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Eliminating breakdowns for effective communication

Answer all the activities of this module (ALL ACTIVITES WILL BE GRADED); be guided of the
rubrics (a tool for evaluating your works) indicated on the last part of the lessons.
Lesson 1: Communication Breakdown
Lesson 2: Verbal and Non-verbal communication
LESSON 1 (DAY 1and 2)
After having learned the basics in communication including its models, you are now about to explore
ME! I will help you discover various barriers we may encounter in communication. Communication, in whatever
way and form, can be hindered by communication barriers. Through this module, you will be guided on how to
solve these barriers as well as will be introduced to the world of effective communication where a receiver does
not only get the message but also truly understands it. .
Yes, communication barriers are inevitable; these can be resolved accordingly when treated correctly.
More importantly, as a student, and communicator yourself, you should know the kind of barriers present in any
communication context so that an appropriate solutions may be provided.

To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following:

1. explain why there is communication breakdown

2. use various strategies to avoid communication breakdown
3. identify strategies used by speakers evaluate the effectiveness of an oral communication


Let’s find out how much you already know about this lesson. Please answer all items.

INSTRUCTION: Write T if the statement is True and F if it is False. Write your answers on space provided.


1. When a person is not physically feeling well, he may not be able to
grasp the message that you are telling him.
2. A man worrying about having lost his rice money due to gambling
may not be able to understand what you have to tell him.
3. As a new teacher with a dialect different to her, Reez had to
learn and understand the accent of her students so it would be easy for her to reach
out to them. What she did was right.
4. Arvin knows the answer to the question but he is too shy to raise his
hand. His shyness can become a barrier to communication.
5. If I allow my own perspectives on things to get in my way to learning, I
am blocking the chance to learn new things from other people.
6. Distance between two people may also become a barrier to
7. If a speaker considers the background and needs of the
receiver in delivering the message, barrier to communication can be avoided.
8. Our prejudices may hinder the smooth flow of communication.
9. Listening attentively to the speaker can help solve
communication breakdown..
10. The sender can also be the cause of communication

Picture Analysis: Look at the image and answer the questions that follow and write your answers on
the space provided after the question.

1.What have you observed in the image?

2. Who is the speaker? Who is the receiver?
3. Do you think they have understood each other? Explain your answer.
4. What factors are present in the image that hinders the smooth flow of communication between the sender
and the receiver?
5. Do you think you can be a source of a problem in communication too? Explain your answer.
Communication breakdown, as defined by Emily Rodgers in her online article, “is a failure to exchange
information, resulting in a lack of communication.”

What does “lack of communication” mean?

To answer that question let us look at the examples of communication breakdown in the workplace or in
any given communication scenario as provided by Rodgers.

1. A staff member making a mistake due to miscommunication or not enough information given in
training. In the classroom context, you as a learner may make mistake in doing your task because of
miscommunication or lack of information.

2. Two members of staff doing the same task and not realizing. In the classroom context, it could be two
members in the group make a duplication of activity and leave out one task undone instead.

3. A colleague not treating a client correctly. A classroom officer showing unfair treatment to one
classmate for his/her attitude/appearance for instance, may cause misunderstanding among students.

4. Certain vital tasks not being completed either on time or to the highest standard because no one in
the team is giving updates to each other. This happens most of the time in the classroom when
members in a group do not try to communicate, express themselves, or reach out to one another.

5. An overworked manager sending an email missing vital information to their team because they’ve
got a client on their case about completing work. A group leader or SSG president, for example, may
fail to disseminate important announcement to the class because he/she is pressured to finish another task.

6. A junior spreading Chinese whispers about the current state of a project’s completion because they
misheard what their manager was saying. In a classroom scenario, student A tells student B that
Student C may not be able to graduate but student A is not so sure about it because he/she only overheard
a conversation of her teachers. The act of spreading the “talk” is called gossiping. Passing on wrong
information may result to communication breakdown.

According to Rodgers, communication has a great impact to a team. So if you expect to have a
successful class, a team, a group work - it requires communication that is “well-oiled machine to
individual parts that simply cannot function without each other” between you and the one you are
communicating with or among members of a group.
1. Loss of morale
- When you experience communication breakdown, there
is a tendency that your sense of purpose, and enthusiasm
towards the task, may also be affected.

2. Demotivation
- Communication breakdown results to weakening or even loss of one’s
motivation to do what you are supposed to do.

3. Embarrassment
- A person who has experienced communication
breakdown with his team or is the cause of the
communication barrier will eventually feel guilty and
incompetent over that failure and will feel haunted by
that embarrassment.


4. Anger
- Communication breakdown is so annoying that
anyone involved can get into serious trouble.

5. Tension among the team

- Everybody in the team gets affected when
communication breakdown strikes. Chances
are people will be pointing fingers to one
another. The question here is who’s to be
blamed? No one. Everyone in the team is
responsible and is equally important in
solving the problem.

6. Stress caused to individuals

- Communication breakdown does not only affect
the one who caused it but equally, it affects the
person who received the message but failed to

7. Loss of clients, business and sales

(or friends/relationships)
- Communication breakdown is really harmful.
It will not only break relationships, it can
even do worse. It means losing people who
trust you and whom you trust. Now, you
don’t want that to happen, do you?

8. Disorganization
- Nothing goes right when a communication breakdown
occurs. Things, situations, relationships just fall apart
and for all you know, you are facing broken pieces.
Don’t wait for that to happen. Do something before
things got shattered because of careless

9. Gossip
- When communication goes out of control,
rumors begin to spread like a virus. Wrong
information breaks out and spread faster than
the truth that’s why treat communication with
proper care. Communicate properly and


5 Ways to resolve communication breakdowns
These are simple things to do to ensure communication is never a problem

1. Observe
Take the time to observe how each member of your team works, talk to them in regular one-
to-ones, and discuss how best they like to receive information, relating to their job role, and then
how they feel they can best use this information for others.
2. Options
Whether giving your team another computer-based tool, introducing more huddles and
meetings, encouraging them to pick up the phone more, or urging them to physically walk round
to a person’s desk, giving them communicative options will help them feel less trapped in the
restrictive vices of the email world.
3. Sharing is caring
Updates, updates, updates! Site-wide updates are vital for keeping everyone in the know.
This is within reason. Don’t rely on email for this. Meeting and discussion with the team are
important. Your team members deserve transparency.
4. Practice makes perfect
Providing consistent training sessions on how and why we communicate, the best way to
write an email, communicating with everyone or with the whole class or team and how to give
feedback in the most effective way will lift communication breakdowns the more you do them.
Training are also a great way to bring groups/ class together who may not already be in direct
contact with each other, building morale through one shared goal.
5. One team, one dream
If you resolve a communication breakdown and teach your team the value of
communication, the benefits abound. Good communication builds a strong team that people want
to engage in, it streamlines work processes, it equips individuals with the tools to take on
anything that’s thrown at them and ultimately makes whatever you are doing, a success.

Those mentioned above are generally found in the following strategies in

communication on how to overcome barriers:
1. Active Listening

Active listening is a skill that can be acquired and improved with practice. However, this
skill can be difficult to achieve and will, therefore, take time and delay. 'Active listening' means
actively listening or fully focusing on what is being said rather than just 'hearing' the message of
the speaker.

Active listening involves listening with all senses. There are both verbal and non-verbal
indicators that convey active listening. Non-verbal signs include smiling (if appropriate), making
eye contact, nodding at appropriate times, and avoiding interruptions. These non-verbal cues
relay the message that you are interested in what the speaker has to say, and that your attention is
fully invested. Giving verbal signs of active listening can also be meaningful. Paraphrasing
involves looking for slightly different terms to repeat the main idea of the speaker and is also a
great way to show active listening.

2. Use Common Language

It is important to consider the audience that you are speaking to and use language that can
be easily understood. Avoid using unfamiliar terminology or jargon when speaking to clients and
their families. An important tool to use when speaking is to stop occasionally and ask questions
to ensure that your message is being understood as intended.

3. Give Constructive Response

While the response that you give the speaker/sender may occasionally be negative, it is
important that it be constructive in nature. The goal of the feedback should be to further the
abilities of the speaker. This will bond the interpersonal relationship, and enhance future

3. Focus on the issue, not the speaker

Try not to take all personally, and similarly, express your own wants and opinions in terms
of the job at hand. Solve problems rather than attempt to manipulate others.

5. Be genuine rather than control.

Be yourself, openly, and honestly. Be honest with yourself, and center on working well


with the persons around you, and acting with integrity.

6. Empathize rather than remain alone.

Although professional relationships entail some borders when it comes to interaction
with colleagues, it is important to show sensitivity and to really care about the people you work
with. If you don't care about them, it will be difficult for them to care about you when it comes to
being together.
7. Be patient towards others.
Allow for other points of view, and be liberated to other ways of doing things.
Diversity affects creativity and innovation.

8. You have to promote yourself and your own experiences.

Be strong about your own rights and needs. Undervaluing yourself motivates others to
undervalue you, too.

1. Completeness 2. Conciseness

It is very important that that receiver To be concise basically means, getting straight to
gets to hear everything so that proper the point. There should be no beating around the bush.
responses, reactions, evaluation or Thus, irrelevant or redundant information should be
feedback could be done. That is what eliminated within the communication process.
complete communication is.

7Cs of Effective communication

3. Consideration 4. Concreteness

There is a need for the speaker to consider the When information sent by the sender to the
receiver’s mood, status, background, preferences, needs receiver is supported by facts, figures, or real-life
and the like to build rapport him/her. Once rapport is examples and situations, effective
established, effective communication is possible. communication takes place.

5. Courtesy 6. Clearness

Respecting the culture and beliefs of The use of simple, specific word in expressing ideas ensures
the receiver creates a positive impact in clarity in communication. This signifies when the speaker focuses
the communication process. on a single objective to avoid confusing the audience.

5. Correctness

Credibility and effectiveness of the message can be achieved by eliminating grammatical errors in the
communication process. This implies that correctness in grammar creates a positive impact on the audience.


Seize the 7Cs
Write the correct “C” word (Completeness, Conciseness, Consideration, Concreteness, Courtesy, Clearness
and Correctness) in the space provided. Write your answers on the space provided.
STATEMENTS Which C is it?
1. Grammar errors should be avoided to achieve effective communication

2. Respect for others’ culture

3. Regard for the receiver’s needs and background
4. Give real-life examples.
5. The Receiver should hear everything to give proper
6. Use simple and specific words.
7. Get straight to the point.
8. Provide real-life situations.
9. Avoid beating around the bush.
10. Preferences, mood, etc of the receiver must be regarded.

WOW! You have just mastered the 7Cs of

Effective Communication. Always remember
that by applying these tips in our communication
experiences everyday, we are avoiding
communication breakdown. You can’t afford to
become the cause of communication
breakdown, can you?
Again, always bear in mind the 7Cs for Effective
Communication: Completeness,
Conciseness, Consideration, C o n c re te n e ss,
Courtesy, Clearness, and correctness!

ACTIVITY IV Observe and resolve


Observe two (2) of the following environments listed below and identify at least 2 barriers to communication
present in each environment then provide solution. Write your answers on the lines provided.
• At home • online classroom • Facebook
• In school • in a jeepney • bank transaction
• In the neighborhood • at a store / mall • Phone Conversation

Environment 1__________________________________
Barrier 1
Solution 1
Environment 2__________________________________
Barrier 2
Solution 2

LESSON 2 (DAY 3 and 4) Verbal and Non-verbal communication (Dimensions of communication)

What is the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication? There's no way around it — humans
are pack animals. Our success as a species and as individuals depends upon our ability to effectively
communicate, both verbally and non-verbally.
Just ask our ancestors, who hunted and gathered as a collective, depending upon one another for
protection, sustenance and companionship.
As it was the case with them, today, verbal and non-verbal communication shape our interactions with
others in business and interpersonal relationships, as well as our financial and personal success and our physical
and psychological well-being.
Understanding the different aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication and the important roles they
play in our interactions with others is the first step to enhancing positive communication and nurturing

To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following:

1. Identify the differences between verbal and non-verbal communication.

2. Create situational examples of verbal and non-verbal communication.
3. Show appreciation on the importance of learning the differences of verbal and non-verbal
Let’s find out how much you already know about this lesson. Please answer all items.

INSTRUCTION: Write T if the statement is True and F if it is False. Write your answers on space provided
before the number.
______1. Non-verbal communication is communicating with someone by using gestures.
______2. Non-verbal communication is using your body language to convey something to someone else.
______3. Non-verbal communication is getting messages across with facial expression.
______4. The speed of our speech is an example of verbal communication skill.
______5. We have to make sure that we do not speak too fast when communicating with a customer because the
customer may speak fast also because you are speaking fast.
______6. Facial expressions, posture and eye contact are all skill in verbal communication.
______7. Touch is a verbal communication that not only indicates a person’s feelings or level of comfort, but
illustrates personality characteristics as well.
______8. The clothing we wear and the way we design our living space are also forms of non-verbal
Verbal communication is an all-encompassing term for communication involving words — whether they're
spoken, written or signed.
The conversations we have with our coworker at lunch, the morning news or the sports page we read in
the morning — even the text message you send to your spouse telling him to pick up some milk — is a form of
verbal communication.
Our ability to communicate with a language that is based on an organized system of words, rather than
merely sounds, is what sets us apart from lower species. Not only do we have language, but we also have the
technology that enables us to communicate with one another, no matter the physical distance.

What is Non-Verbal Communication

Verbal communication coexists alongside non-verbal communication, which can affect people’s
perceptions and exchanges in subtle but significant ways.
Non-verbal communication includes body language, such as gestures, facial expressions, eye
contact and posture. Touch is a non-verbal communication that not only indicates a person’s feelings or level of
comfort, but illustrates personality characteristics as well.
A firm handshake or warm hug indicates something very different than a loose pat on the back or a timid
handshake does. The sound of our voice, including pitch, tone and volume are also forms of non-verbal
The meaning behind someone’s words is often entirely different than the literal translation, as is seen in
instances of sarcasm and mockery. The clothing we wear and the way we design our living space are also forms
of non-verbal communication that frequently shape people’s judgments about others, regardless of whether or not
the perceptions are true.

Communication breakdown or Miscommunication can lead to a total cessation of interaction. We see
people stop talking to each other, sometimes until the end of their lives. Leaders of some countries that do not
have friendly relations or have stopped talking to each other sometimes end up going to war against each other.
Miscommunication is brought about by lack of awareness of the dimensions of communication,
especially those influenced by culture and gender. Communication runs along four pairs of dimensions; verbal
and non-verbal, oral and written, formal and informal, and intentional and unintentional.
a. VERBAL and NON-VERBAL DIMENSIONS- encompass the use of language. The words chose
(Verbal Dimension) and the expressions, and the gestures and bodily movement used (Nonverbal
Dimension) Verbal and Nonverbal dimensions must be used together to clearly impart the message. A
misunderstanding may happen when words contradict actions. He/she may say “yes” but the facial
expression says “no”.
A politician may say that he is a man of the people but then refuses to shake hands with them.
In this dimension, it is important that what is shown or done agrees with what is said. Otherwise, the
listener will be confused and miscommunication will occur.
a. VERBAL/NONVERBAL dimensions
Courtesy in Philippines society is expressed when talking to someone, especially someone in authority,
by looking down. Looking straight at them is considered rude and frowned upon. In Western society,
avoiding looking at people in the wye or looking down or around while talking to them often means that
one is not telling the truth or is hiding something. If this is still the case, what do you think might happen
if a Filipino applicant is interviewed for a job by an American employer; assuming both parties are
unaware of the other’s culture? In another setting, in Thailand, no one sits higher than the King does.
Teacher’s chairs are also higher than students’. This is to show their authority and to command respect.
Men think they should be “macho” in language and action. They use assertive words and expect to be
understood. On the other hand, women are expected to be non- confrontational in their language,
especially with men. They are supposed to talk only about certain topics that are within the world of
women. But today, the Verbal and Nonverbal Dimensions of Communication of men and women are
hardly constrained by such attitudes. Women can be loud and assertive like comedian and political
activist Juana Change, who does not mince her words when it comes to politics. On the other hand, men
can talk about their feelings, even cry like Christian pop singer Gary Valenciano.


INSTRUCTIONS; Create a situational example of verbal communication, non-verbal communication and

combination of the two. Write your answers in the appropriate spaces provided.




Directions; Encircle the letter of your answer.


1. What is non-verbal communication?
a. Communicating with someone by using gestures.
b. Using your body language to convey something to someone else
c. Getting messages across with facial expressions
d. All of the above
2. Which of these in NOT an example of a verbal communication skill?
a. The speed of our speech
b. Language used
c. Eye contact
d. Volume of speech
3. A communication involving words — whether they're spoken, written or signed.
a. Verbal communication
b. Non-verbal communication
c. Verbal/non-verbal communication
d. All of the above
4. Saly’s boyfriend sends her flowers and a letter. What kind of communication is this?
a. Verbal communication
b. Non-verbal communication
c. Verbal and non-verbal communication
5. My English teacher is reading my essay and gave me a feedback of my work. What kind of
communication is this?
a. Verbal communication
b. Non-verbal communication
c. Verbal and non-verbal communication


3 (100-85) 2(84-80) 1(79-70)

Content It contained more than five It contained three facts about It contained less than
facts about the topic. the topic. three facts about the
Vocabulary Student used a wide variety of Student used necessary Student used incorrect
vocabulary words. vocabulary. words.
Correctness of Two or fewer grammar Three to six grammar errors More than six
Language mistakes, zero to two incorrect between two and four grammar errors; more
word choices. incorrect word choices. than four incorrect
word choices.



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