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2020

Digital switchgear concepts for MV applications


Take full advantage of IEC 61850 and IoT and enable digital switchgear

Learning objectives

– Introduction to digital switchgear


– Governing standards
– Key digital switchgear components
• Current and voltage sensors
• Protection and control relays with LEA inputs
– Value of digital switchgear
• Examples
– Asset health monitoring
– Reference projects
– Appendices

August 6, 2020 Slide 2



What is digital switchgear?

Definition
Switchgear where device status information, current and voltage measurements and commands are reliably
transferred on a common communication bus. Alternatively, or as part of this,
the switchgear and its equipment condition monitoring and diagnostic information is also digitally available for
advanced analysis

August 6, 2020 Slide 3



ANSI MV digital switchgear
Scope

Base product – Coming in H2 2020


With digital solutions –
ReliaGear ND, Advance,
ReliaGear ND Digital, Advance Digital, Advance 27 Digital,
Advance 27, SafeGear,
SafeGear Digital, SafeGear HD Digital
SafeGear HD —
ABB Ability™
Base product Automation and control Monitoring and
diagnostics EL common platform
(On-premise) (Cloud)

Future option: Asset health – ABB Edge/Cloud gateway


61850 Bus
centralized SwitchgearMD™ with
communication
protection SWICOM
MV SWG Asset management

Current and voltage SCADA Future option:


sensors (Local/remote) energy management Energy management

August 6, 2020 Slide 4



Digital switchgear is the next phase in the evolution of switchgear

SAFETY and SIMPLICITY are the most significant benefits, Communication Protocol Protective relay
but there are many more standard standards voltage sensor
current sensor
Sensor technology and common communication bus are
essential to realize the full benefits
of digital switchgear
Digital switchgear is a proven technology embedded with
new products and is UL certified

802.3 Ethernet Asset health


Cat 5E or Better sensors

August 6, 2020 Slide 5



Governing standards

Do switchgear standards permit the use of sensors?

– The latest version of the metal-clad switchgear standard, IEEE C37.20.2-2015, addresses the use of sensors in Annex D
– Additionally, the use of sensors is also referenced in IEEE C37.20.3-2013 for metal-enclosed switchgear and IEEE C37.20.9-2019 for gas insulated switchgear
– UL347 6th Ed. for MV Motor Control Centers addresses the use of sensors in Annex E

August 6, 2020 Slide 7



What standards are applicable to sensors?
Background

Instrument transformers are primarily covered by IEEE C57.13-2016; this standard does not cover sensors – IEC 60044-8 (2002)
Current sensors
– IEC 61869-10 (2017) - active
IEEE standards/guides for current and voltage sensors – IEC 60044-7 (1999)
Voltage sensors
– IEC 61869-11 (2017) - active
– No specific standard exists today
– IEEE PSIM formed new Sensor Subcommittee in January 2020 to organize sensor activities
– IEEE PSIM Working Group formed to work on an IEEE Guide that will be focused on testing
of end-to-end sensor systems and Task Force focused on Sensors Accuracy Testing Paper
– IEEE C37.235-2007 - Guide for the Application of Rogowski Coils used for Protective Relaying Purposes
– IEEE C37.92-2005 - Standard for Analog Inputs to Protective Relays From Electronic Voltage
and Current Transducers

However, this should not limit your applications


– IEC standards 60044 and 61869 cover sensors
• IEC 61869-10 (2017): Additional requirements for low-power passive current transformers
• IEC 61869-11 (2017): Additional requirements for low power passive voltage transformers

August 6, 2020 Slide 8



Key digital switchgear components

Key digital switchgear components
Levels of digitalization

Description Main value


Level 0 Simply replace CTs and PTs with current and voltage sensors 1. Reduced weight
2. Space saving (primarily due to elimination of PT compartment)
Add additional sensor packages (e.g., temperature) as needed 3. Eliminates problems of saturation and ferroresonance
4. Safety – no possibility of unsafe voltages from open CT secondary circuits
5. Equipment condition for switchgear and circuit breakers

Level 1 Above + IEC61850-8-1 and GOOSE messaging Above +


– Ethernet cabling between Protective Relays 5. Significant reduction in wiring between frames
6. Late customization
7. Increased flexibility in protection and control scheme development

Level 2 Above + Process bus (61850-9-2LE) Above +


– Requires use of Merging Units (MUs), time synchronization devices and 8. Improved flexibility – changes in protection only require IED level changes.
Ethernet switches
– Fiber optic connection from bay (switchgear) to substation

August 6, 2020 Slide 10



Is digital switchgear constructed differently?
Form factor permits switchgear space savings

Voltage sensors
More flexibility in placement of voltage sensors
compared to PTs and major space savings
possible.

Current sensors
Put in the same location as CTs
MV sensors Standards
– IEEE 802.3ae and 802.3an
– IEEE C37.20.2-2015
Paragraph 5.9: Rogowski coils
Current sensors
– IEC 60044-8
Electronic current transformers
– UL/UR/cUR certified
– IEEE 802.3ae and 802.3an
– IEC 60044-7
Voltage sensors
Electronic voltage transformers
– UL certified

August 6, 2020 Slide 11



Digital switchgear
Circuit breaker compartment

Current sensors

Cat 5E or better cable

August 6, 2020 Slide 12



Digital switchgear
Cable compartment

Voltage sensors

Cat 5E or better cable

August 6, 2020 Slide 13



Sensors – ideal for critical applications
Concerns better addressed by sensors

– 20+ year old technology in switchgear


– Use solid state components and little or no ferromagnetic material in
circuit
– Lack of magnetic core - very low energy output – cannot typically transfer
power to secondary
– Current Sensors @ 60Hz have a 0-180mv output
– Voltage Sensors @ 60Hz have a 0-10V output
– Increased safety
– Reduced footprint
– More linear response
– Simplified installations – less wiring, smaller footprint, lighter weight
– Reduced energy use, esp. in tight compartments

August 6, 2020 Slide 14



Current sensors
Current sensors are safer than conventional CTs

Digital switchgear No saturation (air core)

Rogowski coil sensor


– Us=150 mV for 50 Hz - 80 A Primary 𝑑𝑖 𝑝(𝑡)
𝑈𝑠(𝑡) = 𝑀
𝑑𝑡
– Us=180 mV for 60 Hz - 80 A Primary
Rogowski coil sensor
– Output voltage is proportional to the derivative of primary current
Open CT hazard di (t )
– Output voltage is integrated by protective relay us eliminated
(t ) = M p
dt
150 0,3
No saturation (air core)

Secondary voltage, Us (V)


100 0,2

Primary current, Ip (A)


Open CT hazard eliminated 50 0,1

Low power CT, output is voltage rather than current 0 0,0

FOCS (fiber optic current sensor) mainly used in high voltage applications due -50 -0,1

to higher cost -100 -0,2

-150 -0,3
Time
ip
us Rated short-time thermal current: up to 85KA/3s

August 6, 2020 Slide 15



Current sensors
Increased performance in differential protection

Secondary
Rogowski Coil output
ABB sensor

– Improved sensitivity for “in zone” faults US

– Speed of response – reaches steady state of output faster


Saturation
vs. a Conventional CT level
Standard CT
– High security for “out of zone” faults iS

– Multiple slopes not required (transformer)


– No need to keep the secondary closed, therefore no need
10A 100A 1000A 10 000A Primary current
for shorting terminals – connect/disconnect from the relay
at any time Standard CT
I_DIFF

OPERATE REGION
ABB Sensor

NON-OPERATE REGION

I_BIAS

August 6, 2020 Slide 16



Current sensors
Combined accuracy class 0.5/5P630 (5P400)

– Current sensors, thanks to their linear characteristic, ε [%]


guarantee wide range of primary current +5%
Protection accuracy limit class 5P630 (5P400)

+1.5% Metering accuracy limit class 0.5


– The sensor standard defines accuracy characteristic as +0.75%

combination of metering and protection class into one +0.5%


50 (31.5) kA 85 kA
4 A 16 A 80 A 4000 A


5% 20% 100 % Ipr Icth Ith Ip
-0.5%
– Thus, current sensors transmit currents from couple of Amps
-0.75%
up to short circuit, therefore accuracy class is defined as
-1.5%
5P630, where 630 is not an error but
a real number calculated out of maximal current 5%
to be transmitted via sensor to secondary side

Accuracy of sensor is ensured by utilizing correction factors in


the protection relays

August 6, 2020 Slide 17



Voltage sensors
Voltage sensors are safer than conventional PTs

Voltage sensors No ferro-resonance (non-inductive)

Resistive voltage divider sensor


– Passive element
– No fuses required R2
Us = U
R1+R2 p
Non-saturable and linear over the whole measuring range
No ferro resonance (non-inductive)
10,000:1 transformation ratio
up (kV)
Accuracy up to class 0.5 40
us (V)
8

Gas insulated switchgear (GIS) uses capacitive voltage divider (CVD) sensors 30 6

Secondary voltage, Us (V)


Primary voltage, Up (kV)
20 4
10 2
0 0
0 10 20 30 40
-10 -2
-20 -4
-30 -6
-40 -8
Time (ms)

August 6, 2020 Slide 18



Voltage sensors
Combined accuracy class 0.5/3P

– For voltage sensors, the sensor standard defines ε [%]


the accuracy class combining metering and protection class +6%

into one
– Thus voltage sensors have accuracy class of 0.5 +3%
Protection accuracy limit class 3P

Metering accuracy limit class 0.5


+0.5%
Continuous voltage measurement


0.02∗ Upn 0.8∗ Upn Upn 1.2∗ Upn 1.9∗ Upn Up

-0.5%

-3%

-6%

August 6, 2020 Slide 19



Current and voltage sensor connections to IED
Point-to-point wiring eliminated and test set-up simplified

Sensors FT Switch Digital per 3 Protection relay


Phase

Shielded cable with Cat 5E (min)


Adapter
L1 Protective relays must have LEA
(low energy analog) inputs compatible with
the Rogowski coil and RVD sensors
FT-14 Switch Digital

FT-14 Test Plug

Test set

Almost no analog wiring in the switchgear – increases reliability

August 6, 2020 Slide 20



Innovation workshop
MV sensors – easy to test and verify

Required tests Available primary injection test set

1. Primary injection test/ratio test – Omicron CPC 100


2. Polarity test
3. Secondary winding resistance test
4. Secondary circuit insulation resistance test
5. Magnetization curves test

August 6, 2020 Slide 21



Relays for digital switchgear
Future proof solution based on IEC 61850 and IEEE 802.3 standards

– Based on worldwide accepted IEC 61850 standard ensuring long-term


sustainability
– Ready to be connected to remote control (SCADA) systems 61850
– GOOSE messaging configured with software setting
– Available IEC 61850-9-2LE (Edition 2) features:
• Vertical communication
• Horizontal GOOSE communication
• Process bus
– LEA (Low Energy Analog) inputs with IEEE 802.3
(Cat 5E or better cables)

August 6, 2020 Slide 22



IEC 61850-9-2LE process bus and GOOSE messaging
One line diagram

Common Ethernet
Station bus (IEC 61850-8-1), process bus (IEC 61850-9-2 LE) and IEEE 1588 v2 time synchronization

GOOSE

GOOSE

GOOSE

GOOSE

GOOSE

GOOSE

GOOSE
SMV

SMV

SMV

SMV

SMV

SMV

SMV
Digital data

IED
Analog measurements

Voltage
sensor

Current
sensor

August 6, 2020 Slide 23



Benefits of digital switchgear

Value of digital switchgear

Safety Savings

Increased safety by eliminating access to Lower cost of ownership with increased


both the dangerous CT secondary signals maintenance intervals, lower inventory
and PT ferro-resonance. Switchgear costs and energy savings. Digital design
condition monitoring technologies offers space and weight savings leading
reduce personnel exposure due to less to lower switchgear housing costs and
unplanned maintenance. freight costs.

Speed Simplicity Sustainability

Flexibility in engineering and design with Reduction in hardware and wiring Enables future system expansion and
the ability to compress order to delivery creating a simpler design to install and provides flexibility in protection and
time and to accommodate late changes. maintain. Current and voltage sensors control scheme designs. Less material
provide greater reliability with a wide usage and reduction in lifetime energy
and linear range consumption within the switchgear.

August 6, 2020 Slide 25



Digital switchgear benefits
Reference project: ANSI switchgear at a US industrial user

5 kV, 2000A, 40 kA
PT
LINE
SIDE PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT
WITH VENT

PT
BUS
SIDE 2000A 52 INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT

1200A

PT COMPT PT COMPT

INSTCOMPT INSTCOMPT INSTCOMPT

2000A 52 1200A 52 1200A 52 1200A 52

2000A
1200A 1200A 1200A

A01.04 A01.05 A01.06 A01.07


Main Feeder Feeder Feeder B03.01 B03.02 B03.04 B03.05
52-1 52-2 52-3 52-4_52-5

August 6, 2020 Slide 26



Digital switchgear benefits
Reference project: ANSI switchgear at a US industrial user

LINE
SIDE
PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT
WITH VENT

BUS
SIDE
INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT

PT COMPT PT COMPT

INSTCOMPT INSTCOMPT

2000A
1200A 1200A

B03.01 B03.02 B03.04


52-1 52-2 52-3
B03.01 B03.02 B03.04
52-1 52-2 52-3

Footprint: -25%, costs: -8.9%

August 6, 2020 Slide 27



Digital switchgear benefits
Reference project: ANSI switchgear at a US industrial user

5 kV, 2000A, 40 kA
PT PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT PLENUM DUCT
LINE WITH VENT
SIDE

PT INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT


BUS
SIDE 2000A 52

PT COMPT PT COMPT

INSTCOMPT INSTCOMPT

2000A 52 1200A 52 1200A 52 1200A 52

2000A
1200A 1200A

A01.04 A01.05 A01.06 A01.07


Main Feeder Feeder Feeder
B03.01 B03.02 B03.04
52-1 52-2 52-3

Footprint: -25%, costs: -8.9%

August 6, 2020 Slide 28



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Increased safety

Safer switchgear operation

Sensor technology for current and voltage measurement ensures


a safer working environment for personnel
– When testing current and voltage signal secondary circuits, personnel is
not exposed to high-voltage
– Sensors are easier to work with compared to conventional
– Less material exposed to high-voltage electrical stress, decreasing risk of
failure

August 6, 2020 Slide 29



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Energy efficient and climate-friendly

Reduced environmental impact

Energy loss is minimized with the use of sensors


8900 x
Reduced resource consumption in manufacturing
– Saving potential of up to 250 MWh over 30 years
(sample switchgear with 14 frames and 42 CTs or Sensors)
– Saves up to 150 tons of CO2
– Reduced inventory requirements

August 6, 2020 Slide 30



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Energy savings

Feeder CTs Number of Number Power Energy consumption


panels of CTs consumption in 30 years Calculation for switchgear
secondary current

Incoming 1000:1/1A 2 6 140 VA 36 698 kWh with 14 frames:


CT w/1A rated

Outgoing 1 200:1/1A 8 24 448 VA 117 776 kWh – 2 incoming feeders with CTs 1000:x/x A
Outgoing 2 100:1/1A 4 12 102 VA 26 724 kWh – 8 outgoing feeders with CTs 200:x/x A
Total - 14 42 690 VA 181 198 kWh
– 4 outgoing feeders with CTs 100:x/x A
secondary current

Incoming 1000:5/5A 2 6 172 VA 45 244 kWh


CT w/5A rated

Outgoing 1 200:5/5A 8 24 629 VA 165 208 kWh


Outgoing 2 100:5/5A 4 12 179 VA 47 124 kWh
Total - 14 42 980 VA 257 576 kWh

Incoming 2 6 0.0000 VA 0.000 01 kWh


Outgoing 1 8 24 0.0000 VA 0.000 04 kWh
Sensor

Outgoing 2 4 12 0.0000 VA 0.000 02 kWh


Total - 14 42 0.0000 VA 0.000 07 kWh

Data table from: Paper 0103, CIRED 2013, Stockholm – “Application of IEC 61850-9-2 in MV Switchgear with Sensors Use”
August 6, 2020 Slide 31

Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Increased flexibility

Adapt easily when requirements change

You can adapt the switchgear as the requirements in your network change, e.g.
feeder current
– Digital switchgear can be adapted even at the final stage
of the manufacturing process
– Changes can be applied via updating parameters or logics
in a protection relay, no need to replace components
– IEC 61850 is future-proof standard, which ensures efficient
future updates

Increased
flexibility

August 6, 2020 Slide 32



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Reduced footprint

Reduced space requirement LPT LPT


1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A

– Minimized switchgear footprint as potential transformer compartments BPT BPT

can be completely eliminated, as voltage sensors can be mounted in the


INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT

cable compartment tapped to main bus INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT

– New generation of sensors are perfect fit in switchgear requiring less space 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A

and weigh significantly less

1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A

INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT

INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT INST COMPT

1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A 1200A

August 6, 2020 Slide 33



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Optimized weight

Reduced switchgear weight

Lowered impact on site


– Bus PT or Line PT compartments are not required
– Sensors are small and weigh less compared to conventional current
transformers (CT) and voltage transformers (VT)
– CTs and VTs weigh in the range of 40 - 60lbs while sensors weigh only 1.1 - Digital switchgear
4.5lbs.
– Average weight reduction of up to 28lbs per vertical section, depending on
the application
– Elimination of entire frames can reduce weight by thousands of pounds Optimized
weight
– Support structures and room layout can be adapted to lower weight
requirements
reduction

August 6, 2020 Slide 34



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Faster installation and commissioning

Reduced time spent on installation and commissioning

Reduced time for on site installation and commissioning activities, thanks to:
− Fewer panels to be installed
− Less inter-panel cabling
− Fewer components to test in the low voltage compartment
• Switchgear delivered pre-tested, which minimizes amount of time
needed for commissioning
− Late modifications in the commissioning phase can be quickly re- Reduction in
configured in the protection relays, with minimal installation,
or no hardware changes commissioning and
maintenance

Conventional Digital

August 6, 2020 Slide 35



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Faster delivery time

Improved delivery

Shorter time from ordering to operation


– Digital switchgear can be delivered faster thanks to
• One size fits all with sensor technology and is faster
than engineering CTs/PTs
• Wider range of operability for medium voltage applications
• Sensors available in stock
• Need for configuration in hardware wiring is minimized,
as changes can be made using the software logic
in the protection relays Improved
delivery

August 6, 2020 Slide 36



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Inventory reduction

Variants

Voltage transformers 10’s

Current transformers 100’s

Full range: up to 4000 A, 63 kA at 15kV; 2000A, 25 kA at 27 kV

Voltage sensors 2

Current sensors 2

August 6, 2020 Slide 37



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Increased switchgear reliability

Increased equipment reliability


Digital switchgear is based on well-proven switchgear platform, but uses Digital switchgear
sensors
– With sensors, less human interaction is required, which leads
to reduced risk of malfunction
– Sensors are smaller, reduce the risk of isolation degradation IEC 61850
in the switchgear
– Sensors are immune against grid disturbances, such
as ferro-resonance phenomenon
Digital communication
– Permanent active supervision of wiring and signal transfer
Increased
with IEC 61850 digital communication to enable fast and precise actions in
case of failures
reliability

August 6, 2020 Slide 38



Benefits of digital medium voltage switchgear
Increased system reliability

Benefits of IEC 61850 communication

Fast and reliable communication with IEC 61850, the global standard for
communications in substations
− Complex control transfer schemes can be configured using
the IEC 61850 compliant relays …

− Flexibility to adapt and change the switchgear, without costly and time-
consuming physical re-wiring Conventional approach
– Wiring between devices must be done
− Using the programmable logic in the protection relays, changes can be individually per signal
done easily and faster
− GOOSE communication between the substation equipment Communication Network (Ethernet)
for improved speed and reduced switchgear cabling
− Fewer wires reduces risk of failures

Horizontal GOOSE communication


– Number of interconnections is equal to
number of devices

August 6, 2020 Slide 39



IEC 61850-9-2LE process bus and GOOSE messaging in digital switchgear
Replacing copper with Ethernet

Before After

No cable tray

Single conduit
to carry fiber

Digital substation reduces wiring complexity and resulting risks for operations and maintenance personnel

August 6, 2020 Slide 40



Asset health monitoring
SwitchgearMD™

Asset health monitoring
Temperature monitoring: non-intrusive methods

IR cameras Fiber optic sensors Wireless active (battery powered) sensors


– Periodic measurement – Require direct surface contact – Require direct surface contact
– Require a pre-installed transparent window – Real-time monitoring – Real-time monitoring
– Requires line of sight through the window – Added installation costs of wiring – Can monitor any location inside the switchgear
thus limiting monitoring locations – Limits on mounting locations – Batteries have limited life-span and this introduces
– A good IR camera can be expensive – In dusty and humid environments the FO cable can additional maintenance headaches
– Require a technician to get close to the gear create a conductive ground path – Proper sensor and antenna location is essential

IR sensors Wireless passive sensors


– Line of sight required by the sensor thus limiting – Require direct surface contact
monitoring locations – Real-time monitoring
– Real-time monitoring – Can monitor any location inside the switchgear
– Added installation costs of wiring – Proper sensor and antenna location is essential
– Accuracy affected by emissivity and reflectivity of
adjacent surfaces
– Sensor susceptible to misalignment
due to vibration and shock

August 6, 2020 Slide 42



Asset health monitoring
Partial discharge monitoring

IEC 60270:2000+AMD1:2015 partial discharge IEC 62478:2016 high-voltage test techniques – measurement of partial discharge by
measurements electromagnetic and acoustic methods
Direct measurement of current and voltage spikes using high-frequency CTs Instruments use indirect analytical measurements to obtain a relative signature of PD pulses that can indicate trends
and HV capacitive couplers
TEV (transient earth voltage) measurement
Can analyze pulse shapes and plot discharge events relative
– Measure EM emissions conducted to ground (typical values 0.1mV to 1V each)
to the phase of the power line waveform
– Cannot always monitor faults between phases
– Expensive and require trained technicians to analyze the data
High frequency (HF) and VHF measurements
– Coupling detectors require a ground reference and this exposes
a potential failure mode and safety issue – Operate 3-300 MHz and use large antennas (not suited for switchgear) and HFCTs or coupled sensors (coupling impairs safety)
Acoustic measurements
– Use a microphone or acoustic sensor to monitor between 10 Hz and 300 KHz
– Wireless method
– Limited detection range due to sound damping within dielectric materials
UHF measurements
– Monitor transient EM waves in 300MHz to 3 GHz range.
PD dielectric breakdown causes a small, but sudden, – Selective, banded UHF monitoring allows noise rejection
rise in current accompanied by a current pulse, as well as electromagnetic, – Band-pass UHF PD detection
acoustic and ozone emissions
• Emission frequencies in 400-800MHz range often found in MV switchgear centered on cavity resonance

August 6, 2020 Slide 43



Asset health monitoring
Circuit breaker monitoring

Data retrieved from relays

– Circuit breaker opening time


– Circuit breaker closing time
– Spring charging time (for spring mech breakers)
– I2t (per phase)
– Number of operations
– Days of inactivity
– Trip coil supervision (Binary)
– Gas pressure (Binary) – for SF6 breakers

Measurements are retrieved with no additional sensors

August 6, 2020 Slide 44



Asset health monitoring
Sensor positioning

Control Ventilation Cable compartment


compartment chamber Sensors
(LV)

Data concentrator
Main bus
compartment

Power Supply Unit

Local HMI (current)

Breaker compartment

August 6, 2020 Slide 45



Asset health monitoring
Application recommendations

– Aging equipment that may be susceptible to primary cable failures


– Remote or isolated equipment that is difficult for personnel to access
– Critical power equipment that serve processes that would be costly to shut down
– Equipment used in unusual operating or environmental conditions that might decrease
the life of the switchgear, especially those in caustic environments
– Any new equipment where the end user wants to reduce the total cost of ownership
– Any new equipment where the end user wants to reduce the risks associated
with performing bus inspections or taking bus temperature readings

August 6, 2020 Slide 46



Reference projects

Digital switchgear
Global references

ABB has supplied >1500 digital switchgear panels in over 30 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas

August 6, 2020 Slide 48



Digital switchgear
Reference examples in Oil, Gas & Chemical/F&B

Food & Bev, US Major downstream company, ZA Chemical company, UK

– Number of frames: 4 – Number of frames: 21 – Number of frames: 20


– Voltage level: 4.16 kV – Voltage level: 3,3/6,6/11 kV – Voltage level: 11 kV
– Commissioned: 03/2019 – Commissioned: 08/2015 – Commissioned: 04/2016

– Main challenge: Modernize old existing switchgear – Main challenge: Substation usable on various voltage – Main challenge: Substation usable on various voltage
levels and easily movable at site levels and easily movable at site

UniGear Digital Switchgear (IEC) launched in Q4 2013


ANSI MV Digital Switchgear introduced in Q1 2018 and market launch in Q3 2020

August 6, 2020 Slide 49



Appendix A
IEC 61850 Basics for digital switchgear

MV digital switchgear connection and protocol standards
Background of improvements

Institute of Electrical International


and Electronics Engineers Electrotechnical Commission

Ethernet 802.3 Connection Standards IEC/IEEE 61850 Protocol Standards


1990: IEEE 802.3i – 10 Mbps 2003: IEC 61850-2 Glossary
1998: IEEE 802.3z – 1 Gbps 2009: IEC 61850-6 Configuration to IEDs
2002: IEEE 802.3ae – 10 Gbps (Cat 6) 2011: IEC 61850-8-1 Manufacturing Message Specification (GOOSE)
2006: IEEE 802.3an – 10 Gbps (Cat 6) 2011: IEC 61850-9-2 Sampled Values
2010: IEEE 802.3ba – 100 Gbps 2012: IEC 61850-10 Conformance testing
2016: IEC/IEEE 61850-9-3 - Precision Time Protocol for Power Utility
Automation

August 6, 2020 Slide 52



Introduction to IEC 61850
Station and process bus: physical allocation

Overview

Station bus
Serial connection between station level devices Station bus IEC 61850

– E.g., station computer, network gateway, bay level IEDs like protection and
control IEDs

Process bus
Serial connection between bay level IEDs and process interfaces
at the primary apparatus
Process bus IEC 61850
– E.g., voltage and current sensors
– Disconnectors, earthing switches, circuit breakers
MU
I/O MU I/O

NCIT

NCIT: non-conventional instrument transformer

August 6, 2020 Slide 53



Introduction to IEC 61850
IEC 61850 services on station bus

Overview

Station bus
Data is transferred according IEC 61850-8-1 for: Station bus IEC 61850

– Control service
• Commands
– Report Service
• Indications to IEC 61850 clients
– GOOSE service
• Indication and information exchange between bay level IEDs Process bus IEC 61850

– File transfer service


• Transmission of disturbance records MU
I/O MU I/O

NCIT

NCIT: non-conventional instrument transformer

August 6, 2020 Slide 54



Introduction to IEC 61850
IEC 61850 services on process bus

Overview

Process bus
Data is transferred according IEC 61850-8-1 for: Station bus IEC 61850

– GOOSE service
• Binary states like switch/CB positions
• Trips
• Commands

Data is transferred according IEC 61850-9-2 for: Process bus IEC 61850

– Sampled value service


• Sampled current and voltage measurements MU
I/O MU I/O

NCIT

NCIT: non-conventional instrument transformer

August 6, 2020 Slide 55



Protocol characteristics
GOOSE vs sampled measured values (SMV)

8-1 GOOSE 9-2 SV

Characteristics Event driven Streaming

Information transmitted Binary, Enum Analog

Update rate On data change Continuous


Repetitive Sampling rate
Update intervals 1ms…1s 200-250us

August 6, 2020 Slide 56



Appendix B
Bus protection applications

Bus protection
Principle of operation (internal bus fault)

Bus protection

– Bus fault occurs

– At least one reverse direction (REV) element is detected


67-1 67-1 67-1 67-1
– Not any forward direction (FWD) element is pending P/N P/N P/N P/N

67-2 (Master) 67-2 67-2 67-2


– The “master” relay trips and block-closes all contributing breaker P/N
(Backup)
P/N P/N P/N

via GOOSE
REV REV REV REV

Source #1 Source #2 Feeder #1 Feeder #2

Ethernet Switch

August 6, 2020 Slide 58



Bus protection
Principle of operation (external through fault)

Bus protection

– An external/through fault occurs, i.e., on Feeder #2

– Feeder #2 relay FWD detected


67-1 67-1 67-1 67-1
– The rest of relays either see REV or not FWD P/N P/N P/N P/N

67-2 (Master) 67-2 67-2 67-2


– ONLY Feeder #2 breaker trips P/N
(Backup)
P/N P/N P/N

REV REV REV FWD

Source #1 Source #2 Feeder #1 Feeder #2

Ethernet Switch

August 6, 2020 Slide 59



Bus protection
Scheme validation testing results

Operating times for internal bus fault Operating times for external through fault

Trials Processing time (ms) Processing time (cy) Trials Processing time (ms) Processing time (cy)
1 50.50 3.03 1 50.10 3.01
2 51.00 3.06 2 53.20 3.19
3 49.70 2.98 3 53.20 3.19
4 55.30 3.32 4 50.90 3.05
5 51.50 3.09 5 51.20 3.07
6 51.80 3.11 6 51.60 3.10
7 52.10 3.13 7 56.10 3.37
8 55.20 3.31 8 51.20 3.07
9 56.60 3.40 9 53.30 3.20
10 54.20 3.25 10 55.50 3.33
Average 52.79 3.17 Average 52.63 3.16

August 6, 2020 Slide 60



Bus protection
Novel method using GOOSE messaging

Bus protection

– Utilization of directional overcurrent elements of feeder protection relays


– Dedicated bus protection relay and associated current transformers are not required (reduces footprint)
– Reliable: operates only upon a fault on the protected bus
• All contributing breakers are tripped and block-closed
• Acceptable operating speed ~3.16 cycles (50.5 ms)
– Secure: able to distinguish between internal and external (through) faults
• Allows the individual breaker to trip first to maximize system reliability

August 6, 2020 Slide 61



Bus protection
Communication redundancy

– IEC 61850 Ethernet Redundancy – HSR High-availability Seamless


Redundancy (self-healing ring)
– IEC 61850 Ethernet Redundancy – PRP Parallel Redundancy Protocol
(double star network)
– Supports IEEE 1588 V2 precision time protocol (PTP) 67-1 67-1 67-1 67-1
P/N P/N P/N P/N
high-accuracy time sync of 1µs
67-2 (Master) 67-2 67-2 67-2
P/N P/N P/N P/N
(Backup)

Source #1 Source #2 Feeder #1 Feeder #2

Ethernet Switch Ethernet Switch

August 6, 2020 Slide 62



Appendix C
Application areas from components to solutions

Single-line diagram applications

MTM Configuration
∆ ∆ Loads – 500HP motor, long feeder, secondary selective
Y Y substations/ low voltage switchgear
Y or ∆ Y or ∆

3
3 REF615 Conf N
3
3 REF615 Conf N
Without digital switchgear - extensive wiring of I/O
for controls, PT wiring between cubicles for bus voltage
67P/51P/50P 67P/51P/50P
50BF 50BF
67G/51G/50G
52 52 67G/51G/50G
27
27R
25
27
27R
monitoring
AFD 25
AFD
Ferro resonance on PT’s, CT saturation studies
52
Y or ∆ 3 Y or ∆
3 1 3 1

REF615 Conf B REF615 Conf D REF615 Conf P REF615 Conf F REF615 Conf F
3 3 3 3 3 3
51P/50P 51P/50P 67P/51P/50P 51P/50P 51P/50P
50BF 50BF 50BF 50BF 50BF
49M 67/51G/50G 67N/51N/50N 67/51G/50G 67/51G/50G
52 51LR/66 52 AFD 27 52 AFD 52 AFD
27/27PS 87L 27R
59 25
RTD AFD
AFD

Long
M 500HP Feeder

August 6, 2020 Slide 64



Bus protection application

Relays that support IEC 61850-9-2LE provide real-time sharing of


∆ ∆
information accurate enough for protection and control
Y
Va, Vb, Vc
Y
Va, Vb, Vc
In this example, voltage samples are shared at rate
REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L of 80 samples per cycle for protection
Bus-bar protection can be achieved using Zone Selective
31 67P/51P/50P 31 67P/51P/50P
50BF 50BF
67G/51G/50G 67G/51G/50G
52 52
27
27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE
25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE
27
27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE
25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE
Interlocking (ZSI) scheme through GOOSE messaging
AFD AFD

Sensors are immune to CT saturation and ferro resonance


52
31

Va, Vb, Vc Va, Vb, Vc

31 31 31 31
REF615 Conf D REF615 Conf E REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L
51P/50P 51P/50P 67P/51P/50P 51P/50P 51P/50P
50BF 50BF 50BF 50BF 50BF
27R 67/51G/50G 67N/51N/50N 67/51G/50G 67/51G/50G
52 46R 52 AFD 27 52 AFD 52 AFD
66/51 LRS 87L 27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE
49M 25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE IEC 61850 9-2LE (SV), GOOSE
AFD AFD
RTD – via RI 0600
GFCT

Voltage Sensors
Va, Vb, Vc
Long
M 500HP Feeder 31
Current Sensors

August 6, 2020 Slide 65



Line protection application

SSC600
∆ Centralized
Protection, Control

Y Va, Vb, Vc


Voltage Protection
Current Protection Y Va, Vb, Vc
– Frequency
Protection
– Line Differential
REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L
– Line Distance

31 67P/51P/50P 31 67P/51P/50P
50BF 50BF
67G/51G/50G 67G/51G/50G
27 27

52 27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE


25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE
52 27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE
25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE
AFD AFD

52
31
Va, Vb, Vc Va, Vb, Vc

31 31 31 31
REF615 Conf D REF615 Conf E REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L REF615 Conf L
51P/50P 51P/50P 67P/51P/50P 51P/50P
50BF 50BF 50BF 51P/50P
50BF 50BF
27R 67/51G/50G 67N/51N/50N 67/51G/50G
46R AFD AFD 67/51G/50G
27
52 66/51 LRS 52 87L 27R via IEC 61850-9-2LE 52 52 AFD
49M 25 via IEC 61850-9-2LE
AFD AFD
RTD – via RI 0600

Long
Feeder
87L

M 500HP

Y

REF615 Conf D IEC 61850 9-2LE (SV), GOOSE


3 51P/50P
50BF
67/51G/50G

52
AFD
87L GFCT

Voltage Sensors
Va, Vb, Vc

31
Current Sensors

M M

August 6, 2020 Slide 66



Appendix D
Smart substation control and protection

Smart substation control and protection

– Centralized, protection and control in one single device


at a Substation level for reduced network complexity Control Center
– Ease of adding additional functions, changing protection philosophy after
commissioning of apparatus
Gateway COM600
– Back-up protection provided by individual merging unit relay
in switchgear SSC600

– Lower total cost of ownership of “protection and control system”


– Fully modular software for maximum flexibility during the entire lifetime of
the substation Primary IEEE 1588 v2
GPS master clock

– Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) provides additional redundancy in


communication and protection scheme

SMU615
MU as backup
IEEE 1588 v2 master

August 6, 2020 Slide 68



Smart substation control and protection

Base protection functionality Power transformer protection Machine protection Power quality measurements

– Overcurrent – Protection for two winding power – Protection of asynchronous – Current and voltage distortions
– Earthfault transformers machines – Voltage variation
– Fault recorder – Voltage unbalance
– Switchgear control
– Voltage
– Frequency

Feeder/line protection Interconnection protection On-load tap changer control Arc protection option

– Extensive earth-fault protection – Protection of interconnection points – Position indication – Protection against arc flash
– Fault locator of distributed generation units – Voltage regulation – Light sensing in merging units
– Distance protection – Line drop compensation

August 6, 2020 Slide 69