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Other Missiles
Grom-1 and Grom-2
The Grom-1 and Grom-2 missiles are made for use against targets on the land and the
water, and are used in tactical and operational depth of enemy battle field, destroying
enemy hardpoints such as installations, bunkera, and mobile targets, such are tanks and
artillery. The system consists of guided air-to-surface missile, airplane and ground
eqipment.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 3333 mm
Diameter 300 mm
Wingspan 802 mm
Weight 330 kg
Warhead 104 kg, explosive, fragmental and cummulative
Propulsion two motors, solid fuel
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 12 km
range
altitude 6000 m
Grom-1 radio guided
Guidance mode
Grom-2 TV (improoved in 1996)
temperature of usage -40 degree C to +50 degree C.
Precision 50% of hit on 10m diameter
Cumulative (anti-tank) penetration 1100 mm of
penetration armour steel,
2500 mm of concrete guidance
Bumbar (Bumble Bee)
The Bumbar (Bumble Bee) is a Yugoslav anti-tank missile, based on the Eryx missile,
that features a highly manoeuvarble direct thrust vector control system located at the
missile's center of gravity. With separate ejection and sustainer rocket motors, the first
enables soft launching and the second ensures high thrust and flight velocity with short
flight time up to maximum range. The CCD localizer and guidance computer within the
firing post provide an exellent antijaming protection, using the microcamle to guide the
missile. The major parts of weapon are made of non-metalic materials, plastics or light-
metal alloys so the weapon is lightweight.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 0.9 m
Diameter 136 mm
Wingspan
mass of the missile round 12 kg
mass of the missile 10 kg
Weight mass of the firing post 4 kg
mass of the tripod 2 kg
Warhead anti-ERA, tandem warhed
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
effective range 60 to 600m
flight time up to maximum range less than 5 sec
Guidance mode
penetration behind ERA 1000mm of RHA
system reliability higher than 90%
Single-shot hit
more than 90%
probability
Sky Bow I / Tien Kung I
Tien-Kung, a surface-to-air missile system designed for air
defense against intensive aircraft attack,equipped with a single
stage dual thrust solid propellant rocket motor and guided by
mid-course inertial reference and radar in the terminal phase, is
capable of multi-target tracking and automatic multi-target
engagement. In 1993 Taiwan bought surface-to-air missile
(SAM) system components from Raytheon of the USA, at a cost
of $1.1 billion. There were direct offsets - joint development and
technology transfers. Taiwan is to develop and produce this Tien
Kung (Sky Bow) SAM system, a derivative of the Patriot system.
The missiles are deployed in underground cells, each housing
four missiles protected by a concrete wall a meter thick.
Raytheon is to provide the missile forebody, ground support
equipment, training, maintenance and technical support. Patriot
was sold to Taiwan in 1993.

Taiwan's overall air defense architecture consists of three sets of


US-made Patriot missile systems [200 Patriot missiles total] primarily intended to
intercept guided missiles, deployed at three locations Nankang, Linkou and Wanli around
heavily-populated Taipei. Six sets of Tien Kung I and Tien Kung II missile systems are
responsible for medium- and high-altitude targets. The 20 Hawk missile bases are
responsible for targets in the low- to medium- altitudes.

Taiwan has placed Tien Kung long- range ground-to-air missiles and "Hsiung Feng"
long-range shore-to-ship missiles on the Jinmen and Matsu islands, only 10 km from the
mainland, bringing the whole of Fujian Province and some airspace and important ports
in Zhejiang and Guangdong within range of the missiles.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 100km
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Sky Bow II / Tien Kung II
Taiwan's overall air defense architecture consists of three sets of Patriot missile systems,
primarily intended to intercept guided missiles, along with six sets of Tien Kung I and
Tien Kung II missile systems responsible for medium- and high-altitude targets. The
T'IEN-KUNG II SAM is 9.1 meters long, has a diameter of 0.57 meters, weighs 1,100
kilograms, and has a top speed of Mach 4.0, a maximum range of 100 kilometers, and a
warhead weighing 90 kilograms. In the Fall of 1998 Taiwan successfully test fired a radar
guided interceptor variant of it's Tien Kung missile. The anti-missile missile is reported
to have intercepted a target missile in southern Pingtung. The interceptor is designed for
use against the Chinese M type missile, they have also ordered 200 PAC2 an upgraded
version of the Patriot missile system.
In mid-September 1998 Taiwan test fired a missile which successfully intercepted
another one in a further step forward in the island's efforts to build its own anti-missile
weaponry. An updated verion of the locally designed Tien Kung II was launched from a
base in the southern county of Pingtung and hit another fired from Chengkung,
southeastern Taiwan. Unconfirmed reports said the military-funded Chungshan Institute
of Science and Technology tested an anti-tactical ballistic missile (ATBM) in July 1998
which destroyed its target at a speed of Mach Four.
It is said that Taiwan's future SSMs will be a modification of the T'IEN-KUNG II . If the
T'IEN-KUNG II is used as the basis for the SSM modification, its estimated external
measurements would not be very greatly changed, but the weight of the warhead could be
increased to 150 kilograms and the maximum surface target range absolutely would
exceed 300 kilometers and should be about 320 kilometers. Based on Taiwan's current
level of technology and equipment, the accuracy of Taiwan's guided missile should be
within about a 1,000 meter circumference of the aiming point.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 9.1 meters
Diameter 0.57 meters
Wingspan
Weight 1,100 kilograms
Warhead Weight 90 kilograms
Propulsion
Maximum Speed Mach 4.0
Maximum effective 200km
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Tien Chien-I / Sky Sword-I
Tien-Chien I, an infrared guided short range air-to-air missile, with all-aspect attack, fire
& forget, high maneuvering, and precision guidance capabilities, can be carried by
various types of fighters including the Ching-Kuo IDF to achieve air superiority. The
PLAAF currently has in its inventory a number of AAMs which are superior to those in
Taiwan's inventory. The Russian-built AA-11/ARCHER infrared (IR) AAM carried on
the Su-27 is superior to Taiwan's AIM-9/SIDEWINDER and indigenously-produced Tien
Chien-I/ Sky Sword-I IR AAM. China's AA-10a/ALAMO missiles, on the other hand,
are roughly comparable to, or slightly less capable than, Taiwan's AIM-7/SPARROWs.

The CS/MPQ-78 is a mobile fire control radar, which can be incorporated with both gun
and missile to execute low altitude air defense missions. The CS/MPQ-78 short-range air
defense fire control radar developed by the Chungshan Institute of Science and
Technology is composed of a search radar, a track radar and a photoelectric monitor. The
search and track radars cover both medium-altitude and low- altitude air space, with a
distance precision accuracy of around 10 meters. Its fire control system, combined with
35mm and 40mm rapid-fire guns and land-based Sky Sword I air defense missile, can
offer an adequate short-range air defense; and it has a multiple anti-jamming function.
Tien Chien-II / Sky Sword-II
The recently developed Tien-Chien II, an air-to-air missile with midcourse inertial
navigation and terminal guidance, possesses multi-target engagement and ECCM
capabilities. The Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology Second Institute is
engaged in follow-up research and development projects, including preparatory research
and development of the Sky Sword II-A weapon system, concerning which no details
have been made public, as well as development of naval and ground launch applications
of Sky Sword missiles.
Hsiung-Feng I
Hsiung-Feng I is a self-developed ship-to-ship missile system. Its hit probability and
reliability under any combat conditions are competitive with others in the world.
Hsiung-Feng II
From the experience and technology gained from the Hsiung-Feng I development project,
and extended range Hsiung-Feng II missile was developed with anti-jamming seeker and
an automatic engagement capability. This antiship guided missile is 4.6 meters long, has
a diameter of 0.34 meters, weighs 685 kilograms, and has a range of 80 kilometers, a
speed of Mach 0.65, and a warhead weighing 180 kilograms [some reports state that the
warhead weighs 225 kilograms]. Some reports claim that the top speed of the the
HSIUNG-FENG II antiship guided missile is as high as Mach 0.85. But the similar
United States HARPOON guided missile also has a speed of only Mach 0.75 and
theTOMAHAWK guided missile has a speed of Mach 0.72.

There are three versions to be launched from sea, air and ground on various platforms.
The Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology Second Institute is engaged in
follow-up research and development projects, including preparatory research and
development of the Hsiung Feng II-E weapon system, concerning which no details have
been made public.

Taiwan's future SSM may be a cruise missile based on the current HSIUNG-FENG II
antiship guided missile. If the HSIUNG-FENG II antiship guided missile is used as a
basis for remaking the SSM, then based on cruise missile characteristics the external form
and weight of the modified SSM would be basically the same as the original antiship
guided missile. The range could be increased to about 230 kilometers, but the speed still
would be Mach 0.65. Because of the increased range, it would be necessary to increase
the amount of fuel. The weight of the warhead would be reduced to 150 or 100 kilograms
and the accuracy would be about 100 meters.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 4.6 meters
Diameter 0.34 meters
Wingspan
Weight 685 kilograms
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
80 kilometers
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Hsiung Feng III
The Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology Second Institute is engaged in
follow-up research and development projects, including preparatory research and
development of the Hsiung Feng III artillery rocket weapon system, concerning which no
details have been made public.
Kung Feng 6
Kung-Feng 6 MLRS(multi-launched rocket system) is a high-power,mobile, easy-to-
operate artillery rocket system. With suppression,shock and lethal capabilities, it is an
effective weapon against anti-anti-landing.
Lei Ting-2000
The Lei Ting-2000 multiple artillery rocket system, which made its debut during the 1997
"Han Kuang" [Glory of the Han People] Exercise, is a new-generation multiple artillery
rocket system designed to attack invading enemy at sea. Its self-propelled launch vehicle
has magazine-fed launchers and fire control, positioning and direction-finding equipment,
capable of rapidly determining the position of the launch vehicle and the firing direction.
It can automatically train and elevate launch tubes and compute firing data. It has three
types of rockets -- MK15, MK30 and MK45 -- with AP/AM dual-function cluster
warhead or steel-ball shrapnel high-explosive warhead. This rocket system can wipe out
invading enemy troops in area between ship's landings and beachheads within its firing
range.
Type-81 Tan-SAM SAM-1J
The Japanese Type 81 Tan-SAM is one of the latest additions to the Japan Self-Defense
Force's arsenal. It is a lightweight, portable system for use against low-to-medium level
targets, and is intended to replace the aging HAWK system (both HAWK models also in
this catalog). Tan-SAM (TAN meaning "short," as in "short-range") uses an improved,
much more compact tracking system than HAWK, has a range of approximately 10 km,
and reaches speeds of Mach 2.4. The missile is only 2.7 meters long and 16 centimeters
in diameter, putting it in the approximate size of Roland.

Specifications
Contractor Toshiba
Entered Service 1982
Total length 2.7m
Diameter 0.16m
Wingspan
Weight 100kg
Warhead Weight 9kg HE fragmentation
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
10 km
range
Guidance mode In Sight Lock-on + IR Homing
Single-shot hit
probability
Type 91 (SAM-2)
Type 93 (SAM-3)
The Type 91 (SAM-2) and Type 93 (SAM-3) are Man-Portable Surface-to-Air Missiles.
The Defense Agency made a requirement of using the Type-91 SAM missile as an air-to-
air missile for the OH-X project. This required developing a launcher able to adapt to
such changing environmental conditions ashelicopter mount vibration.

Specifications
Contractor Toshiba
1991 - Type 91 (SAM-2)
Entered Service
1993 - Type 93 (SAM-3)
Total length 1.43 meters
Diameter 0.08 meters
Wingspan
Weight 11.5 kg
Warhead HE fragmentation
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
5 km
range
Guidance mode IR and visible imaging
Single-shot hit
probability
Chu-SAM
The New Medium Range Surface-to-Air MissileSystem (Chu-SAM), as the replacement
of the Improved Hawk System, will provide overall air defense coverage over army
operation areas to protect units and facilities. This missile will be precisely guided to the
target by the combination of pre-programmed navigation, up-to-date command link, and
active radar homing. The Hawk has been used for more than 30 years with a succession
of model changes. The new Chu-SAM is intended to feature a balance of such
interconnected elements as a strong warhead to destroy aircraft, air-to-surface missiles
[ASM], and cruise missiles, a launch system allowing its use anywhere, automation to
reduce greatly the number of operators required, compact size made possible by high
integration technology and a good life-cycle cost. The major technologies will include
jamming-resistant radar to play the role of multiple eyes with a single unit applying the
special signal processing being implemented in the field of communications and a
guidance method with which the missile tracks its target by emitting its own radio
signals. In addition, as one of the most important features, the new Chu-SAM should
have the capability to deal with over-the-horizon [OTH] firing, which is suitable for
Japan's mountainous topography, instantaneously predicting the location of a target that
has disappeared behind a mountain based on topographic information and guiding the
missile to the position where the target should be.
XAAM-4 Medium Range Air-to-Air
Missile
Short Range Ship-to-Air Missile
Japan is also developing the XAAM-4 to succeed the Sparrow. The initial letter of the
XAAM-4, "X," indicates that this model is under development and that this is the fourth
AAM developed in Japan. The XAAM-4 is composed of the guidance control blocks
controlling target acquisition, guidance and flight, the warhead which destroys the target,
the propulsion system for flying the missile, wings, etc. The transmitter used in the
XAAM-4 is compact and has an extremely high performance thanks to the extensive use
of Japan's own advanced semiconductor technology.

The XAAM-4 has a longer range than the Sparrow and uses a composite guidance
system, with which it is initially guided according to the target data transmitted from the
firing aircraft but it later starts to emit radar waves itself to acquire and track the target.
The firing aircraft carrying the XAAM-4 fires it from a long distance and can retreat
before it hits the target to start the next action. This makes it possible to assure a higher
survival probability of the firing aircraft than the previous MRMs based on a semi-active
radar homing system.

As the XAAM-4 is based on an active radar homing system, the firing aircraft can fire
several missiles independently to hit multiple targets acquired and tracked. This leads to
simultaneous measures against multiple targets. The use of advanced semiconductor
technology has made it possible to mount a signal processor with very complicated signal
processing in the small space available in a missile. This has given the XAAM- 4 an
excellent ECCM capability which allows it to acquire and track the target even when
subject to enemy ECM.

By utilizing and extending the component technology of the New Medium Range Air-to-
Air Missile (XAAM-4) (which has an active radar homing seeker), the New Short Range
Ship-to-Air Missile System seaborne missile system will cope simultaneously with
multiple targets including low altitude incoming threats and high speed diving threats to
protect naval vessels in the twenty-first century.
AAM-3
The history of air-to-air missile [AAM] R&D in Japan started in 1955. The missiles are
called the AAM-1, 2, and 3, the order in which they were developed. Japan has
completed the development of the Type 90 AAM (AAM-3) with an improved turning
performance, infrared counter-counter measures (IRCCM) capability and off-boresight
capability. The AAM -3 is expected to replace the American Sidewinders, and the GSDF
already fields the AAM-3. At present, research into SRMs is continuing to improve the
off-boresight and IRCCM capabilities to deal with future threats.
XAAM-5 Short Range Air-to-Air Missile
To effectively deal with the future air threats in the early next century, the XAAM-5
Short Range Air-to-Air Missile IR homing dog-fighting missile will give extended lock-
on range, improved off bore-sight, and enhanced IRCCM capabilities.
Type 80 ASM-1
The Japanese Type 80 ASM-1 Missile is designed primarily as an air-launched coastal
defense weapon. In practice it could be used against a variety of surface targets, including
ships, truck convoys, light armored vehicles, buildings and bridges. With the addition of
a solid-fuel booster stage, this missile is also used as part of the ground-launched SSM-1
system.

Based on the Type-80 Air-to-Ship Missile, various anti-ship systems including Type-88
SSM (Surface-to-Ship Missile), Type-90 SSM (Ship-to-Ship Missile), Type-91 and 93
ASMs (Air-to-Ship Missile) have been developed. These systems comprise the Japanese
anti-ship missile family and are deployed in the Ground, Maritime, and Air Self Defense
Forces.

Specifications
Contractor Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Entered Service 1980
Total length 4.0 m
Diameter 0.35 m
Wingspan 1.2 m
Weight 600 kg
Warhead 150kgHE semi-armor piercing
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
50 km
range
Guidance mode Inertial + active radar
Single-shot hit
probability
ASM-2 Type 93
Based on the Type-80 Air-to-Ship Missile, various anti-ship systems including Type-88
SSM (Surface-to-Ship Missile), Type-90 SSM (Ship-to-Ship Missile), Type-91 and 93
ASMs (Air-to-Ship Missile) have been developed. These systems comprise the Japanese
anti-ship missile family and are deployed in the Ground, Maritime, and Air Self Defense
Forces. Compared to the previous Type-80 ASM-1 anti-shipping missile, the Type 93
features a turbojet engine providing twice the range of the Type-80's solid rocket, and
improved accuracy through infrared imaging terminal homing system developed by
Fujitsu .

Specifications
Contractor Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Entered Service 1995
Total length 4.0 m
Diameter 0.35 m
Wingspan 1.2 m
Weight 530 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion Turbojet
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
100 km
range
Guidance mode Inertial + infrared imaging
Single-shot hit
probability
Type 88 SSM
Type 90 (SSM-1B)
Based on the Type-80 Air-to-Ship Missile, various anti-ship systems including Type-88
SSM (Surface-to-Ship Missile), Type-90 SSM (Ship-to-Ship Missile), Type-91 and 93
ASMs (Air-to-Ship Missile) have been developed. These systems comprise the Japanese
anti-ship missile family and are deployed in the Ground, Maritime, and Air Self Defense
Forces.

Specifications
Contractor Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
1988 - Type 88 SSM
Entered Service
1990 - Type 90 (SSM-1B)
Total length 5.1m
Diameter 0.35m
Wingspan
Weight 660 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion Turbojet
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 180 km - Type 88 SSM
range 150 km - Type 90 (SSM-1B)
Guidance mode Inertial guidance + active radar homing
Type 88 SSM = 320(?), 48 TEL vehicles(?)
Deployment Type 90 (SSM-1B) = About 40 as of 1994
Type-87 Chu-MAT anti-tank missile
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. [KHI] has long been involved as a prime contractor in
the development and mass production of anti-tank missiles [MAT]. Three such weapons
continue in production: the Type-64 MAT, the Type-79 anti- ship/anti-armor missile and
the Type-87 MAT. The Type-64, adopted over three decades ago, still remains as Self-
Defense Forces equipment.

Specifications
Contractor Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors
Entered Service 1987
Total length 1.1m
Diameter 0.11m
Wingspan
Weight 12kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 2 km
range
Guidance mode Semiactive Laser homing
Single-shot hit
probability
Type-96 Multi-Purpose Missile System
The Type-96 Multi-Purpose Missile System is a fiber-optic guided missile system with
infrared image seeker against landing craft and tanks. The FY1996 national government's
budget allocates equipment funds for a "multiple target guided missile system." The
reason that the term "multiple target" was used in the name was to show that the system
is to be able to handle targets other than tanks and ships. This is to be a revolutionary new
system in which targets that are difficult for the operator to see directly, such as air-
cushioned water craft, hovering helicopters, and structures located in difficult terrain will
be detected by an infrared sensor in the forward part of the missile and the information
relayed by optical fibers to the screen of the guidance device, where the operator can
monitor things on the screen and make adjustments. (This is known as the optical fiber
TVM infrared imaging guidance method).

Moreover, in order to enhance the concealibility of the launch device, this system
incorporates another special feature for the first time, a vertical firing mode. Compared to
conventional anti- tank ordnance, this system will be rather large. The critical component
elements for development will be quite varied, including guidance firing weapons, optical
fiber reels, image transmission equipment, vertical launch devices and combat command
systems for use at the company level, as well as the related software for these functions.
This will be Japan's first missile system in which all digital control has been provided for
the guidance, command, and control functions.

Development of the this new heavy MAT commenced in FY1990. In August 1995, the
Ground Self-Defense Force [GSDF] completed its practical testing. During that interval,
KHI as the manufacturer was responsible for testing and test support.
XATM-5 Light Anti-Tank Missile [MAT]
As the replacement of the current 84mm recoilless rifle carried by infantry unit, the
XATM-5 Light Anti-Tank Missile short range portable anti-tank missile is now under
development and expected to have higher survivability and man-power savings.
The "light MAT" is being tested as a successor to the 84mm recoil-less gun, and is to be
an MAT. However, quite a few requirements are involved, including portability and
operability by a single soldier, improving on conventional anti-armor technology and use
of "design-to-cost" technology. Research and testing has been ongoing since FY1993
(phase 2), and was completed in late FY1996. What distinguishs this new weapon from
conventional MATs are its firing method (no guidance is required after firing), its short
reaction time (it fires immediately), its cover, and inherent firing capabilities (It can be
hidden and fired within a confined area, and there is little back draft after firing).
Since the missile is intended to be carried by one person, it must be compact and
lightweight. After emerging from the equipment, the rocket will ignite and become self-
propelled. The heart of the missile is the infrared sensor. For the cooling the new system
switched from conventional, and expensive, nitrogen gas to a new method that even
without cooling allows an image to form in a short period of time. The infrared sensor
element uses a silicon semiconductor manufacturing process.
Akash (Sky) surface-to-air missile
Akash is a mobile area defense medium-range medium and high altitude surface-to-air
missile with a range of 27 to 30 kilometers. Akash has a multi-target handling capability,
and employs a command guidance system with provision for terminal guidance. Powered
by a ram rocket propulsion and an air breathing engine, Akash can cut through electronic
jamming with its electronic couter-counter measure equipment. It has a capacity to carry
50 kg payload. The missile has a height ceiling of 18,000 meters and is capable of
detecting and destroying aircraft flying at tree top height. The missile system’s fire
control radar is a multi-target and multi-function phased array radar called 'Rajendra' with
a range of about 60-km, working in tandem. The radar and the missile can track 64
targets of which four can be engaged simultaneously. The BEL-developed "Rajendra"
multi-functional radar system has been integrated with the system. The Akash self
propelled launcher (ASPL) and Phased Array Radar have been been developed, though it
has yet to enter the production/induction phase. For training the men and officers in
handling Akash, scientists have developed simulator of the missile's seeker head in look
down role and battery level radar under clutter and jamming environment.
It is a part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) undertaken
by the Defence Rasearch Development Organisation (DRDO) in 1983. The system has
undergone a few tests earlier to gauge proposition parameters and predicted values. By
1998 five flight trials had been conducted. India's IGMDP was launched in July 1983.
Initially, it had a budget of around Rs 400 crore, but it has since been revised Rs 800
crore. The major programs under the IGMDP are the development of missiles including
Agni, Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and the Nag. The Sagarika and the Surya have since been
added to the IGMDP.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
27 to 30 kilometers
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Astra air-to-air missile
India is developing a medium-range air-to-air missile called Astra, with test flights
scheduled for late 1999. India would become the first of the developing countries to
develop such a state-of-the-art air-to-air missile. The missile will give IAF fighters an
edge in an air battle, as the Pakistan Air Force does not have such a beyond-visual-range
[BVR] missile with a “fire-and-forget” capability in its arsenal. India's Defence Research
and Development Organisation (DRDO) is developing this advanced beyond visual range
air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) for the Mirage 2000, MIG-29, Sea Harrier, Su-30, and the
Light Combat Aircraft [LCA].
The missile will augment the IAF’s BVR arsenal, which includes the Matra Super 530D,
the AA-10 Alamo-C and the AA-12 Adder. The Astra is intended to have performance
characteristics similar to the AA-12 Adder. The Russian-made Adder has a range of 100
km and files at four times the speed of sound. The AA-10 Alamo-C has the longest range
of missiles in IAF service, with a range of 130 km.

Astra is said to be configured like a long Matra 530, narrower in front of the wings. The
missile would be capable of turning at a '40 G-plus rate' with an eventual operational
range of over 100 km. Initially designed to use a locally-developed solid fuel propellant,
DRDO is also looking at rocket/ramjet propulsion to provide greater range and an
enhanced kinematic performance. The missile is 3.8 meters long and equipped with an
active radar-seeker. The Astra will use a mid course internal guidance system to track
target aircraft. The missile has an active radar seeker to find targets, and electronic
counter measure capabilities that allow the missile to jam radar signals from an enemy
surface-to-air battery to ensure that the Astra is not tracked or shot down. Astra would
have a 15 kg warhead with a proximity fuse.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length 3.8 meters
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead 15 kg warhead with proximity fuse
Propulsion solid fuel or rocket/ramjet
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
over 100 km [eventually]
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Nag (Cobra) anti-tank missile
Nag is a third- generation "fire and forget" anti-tank guided missile with a range of 4 to 6
kilometers. Nag can be mounted on an infantry combat vehicle and helicopter launched
version of Nag is also available. Nag is India's third generation anti-tank missile, having
an all weather capability. Capable of defeating modern armour, Nag uses Imaging Infra-
Red (IIR) guidance having both day and night capability. As of 1998 18 flight trails had
been conducted, though it has yet to enter the production/induction phase.

Both Army and Air Force versions are being tested separately. For the Army, the missiles
will be carried by specialist carrier vehicles equipped with a thermal imager for target
acquisition. It can carry tour missiles at a time. For the Air Force, a nose-mounted
thermal imaging system has been developed for guiding the missile's trajectory. A twin
launcher for the Advanced Light Helicopter and a single launcher for Cheetah helicopter
have also been successfully developed.

India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was launched in July
1983. Initially, it had a budget of around Rs 400 crore, but it has since been revised Rs
800 crore. The major programs under the IGMDP are the development of missiles
including Agni, Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and the Nag. The Sagarika and the Surya have
since been added to the IGMDP.

Specifications
Contractor
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
4 km
range
Guidance mode infra-red
Single-shot hit
probability
Trishul (Trident) anti-ship missile
Trishul is intended to counter a low level attack with a very quick reaction time and has
an all weather capability. Trishul has a range of 9 km and is designed to counter a low
level attack with a very quick reaction time. It is all all-weather surface-to-air-missile
which call, when employed with the fire Control Flycatcher radar, blow a hole in the
enemy's plan. With a radar-altimeter in its warhead, Trishul can be used as an anti-sea
skimmer missile. Trishul has been extensively tested by all three Services for target
acquisition, ground system and infra-red guidance system. The Trishul Combat Vehicle,
the indigenous launcher system using a radar mounted on a tracked vehicle, has gone into
production. By 1998 it had undergone over two dozen developmental flight trials, and the
missile was inducted into service in 1999. Trishul will be employed by Indian Army and
Air Force against low flying aircraft. The Indian Navy will also use this weapon system
in anti-missile role against Exocet and Harpoon possessed by Pakistan.
India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was launched in July
1983. Initially, it had a budget of around Rs 400 crore, but it has since been revised Rs
800 crore. The major programs under the IGMDP are the development of missiles
including Agni, Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and the Nag. The Sagarika and the Surya have
since been added to the IGMDP.
QW-1
Anza MK-II
The earliest model of one-man air defense missiles developed by China was the
"Hongying (Red Tassel)-5." Subsequently the "Qianwei (Advance Guard)-1" was
developed in the early 1990s. The Qianwei-1 made its first public appearance at the 1994
Farnborough International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition in the United Kingdom.
The Qianwei-1 caught the attention of foreign media and research institutions when it
was first introduced to the public because it was claimed to surpass the US Stinger in
maximum effective range, target seeker tracking capability, warhead power and other
indicators.

The Anza anti-aircraft missiles give Pakistan a response to India's superiority in modern
aircraft -- India has a numerical superiority in modern fighter aircraft of more than 3 to 1
over Pakistan. The Anza MK-1, Anza MK-2, and Anza MK-3 surface to air anti-aircraft
missiles have ranges of 4, 6 and 15 km, respectively. The missiles are manufactured by
the laboratory named after Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear
program.

The Anza MK-II is a portable shoulder-fired, IR homing air defence weapon system
similar to the US Stinger missiles. It has a maximum slant range of 5 kilometers, though
in the future the maximum range will be increased to almost double. The Anza MK-II is
an improved version of Anza MK-II, which was handed over to Pakistan Armed Forces
in January 1990. The Anza MK-II was inducted in Pakistan Army in September 1994,
and has been locally produced in Pakistan since October 1994. The improved version is a
lightweight portable system incorporating a contact-fuse warhead. The main differences
from the earlier version are in its high speed (600 M/Sec), accuracy and sustained
velocity, high maneuverability and all aspect engagement capability. It can be used to
target both fixed and rotary targets and the missile can be fired by a soldier either on his
feet or knees. It can be launched in automatic mode as well as in manual mode. The
maximum altitude gained by Anza is 4000 meters, and it can carry 550 grams of warhead
explosive. Its reaction time is less than 3.5 seconds, while transition time from movement
to ready for operation is less than 10 seconds. Its self-destruction time is between 14 to
18 seconds. The launch motor to have a safe distance between the gunner and the missile
after it is released has a jettison/separation characteristics. The total length of the missile
with launch motor is 147-7 mm and its weighs 10.68 kg. The operating time of ground
battery is more than 50 seconds, and the operating temperature range is between minus
40 centigrade to plus 55 centigrade.
ANZA MK-II Specifications

L Type 2-stage, low altitude


Length
(missile, with booster 1.447 m
motor)
Weight 16.5 kg
(total launch
assembly in 10.68 kg
firing condition)
(missile at launch)
solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket
Propulsion motor
Guidance cooled InSb passive infra-red homing seeker
HE fragmentation (containing 0.55 Kg HE) with
Warhead contact and
graze fuzing
Average missile 600 m/s
cruise speed
Max missile
16 g
manoeuvring
Self destruction time 14-18 s
Max effective slant 5,000 m
range
Min effective slant
500 m
range
Max effective altitude 4000 m
Min effective altitude 30 m
Weapon reaction
less than 3.5 s
time
Time from march to less than 10 s
ready for operation
Battery operation more than 50 s
time
HJ-8
Baktar Shikan
The PLA's second-generation anti-tank missile "Hongjian-8" [Red Arrow] was deployed
in the late 1980s. This anti-tank missile has a long range and is accurate, dependable and
powerful. It can pierce through armors 80mm thick. The front armor of the gun tower of
Taiwan's best M60 tanks is only 110mm thick. The latest "Hongjian-8E" was finalized
for production in the mid-1990. The "Hongjian-8E" has a range of four kilometers, and
an estimated hit accuracy of over 90 percent. Since it is fitted with tandem warhead, it
can pierce through tanks with reactive armor, and has an armor-piercing depth of over
100 millimeters. The "Hongjian-8E" can be carried by infantry soldiers or mounted on
various types of vehicles and helicopters. The performance of the "Hongjian-8E" is
similar to the "TOW" anti-tank missiles of the US army, and is better than the German
and French "Milan" anti-tank missile.

The main attack weapon of China's Z-11, Mi-17 and Gazelle helicopter gunships is the
Hongjian-8 anti-tank missile. China's first special helicopter gunship is a type of Gazelle
anti-tank armed helicopter imported from France. Although its pylons can carry four to
six Hongjian-8 and other anti-tank missiles, they can also carry rockets, machine guns
and even cannons. The new WZ-9 helicopter gunship, the WZ-9 [export model code-
named Z-9G] is a gunship converted from the French-designed Z-9 helicopter produced
under license in China. Its pylons can carry four Hongjian-8 anti-tank missiles. As early
as in 1989, a Hongjian-8 anti-tank missile was successfully launched from the WZ-9
helicopter.

In July 1997 Pakistan successfully tested two missile systems -- Anza and Baktar Shikan,
which will add to its conventional military strength. Baktar Shikan is a second generation
anti-tank guided missile weapon system which pursues the principle of optical aiming, IR
tracking and automatically generated, remote controlled and wire transmitted guidance
signals. The system can quickly be dis-assembled into the following four sub-units, each
not weighing more than 25 Kgs, thus making the system man-portable:

 Encased missile
 IR Goniometer
 Guidance unit
 Tripod assembly

Aiming at the target through 12 magnifications sight of Goniometer, the firer presses the
firing trigger and keeps the cross hairs of the sight on the target. The rest is done by the
system itself, which automatically guides the missile to fly along the line of sight until it
hits the target and a powerful warhead enables its destruction.

Support Equipment :
 First Echelon Instrument -- a special device for quickly judging the
operational state of Launching & Guidance System before firing. It is
carried manually in a canvas pack.
 Second Echelon Instrument -- facilitates fault finding of the Launching &
Guidance System up to component level for repairs. It can be carried in a
vehicle for use in the field.
 Indoor Training Simulator -- provides inexpensive possibility of training
the firer without resorting to actual firing.

Specifications
Propulsion solid
Range 3000 meters
Hit probability 90%
Penetration
90%
Probability
Depth of
> 800 mm
Penetration-static
Depth of
180 mm at 680 HRA
Penetration-dynamic
Rate of fire 2-3 Rds per minute
Mean flying speed 220 meters/seconds
1566 x 155 mm; 25 kg
Encased missile (length x diameter)
875 X 120 X 320 MM;
Main missile (length x dia x 11.2 Kg
wing-span)
480 x 150 x 280 mm;
IR Goniometer (length x width x 12.5 kg
height)
665 x 368 x 350 mm;
Guidance unit (length x width x 24 kg
height)
327 x 368 x 994 mm;
Tripod assembly (length x width x 23 kg
height)
IR Goniometer
Wide IR field ±49 m Rad
of view
Narrow IR field
±7 m Rad
of view
Field of view 6°
of sight
Magnification of x12
sight
Field of Fire
Elevation -7° ~ +13°
Traverse 360°
Environmental Temperature -40 °C ~ +50 °C
Condition for Firing Climate -- All Weather
SAM-250
Iranian President Rafsanjani announced on 11 October 1997 that Iran had test-launched a
major new surface-to-air missile system with a range of 250 kilometers. Although no
further details have been forthcoming, the description of the missile was generally similar
to the Russian SA-5, which is deployed in Iran. Various reports suggest that Iran has
acquired four HQ-23/2B (CSA-1) launchers and 45-48 missiles, along with 25 SA-6 and
10-15 SA-5 launchers.
Barak/Adams
BARAK is a ground based, mobile or stationary air defense system armed with BARAK
Vertical Launch Missile, providing on unobstructed hemispherical coverage and
protection against all existing air threats: aircraft, helicopters, UAVs and stand-off
munitions of all types, including cruise missiles.

Proven anti- missile capability All weather, day and night operation Autonomous or
netted operation 12 ready to launch missiles Short reaction time

HIGH LETHALITY - Sophisticated warhead, fully integrated with advanced proximity


fuse, ensures high kill probability of small targets.

ADVANCED RADAR TECHNOLOGY - Narrow beam KA frequency band, ECCM


immunity.

COMMAND & CONTROL - Instant response, automatic and fully computerized firing
sequence.

VERTICAL LAUNCH - Operation in densely populated sites and combat areas, no


safety sector restrictions.

CLOS GUIDANCE - Precise intercept of high and low altitude, reduced RCS threats
such as missiles and UAVs.

HIGHLY ENERGETIC MISSILE - large defended area and operation against high
maneuverability targets.

COST EFFICIENCY - Minimal personnel requirements, minimized system maintenance,


highest reliability and operational availability.
Python-3
PYTHON-3 is a third-generation short to medium range air-to-air missile adapted to the
F-15, F-16, all types of Mirage, F-5, F-4 and Kfir C-2 and C-7 aircraft. The missile
upgrades the capability of its carrier and gives it air superiority in modern air combat
scenarios, such as:

 Head-on interceptions
 Beam interceptions
 Dogfights involving high-g maneuvers
 Low-altitude interceptions of helicopters and light aircraft
 Self-defense air combat during penetration missions.

MAIN FEATURES

 All-aspect capability, including head-on interception


 Effective against most evasive tactics
 Capable of intercepting low-signature and low-altitude threats
 15 km maximum effective range at high altitude
 Active proximity fuze, based on lead bias navigation system
 Highly efficient warhead
 Versatile target acquisition modes, including slaving to advanced radar
system
 Reliability greater than 95%
 Full ILS, including combat doctrine manual, training and ground support
equipment

The Python 3, RAFA'EL's [Arms Development Authority] air-to-air missile, has


intercepted dozens of Syrian planes. The pilot can launch the missile only after steering
his plane at the enemy plane at a 30-40 degree cone.

Specifications
Manafacturer RAFA'EL Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 0.5 km to 15 km
Speed Mach 3.5
One Rafael Armaments Development Authority
Propulsion
double-base solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR homing
Warhead 24.25 lb ( 11 kg )
Launch Weight 264.6 lb ( 120 kg )
Length 9 ft, 10.1 in ( 3.00 m )
Diameter 6.3 in ( 160 mm )
Fin Span 2 ft, 9.9 in ( 0.86 m )
Python-4
The Python-4 fourth generation A/A missile, in operational use in the Israeli Air Force ,
features a novel "no escape volume" performance with a unique aerodynamic
configuration for superior agility. The state-of-the-art, high performance seeker
incorporates an advanced IRCM & background rejection capabilities. The missile
includes a highly effective fragmentation warhead. Python 4 is a very nimble "fire and
forget" missile with an improved maneuvering capability. It has an advanced homing
head with a lateral "squint" capability which allows it to receive signals from the line of
vision of the pilot who sees the enemy plane through a special (Elbit-developed) helmet.
The missile receives these signals and hits the enemy plane without requiring the pilot to
steer his aircraft at the enemy plane. The Python 4 can be launched at a range of over 15
km, its warhead is over 11 kg, and its electromagnetic proximity fuze is one of the best in
the world.

Specifications
Manufacturer Rafael Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed Mid 1980's
Range 0.5 km to 15 km
Speed Mach 3.5
One Rafael Armaments Development Authority
Propulsion
double-base solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR homing
Warhead 24.25 lb ( 11 kg )
Launch Weight 264.6 lb ( 120 kg )
Length 9 ft, 10.1 in ( 3.00 m )
Diameter 6.3 in ( 160 mm )
Fin Span 2 ft, 9.9 in ( 0.86 m )
Alto / Derby
Variously known as Alto or Derby, this Israeli active radar-guided air-to-air missile
(AAM) is a collaborative effort between Rafael, the state's armament development
agency, and Israel Aircraft Industries MBT. Officially acknowledged in 1998, the project
has been underway for at least a decade. This missile's design shares considerable
commonality with Python 4, though adding mid-body wings. This medium-range
weapon, with a maximum effective engagement envelope of about 50 km, may have
already entered service with the Israeli Air Force. Israel is marketing a variant of the
missile for export, with offers to the Philippines and India, while South Korea and China
also be potential customers.

Specifications
Manafacturer RAFA'EL Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed
Range 50 km
Speed
Propulsion
Guidance active radar
Warhead
Launch Weight
Length 3.8 meters
Diameter 0.15 meters
Fin Span 0.5 meters
Gabriel III
The Israeli Gabriel III/AS is an advanced offshoot of the original Gabriel ship-to-ship
missile system. The original Gabriel was a small, canister fired sea skimmer, designed to
attack enemy vessels at wavetop level, making its approach extremely hard to detect.
This newer, air-launched version is larger, with a range of 37 miles, and carries a high-
explosive warhead weighing 331 lbs. The guidance system of the Gabriel III/AS enables
it to fly so low that it must be pre-set according to the current size of the waves.

Specifications
Contractor Israeli Aircraft Industries
Entered Service 1982
Solid propellant rocket motor
Modifications Liquid fuel turbojet motor
Total length 3.9 m
Diameter 0.34 m
Wingspan 1.1 m
Weight 600 kg
contact-, graze- and deceleration-fuzed high-
Warhead
explosive, 150 kg
single stage solid propellant rocket motor or liquid
Propulsion
fuel turbojet
Maximum Speed 840 km/h
Ceiling: 9100 m
Maximum effective
Maximum range (rocket motor): 40 km
range
Maximum range (turbojet motor): 60 km
Guidance mode I-band active radar
Single-shot hit
probability
Spike
The Spike Anti Tank Missile, developed and produced by RAFAEL, represents a new
generation in missile technology with a high rate precision and with modular adaptability
to various platforms.

Specifications
Contractor RAFAEL
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
SAHV
SAHV-3 is a high-velocity, command-guided, surface-to-air missile. It is an effective
counter to helicopters, ship-to-ship missiles and high-speed aircraft attacking from very
low altitudes to over 24 000 ft.
SAHV-IR is a high-velocity, infra-red homing, ground-to-air missile. It is an effective
counter to all types of aircraft attacking from below 100 ft to well over 20 000 ft.

Specifications
Contractor Denel/Kentron
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
U-Darter
U-Darter is a third-generation, all-aspect, short-range, infra-red guided, air-to-air missile,
which is effective for all operational requirements of modern air combat involving highly
manoeuvrable aircraft.

Specifications
Contractor Denel/Kentron
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Mupsow
Mupsow is a multi-purpose, surgical-strike weapon, designed to neutralize enemy targets
such as airfields, bunkers and command-and-control centres at stand-off ranges. Pinpoint
accuracy is achieved through an advanced navigation and terminal guidance system.

Specifications
Contractor Denel/Kentron
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
Mokopa
Mokopa is a heavy, long-range, anti-armour missile that utilizes a semi-active guidance
concept. Its large-calibre tandem warhead is designed to destroy any foreseen armour
threat.

Specifications
Contractor Denel/Kentron
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability
ZT3
The ZT3 family of heavy, long-range, anti-armour missiles operate on a command-to-
line-of-sight (CLOS) principle. Designed to operate with minimum logistics support, they
are ideal for severe and isolated battle conditions.

Specifications
Contractor Denel/Kentron
Entered Service
Total length
Diameter
Wingspan
Weight
Warhead Weight
Propulsion
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
range
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
probability