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Company profile

Prathamesh wines Pvt Ltd Pimpaldar is


situated where the climate is suitable for grape & wine
production in perfect soil of sahydri hill in Nasik valley
Company has capacity to produce 2 lakh lit
wine. The tank hall of the company is totally under ground so it
helps to maintain the temp naturally .when outside temp is 250c at
that time underground temp is 130c which reduce the cost of the
chilling plant. Company has the crushing room, chilling plant
conference hall underground tank hall crushing room is present at
the upper level of the tank hall which help to transfer the grape juice
to fermentation tank without any pump & reduce the electricity bill
one more thing is that destemer & hydraulic presser machine are
prepare in local industry which reduce cost of these machines half in
compare to the market prize
It is the first company in India which sell
wine in 180 ml bottle in market Prathamesh winery provide good
quality of wine in low cost bagloni,Y-5000,
vinstaana, cellar pride are the brands of company
which present in red, white & rose wine
Company sell their wine in 750ml bottle
which are in range of Rs-120 to 365 their fore customer can
purchase wine according to their budget 180ml size & 750ml size
bottle are present in range 35 to 365 so the customer can enjoy the
wine in low cost also
I N D E X

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HISTORY OF WINE

3. VARIETY OF GRAPE

4. TYPE OF WINE

5. REQUIRMENT FOR WINERY

6. WINE PREPERETION

7. WNE TESTING

8. WINE ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION

What is wine?

Simply stated wine is the juice of crushed grapes that are


fermented, and then age in oak casks on steel vat. A wine will
derive in singular character from how it is fermented and aged
Wine maintains proper circulation, increase efficiency,
mentally relax. Chromine substance created during wine
production helps diabetics to cure. Improve function of kidney.
Reduce cholesterol in blood, blood pressure and thrombosis.
Glass of wine daily (research proved heart attack chances are
nil)

HISTORY OF WINE

In today’s modern world wine is widely discussed and


consumed globally the wine industry has undergone a massive
boom in the last few decades resulting in many varieties of
wine from which to choose this boom continue into the near
future as we discover even more technologies and benefit that
bring us.
Throughout time wine has had a special influence
on western culture a sentiment which is evidence in the above
quote from its earliest development wine has had a special
place in our customs diet and social gathering
The cultivation of wine exists throughout the
world from France to the cool hunter valley of Australia, wine
is produced and enjoyed in large quantities few region of the
world remain untouched by its many virtues
Growth of wines popularity closely resemble
the development of the western world as the wine trade
throughout the world advance and grew western civilization
began to spread also this is evident throughout the study of
wine s history and diversification.
It is not known when wine was first made
although the date is sure to have been very early in the career
of homosapiens in addition to the numerous reference to wine
made in the old testament and by the ancient Greeks 3000
years ago there is also evidence in the form of grape skin and
pips that suggest prehistoric man made wine pleasure it seem
came early in the life of our species

VARIETY OF GRAPE

VITICULTURE:-
Viticulture is technical term for the study of vine cultivation
, where the term vitis refers to the genus of grape used in wine
although there are about 10,000 grape varieties very few used
in winemaking. Wine is different in taste depending of the
grape their vinification their age and also where their grapes
are grown. The climate and soil of the vineyard has a
significant impact on flavor and certain climatic condition. A
vineyard needs to be open to plenty of sun throughout the day
however too much heat freezing temperature or rain will
destroy the grapes. The land must also have the correct soil
balance which affects the character of the grape it must be well
drained and have the appropriate pH for the type of grapes. The
mineral of the soil are more important than fertility they impart
aroma and taste to the grape. The winemaker art owes much to
his viticulture knowledge and exertise these skills allow him to
use the viticulture strengths of an area to create the optimum
quality wine at optimum cost. Often the preferred vines for the
produce low yield because of poor soil making the roots work
harder for nourishment. Invariably grapes if ripened will be of
superior quality and natural sugar

Variety of grape used for winemaking:-


For white wine:-
Chenin Blanc
Chardonnay
For rose wine:-
Blend of cabernet sauvignon & Chenin Blanc
For red wine:-
Cabernet sauvignon
Merlot
Shirah

CHENIN BLANC
The wine made from Chenin Blanc grown in perfect soil of
Sahyadri hills in Nasik region grapes hand picked at optimum
maturity. The wine co lour is pale yellow. The nose developed
intense aroma of Honey, Guava with pleasant aroma of grape
& leaves long lasting fruity taste in the mouth. Wine served
with all kind of light spices & seafood.

CHARDONNAY
The wine made from Chardonnay grown in perfect soil of
Sahyadri hills in Nasik region grapes hand picked at optimum
maturity. The wine color is pale yellow. The nose developed
intense aroma of Honey, Guava with pleasant aroma of grape
& leaves long lasting fruity taste in the mouth. Wine served
with all kind of light spices & seafood.
ROSE (Blend of Cabernet Sauvignon & Chenin Blanc)
The wine made from blend of Cabernet Sauvignon & Chenin
Blanc grown in perfect soil of Sahyadri hills in Nasik region
grapes hand picked at optimum maturity. The wine color is
Rose Red. The nose developed light aroma of Blackcurrants,
Honey, and Guava & leaves light refreshing taste in the mouth.
Wine served with all kind of light Indian cuisine

CABERNET SAUVIGNON
The wine made from Cabernet Sauvignon grown in perfect soil
of Sahyadri hills in Nasik region grapes hand picked at
optimum maturity. The wine color is intense deep red. The
nose developed distinctive black curranty flavor with hint of
mint and cedar with leaves long lingering taste in mouth Wine
served with all kind of Indian food

MERLOT
The wine made from Merlot grown in perfect soil of Sahyadri
hills in Nasik region grapes hand picked at optimum maturity.
The wine color is intense deep red. The nose developed
distinctive black curranty flavor with hint of mint and cedar
with leaves long lingering taste in mouth Wine served with all
kind of Indian food

SHIRAH
The wine made from Shirah grown in perfect soil of Sahyadri
hills in Nasik region grapes hand picked at optimum maturity.
The wine color is intense deep red. The nose developed
distinctive black curranty flavor with hint of mint and cedar
with leaves long lingering taste in mouth Wine served with all
kind of Indian food

TYPE OF WINE

Types of wine are as follows-


1. Red wine
2. white wine
3. rose wine
4. sparkling wine

5. natural still wine


6. fortified wine
7. aromatized wine

RED WINE
When picked red wine grapes are processed in the crusher-
destemer this machines separate the grape from the stem and
gently crushes them into a pulpy material referred to as must.
The must is then transferred into tank or fermenting bins where
it will cold soak for a few days gaining color & fruit flavor.
After a few days the must is inoculated with yeast and
fermentation begins. Once fermentation has started, co2 &
alcohol are produce. The co2 pushes to the top of the tank or
bin away from the juice forming what is called the cap. Skin
contact is critical at this stage because juice will pick up color
and tannins from the skins. Therefore the cap must be kept in
the contact with the juice as much as possible. This can be
accomplished in a couple of different ways. The first called is
punching down is the simple process of manually pushing the
cap down into juice. In the days of old this was accomplished
by stomping then with your feet. The 2nd is used for longer
quantities of wine & is called pumping over. This process uses
a pump attached to the bottom of tank. The juice is then
pumped over the top of cap & circulated this way for about 15-
20 min. you still must do this twice a day, sometime more,
until the fermentation is complete. After fermentation is over
the juice is pressed away from the skins & into holding tank
where it will settle out for a day or two the wine is then put into
oak barrels for aging & to allow it to go through a secondary
fermentation called malolactic fermentation. During this
fermentation, malic acid is converted into lactic acid. After the
aging process the wine is taken out of barrel & bottled once it
is clarified.
WHITE WINE
When grapes destined to become white or blush wine are ripe
they are picked & immediately processed in the winepress.
Here they are gently squeezed for about 2 hr. & the juice is
pumped into the holding tank. In the tank juice is chilled
allowing sediment from the fruit to top to the bottom. After this
take place juice is racked away from the sediment & is now
ready to inoculate with yeast. Fermentation takes place slowly
over period of a few week betn 15-25oc. Some white wines as
chardonnay are fermented in oak barrels to give the wine oak
flavor. When is complete the wine is chilled for the
clarification & then filtered prior to bottling. Oak fermentation
wine can also go through a secondary fermentation called
malolactic fermentation or simply ml for short. During this
fermentation malic acid is converted into lactic acid changing
the texture of the wine from crisp and light to a creamer,
buttery feel.

SPARKLING WINES
Sparkling wines are basically wines that are fizzy. These can
be red, white or rose/blush. Champagne is probably the most
well known type of sparkling wine & can only come from the
champagne region in France. It is also made only with
permitted grape varieties (pinot noir, pinot meunier, &
chardonnay) & must be prepared by the method champenosie
vintage champagne must remain in its bottle for at least 3 yr.
before it can be put on the market. Champagne is the only
sparkling wine where the red wine is produce in the
champagne region is added white champagne blend.
Champagne labeled Blane de Blane is made solely from white
grapes i.e. chardonnay Asti Spumante, Prosecco &
Franciacorta from Italy, Cava from Spain & Sekt from
Germany are some other examples.

NATURAL STILL WINE


A general classification that cover most Red, White, Rose/
Blush wines in a certain English speaking parts of the world
Natural still wines are called Table wine. This classification
should not be confused with the European Union Quality
Grade of Table, which is used by non-English speaking
countries. Some examples are the French vinde table, &
German Tafewein. Alcohol content for that wine should be
between 10% & 15% by volume.

FORTIFIDE WINE
Sherry, Port, Maderia are common categories. These are made
like still wine, except spirit is added partially through the
fermentation to stop the fermentation & increase alcohol
content. At the same time the wine will be sweet due to the
unfermented sugar in it. Alcoholic content for these wines is
usually betn 16% - 24%
AROMATIZE WINE
Wines that are have been fortified & flavored with various
fruit, herbs & spice. Examples are Vermouths from Italy like
Martini, Cinzano, & France like Dubonnet & Nolliy Part (betn
15% & 20% alcohol by volume)

REUIREMENT FOR WINERY

1. YEAST BRAND
It is the yeasts, a group of m.o. which can cause the
fermentation through the enzymes they produce. The
different types yeast re use for wine making which are as
follows
GERVIN YEAST
1. Green Label (S. cervisiae Bordeaux strain 7013)

2. red Label(S. cervisiae Monrachet strain Davis522)

3. yellow Label(S.cervisiae(bayanus)Pasture institute strain)

4. white Label(S. cervisiae strain GVN)

a) Red/white Label(S. cervisiae Bordeaux SF strain)

b) Black/white Label(S. cervisiae Narbonne selection

cc strain)
c) Gold Label(S. cervisiae(bayanus)strain EC 1118)

d) white Label(S. cervisiae strain71B)

e) white Label(S. cervisiae strain V1116)

LALVIN YEAST
1) Lalvin AC

2) Lalvin ICV D 47

3) Lalvin RC212 (Bourgovin)


4) Lalvin KIV 1116
5) Lalvin EC 1118
6) Lalvin L 2056
7) Lalvin 71B 1122
8) Lalvin R2
9) Lalvin RA17
10) Lalvin T73
11) Lalvin Wandenswil 27

MALOLACTIC CULTURE
1) Lalvin X-3 MLC

2) Wyeast 4007 wine yeast


RED STAR YEAST
1) Montrachet
2) pasture champagne
3) Steinberg
4) Assmannshausen
5) Premier cuvee
6) Epernay
7) cote des blanc
8) pasture red
9) pasture white

WYEAST VINTERS CHOICE YEAST


 3021 Pasteur champagne

 3134 Sake #9
 3242 Chablis
 3783 Rudisheimer
 3237 Steinberg
 3277 Assmannshausen Red
 3028 pasture red
 3267 Bordeaux
 3244 Chianti

Red Label (S. cervisiae Monrachet strain Davis522)


This yeast is widely used in the France to make both white
& red wine it is especially recommended for making wines
from autumn fruits such as blackberries elderberries & sloe
it will ferment at temp. Down to 15oc because this yeast
ferment vigorously room should be allow in the fermentation
vessel to take possible foaming into account
Red/white Label (S. cervisiae Bordeaux SF strain)
This French yeast was selected by INRA at Narbonne to
compliment the characteristics of the grapes it is used for the
production of red Bordeaux (claret) wine it is describe as an
aromatic yeast which developed a pleasant & lasting aroma it
produce a minimal frothing & good yield of glycerol it ferment
well over temp. Range 18-35oc it will tolerate up to the 50 ppm
of sulphur dioxide

Lalvin X-3 MLC


A blend of four strain of Leconostoc oenos including PSU-1
Peynaud Radler 3 & Petaluma Isolate it may be used with both
reds & white may be introduce early or late and is a living-not
dried – culture it is fairly expensive (but the most economical
ML culture) quantified for large batches (200-800 gallon) &
not generally sold for home use the best is to find a winery that
uses it & beg them to sell you a very small amount it must
frozen immediately until used

Pasteur red
Pasteur red is also called French red like champagne yeast
strain it is mixed population strain it was developed in
Bordeaux France it is meant for red wine because it is tolerant
to heat & so2 & hardly ever cause stuck fermentation the red
wines it is usually used for Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot,
and Zinfandel
3277 Assmannshausen Red
Ferment slower than the most red wine strain Enhances
vinifera character in French American hybrid. Cold tolerant.
Red German wine, Rising red, Red varietals, Merlot, RED
French American hybrid.

WINEMAKING EQUIPMENT

BASIC EQUIPMENT:
 Primary fermentation vessel 6.5-7.5 gallon
 1or 2 Glass carboys 5 gallon
 String spoon or paddle
 Plastic tubing
 2 bottle brush
 Fermentation lock
 Rubber stoppers
 3 funnes
 Measuring cup
 Hydrometer(saccharometer)
 Hydrometer jar
 Thermometer
 Acid test kit
 Bottles
 Corks/caps

ADVANCE EQUIPMENT
 Vinometer
 Wine thief
 Bottles sterilizer & rinser
 Crusher/destemer-crusher
 Fruit-grape press
 Bottle closer
 Refractometer
 So2 test kit
 Bottle filter

WINE ADDITIVES
Basic supplies:
 Potassium metabisulfate
 Sodium bisulfate
 Acid blend
 Citric acid
 Tartaric acid
 Natural grape tannin
 Yeast nutrient
 Pectic enzyme
 Bleach
 Gelatin
 Sugar
OTHERS:
Chemical/ingr Usage Recomm comment
edient ended
concentr
ation
Acid blend 3:2:1 Increase total acidity 1 g/l Increase TA by
1g/l
Ascorbic acid Anti-oxidant 2-3 g/hl Only to be used
with sulphite
bentonite Fining white &red wines 25-100 g/hl Dissolve in water
fining sparking wines
Bio-clean Clean equipment 15ml/4l of
warm water
Bio-san Sanitize equipment 15ml/4l of
warm water
casein Fining white wines 50-100g/hl Dissolved in
&improve color in white water
wine
Chlorinated cleaner Clean & Sanitize equipment 5ml/4l of Should not be
warm water used on plastic
equipment/oak
barrels
Citric acid Increase effectiveness of 45ml/4L of Dissolved in
sulphite for sanitizing warm water warm water
equipment
Copper sulphate Reduce hydrogen sulphid 4drops/hl
using 1%
soln
Dextrose/sucrose Increase potential alcohol 17 g/L Increase potential
level alcohol level by
1%
Egg white Fining red wines 5-10 g/hl Combine with a
salted water soln
Gelatin Fining red wines 1-5 g/hl Dissolved in
water
Grape tannin Increase tannin content 10-30g/hl Dissolved in
warm water
Hydrogen peroxide Reduce free so2 content 50g/hl Reduce free so2
content by 10
mg/L
Isinglass Fining white wines Liq : 1ml/L Liq: dilute in
Powder:1- wine powder:
3g/hl dissolved in water
kieselsol Fining white & red wines 25-30ml/hl
Meta tartaric acid Prevent ppt. of tartrate Up to 40 Dissolved in
crystal g/hl water
Oak chips Add oak aroma to wines White-1-2
g/hl reds-2-
4 g/hl
Oak extract Add oak aroma to wines White-2ml/l
(10%soln) reds-4 ml/l
Pectic enzymes Fining wines White-1-2 Dissolved in
g/hl reds-2- water
4 g/hl
Phosphoric acid Reduce pH in high TA 1-2 drops of
wines 30% soln/L
Potassium Reduce total acidity 1-2g/L Reduce TA by
bicarbonate 1g/L
Potassium a. Crushing of grape b.must a.100mg/l a. decrease to 5-
metabisulphate preparation c.stabilization b.501mg/l 10 mg/L of must
d.bottling c.50mg/l for MLF b,c,d
d.50mg/l Dissolved in
warm water
Potassium sorbet Prevent refermentation of 10-20g/hl Do not use in
bottled wines ML-fermented
wines
Sodium carbonate Clean plastic equipment 8-12 g/l of Dissolved in
(soda ash) water warm water
Sodium Treat oak barrel spoilage 1-3g/l of Dissolved in
percarbonate problem water warm water
Sodium Sanitize equipment 45ml/4l of Increase TA &
metabisulphate water reduce pH
sparkolloid® Fining white & red wines 10-40g/hl Dissolved in
water
Sweetener Sweeten a finished wine 12-25 ml/l Prevent renewed
conditioner of wine fermentation
Tannisol Preserve/stabilize wine 1-3
tablets/hl
Tartaric acid Increase TA & reduce pH 1-2g/l Increase TA by
1g/l & reduce pH
by 0.1 ut.
Yeast (active dried) Alcoholic fermentation 5g for 4.5 to
23Lof must
Yeast Enhance fermentation 10-20g/hl Dissolved in
nutrient(diammoni capability of yeast warm water
um phosphate )

WINE PREPERETION

Eight steps to winemaking

Winemaking is a fairly simply process & can be accomplished


in eight easy steps

1. choose grapes/fruit
2. crush grape/fruit
3. strain juice into fermenter
4. inoculate juice with yeast
5. allow wine to ferment
6. rack wine
7. bottle wine
8. age wine

PROCEDURE:-

SANITIZING THE EQUIPMENT


The most important thing any wine maker can
do to help his /her wine turn out great is to sanitize all
equipment thoroughly & properly. Poorly cleaned equipment is
the leading cause of contaminated homemade wine sanitize all
equipment that will touch the wine or juice by rinsing it with a
metabisulfate soln
 put the table spoon of potassium metabisulfate into

a 1-lit jug of hot water 29oc to make reusable


Sanitizing soln it will last up to 6 month if kept
tightly sealed

 rinse all equipment thoroughly in the soln


 after sanitizing rinse equipment with cold water

PREPARING THE MUST


After sanitizing equipment it is time to mix together
the ingredient that will eventually ferment to become wine.
The main ingredient in your wine is water. Tap water is
perfectly fine unless it has an unusual taste such as chlorine.
Boiling tap water eliminate the taste of chlorine & will also kill
off any unwanted organism if your water is from a well 15 min.
at rolling boil should do the trick. Remember to let the boiled
water cool to room temp. Before using it to make wine

 Sprinkle the package of bentonite enclose with the


kit in approximately 2 cups of warm water. Mix to
form slurry.
 Pour the bag of conc. into the primary fermentor.

Be sure to rinse out the remaining conc. With hot


so none is wasted
 Fill the primary fermentor to the 23-lit with cool

water the temp. of the must in the fermentor


should be betn 22oc-25oc
 Using a hydrometer check the specific gravity it

should be betn 1.074 to 1.080


 Sprinkle the content of the yeast additives package
onto the surface of the must.
 Place the primary lid on the primary fermenter.
Insert rubber bung with an air lock half filled with
this will help prevent contamination.
 Place the primary fermentor in an elevate area that

maintain a temp. of 22oc-25oc to work approx. 8


days, or until the specific gravity on the
hydrometer is 1.010 or lower

Addition of KMS at crushing:

Sr. no. Wt. of grapes kg KMS to add gm

1 100 9.0
2 500 45.0
3 1000 90.0
4 5000 450.0
5 10,000 900.0
6 15,000 1350.0

 addition of KMS must be made to crushed grapes as


early as possible
 first mix the KMS powder in clean water, dissolved
it completely
 check the free SO2 content after complete crushing
 adjust the SO2 level in juice if found less than 30
ppm

SECNDORY FERMENTATION
This step is needed only if the specific gravity the
must is 1.010 or lower. At this point, the must is about halfway
to become wine tanks to fermentation.

 With the sterilized tube siphon or rack the fermenting


wine from the primary fermentor to a carboy leaving
behind sediment if carboy not full top up within 2
inches (5cm) of the bottom of air lock & robber bung
into carboy.
 Reinsert air lock & rubber bung into carboy
 Place in location where the temp. will be a consistent

22oc-25oc to allow the fermentation to finish 4-7 days


or until the specific gravity is below 0.998
STABILIZING & CLEARING
The wine is now fermented but still needs to
stabilized & cleared before bottling. This will help the wine to
look & taste its best when you uncork your creation
 Remove or discard 1 cup of wine from the carboy to
allow for later addition
 Add the kits package of potassium metabisulfate &

potassium sorbet to ½ cup of water stir to dissolve.


This mixture will help stabilize the wine by killing
of f any yeast or other organism still alive & active.
This step also called sulfating
 Slowly add the potassium metabisulfate/sorbet
mixture to the carboy & stir well with a sanitized
long-handled plastic spoon
 Mix the kits isinglass mixture in ½ cup of cool

water. This mixture will help clear the wine of any


cloudiness
 Add the isinglass mixture to the carboy stirring well
to ensure a complete blend. Replace the air lock &
rubber bung.
 Twice daily for the next 3 day vigorously stir the

wine in the carboy with long handled plastic spoon


to remove dissolved gases. After stirring place the
wine in an elevated area to allow clearing
(approx.10 day) & to prepare for racking.

BOTTLING
Once the wine is fully cleared you may proceed with
bottling never bottled cloudy wine. If the wine is cloudy leave
it for additional period to clear. Always choose bottles to match
the type of wine you are making. This will help you sell your
wine by appear more authentic in the eyes of your guests
 Sanitize all equipment.

 Fill a sanitized container with tepid water & ¼


teaspoon (1.4g) of potassium metabisulfate
powder. Mix well. Soak corks in sulfite soln for
20 min. thoroughly rinse the corks with hot water
before inserting them into bottles
 Use siphon hoes to transfer the wine into bottles.
Leaving 1 inch to bottom of the cork
 Insert cork by hand if using push top style cork
machine
 Leaves bottles standing upright for 1 week this
allows the cork face to dry prior to laying wine
bottles on their side for storage. Keep the wine in
temp. Controlled environment around 21oc & out
of direct sunlight for 2-3 month prior to
consumption.

RED WINE
1. GRAPES: - check the grape quality .avoid
mouldy, dry grapes check pH /brick/acidity of the
grape sample. Clean grape with cool water. If
necessary
2. DESTEMING :- In destemer the stem should be
separated aside; & berries should be punctured
only watch the process & make the necessary
adjustment add KMS to skin & pulp mix; so that
the F.SO2 level must be up to 30 ppm
3. COLD SOAKING: - cool down the juice up to
10 c for cold soaking. Spray CO2 gas on top
cavity of tank & close the vat completely keep it
so for 48 hrs
4. FERMENTATION: - bring the vat temp. To
room temp. Then add yeast/DAP/sugar etc. to
start fermentation check pH /brick/acidity/SO2
/density /temp. Check for the good sign of starting
fermentation then cool down & keep temp. Of the
vat in betn 18-20 cup to completion of the
fermentation brick /density /temp. daily twice day
mix the juice for extraction of tannin color &
polyphonic compounds in the skin with help of
pump & rotary diffuser three times a day
5. RACKING:-after completion of fermentation
check the residual sugar & alcohol content to
confirm the completion of fermentation. If the
fermentation is completed then rack wine to
another tank. Remove residual & pulp from tank
check the SO2 level of juice & KMS adjust 25
ppm F.SO2
6. MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION:- little
warm up the up to 22oc it encourage of ML
fermentation add ML culture to it if necessary
check regularly for completion of ML
fermentation with help of the paper
chromatography add oak chip in wine sock it in
wine up to good okay flavor comes to wine avoid
excessive soaking of chips after completion of
ML fermentation rack wine carefully check
parameter & adjust SO2 level to 35 ppm
7. BLENDING:- blend the wine as per requirement
adjust acidity sweetness etc check all parameter of
blend made to final
8. FINING /STABILIZATION:-using proper
fining material fine the wine with proper dose
then stabilize (cold/hot) wine if necessary
9. FINAL FILTRATION:- check all parameter of
wine before bottling make necessary addition
make filter through 10C, 30C it is sufficient for
red wine
10. BOTTLING:- to bottle sweet red wine SO2 level
should be maintain to 45ppm & potassium sorbet
&numeric acid should added to wine for stability.
All equipment bottle filter corker should be
cleaned thoroughly with SO2 soon & citric soon &
then with water carefully before & after bottling.
CLEANING INSTRUCTION
Keep all the winery clean:
Clean floor, walls, tanks by detergent base
solution .Twice a weeks all equipment must be
cleaned with caustic, citric, & So2 sons, fallowed by
plenty water to rinse, before & after every use
All pipes hoes must be cleaned regularly & drain it
carefully, to keep them dry
For inside cleaning of the tanks & container
1. clean the surface with caustic soln carefully
2. wash out the residue carefully with water
3. again clean with citric & SO2 soon
4. at last rinse all with plenty of clean water

For cleaning of filter cartridge, deep it in hot water at 80-90oc


temp then clean it with clean water pass the So2 soon through
it keep all the filter cartridge & housing in clean & dry place
For cleaning of bottle filter use caustic & SO2 soon finally
wash with clean water before & after use
Wash all the equipment just before the use; then wash
everything again after the use

Chemical for sanitation in winery


1. NaOH (caustic soda) flakes
2. citric acid
3. oxania
4. liquid soap
5. hot water

WINE TESTING
EQUIPMENTV FOR LABORATORY
Refracto meter (0-16; 16-32)
pH meter
Weighing balance
Small hot plate
Small magnetic stirrer
Picnometer (10ML)
Compound microscope
Small water distillation plant
Vacuum filter.
Thermostat bath(-5 to 100 oC)
Thermostat oven (0 to 150 oC)
Refrigerator(small)
Distillation flask (a)500ml 2 Nos.
(b)250ml 1.No.
Thermometers (1) 0 to 100 oC
(2) 5 to 50 oC
(3) 0 to 200 oC
Hydrometers (a) 0 to 16/16 to 32/-5 to +5 brix
(One no. each)
(b) 0.980 to 1.000
(C)1.000 to 1.050
(E)1.000 to 1.020
Ebulliometer (for alcohol estimation )
Small centrifuge machine

LIST OF GLASSW ARE FOR LABROTORY.

V.A.set (as shown in figure)


2. So2set (as shown in figure)
Burettes.25ml.50ml.(2 Nos.each)
Pipettes. 1ml. 2ml. 5ml. 10ml. 20ml. 50ml. (5 Nos.each.)
Volumetric flasks. 25ml. 50ml. 100ml.250ml. 500ml. and
1000ml. (5 Nos.each)
Erlenmeyer flasks. 100ml. 250ml. 500ml. and 1000ml.
(5 nos.each )
Measuring cylinder. 5ml. 10ml. 25ml. 50ml. 100ml. 500ml.
1000ml.(5 Nos.each)
Glass beaker. 50ml. 100ml. 250ml. 500ml. 1000ml.
( 5 Nos.each)
Glass container bottles. (with LID.) 250ml. 500ml. 1000ml.
( 3 Nos.each )
Glass container bottles (for indicator,with dropper LID)
100ml. 250ml. (2 Nos each)
Test tubes(medium size 12 Nos./big size 6 Nos.)
Stones, clamps, holders, glass rods, antibumping stones,
LIDs,test tube stand, etc.
#plastic : graduated cylinder(one liter)
Measuring cylinder.(250ml) (2 Nos.each)

DETERMINATION OF ACIDITY

REAGENTS : 0.1 N NaoH soln.


1% phenolphthalein indicator
Distilled water .
EQPMENTS : 5ml pipette
10ml pipette
250ml erlynmeryer flask.
PROCEDURE : 1. draw 5ml sample of wine in erlynmeyer
flask with the help of pipette.
2. add about 2/3 drops of 1% phenolphthalein soln.
3. dilute the sample with 50ml distillad water , in case of dark
red wine.
4. fill 10ml pipette with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution .
5. titrate the sodium hydroxide solution ,with wine sample.
While shaking the continuously.
6. at the end point of the titration sample turns to faint pink
permanent color
7. record the quantiy of sodium hydroxide solution used for
titration

CALCULATION :
T.A.(%) = 0.15X Ml. OF NaOH used in
Titration.
#in above formula, T.A. is given in gems in of aeid per 100ml
of wine .(perecent) T.A. is expressed as if all the acids in the
wine were tartaric acid.
**FOR DARK RED WINE :
For dark red wine, pH meter is used to recognize the
end point. As same above procedure, titration should be done
using pH meter; dipping in the beaker, and sample must stirred
continuously with magnetic stirrer
When pH meter shows reading 8.2 the titration. This is
the end point. Calculate the amount of NaOH used. The
calculation is same as above.

pH MEASUREMENT

EQUIPMENTS: 1. pH meter.
2. pH meter.
3. standard pH solution .(7.00)
4. standard pH solution .(4.00)
5. 100ml barker
6. ring stand.
7. magnetic stirrer.

PROCEDURE:
(a) place the pH probe in ring stand clamp and arrange
the stand so that the probe is centered above the
stirrer plate
(b) place 30 to 40mls.of 7.00 standard pH solution In
100ml beaker.
(c) Place the beaker on stirrer plate. Adjust the stand
so the probe is immersed in the sample. But do not
allow the stir bar to strike the end of probe. Turn
on the stirrer .
(d) Adjust the calibration knob un till meter reads
zero.
(e) Discard the standard solution and rinse the probe
with distilled water. Make it dry with tissue paper.
Also rinse the beaker with water.
(f) Place 30 to 40ml of 4.00 standard pH solution in
100ml beaker. Place the beaker on stirrer plate.
(g) Again adjust the slope knob un till the meter
reads4.00
(h) Discard the standard solution and clean the probe
with distilled water. Then dry it with tissue paper.
(i) Take 30 to 40ml of wine place or juice in beaker.
Place the beaker on stirrer plate. Adjust the stand
so the probe is immersed in the sample but do not
touches stri bar. Turn on stirrer
(j) Wait for few seconds, then read the pH meter and
record the value.
(k) Rinse the probe with water, dry it with tissue
paper. Clean all apparatus with water.

SO2 MESUREMENT.

EQUIPMENTS: 5ml trans pipette


10ml transfer pipette.
250 clear glass container.
Dilute sulphuric acid.(1:3with dist, water.)
1% starch solution.
Distilled water.

PROCEDURE:
(1). Draw 10ml wine sample into glass container with the help
of transfer pipette.
(2). Add about 5ml dilute sulphuric acid.
(3). Add 2/3ml of starch solution.(1%) to the sample.
(4). Fill the 5ml pipette with iodine (0.01 N), and titrare with
the wine sample, faint blue color is the end point.
(5). Rinse the pipette and glass container several times. With
clean water, and place them in rack to dry.
CALCULATION :
SO2 ppm. = 3200X Volume of Iodine X Normality Of iodone.

# this method is useful is detect SO2 in white/blush wines,


however it is not very accurate method for red wine. Because
of presence of phenolic material in wine reacts with iodine.
This side reaction gives very high result. And measured values
of free SO2 can be more than 20 ppm
# incase of dark red wine end point is difficult to recognize.
Diluting red wine with Diluting water makes end point easier
to recognize. Up to 150ml water can be add to dilution to see
this diluted wine in strong yellow side light help to recognize
end point easily,
# starch indicator solution prepared by 2gms. In 200ml water
and boiling the water for few minutes.
# 0.01N iodine solution is weak and so that unstable it should
stored in dark brown glass, in dry dark place and tightly
stoppered even then normality of iodine solution changes
slowly.