo 5 Mission

2.3.6 Apollo 6 Mission

2.4 MANNED APOLLO/SAW FLIGHTS

2.4.1 Apollo I Mission

2.4.2 Apollo 7 Mission

2.4.3 Apollo 8 Mission

2.4.4 Apollo 9 Mission

2.4.5 Apollo 10 Mission

2.4.6 Apollo 11Mission

2.4.7 Apollo 12 Mission

2.4.8 Apollo 13 Mission

~

~C

.

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Preceding page blank

V

Page

1-1

2-1

2-1

2-1

2-3

2-3

2-4

2-4

2-5

2-5

2-7

2-9

2-9

2-11

2-11

2-13

2-13

2-15

2-15

2-16

2-17

2-17

2-19

2-21

2-22

2-24

2-26

2-27

2-27

2-27

2-29

2-32

2-34

2-36

2-38

2-39

vi

Section

2.4.9 Apollo 14 Mission

2.4.10 Apollo 15 Mission

2.4.11 Apouo 16 Mission

2.4.12 Apollo 17 Mission

2.5 REFERENCES

3.0

SCIENCESUMMARY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 LUNAR SURFACE SCIENCE

i

.

 

3.2.1

Geology of the Apollo 11 Landing Site

3.2.2

Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

3.2.3

Geology of

the Apollo 14 Landing Site

3.2.4

Geology of

the Apollo 15 Landing Site

3.2.5

Geology of the Apollo 16 Landing Site

3.2.6

Geology of the Apollo 17 Landing Site

3.2.7

Geology and Soil Mechanics Equipment

 

3.2.7.1 Apollo lunar surface handtools

3.2.7.2 Tool carriers

3.2.7.3 Apollo lunar sample return container

I

3.2.7.4 Bags and special containers

3.2.7.5 Lunar surface sampler

3.2.7.6 Lunar roving vehicle soil sampler .

3.2.7.7 Penetrometers

3.2.7.8 Apollo lunar surface drill

 

3.2.8

Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package/ Central Station

3.2.9

Passive Seismic Experiment

3.2.10

Active Seismic Experiment

3.2.ll

Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment

-.

3.2

3.2.13 Lunar Portable Magnetometer Experiment

3.2.14 kt Flow Experiment

3.2.15 Lunar Surface Gravimeter Kxperiment

3.2.16 Traverse Gravimeter Experiment

3.2.17 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment

3.2.18 Neutron Probe Experiment

3.2.19 Laser Ranging Retroreflector

3.2.20 Charged-Particle Lunar Environment Experiment

3.2.21 Solar Wind Spectrcmrter Experimant

3.2.22 Solar Wind Composition Experiment

12 Lunar Surface Magnetometer Experiment

.-

.

-

.

.-

-.

-

Page

2-41

2-45

t-

2-48

2-51

2-54

 

L

3-1

3-1

3-1

3-4

3-a

3-11

3-15

3-19

3-23

3-26

3-26

3-29

3-29

3-29

3-33

3-33

3-33

3-33

3-36

3-41

3-44

3-45

3-65

3-46

348

3-40

a

3.50

3-50

.

3-51

3-51

6

3-52

3-53

3-54

c.

8

I

.4

Section

_

.

.

3.2.23 Suprathermal Ion Detector and Cold-Cathode Gage Experlfnent6

3.2.24 Cosmic Ray Detector Experiment

3.2.25 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites Experiment

3.2.26 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment .

3.2.27 Lunar Dust Detector

3.2.28 Surveyor 111 Analysis

3.2.29 Particle Implantation Studies

3.2.30 Long-Term Lunar Surface Exposure

3.2.31 Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph

3.3 LUNAR ORBITAL SCIENCE

3.3.1 Bistatic Radar

3.3.2 S-Band Transponder

3.3.3 Infrared Scanning Radiometer

3.3.4 Lunar Sounder

3.3.5 Particle ShadowsDoundary Layer

3.3.6 Magnetometer

3.3.7 Subsatellite Performance

3.3.7.1 Apollo 15

3.3.7.2 ApOllO 16

.

.

m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

*

. .

. .

.

.

.

3.3.8 Cosmic Ray Detector (Helmets)

3.3.9 Apollo Window Meteoroid

3.3.10 Ganuna-Ray Spectrometer

3.3.11 X-Ray Fluorescence

3.3.12 Alpha-Particle Spectrometer

3.3.13 Mass Spectrometer

3.3.14 Far-Ultraviolet Spectrometer

3.3.15 Lunar Mission Photography From the Connoand and Service bbdule

3.3.16 Lunar Wultispectral Photography

3.3.17 Candidate Exploration Sites Photography

3.3.18 Selenodetic Reference Point Update

3.3.19 Transearth Lunar Photography

3.3.20 Service Module Orbital Photographic Tasks

3.3.21 Command Nodule Orbital Science Photography

3.3.22 Visual Observations From Lunar Orbit

3.3.23 Gegenschein From Lunar Orbit

3.3.24 Ultraviolet Photography - Earth and Noon

3.3.25 Dim-Light Photography

3.3.26 Comnand Nodule Photographic Tasks

vi i

Page

3-54

3-56

3-57

3-60

3-62

3-62

3-62

3-63

3-63

3-65

3-65

3-71

3-71

3-72

3-73

3-75

3-75

3-75

3-76

3-76

3-76

3-77

3-78

3-79

3-79

3-80

3-81

3-82

3-82

3-82

3-82

3-83

3-85

3-86

3-87

3-87

3-88

3-88

viii

Section

3.4 EARTH RESOURCES PHOTOGRAPHY

3.4.1 Synoptic Terrain Photography

Photography

3.4.2 Synoptic Weather

3.4.3 Multispectral Terrain Photography

3.5 BIQEDICAL EXPERIMENTS

3.5.1 Microbial Response

3.5.2 Biostack Experiment

3.5.3 Biological Cosmic Radiation Experiment

to Space Environment

3.6 INVLIGHT DMONSTRATIONS

3.6.1 Fluid Electrophoresis

3.6.1.1 Apollo 14

3.6.1.2 Apollo~~ 16

3.6.2 Liquid Transfer

3.6.2.1 Unbaffled tanks

3.6.2.2 Baffled tanks

3.6.3 Heat Flow and Convection

3.6.3.1 Apollo 14 demnstration

3.6.3.2 Apollo 17 dcmnstrations

3.6.3.3 -terpretations

3.6.4 Composite Casting

3.7

RE.RENcES

4.0 VERICLE DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE

4.1

SATURN LAUNCH VEHICLES

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Saturn I

4.1.3 Saturn IB

4.1.4 SaturnV

4.1.5 Design and Development

4.1.6 Hiasion Performance

4.2

LITTLEJOEIIPRM

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Launch Vehicle Development

0.2.3

4.2.4 Concluding Remarlu

Spacecraft

.

-

~

Page

3-90

3-90

3-90

3-90

3-91

3-91

3-95

3-95

3-98

3-98

3-100

3-100

3-100

3-101

3-102

3-102

3-102

3-103

3-104

3-104

3-105

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-4

4-4

4-4

4-6

4-6

4-6

4-7

4-7

4-11

i

I

4

ix

Section

Page

4.3 COEPIAND AND SERVICE WDULE DEVELOPMENT PRO-

 

4-11

 

4.3.1 Introduction

 

4-11

4.3.2 Block I and Block I1 Hardware

4-12

 

4.3.2.1 Boilerplate spacecraft

 

4-12

4.3.2.2 Block I spacecraft

 

4-12

4.3.3.3 Block I ground test vehicles and fixtures

 

4-12

4.3.3.4 Block I1 spacecraft

 

4-13

4.3.2.5 Block 11 ground test program

 

4-13

4.4 C(IMHAND AND SERVICE WDULE SYSTPIS DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE

4-13

 

4.4.1

Introduction

 

4-13

4.4.2

Structures

4-13

4.4.3

Thermal Management Systems

4-19

 

4.4.3.1 Thermalgrotection

4-19

4.4.3.2 Thermal control

4-20

 

4.4.4

Mechanical Systems

4-23

 

4.4.4.1

Earth landing system

4-23

4.4.4.2

Docking mechanism

4-25

4.4.4.3

and impact attenuation

 

systems

4-25

 

4.4.4.4

Uprighting system

,

4-27

4.4.4.5

Side access ha_tc_h

4-29

4.4.4.6

Experiment deployment mechanisms

 

4-29

 

4.4.5

Cryogenic Storage System

 

4-29

4.4.6

Electrical Power System

 

,

4-35

 

4.4.6.1 Fuel cells

,

4-35

4.4.6.2 Batteries

4-41

4.4.6.3 Pover conversion and distribution

 

4-41

 

4.4.1

Propulsion Systems

 

, ,

4-42

 

4.4.1.1 Service propulsion system

 

4-43

4.4.1.2 Reaction control systems ,

 

4-44

 

4.4.8

Guidance. Navigation and Control System

4-46

4.4.9

Environmental Control System

 

,

4-50

4.4.10

Displays and Controls

 

4-53

4.4.11

Comnunications System

 

, ,

4-54

4.4.12

Instrumentation System

 

4-55

4.5 LUNAR InDULE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAH

4-51

 

4.5.1 Introduction

4-51

4.5.2 Test Articles and Ground Test Program

 

4-57

 

4.5.2.1

Mockups

4-51

4.5.2.2

Test models

4-59

4.5.2.3

Lunar mdule test articles

 

4-59

X

Sectfon

Page

 

4.5.3

Unrranned

Flight Test Program

4-59

4.5.1

Uanned Vehicles

4-59

 

4.5.4.1 &ollo 9 through Apollo 14 lunar modules

4-59

4.5.4.2 Extended-staylea

4-66

4.6 LUNAR MODULE SYSTMS DEVELOF"T

AND PERPOWICE

4-66

 

4.6.1

Introduction

4-66

4.6.2

4-66

 

4.6.2.1 Shear panel fatigue and- thickness control

4-66

4.6.2.2 Stress corrosion

4-66

4.6.2.3 Internally machined struts

4-68

4.6.2.4 Parts interchangeability

4-68

4.6.2.5 Flight performance

4-68

 

4.6.3

Thermal Control System

4-68

4.6.4

LandingCear

4-69

4.6.5

Electrical Power

System

4-71

 

4.6.5.1 Batteries

4-71

4.6.5.2 Pover conversion and distribution

4-72

 

4.6.6

Propulsion Systems

4-73

 

4.6.6.1 Descentgropulsion system

4-73

4.6.6.2 Ascent prz'pulsion Bystem

4-75

4.6.6.3 Reaction control-

4-76

 

4.6.7

Guidance.

Navigation and Control System

4-78

4.6.8

Environmental Control

4-82

4.6.9

Displays and Controls

4-85

4.6.10

Cormuunications System

4-85

4.6.11

Radar Systems

4-87

4.6.12

Instrumentation

System

4-89

4.7 ADDITIONAL SPACECRAfi DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS

4-90

 

4.7.1 Introduction

 

4-90

4.7.2 Electrical Wiring

System

4-90

4.7.3 Pyrotechnic Devices

4-92

4.7.4

Sequencing System

4-93

4.7.5

Optical nnd Visual Aids

4-95

4.7.6

Emergency Detection

System

4-96

4.7.7

Development Flight

Instrumentation

4-96

4.7.0

Fracture Control

4-97

c

System 4-96 4.7.7 Development Flight Instrumentation 4-96 4.7.0 Fracture Control 4-97 c c,

c,

xi

'

i

Section

Page

4.8 LUNARSURFACEMOBILITY

4-98

 

4.8.1 Modular

Equipment Transporter

4-98

4.8.2 Lunar Roving Vehicle

4-98

4.8.2.1 ApollolS

4-101

4.8.2.2 Apollo16

4-103

4.8.2.3 A~olb17

4-103

4.9 LUNAR SURFACE COMHUNICATIONS

4-103

 

4.9.1 Introduction

4-103

4-103   4.9.1 Introduction 4-103   4.9.2 Extravehicular Communications Unit
 

4.9.2 Extravehicular

Communications

Unit

6-104

4.9.3

Lunar

Comnications

Relay Unit

4-106

4.9.4

Television Camera System

4-107

 

4.10 . FLIGHT CREW SYSTPlS AND EQUIPMENT

 

4-100

 

4.10.1

Extravehicular kbility Unit

4-168

 

4.10.1.1 Pressure garment assembly

4-108

4.10.1.2 Portable life support

system

4-112

4.10.1.3 Oxygen purge system

4-114

4.10.1.4 Buddy secondary life support system

4-115

4.10.1.5 Transearth extravehicular system

4-115

 

4.10.2

Crew Station Configuration and

Equipment

4-115

 

4.10.2.1

Commnnd mdule creu station and equipment

4-117

4.10.2.2

Lunar mdule creu station and equipmete

4-119

 

4.11

REFERENCES

 

4-121

5.0

SPACECW DEVELOPMENT TESTING

5-1

5.1 I~RODUCTION

5-1'

5.2 WITE SANDS TEST FACILITY

5-1

5.3

HBNNED SPACECW CEt3TER

5-1

5.4

UFERENCES

5-2

6.0

FLIGHT CREU SUMMARY

6-1

6.1

CREUREPORT

6-1

 

6.1.1 Training

6-1

6.1.2 Mission Experience

6-4

 

6.1.2.1 Launch through docking

6-4

6.1.2.2 Translunsr and transearth coast

6-5

6.1.2.3 Command and service module thrusting maneuvers

6-5

6.1.2.4 Lunar mdule checkout

6-6

6.1.2.5 Lunar mdule thrusting maneuvers

6-6

6.1.2.6 Lunar module landings

6-7

6.1.2.7 Lunar surface operations

6-8

xii

Section

Page

 

6.1.2.8 Rendezvous and docking

6-12

6.1.2.9 Lunar orbit operations

6-13

6.1.2.10 Command uodule extravehicular activity

6-14

6.1.2.11 Crew accommodation to zero gravity

6-14

6.1.2.12 Guidance and naviga:ion systems

6-14

6.1.2.13 Entry and landing

6-16

6.2 FLIGHT CRElJ TRAINING PROGRAM

6-16

6.3 FLIGHTPLANNING

6-19

6.3.1 Plan Development

Flight

6-23

6.3.1.1

Flight planning techniques

6-23

6.3.1.2

Alternate and contingency flight plans

6-23

6.3.1.3

Flfghtn verification using simulators

6-24

6.3.2 Flight Plan Execution

6-24

6.3.3 Change Control

6-24

6.4 OPERATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY

6-25

6.4.1 Equipment Summary

6-25

6.4.2 Photographic Results

6-25

6.4.3 Conclusions

6-33

6.5 REFERENCES

6-37

7.0

MISSION OPERATIONS

7-1

7.1 MISSION C€NI"TOL

7-1

7.1.1 Mission Control Center

7-1

7.1.2 Emergency Parer Building and Backup Facility

7-4

7.1.2.1 Emergency pover system

7-4

7.1.2.2 Emergency lighting system

7-6

7.1.2.3 Emergency cooling system

7-6

7.1.2.4 Secondary Uission Control Center

7-6

7.1.3 Mission Control Functions

7-6

7.1.3.1 Unmanned fl_ights

7-6

7.1.3.2 Manned flights

7-6

7.1.3.3 Dual-vehicle

operation

7-7

7.1.3.4 Lunar operation

7-7

7.1.4 Concluding Remark

7-8

7.2 MSSIORPLANNINC

7-8

7.2.1 Trajectory Design

7-8

7.2.2 Consrrmablcs

7-9

7.2.3 Lunar Landing Site Selection

7-9

7.2.4 Documentation

7-9

I:-.

.

-

.-

-

a b l c s 7-9 7.2.3 Lunar Landing Site Selection 7-9 7.2.4 Documentation 7-9 I:-.

c

c'

'I . . . -. x iii Section Page 7.3 MANNED SPACE FLICRT NETWORK 7-9
'I
.
.
.
-.
x iii
Section
Page
7.3 MANNED SPACE FLICRT NETWORK
7-9
7.3.1 Cormnand Systems
7-10
7.3.2 Telemetry Systems
7-10
7.3.3 Tracking Systems
7-11
7.3.4 Comunications Systems
7-11
7.4 RECOVERY OPERATIONS
7-11
7.4.1
Department
of
Defense
Support
7-12
7.4.2 Recovery Posture
7-12
7.4.2.1 Earth orbAtal missions
7-12
7.4.2.2 Lunar missions
7-12
7.4.3 Equipment and Procedures
7-17
7.4.4 Cowand Module Postretrieval and Deactivation Procedures
7-21
7.4.5 Concluding Remarks
7-21
7.5 EFFECTS OF WEATHER ON MISSION OPERATIONS
7-22
7.5.1 Prelaunch Operations
7-22
7.5.2 Launch Phase
7-22
7.5.3 Recovery Operations
7-23
7.6 APOLLO FLIGHT DATA
7-23
7.6.1 Operational Data
7-23
7.6.2 Engineering A~lysisData
7-23
7.6.3 Experiment Data
7-25
7.7 MISSION EVALUATION
7-25
7.7.1 Prelaunch Support
7-25
7.7.2 Real-Time Evaluation
7-25
7.7.3 Postflight Evaluation
7-26
7.8 REFERENCES
7-28
8.0
BIOMEDICALSUMMARY
8-1
8.1
PREFLIGHT MEDICAL PROGRAM
8-1
8.1.1
Flight
Crew Health
Stabilization
8-1
8.1.1.1
Clinical medicine
8-1
8.1.1.2
Immunolom
8-2
8.1.1.3
Exposure prevention
8-2
8.1.2
Preflight Physical
Examinations
8-4
3
I

x iv

Section

Page

8.2 HEDICAL OBSERVATIONS

 

8-4

 

8.2.1 Cabin Environment and Toxicology

8-4

8.2.2 Rediation

8-5

8.2.2.1

Radiation dose

8-5

8.2.2.2

Visual light flash phenomenon

8-5

8.2.3 Adaptation to Weightlessness

8-5

8.2.4 Uork/Rest Cycles

8-6

8.2.5 Crew Illnesses and Medications

8-8

8.2.6 Cardiac Arrhythmias

8-10

8.2.7 Postflight Wical Evaluation

8-10

8.3 BIOW3DICAL EQUIPMEW PERFORWANCE

8-11

8.3.1 Instrumentation

8-11

8.3.2 Medication Packaging

8-12

8.4 FOOD

8-12

8.5 AHllLD LUNAR WARANTINE PROGRAM

8-13

8.5.1 Quarantine Program Guidelines

8-13

8.5.2 Program Elements

8-14

8.5.2.1 Lunar surface contamination

8-14

8.5.2.2 Lunar sample collection

8-14

8.5.2.3 Inflight contamination control

8-15

8.5.2.4 Return to terrestrial biosphere

8-1!1

8.6 SPECIAL MEDICAL STUDIES

8-16

 

8.6.1 Hcrobiology

8-16

8.6.1.1

Apo 110 7 through 12

8-17

8.6.1.2

Apollo 13 through 17

8-17

8.6.2 Virology

8-17

8.7 BI~CTERSZATIONOF LUNAR MATERIAL

8-17

 

8.7.1 Microbiology

8-18

8.7.1.1

Virological investiptioas

8-18

8.7.1.2

Bacteriological and mycological inveetigetioae

6-18

0.7.2 Zoology

8-18

c

8.7.3 Botany

8-20

8.8

REFERENCES

8-21

-

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c.

_-

xv

Section

Page

9.0

SPACECRAFT l4ANUFACNRING AND TESTING

9-1

9.1 COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE. LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM AND SPACECRAET/LUNAR .DULEADAP.R

9-1

 

9.1.1 Comnand Module Assembly and Checkout

9-1

9.1.1.1 Beat shield structure

9-1

9.1.1.2 Crew compartment structure

9-1

9.1.1.3 Final operations

9-4

9.1.2 Service Module Assembly and Checkout

9-4

9.1.3 Launch Escape System Assembly and Checkout

9-6

9.1.3.1 Canard assembly

9-6

9.1.3.2 Skirt structural assembly

9-6

9.1.3.3 Tower structural aseembly

9-6

9.1.3.4 Boost protective cover

9-6

9.1.3.5 Final assembly

9-6

9.1.4 Spacecraft/Lunar Module Adapter Assembly

9-6

9.1.5 Systems and Vehicle Checkout

9-8

9.1.5.1

Integrated systems checkout

9-8

9.1.5.2

Integrated test

9-8

9.1.6 Facilities

9-8

9.1.6.1

Bonding and test facility

9-8

9.1.6.2

Structure fabrication area

9-12

9.1.6.3

Electronic and electromechanical equipment fabrication and checkout area

9-12

9.1.6.4

Tube fabrication and cleaning facility

9-12

9.1.6.5

Pressure testing facilities

9-12

9.1.6.6

Systems integration and checkout facility

9-12

9.1.7 Equipment

9-13

9.1.7.1

Automatic circuit analyzer

9-13

9.1.7.2

Acceptance checkout equipment for spacecraft

9-13

9.2 LUNARMODULE

9-15

9.2.1 Ascent Stage Assembly and Checkout

9-15

9.2.2 Descent Stage Assembly and Checkout

9-15

9.2.3 Formal Engineering Acceptance Test

9-19

9.2.4 Facilities

9-19

9.2.4.1 Ascent stage structural/mechanical manufacturing area

9-20

9.2.4.2 Descent stage structural/mechanical manufacturing area

9-20

9.2.4.3 Centralized lunar module assembly. installation. and final acceptance test area

9-20

9.2.4.4 High-pressure test facility (cold-flow)

9-20

xvi

Section

Page

 

9.2.5

Equipment

9-20

9.2.6

Specialized

Support Laboratories

 

9-20

 

9.2.6.1 Full-mission

engineering simulator

9-20

9.2.6.2 Flight control integration laboratory

9-20

9.2.6.3 Data reduction facility

 

9-22

9.2.6.4 Primary guidance laboratory

9-22

10.0

LAUNCH SITE FACILITIES, EQUIPHEm. AND PRELAUN(II OPERATIONS

10-1

c

10.1 WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

 

10-1

 

10.1.1

Launch Complex

10-1

10.1.2

Vehicle Assembly Building

10-1

10.1.3

Little Joe I1 Control System Test Facility

 

10-1

10.1.4

Little Joe 11 Launcher

10-4

10.1.5

Ground Support Equipment

10-4

 

10.1.5.1 Little Joe 11

10-4

10.1.5.2 ComrPand and service wdule

 

10-4

10.2 EASTERN TEST RANGE/KE"EDY SPACE CENTER

10-5

 

10.2.1 Saturn IB Launch and Ckckout

Facilities

10-5

10.2.2 Saturn V hunch and Checkout Facilities

 

10-5

 

10.2.2.1 Vehicle assembly building

10-5

10.2.2.2 Mobile launchers

.-

10-10

~~~

10.2.2.3 Launch sites

10-10

10.2.2.4 Mobile service structure

 

10-10

10.2.2.5 Transporter

10-10

10.2.2.6 Launch control center

 

10-14

 

10.2.3 Vehicle Checkout Operations

 

10-14

 

10.2.3.1 Launch vehicle

10-14

10.2.3.2 Lunar mdule

10-14

10.2.3.3 Conunand and service dule

 

10-16

10.2.3.4 Launch pad operations

10-17

11.0

LUNAR RECEIVING LABORATORY

 

11-1

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11-1

11.2 ORIGINALCONCEPT

11-1

11.2 ORIGINALCONCEPT 11-1

11.3 FACILITIES

~~.~

~

11-1

 

11.3.1

Crew Reception Area

11-1

11.3.2

Sample Operations Area

11-3

f

11.3.3

Radiation Counting Laboratory

11-3

11.3.4

Thin Section Laboratory

11-3

1,----

-

11-3 f 11.3.3 Radiation Counting Laboratory 11-3 11.3.4 Thin Section Laboratory 11-3 1 ,---- -

t

8

Section

11.4

OPERATIONS . ,

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11.4.1 Preliminary Processing

and

Examination

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11.4.2 Sample Processing

 

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11.4.3 Gas Analysis

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11.4.4 Badfation Counting

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11.4.5 Biological

Testing

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11.5

APTERAPOLLO.

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APPENDIX A - APOLLO FLIGHT DATA

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APPENDIX B - APOLLO HISSION TYPE DESIGNATIONS

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APPENDIX C - APOLLO SPACECRAFT WEIGHTS

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APPENDIX D - MANNED SPACE FLIGHT RECORDS ESTAELISHED DURING APOLLO PRWW

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APPENDIXE - FLIGHT

SPACECRAFT CHECKOUT HISTORY

 

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APPENDIXF-

FLIGHT ANOMALIES

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xvii

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Page

11-3

11-3

11-6

11-6

11-11

11-11

11-11

A-1

B-1

C-I

D-1

E-1

F-1

t

t c

c

i

t

i t 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Apollo Program Summary Report is a's;mopsis of the overall program

1-1

1.0

INTRODUCTION

The Apollo Program

Summary Report is

a's;mopsis

of

the overall program activities and the

technology developed to accomplish lunar exploration. The report is intended, primarily, for

the

was also edited for comprehension by

has been extracted

Apollo Experience Reports, and other applicable documents.

not

lowed by

flight operations, and biomedical results. Appendixes provide data on each of the Apollo mis- sions (appendix A), mission type designations (appendix B) , spacecraft veights (appendix C) , records achieved by Apollo crewmen (appendix D), vehicle histories (appendix E), and a listing of anomalous hardware conditions noted during each flight beginning with Apollo 4 (appendix F).

No attempt

since

other areas were also considered to be be-

yond the scope of

established program objectives.

reader who desires a general knowledge

been

published

specific aspects of

was made to

of

the

technical

Nuch of

aspects of

the Apollo program,

but

the lay reader.

the information contained herein

or summarized from Apollo Mission Reports, Apollo Preliminary Science Reports,

elsewhere.

However,

some of

the

information has

A summary of

the flights conducted

over

an 11-year

the overall program,

including

lunar science,

vehicle

period

is fol-

development,

to

the management of

the Apollo program

great importance

in accomplishing the

include information pertaining

treatment.

Several

although they were of

this area deserves special

this

document,

The names of

installations and geographical

locations used

in the report

are those that

ex-

isted during the Apollo program.

to by its former name. the Manned Spacecraft Center, and Cape Canaveral is referred to as Cape Kennedy. Customary units of measurement are used throughout the report except in lunar science

discussions.

ports and are also used in this report.

statute miles.

For example,

the Lyndon B. Johnson

Space Center

1s referred

Metric

units were used

in the lunar science discussions

All references

to miles

in the Apollo Mission Re-

than

mean nautical miles rather

i

-

-

-

.- .

.

.

c

2-1

2.0 FLIGRT PROGRAM

The Apollo program consisted of

33 flights,

11 of

vhich were manned.

The 22 unmanned flights

vere conducted

The

final seven flights were conducted to explore the lunar environment and surface, providing man vith detailed data concerning the moon and its characteristics.

manned flights were also conducted to mn-rate

to qualify the launch vehicle and spacecraft

for manned space flight.

Four

of

the overall vehicle for lunar exploration.

the

Especially significant during the Apollo program was that no major

launch vehicle failure

occurred to prevent a mission from being accomplished and only one inflight failure of a space-

craft (Apollo 13) prevented the intended mission from being accomplished.

report provides a summary of each of these flights and discusses someof the =re significant

findings.

This

section of

the

2.1 SATURN LAUNQl VEHICLE AND APOUO SPACECRAFT DEVEL.OPMENT FLIGHTS

i

VEHICLE AND APOUO SPACECRAFT DEVEL.OPMENT FLIGHTS i The early development of the Saturn launch vehicle v

The early development of

the Saturn launch vehicle vas

conducted

prior

to the final decision

that man vould attempt to land on the lunar surfe-e.

The initial 10 flights provided man with

the first insight of the capabilities of large boosters and how such a booster vould operate. The primary purposes of these missions vere to flight qualify the launch vehicle stages and sys-

tems and to determine the compatibility of the launch vehicle/spacecraft combination.

product of these flights was data obtained from experiments conducted to extend the knowledge of

the ionosphere.

flight test prograa to gather data on meteoroids.

A by-

of

the

Also, three Pegasus satellites vere placed

in orbit during this

part

2.1.1 Mission SA-1

Apollo mission

SA-1

was the first

flight of

the

Saturn I launch vehicle.

The mission was

unmanned and conducted for research and development purposes.

duuxny second stage and a nose

ance,

The launch vehicle carried a The vehicle had no active path guid-

cone from a Jupiter missile.

and the

flight

trajectory was suborbital.

The objectives

of

the mission

included:

a. Flight

test

of

the eight

clustered H-1 engines

b.

Flight

test of

the

S-I

stage clustered

propellant

tankage structure

c.

Flight

test

of

the S-I

stage control

system

d. Performance

measurement

of

bending and flutter,

dynamic-engine

torque,

and airframe aerodynamic heating

propellant

sloshing,

base

heating,

aero-

The

SA-1

vehicle vas launched

on October

27, 1961,

from Launch Complex 34 of

the Eastern Test

Ranee,

ing 54 minutes vere necessitated

shown in figure 2-1.

Cape Kennedy,

Florida,

at 01:00;06

p.m.

e.s.t.

(15:00:06

G.m.t.).

Two launch delays

The lift-off

because of cloud cover over the launch pad.

total-

is

The flight path o€ SA-1,

from lift-off

through

the cutoff

of

than

the inboard engines, was very

predicted because of

close to that predicted.

than-expected accelerations.

tionally lower than predicted because

reached a maximum altitude of 84.6 miles and a maximum range of 206 miles.

The trajectory was slightly higher

The trajectory parameters

the cutoff

after

higher-

inboard

engine cutoff

vere propor-

The vehicle

signal occurred

1.61 seconds early.

The mission was considered

a complete success.

reliably.

The vehicle was instrumented

for 505 inflight

measurements.

of vhich 485 performed

All primary flight objectives vere met.

2-2

Figure 2-1 .- First Saturn vehicle lift-off.

2-2 Figure 2-1 .- First Saturn vehicle lift-off. c 4 i

c

4

i

2- 3

Apollo mission

SA-2,

an aanned,

2.1.2

Mission

SA-2

research and developmental mission,

was

the

second

flight

of

the

Saturn I launch vehicle.

The vehicle carried

a dummy second

stage and

a Jupiter missile

nose cone.

The vehicle

had no active path guidance,

and

the flight

trajectory

was suborbital.

The objectives of

the mission were:

a. Prove the first stage propulsion system,

structural

design,

and control system

b. Prove the launch facilities and ground

support

c. Confirm the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics

equipment of Launch Complex 34

in

flight

d.

Prove the

sign velocity

inflight performance

of

first

stage engines and

their

adequacy to reach de-

e. Verify the structural

design of

the booster

airframe

f.

Demonstrate

the capability of

the guidance and control system to perform as required

a.m.

g.

Release

22 900 gallons of

water

in