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Chrizza May A.



1. Familiarize with the different Chapters of Research design.

1) The Problem and its background:

a. Introduction, Background of the Study.

b. Statement of the Problem
c. Scope and Delimitation
d. Significance of the Study

2) Theoretical Framework

a) Review of Related Literature

b) Review of Related Studies
c) Conceptual/Theoretical Framework
d) Hypothesis of the Study
e) Assumptions of the Study
f) Definitions of Terms

3) Research Methodology

a) Research Design
b) Respondents of the Study
c) Instrument of the Study
d) Validity and Reliability
e) Statistical Treatment

4) Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

a) Presentation of Data
b) Analysis
c) Interpretation
d) Discussion

5) Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

a) Summary of Findings
b) Conclusion
c) Recommendation

2. Differentiate Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

 Qualitative research generates “textual data” (non-numerical). Quantitative

research, on the contrary, produces “numerical data” or information that
can be converted into numbers.

 Qualitative research is considered to be particularly suitable for

exploratory research (e.g. during the pilot stage of a research project, for
example). It is primarily used to discover and gain an in-depth
understanding of individual experiences, thoughts, opinions, and trends,
and to dig deeper into the problem at hand.
The data collection toolkit of a qualitative researcher is quite versatile,
ranging from completely unstructured to semi-structured techniques. The
most commonly applied qualitative methods include individual interviews,
group discussions (focus groups), and behavioral observations.
 While quantitative research is all about numbers and figures. It is used to
quantify opinions, attitudes, behaviors, and other defined variables with
the goal to support or refute hypotheses about a specific phenomenon,
and potentially contextualize the results from the study sample in a wider
population (or specific groups).
As quantitative research explicitly specifies what is measured and how it is
measured in order to uncover patterns in – for example – behavior,
motivation, emotion, and cognition, quantitative data collection is
considered to be much more structured than qualitative methods
3. Cite samples of related literature based on a sample research.

“Reading comprehension in English is a key to achievement in academic studies

in many countries around the world (Hellerstein-Yehezkel, 2017).”