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# LA SALLE UNIVERSITY

Ozamiz City
Course Code: FounMa Credit Units: 3 units
Course Title: Foundations of Mathematics

WORKSHEET No. 2:
LOGIC
Student: ___________________________________ Score: _____________
Instructor: Mr. Jimbo J. Antipolo Date Accomplished: ______________

I. STATEMENTS: The study of logic begins with statements. A statement is a sentence or a mathematical expression that
is either definitely true or definitely false.
Decide whether or not the following are statements. In the case of a statement, say if it is true or false, if
possible.
1. In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth.
2. (R×N) ∩ (N×R) = N×N.
3. If the integer x is a multiple of 7, then it is divisible by 7.
4. N ∉ P(N).
5. Sets Z and N.
6. Some sets are finite.
7. Call me Ishmael.
8. Every even integer is a real number.

II. AND, OR, NOT: The statement P ∧ Q is true if both P and Q are true; otherwise it is false. On the other hand, the
assertion P or Q, written as P ∨ Q, is always understood to mean that one or both of P and Q is true. The statement ∼ P is
called the negation of P.
Express each statement or open sentence in one of the forms P∧ Q, P∨ Q, or ∼ P.
1. The matrix A is not invertible.
2. x < y
3. There is a quiz scheduled for Wednesday or Friday.
4. At least one of the numbers x and y equals 0.
5. x ∈ A ∪B
6. Happy families are all alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.
(Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina)
7. A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks should be.
(Albert Einstein)

III. CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS: A statement of form P ⇒ Q is called a conditional statement because it means Q
will be true under the condition that P is true.
Without changing their meanings, convert each of the following sentences into a sentence
having the form “If P, then Q.”
1. For a function to be continuous, it is sufficient that it is differentiable.
2. A function is rational if it is a polynomial.
3. Whenever a surface has only one side, it is non-orientable.
4. A geometric series with ratio r converges if |r| < 1.
5. The discriminant is negative only if the quadratic equation has no real solutions.
6. People will generally accept facts as truth only if the facts agree with what they already believe.
(Andy Rooney)

IV. BICONDITIONAL STATEMENTS: The symbol ⇔ is used to express the meaning of the statement (P ⇒ Q) ∧ (Q ⇒
P). The expression P ⇔ Q is understood to have exactly the same meaning as (P ⇒ Q) ∧ (Q ⇒ P). Where Q ⇒ P is read as
“P if Q,” and P ⇒ Q can be read as “P only if Q.” Therefore, we pronounce P ⇔ Q as “P if and only if Q.”
Without changing their meanings, convert each of the following sentences into a sentence having the
form “P if and only if Q.”
1. If a function has a constant derivative then it is linear, and conversely.
2. If a ∈ Q then 5a ∈ Q, and if 5a ∈ Q then a ∈ Q.

V. TRUTH TABLE: A truth table is a diagram in rows and columns showing how the truth or falsity of a proposition
varies with that of its components.
1. Construct a truth table for
2. Construct a truth table for

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3. Construct a truth table for

V. LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE: Two statements are logically equivalent if their truth values match up line-for-line in a
truth table.

1. Show that   and   are logically equivalent. Use the truth table.
2. Use truth table to show that is logically equivalent.
3. Use truth table to show that is logically equivalent.
4. Use truth table to show that is logically equivalent.

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