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‘ Whenever a body i rotating or spinning in a plane (plane YZ) about an axis (axis OX)
and its axis of rotation or spin is made to precess in an another perpendicular plane
(plane XZ), as shown in Fig. 1.1, the couple is induced on the rotating or spinning body
across the axis of rotation or spin in a third mutually perpendicular plane (plane XY).

º 
  

‘ îonversely, whenever a body is rotating in a plane (plane YZ) about an axis (axis OX)
and a couple is applied on the rotating body across the axis of rotation or spin in an
another perpendicular plane (plane XY), the rotating or spinning body starts processing
in a third mutually perpendicular plane (plane XZ).
‘ ©he above stated effects are known as 
 
.
‘ ©he two things are necessary for existence of gyroscopic effect.
1. Rotating body
2. Force or couple trying to change the orientation of axis of rotation of a rotating
body.
‘ ©he gyroscopic effect is observed in aeroplanes, ships, two wheelers, four wheelers, etc.
‘ ©he gyroscopic effect finds its application in instruments like : gyrocompass used in
aeroplanes; missiles and space vehicles to sense the angular motion of a body;
gyroscopic flow meter; gyroscopic altitude indicator, etc.
  
c           


u 
  

‘ 
 is a mechanical system or arrangement having a rotor (usually heavy)
spinning at high speed about its axis and being free to turn in any direction, as shown in
Fig. 1.2.
‘ ×t consist of a rotor rotating on an axle which is supported by a ring called  ,
with bearings. ©his inner gimble is supported in one more ring called  , with
bearings; and this outer gimble is supported inside a frame, with bearings. ©he frame is
supported on a heavy stand as shown in Fig. 1.2.
‘ ©he rotor of gyroscope has three degrees of freedom :
1. Spinning about axis XX.
2. ©ilting about axis YY.
3. Veering about axis ZZ.

º 


u    


‘ îonsider a disc spinning about an axis À  with an angular speed 6 as shown in
Fig. 1.3(a). After a short interval of time 6, let the disc is spinning with an angular
velocity (  +  ) about the new axis of spin À J at an angle  with an axis À .
`
Using the right hand rule, the initial angular velocity of disc 6 is represented by ox and
`
the final angular velocity of the disc (  +  ) is represented by oxJ, as shown in
Fig. 1.3(b).
    
c           

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º  

  

‘ ©he vector ÎÎJ represents the change of angular velocity in time . ©his change in
`
angular velocity can be resolved into two components one : parallel to ox and other
`
perpendicular to ox.
‘ îorrespondingly there are two components of angular acceleration of the disc :

`
        Î  
`
          Î  

    `#
u        !""  !     $ 

`
îomponent of angular acceleration along ox is,
lim xa lim [oa ± ox] lim [oxJ cos  ± ox]
t = = =
t`0 t t`0 t t`0 t
lim [( + ) cos  ±  ] lim [ cos  +  cos  ± ]
or t = =
t`0 t t`0 t

since  is very small, cos  ! 1, hence we get,


lim [ +  ± ] lim 
t = =
t`0 t t`0 t

or  = ...(1.1)

c  
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'( ( ` ,
  %
%& & %  &)*    %&
 &*  % V  +   -
`
îomponent of angular acceleration perpendicular to ox is,
lim ax lim ox sin  lim (  +  ) sin 
c = = =
t ` 0 t t ` 0 t  t `0 t

Since  is very small, sin  ! !, hence we get,


lim [( + ) ] lim [  +  ]
c = =
t ` 0 t t ` 0 t

as and  are very small,   ! !0, hence we get,


lim [  ] d
c = =
dt
t ` 0 t

or  =   ...(1.2)


d
where, p = = rate of precession of spin axis
dt

= angular velocity of precession (or processional angular velocity).

The precession of spin axis takes place in a plane   and about perpendicular axis
passing through .

. . 3
¦ V  /01   V  2   4

The total angular acceleration of the disc is given by,


= t +` c

d d
or = +`
dt dt

or    ` ...(1.3)

Thus, the total angular acceleration of the disc m 6 is the vector sum of :
(i)
  
 Representing the change in magnitude of the angular velocity of disc µ¶
with respect to time.
(ii)        Representing the change in direction of the axis of spin with respect to
time.
c  
   $   

5 5
 
  V    V V 6
î   
       
d
‘ ×n this case, p = = 0 i.e. c =0
dt
‘ ëence, total angular acceleration of the disc is given by,
d
= ...(a)
dt
î   
   
  

 
d
‘ ×n this case, = 0 i.e. t =0
dt
‘ ëence, total angular acceleration of the disc is given by,
d
= 
dt
or =   p ...(b)
= ?
u 7 89:8;< 9 > @9A89<B8 89C< ;



  
‘ î     
              m6    
 
c  
   &   

 in an anticlockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 1.4(a).
‘ The plane in which the disc is spinning (rotating) i.e. plane YOZ is called as ` 
`.
‘ The axis of spin is precessing in a horizontal plane XOZ about an axis OY with an
angular velocity µ ¶.
‘ The horizontal plane XOZ is called as `   ` 
      
` 
 .


  î
2  î
2
Let, × = Mass moment of inertia of the disc about OX, kg-m
 = angular velocity of the disc, rad/s
p = angular velocity of precession of axis of spin, rad/s
‘ The initial position of the spin axis is OX. Let the spin axis OX is turned through a small
angle µ¶ in time m 
6 in the horizontal plane XOZ about the precession axis OY.
  
 
  
When the initial position of the spin axis is OX, the magnitude of angular
c  
   )   

momentum of disc is .
As the angular momentum is a vector quantity, using right hand rule it is represented by
`
ox, as shown in Fig. 1.4(b).
     
  
After time µt¶ when the final position of the spin axis is OX, the magnitude of
angular momentum of disc remains same i.e. . Using right hand rule, it is represented by
`
ox , as shown in Fig. 1.4(b).
  î   
  
` `
îhange in angular momentum = ox ± ox
` `
= xx = ox 
`
= ×   « [ âââ ox = ×  ]
  2    

Rate of change of angular momentum = ×  
t
This rate of change of angular momentum will result due to application of couple to a
disc. Therefore, the couple applied to the disc for causing precession is given by,
lim  d
î = × =×
t ` 0 t dt
d
or î =  « [ âââ = p ] ...(1.4)
dt
The couple given by Equation (1.4) is known as   .

       VV


V
 
!!! "#  x  D $$$%
The gyroscopic couples can be categorized into two types :
 
2  î
  
2  î
E
   VV
V
 F
`
‘ The couple of magnitude î = ×  p which acts in the direction of xx , represents the
rate of change of angular momentum.
‘ This couple, which must be applied to the disc across the axis of spin to cause it to
precess in the horizontal plane about the axis of precession, is called the
c  
   *   


  .
` `
‘ The vector xx lies in a plane XOZ (plane of precession). ×n case of small , xx is
perpendicular to the vertical plane XOY. Therefore the gyroscopic couple causing
change in angular momentum, will be in a plane XOY.
‘ Therefore, the plane XOY is called the        and axis OZ is
called the    or    .
‘ ×n short,    
  
  


       



    
  .
    VV
V
 G
‘ When the axis of spin precess itself or is made to precess with angular velocity µp¶, the
shaft on which the disc is mounted applies reactive gyroscopic couple through support
bearings, to the frame.
‘ The magnitude of the reactive gyroscopic couple is same as that of the active gyroscopic
couple but direction is opposite.

   V V      VV


V
 
‘ The right hand rule is used in deciding the directions of spin vector, precession vector
and gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.5.
1. îurl the fingers of the right hand such that, the direction of curling fingers
indicates the direction of spin; then the thumb will indicate the direction of  

.
2. îurl the fingers of the right hand such that, the direction of curling fingers
indicates the direction of precession; then the thumb will indicate the direction of
 
.
3. îurl the fingers of the right hand such that, the direction of curling fingers
indicates the direction of active gyroscope couple; then the thumb will indicate the
direction of 
  
.
‘ The direction of active gyroscopic couple vector is obtain as discussed below :
   
 
   
 
 
  
  
 

  


 
 ÷ 
 
  


 

 
 

   
   
    
  


 
 

  

‘ îonsider a disc rotating in an anticlockwise direction when viewed from front, as shown
in Fig. 1.5. Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of spin (rotation) of
the disc (i.e. anticlockwise direction). The direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
c  
   /   

H I K N
c      J  LM LL  

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º !"   
   #$%  #
  


‘ ©he spin vector is rotated by 90÷ in the direction of precession (i.e. in anticlockwise
direction when viewed from the top) so as to get the direction of active gyroscopic
couple vector.
‘ Using the right hand, point the thumb in the direction of active gyroscopic couple vector
(i.e. along OZ). ©he curling fingers give the direction of active gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is opposite to the direction of active
gyroscopic couple, as shown in Fig. 1.5
OP R
x  Q u u6
A uniform disc of 150 mm diameter has a mass of 4 kg. ×t is mounted centrally on the
horiS ontal axle of 80 mm length between the bearings. ×t spins about an axle at 800 r.p.m. in
counter clockwise direction when viewed from the right hand side bearing. ©he axle is made to
precess about a vertical axis at 50 r.p.m. in an anticlockwise direction when viewed from top.
Determine the resultant reaction at each bearing due to mass and gyroscopic effect.
T
   
 # Diameter of disc, d = 150 mm = 0.15 m
d 0.15
> Radius of disc, r = = = 0.075 m
2 2
Mass of disc, m = 4 kg;
Distance between bearings,  = 80 mm = 0.08 m
Speed of disc, N = 800 r.p.m.
Precession speed, Np = 50 r.p.m.
VW Y ZV \ ^ V
u U X   [ ] X _ X `  _ 

2N 2  800
 Angular velocity,  = = = 83.77 rad/s
60 60
2Np 2  50
 Angular precessional velocity, p = = = 5.23 rad/s
60 60
‘ Mass moment of inertia of disc is,
a b d g h
c      c  ef e   


2 2
m r 4  (0.075)
2
× = mk = =
2 2
2
or × = 0.01125 kg-m
‘ ©he axle is made to precess. Hence reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the disc
through the axle on the support.
‘ ©he gyroscopic couple applied by the disc is,
î = ×  p = 0.01125  83.77  5.23
or  & '(')*+
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is shown in Fig. 1.1.1. ©he reactive
gyroscopic couple tends to raise bearing B and lower the bearing A.

º 
ij ij n o
 & k l m   
Fig. 1.1.2 shows a loading diagram of an axle.
‘ ©he axle is subjected to :
(i) Reactive gyroscopic couple, (î) (ii) Weight of the disc. (mg)
Let, RA = Reaction at bearing A, N
RB = Reaction at bearing B, N.
p q s v w
c      r  tu t   

 ?

º 

‘ ©aking moments about point B,


RA  0.08 ± mg  0.04 ± î = 0
> RA  0.08 ± 4  9.81  0.04 ± 4.9347 = 0
>% & ,* -  .

‘ ©aking moments about point A,
RB  0.08 ± mg  0.04 + î = 0
> RB  0.08 ± 4  9.81  0.04 + 4.9347 = 0
> R B = ± 42.06 N (upward)
or %/ & '01* --  .


u 
      
‘ Fig. 1.6 shows an aeroplane taking a turn. Let the propeller or engine rotates in an
anticlockwise direction when seen from the front end of the aeroplane.
Let,  = angular velocity of propeller or engine, rad/s
× = mass moment of inertia of propeller and other rotating parts attached
2
to it, about an axis of rotation, kg-m
V = linear velocity of an aeroplane, m/s
R = radius of curvature, m
V
p = angular velocity of precession = , rad/s
R

?
c  
   !   

   2   
 

‘ The propeller spins (or rotates) about axis OX. As the aeroplane takes the turn, the spin
axis (axis OX) precesses about the precession axis (axis OY).

‘ Due to this, the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the propeller shaft on the frame
or body of the aeroplane.

‘ The magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is given by,


î  

‘ The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple applied by the propeller shaft on the body of
the aeroplane is determined by considering following four cases.

î   

  
 !  
    
 



î     

  
 !  
    
 



î     

   !  
    
  



î "  

  !  
    



î   

  
 !  
    
 


 
‘ Let us consider the propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the
front or nose end of the aeroplane.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of propeller i.e. in
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ The aeroplane takes the right turn as shown in Fig. 1.7. ëence, turn the spin vector
through 90÷ in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active
gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector as shown in Fig. 1.7.
x y { ~ 
c      z  |} |   

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‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3  and  3
 of the
aeroplane.

5523   
   4-
    4

‘ Let us consider the propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the
front or nose end of the aeroplane.

‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of propeller i.e. in
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.

‘ ©he aeroplane takes the left turn as shown in Fig. 1.8. Hence, turn the spin vector
through 90÷ in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active
gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).

‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of


imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector as shown in Fig. 1.8.

‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.

‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 


3
 and  3  of the
aeroplane.
€  ƒ † ‡
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‘ Let us consider the propeller rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the front
or nose end of the aeroplane.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of propeller i.e. in
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he aeroplane takes the right turn as shown in Fig. 1.9. Hence, turn the spin vector
through 90÷ in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active
gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector as shown in Fig. 1.9.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3
 and  3  of the
aeroplane.

?
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c      Š  Œ Œ   


º (23 % 
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‘ Let us consider the propeller rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the front
or nose end of the aeroplane.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of propeller i.e. in
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he aeroplane takes the left turn as shown in Fig. 1.10. Hence, turn the spin vector
through 90÷ in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active
gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector as shown in Fig. 1.10.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of curling fingers gives the direction of reactive
gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3  and  3
 of the
aeroplane.

?
c  
   )   

  #

 î !     6

x 
  
An aeroplane makes a half circle of 100 m radius, towards left when flying at 400 km/hr. The
engine and propeller of plane weights 500 kg and has a radius of gyration of 30 cm. The
engine rotates at 3000 r.p.m. anticlockwise, when viewed from front end. Find the gyroscopic
couple and its effect on aeroplane.
V V  

2  Radius of curvature, R = 100 m


Flying speed, V = 400 km / hr
400 ÿ 1000
=
60 ÿ 60

= 111.11 m/sec

Mass of engine and propeller, m = 500 kg


Radius of gyration of engine and propeller, k = 30 cm = 0.3 m

Speed of engine, N = 3000 r.p.m.


2 ÿ 3000
 =
60

= 314.16 rad/s
    VV
V
 ‘
‘ Mass moment of inertia of engine and propeller is,
2 2
× = m k = 500 ÿ (0.3)
2
or × = 45 kg-m
‘ Precessional angular velocity is,
V 111.11
p = =
R 100
or p = 1.1111 rad/s

‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on aeroplane is,


î = ×  p

= 45 ÿ 314.16 ÿ 1.1111
or î = 15707.84 N-m
’ “ • ˜ ™
c      ”  –— –   


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š œ šž œ Ÿš ¡ £ š
 x ›    ›     ¢ › ¤ › ¥  ¤ 
©he propeller rotates anticlockwise when viewed from front end. Under this condition if
aeroplane takes a left turn, then effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3
 and
 3  of the aeroplane. (Refer Fig. 1.2.1).

º 23 % 


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6
¦§ ©
x  ¨ u 
An aeroplane makes a complete half circle of 50 m radius, towards left when flying at
200 km/hr. ©he rotating engine and the propeller of the plane have a mass 400 kg with a radius
of gyration of 40 cm. ©he engine runs at 2400 r.p.m. clockwise when viewed from the rear.
Find the gyroscopic couple on the plane and state its effect on it. What will be the effect if the
aeroplane turn to its right instead of to the left.
ª
   

 # Radius of curvature, R = 50 m

  Flying speed, V = 200 km / hr


200  1000
=
60  60
c  
   /   

= 55.55 m/sec
Mass of engine and propeller, m = 400 kg
Radius of gyration of engine and propeller, k = 40 cm = 0.4 m

Speed of engine, N = 2400 r.p.m.


2 ÿ 2400
 =
60

= 251.3216 rad/s
    VV
V
 «

‘ Mass moment of inertia of engine and propeller is,


2
× = mk
2
= 400 ÿ (0.4)
2
or × = 64 kg-m
‘ Precessional angular velocity is,
V 55.55
p = =
R 50
or p = 1.1111 rad/s

‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on aeroplane is,


î = ×  p

= 64 ÿ 251.32 ÿ 1.1111
or î = 17871.46 N-m

or î  $
$ %& 
¬
 x V VV
V
'  V
  ( )   ­ 

The propeller rotates clockwise when viewed from rear end. Under this condition if
aeroplane takes a left turn, then effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to  
 and


 of the aeroplane. (Refer Fig. 1.3.1).
® ¯ ± ´ µ
c      °  ²³ ²  

 ?


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¶ ¸ º ¼ ¶¿ ¶ ¶ Á ¶ ÂÁ ¶¼ Á ¸Â
 x ·   ¹ » · ½ ·¾  ½  À  » ½   Ã   » À   »


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©he propeller rotates clockwise when viewed from rear end, under this condition if
aeroplane takes a right turn, then effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3  and
 3
 of the aeroplane (Refer Fig. 1.3.2)

u 
      

Fig. 1.11 shows three views of ship.


c  
      
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  " !'  

   VV # 


 
‘ The terms used in connection with ships are as follows :
  /!  
×t is the front end of the ship.
  '
 
   
×t is the rear end of the ship.
  '
   
×t is the right hand side of the ship when seen from the stern. (rear end)
  #
 
×t is the left hand side of the ship when seen from the stern. (rear end)
 '
   
Steering is the turning of a complete ship in a curve towards the left or right.
  #
   
Pitching is the cyclic up and down motion of the bow and stern in a vertical plane about
the transverse axis.
     
Rolling is the cyclic up and down motion of the port and the starboard about the
longitudinal axis.
‘ The gyroscopic effect in ships during steering, pitching and rolling are discussed below.

   VV
x V 
    
‘ St  
     
 
       .
‘ The rotor and propeller of the ship is spinning about its own axis. ëence, steering of the
ship leads to the precession of the spin axis. Due to this, the reactive gyroscopic couple
is applied by the rotor shaft on the ship.
‘ The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is determined by considering following four
cases.
c  
      

î   


  
 !  
   

 

î   


  
 !  
   



î   


  !  
   

 

î "  


  !  
   




î  


  
 !  
   

 
 
‘ Let the rotor and propeller rotate in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow
or fore end and ship is taking right turn, as shown in Fig. 1.12.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ The ship steers to right, as shown in Fig. 1.12. ëence, turn the spin vector through 90÷ in
the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.12.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
The curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ The effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is the  

 or   and 
the ! or  .
Ä Å Ç ÊË Ì
c      Æ  ÈÉ   

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‘ Let the rotor and propeller rotate in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow
or fore end and ship is taking left turn as shown in Fig. 1.13.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e.
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship steers to left, as shown in Fig. 1.13. Hence, turn the spin vector thorough 90÷ in
the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.13.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3 - or   and  3

 or .
Í Î Ð ÓÔ Õ
c      Ï  ÑÒ   

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‘ Let the rotor and propeller rotate in clockwise direction when viewed from the bow or
fore end and ship is taking right turn, as shown in Fig. 1.14.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e.
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship steers to left, as shown in Fig. 1.14. Hence, turn the spin vector thorough 90÷ in
the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.14.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3 - or   and  3

 or .
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‘ Let the rotor and propeller rotate in clockwise direction when viewed from the bow or
fore end and ship is taking left turn, as shown in Fig. 1.15.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship steers to left, as shown in Fig. 1.15. Hence, turn the spin vector through 90÷ in
the direction of procession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of
imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.15.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is the 
3
 or  and  
3 - or  .
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u   x       


‘ tchèé ? ?ê ?? ???
?
 ?  ? ? ?
?  ? ?? ? ?
  ?   ? as shown in Fig. 1.16.


º 1  3  83 
c  
   )   

‘ The rotor is spinning about its own axis. ëence, the pitching of the ship about the
transverse axis is nothing but the precession of the spin axis. The transverse axis of the
ship is the axis of precession. Due to this, the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by
the rotor shaft on the ship.
‘ The pitching of ship is assumed to take place with simple harmonic motion (S.ë.M.)
  
  
2  î 
‘ The angular displacement of axis of spin from its mean position at time
is given by,
 =  sin o t ...(a)
where,  = amplitude of swing, i.e. maximum angle turned form the mean
position, rad.
o = angular velocity of S.ë.M,
2
= rad/s
TP
TP = time period of pitching, s
‘ The angular velocity of precession is given by,
d d
p = = ( sin o t)
dt dt
or p =  o cos o t. ...(b)
‘ The angular velocity of precession will be maximum when cos o t = 1.
‘ The maximum angular velocity of precession is,
p (max) =  o
‘ The maximum gyroscopic couple is given by,
î     ...(1.5)
2
where, × = moment of inertia of turbine rotor, kg.m
 = angular velocity of rotor, rad/s.
‘ From Equation (3), the angular acceleration of precession is,
dp
p =
dt
d
= ( o cos o t)
dt
2
or P = ±  o sin  o t

‘ ëence, Maximum angular acceleration of precession is,



#    ( ...(1.6)
  
 
2  î 
The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is determined by considering following four
cases.
ë ì î ñò ó
c      í  ïð   



5  23   
   4-
   
3   3
 -

55  23   
   4-
   
3   3
 --

555  23   
   4-
   
3   3
 -

57  23   
   4-
   
3   3
 --


523   
   4-
   
3   3
 -
‘ Let the rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end
and ship pitches upward, as shown in Fig. 1.17.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship pitches upward as shown in Fig. 1.17, Hence, turn the spin vector through 90÷
in the direction of precession, so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing)



º )23%  % 
   4-
83   3
9 -

‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction imaginary
active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.17.
ô õ ÷ úû ü
c      ö  øù   


‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscope couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to turn the ship  -

 

or  3
.

5523   
   4-
   
3   3
 --
‘ Let the rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end
and ship pitches downward, as shown in Fig. 1.18.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
anticlockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship pitches upward as shown in Fig. 1.18. Hence, turn the spin vector through 90÷
in the direction of precession, so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).


º ,23%  % 
   4-
"   83   3
" --
‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction imaginary
active gyroscopic couple vector, as shown in Fig. 1.18.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscope couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
ý þ  
c      ÿ     


‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to turn the ship  -

 or 

.

55523   
   4-
   
3   3
 -

‘ Let the rotor rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end and
ship pitches upward, as shown in Fig. 1.19.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship pitches upward as shown in Fig. 1.19. Hence, turn the spin vector through 90÷
in the direction of precession, so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic
couple vector (which is not existing).

º (23%  % 


  4-
83   3
9 -

‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction imaginary
active gyroscopic coupe vector, as shown in Fig. 1.19.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscope couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
  
c        
  


‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to turn the ship  -

 or 

.

5723   
   4-
   
3   3
 --

‘ Let the rotor rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end and
ship pitches downward, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
‘ Using the right hand, curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.e. in
clockwise direction, the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.
‘ ©he ship pitches downward as shown in Fig. 1.20. Hence, turn the spin vector through
90÷ in the direction of precession, so as to get the direction of imaginary active
gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).

º 023%  % 


  4-
"   83   3
" --

‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction imaginary
active gyroscopic coupe vector, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
‘ Using right hand, point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscope couple vector.
©he curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©he effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to turn the ship  -

  

or  3
.
    
c            


u   x       
‘ r  ??? ?
??   ?  ? ??  ?  
 ??? ?
 ?  ?  ? 
?   
? 
?  ? ? 
?
 ?     as shown in
Fig. 1.21.
‘ ×n case of rolling action the axis of rotor and axis of rolling of ship are same. Hence,
there is no precession of the axis of rotor or axis of spin and hence, there is  

     3
3 .

º %   83 

u 
    

‘ A spinning body always tends to maintain the orientation of its spin axis in space, for
example, bullet fired form a rifle.
‘ ©he external torque in suitable direction is required to change the orientation of spin
axis.
‘ ©hus the basic property of the gyroscope is, it opposes the precession of the axis of spin
by applying the reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ ©his property is used in automatic pilot for ships and air crafts, in stabili ing rifle bullet,
in stabili ing air and sea vehicles, etc.
‘ However, very little or no success is obtained in stabili ation of the single track land
vehicles.
‘ ×n air or sea vehicles such as, aeroplanes and ships, always external disturbing couple is
acting on the vehicle.
‘ For the stability of such vehicle it is essential to neutrali e the effect of external
disturbing couple by applying equal and opposite couple. ©his can be achieved with the
help of gyroscope.
‘ ×n such vehicles the axis of gyroscope is made to precess by some external means
(e.g. electric motor) such that the reactive gyroscopic couple should be as for as possible
equal and opposite to the external disturbing couple.
‘ Of course, the magnitude and direction of disturbing couple is not always constant.
   !" #
c            


Accordingly, to generate equal and opposite reactive couple, it is essential to vary the
magnitude and directions of velocity of precession.
‘ ×n order to control the velocity of precession, the feedback is taken form the disturbing
couple.

u    
) 0
  $%& '(  *x+, *,* -& .  /// 

‘ Ships or sea vessels required stabili1 ation when they face heavy sea waves. A disturbing
couple acts on the ships due to sea waves, hence stabili1 ation of ships is necessary.
‘ Due to sea waves, ship will either roll or pitch. ©he amplitude of rolling is much higher
than the amplitude of pitching. ©he gyroscope can be used for reducing the amplitude of
rolling and hence, stabili2 ing the ship.
‘ ©he fundamental requirement of the gyroscopic stabili3 ation is that, the gyroscope
should be made to precess by some external means (e.g. electric motor) in such a way
that, the reactive gyroscopic couple exerted by the rotor should oppose any disturbing
couple which may act on the ship.
‘ îonsider a rolling of a ship due to disturbing couple, as shown in Fig. 1.22. ©he
disturbing couple is caused by buoyant forces which are different on the two side of a
wave slope. ©o keep the ship on even keel, disturbing couple has to be opposed by
another couple of same magnitude and in opposite direction.

º %   83 

‘ ©his is achieved by a gyroscope having hori4 ontal rotor, as shown in Fig. 1.23. ©he shaft
or axis of the rotor is made to precess by an electric motor in a vertical plane.
‘ Suppose the rotor rotates in an anticlockwise direction when viewed form the top.
During steering, the spin axis does not precess and will no cause any gyroscopic effect.
‘ Suppose the disturbing couple due to rolling action is acting in clockwise direction when
viewed from the bow end. ×n this case, the axis of spin of rotor is made to precess by an
electric motor in clockwise direction when viewed from port side, as shown in Fig. 1.23.
5 6 8 ;< =
c       7  9:   


‘ ©his produces reactive gyroscopic couple, which opposes the disturbing couple.


º 8  :  83 

‘ ×f the disturbing couple and the reactive gyroscopic couple are equal, then the ship will
remain on the even keel.
‘ ©he rolling amplitude cannot be eliminated totally but its value can be reduced.
‘ ×t is important to note that, as rolling or disturbing couple is periodic in nature, reactive
gyroscopic couple should also be periodic in nature.
>? A
x  @ u 
A rotor of a turbine on ship has its axes of rotation parallel to the propeller shaft and is
supported in bearings 5 m apart. ©he rotor has a mass of 350 kg and radius of gyration of
600 mm. ©he rotor rotates at 1200 r.p.m. in an anticlockwise sense when viewed from the
front. ×f the ship is making right turn at 5 rad/s, determine the magnitude and direction of the
bearing reactions due to gyroscopic effect. 9" 00)
B
   

 # Length between two bearings,  = 5 m

  Mass of rotor, m = 350 kg

Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 600 m = 0.6 m


C D F IJ K
c       E  GH   


Speed of rotor, N = 1200 r.p.m.
MN P QM S U M
u L O  
R T
O V O W  V 
2   1200
‘ Angular velocity of rotor,  = = 125.66 rad/s
60
‘ Precessional angular velocity, P = 5 rad/s
‘ Mass moment of inertia of rotor is,
2 2
× = m k = 350  (0.6)
2
or × = 126 kg-m
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on ship is,
î = ×  P

= 126  125.66  5

or î = 79168.131 N-m

>  & )(1,4*+ 



‘ ©he rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the front. Hence, the
effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to 
3
 and  3 -. [Fig. 1.4.1]

?
X Y [ ^_ `
c       Z  \]   


º '
ab ab f g
 & 
c d e   
‘ Due to reactive gyroscopic couple, the force applied by the shaft on the bearing µA¶ near
the bow end is in downward direction and on the bearing µB¶ near the stern end is in
upward direction as shown in Fig. 1.4.1
‘ ©he bearing reactions are opposite to these forces.
‘ Fig. 1.4.2 shows the reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the shaft and bearing reactions.


º '

‘ ©aking moments about B,


RA  5 ± î = 0

> RA  5 ± 79.1681 = 0

>% & !,4* -  .




‘ ©aking moments about A,


RB  5 + î = 0

> R B  5 + 79.1681 = 0

> R B = ± 15.83 kN (upward)


or %/ & !,4* --  .

hi k
x  j u 
A ship is propelled by a turbine rotor having a mass of 6000 kg and speed of 2400 r.p.m. ©he
direction of rotation of rotor is anticlockwise when viewed from the bow end. ©he radius of
gyration of rotor is 450 mm. Determine the gyroscopic effect when :
(i) Ship is steering to the left in a curve of 60 m radius at a speed of 18 knots
(1 knot = 1860 m/hr).
(ii) Ship is pitching in S.H.M. with bow descending (falling) with maximum velocity.
©he time period of pitching is 18 seconds and the ship pitches 7.5÷ above and 7.5÷
c  
   )   


below the normal position.


(iii) Ship is rolling and at the instant, its angular velocity is 0.035 rad/s counter clockwise
when viewed from stern.
(iv) Also find the maximum angular acceleration during pitching.
V V  l

2  Mass of rotor, m = 6000 kg


Speed of rotor, N = 2400 r.p.m.
2 ÿ 2400
> Angular speed of rotor,  =
60

= 251.32 rad/s

Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 450 mm = 0.45 m


2 2
Mass moment of inertia of rotor, × = m k = 6000 ÿ (0.45)
2
= 1215 kg-m

Radius of rotation of ship, R = 60 m

Speed of ship, V = 18 knots

= 18 ÿ 1860 m / hr
18 ÿ 1860
or V = = 9.3 m /s
3600
 + 
   V)  m 
V 9.3
‘ Precessional angular velocity, p = = = 0.155 rad/s.
R 60
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple is,
î = ×  p

î = 1215 ÿ 251.32 ÿ 0.155


or î = 47331.23 N-m

> î  $  %& .


‘ The rotor rotates anticlockwise when viewed from the bow end and ship takes left turn,
then effect of gyroscopic couple is to  
 ! and 
 
 of the ship
[Fig. 1.5.1].
c  
   *   

n o q tu v
c       p  rs   

 ?




º !
w y { | ~ € { y{ y | { € €~
 x  xz  }x   &    }        
}x 
‚

‘ Amplitude of swing is,



 = 7.5÷ = 7.5  = 0.13089 radians
180

‘ Angular velocity of S.H.M. is,


2 2
o = = = 0.3490 rad / sec
©p 18

‘ Angular velocity of precession is,


p =  o cos o t
Angular velocity of precession will be maximum, if cos o t = 1.
©herefore, the maximum angular velocity of precession is,
p (max) = o  = 0.3490  0.13089

or p (max) = 0.04569 rad/sec


‘ Maximum reactive gyroscopic couple is,
î max = ×  p (max)

= 1215  251.32  0.04569


or î max = 13952.02 N-m

> îmax = (!04*+ 


.

‘ ©he rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow end and pitching
is downward. Hence, the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to move the ship
ƒ „ † ‰ Š
c       …  ‡ˆ ‡  


 -
 
.

º !
‹ Ž
  Œ   
Œ

‘ ×n case of rolling action, the axis of rotation of rotor and the axis of rolling of ship are
same. Hence, there is no precession of the axis of rotor and hence, there is no gyroscopic
effect during rolling of the ship.
‘ 
 *  ’““  ”

‘ Angular displacement at any instant during pitching is,
 =  sin o t

‘ Angular precessional velocity during pitching is,


d
=  o cos o t.
dt

‘ Angular acceleration during pitching is,


c  
   !   

2
d 2
2 = ±  o sin o t
dt
Angular acceleration is maximum when sin o t = 1
‘ Therefore, maximum angular acceleration of precision is,
2
p (max) =  o
2
= ± 0.13089 ÿ (0.3490)

or #    ()  .
‘ Negative sign indicates maximum angular retardation.
x 
 
The turbine rotor of ship has a mass of 2000 kg and it rotates at a speed of 3000 r.p.m
clockwise when seen from the rear. The radius of gyration of rotor is 500 mm
(i) Determine the gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship is steering to right in a curve
of 100 m radius at a speed of 30 km/hr
(ii) îalculate the gyroscopic torque and its effect when the ship is pitching in SëM, with
bow falling with its maximum velocity. The period of pitching is 50 sec and the total
angular displacement between the two extreme positions is 12÷.
(iii) What is the effect of rolling in this case. #*   
V V  •

Mass of rotor, m = 2000 kg


Speed of rotor, N = 3000 r.p.m.
2 ÿ 3000
> Angular speed of rotor,  = = 314.15 rad / s
60
Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 500 mm = 0.5 m
2 2 2
Mass moment of inertia of rotor, × = m k = 2000 ÿ (0.5) = 500 kg-m
Radius of rotation of ship, R = 100 m

Speed of ship, V = 30 km/hr


30 ÿ 1000
or V = = 8.3333 m/s
3600
 + 
 V)  –
V 8.333
‘ Precessional angular velocity, p = = = 8.083333 rad/s.
R 100
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple is,
— ˜ š ž Ÿ
c       ™  ›œ   


î = ×  p

= 500  314.15  0.08333

or î = 13089.58 N-m

>  & 0,4*+ 



‘ ©he rotor rotates anticlockwise when viewed from the rear end and ship takes right turn,
then effect of gyroscopic couple is to 
 3
 and   3  - of the ship
[Refer Fig. 1.6.1].

º 1
  ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¤


¡ 
 £&  ,  
  ¥   
‘ ©otal angular displacement between the two extreme position is,

2 = 12÷

 = 6÷ = 6 
180

= 0.1047 radians
c  
   !!   

‘ Angular velocity of S.ë.M. is,
2 2
o = =
Tp 18

= 0.12566 rad / sec


‘ Angular velocity of precession is,
p =  o cos o t
Angular velocity of precession will be maximum, if cos o t = 1.
Therefore, the maximum angular velocity of precession is,
p (max) = o 

= 0.12566 ÿ 0.1047
or p (max) = 0.01315 rad/s

‘ Maximum reactive gyroscopic couple is,


îmax = ×  p (max)

= 500 ÿ 314.15 ÿ 0.01315


or îmax = 2066.63 N-m

or îmax =   %& .


‘ The rotor rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the rear end and pitching
is downward. ëence, the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to move the ship

!  
  [Refer Fig. 1.6.2].
¦ § © ¬­ ®
c       ¨  ª«   

 ?

º 1
¯ ±


°  ² 
‘ ×n case of rolling action, the axis of rotation of rotor and the axis of rolling of ship are
same. Hence, there is no precession of the axis of rotor and hence, there is no gyroscopic
effect during rolling of the ship.

u         


   
 
‘ îonsider a four-wheel vehicle taking a left turn as shown in Fig. 1.24. ©he four wheels
are : A, B, î and D.
‘ ©he wheels î and D are called  -3
and wheels A and B are called 
-3
.
Let, M = total mass of the vehicle, kg
R = radius of curvature of curved path or track, m
r = radius of the wheels, m

h = height of î.G. of the vehicle above the road surface, m

a = width of track, m
2
×w = mass moment of inertia of each wheel, kg-m
2
× = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engine, kg-m

V = linear velocity of the vehicle, m/s

 = angular velocity of the rotating parts of the engine, rad/s


c  
   !$   

w = angular velocity of the rotating parts of the wheel, rad/s
V
p = precessional angular velocity of the wheel axis = , rad/s
R
E
G = gear ratio =
w

   V VV V  V+V- 

‘ When the vehicle is taking the turn, the following three loads (forces and couples) are
acting on the vehicle [Fig. 1.24] :

  
 
 î
  
   
  î

 + V ³´µ

‘ The weight of vehicle µMg¶ acts vertically downwards through the î.G. of the vehicle. ×f
the î.G. of the vehicle is at the center of vehicle, the total weight of the vehicle will be
equally distributed over the four wheels, which acts vertically downwards.

‘ ×f the î.G. of the vehicle is not at the center of vehicle, the total weight of vehicle will
not be equally distributed over the four wheels.
¶ · ¹ ¼½ ¾
c       ¸  º»   

 ?

º 'º  
     º +23
 73  #  #3
 ¿ ,  , 

‘ Since the vehicle moves along a curved path having radius %6 while taking a turn, the
centrifugal force º 6acts radially outward through the  of the vehicle. ©he effect of
this centrifugal force is to overturn the vehicle.
‘ ©he centrifugal force acting through the  of the vehicle is,
2
2 V
Fc = M P R = M 2 R
R

7
or º  &  ...(1.7)
%
Á Ã Ä
 À    Â  Å  Æ  Å Æ
‘ ×n vehicle, the four wheels and rotating parts of engine are spinning about their own axis.
‘ When the vehicle is moving along the curved path, the precession of axis of rotation take
place. Due to this, the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the axle and wheels, as
shown in Fig. 1.24.
‘ ©he four wheels and engine are considered two different sets of rotors since they are
rotating with different speed and may be in different directions. Hence, we have to
consider the reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels as well as engine separately.
‘ ©he reactive gyroscopic couplet due to four wheels is,
î w = 4 [ ×w  w  p ]

‘ ©he reactive gyroscopic couple due to rotating parts of engine is,


 

î = ×  p = × G w p ... âââ G =
 w
c  
   !)   

‘ The total reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is,
î = îw p îE

or î = 4 [ ×w w p ] p ×E G w p

or î  !p2 ! ...(1.8)

‘ ×n Equation (1.8), the positive sign is used when the wheels and engine rotate in same
direction, since reactive gyroscopic couples due to wheels and engine will act in same
direction.
‘ ×f the wheels and engine rotate in opposite direction then the negative sign is used, since
the reactive gyroscopic couples due to wheels and engine will act in opposite direction.
‘ ×f the mass moment of inertia of the rotating parts of engine is negligible, then the term
m2 6in Equation (1.8) is neglected.
‘ ×t is important to note that, only engine parts which are rotating in a plane parallel to
plane of wheels are taken into account.
   V VV V + Ç  V

Let, Ro = reaction of ground on each outer wheel ,N

Ri = reaction of ground on each inner wheel, N

Fig. 1.25 shows loading diagram of four wheels.


c  
   !*   
 ?

 ) 6   "   î 




‘ Taking moments about î and D,


a
2 Ro ÿ a ± Mg ÿ ± Fc ÿ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a
> 2 Ro a = + Fc h + î
2
Mg Fc h î
> Ro = + +
4 2a 2a
2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E) w  p
> Ro = +  +
4 R 2a 2a
2
Mg M V h (4 ×w p G ×E) V V
> Ro = + + 
4 2Ra 2a r R
 
 "  !p2 "
>       «(1.9)
  
‘ Taking moments about A and B,
a
± 2 Ri ÿ a + Mg ÿ ± Fc ÿ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a
> 2 Ri a = ± Fc h ± î
2
Mg Fc h î
> Ri = ± ±
4 2a 2a
c  
   #/   

2
Mg MV h (4 ×W p G ×E) W p
> Ri = ±  ±
4 R 2a 2a
2
Mg M V h (4 ×W p G ×E) V V
> Ri = ± ± 
4 2Ra 2a r R
 
 "  p2 "
or    ( ( «(1.10)
  

 V  V V . V V+- 

‘ For the stability of the four-wheel vehicle moving in a curved path, it is essential that no
wheel should be lifted off the ground while the vehicle takes the turn.
‘ To fulfill this condition, the net vertical force applied by the wheel on the ground should
be downwards i.e. the net force applied by the ground on the wheels (reaction of the
ground on the wheels) should be upwards.
‘ ×n above analysis, it is assumed that the reaction of ground on the wheel is positive, if it
is in upward direction.
‘ ëence, the conditions for the stability of vehicle are :
 a  ...(a)
and   a  ...(b)
‘ From Equation (1.9), it is seen that the reaction of ground on each outer wheel i.e. Ro can
not be zero or negative.
‘ ëowever, from Equation (1.10) it is seen that, the reaction of ground on each inner
wheel i.e. R i may be zero or negative. Therefore the inner wheels may lift from the
ground and vehicle may overturn.
‘ ëence, the condition for stability is,
  a  ...(c) 
2 2
Mg M V h (4 ×W p G ×E) V
  ± ± a 0
4 2Ra 2Rra

V  (4 ×w p G ×E)

2
Mg
 >  a M h +
4 2 Ra  r 
MgR a 2
 > a V
 (4 ×w p G ×E

)
2 M h +
 r 
c  
   #   


or " à ...(1.11)
 !p2 

 
  

x 
  È
An automobile is traversing along a curved track of 200 m mean radius. Each of the four road
wheels has a mass of 125 kg with radius of gyration of 0.32 m. The effective diameter of each
2
wheel is 0.8 m. The rotating parts of the engine have a mass moment of inertia of 10 kg-m .
The engine axis is parallel to the front axle and the crankshaft rotates in the same direction as
the road wheels. The gear ratio between the engine and the back wheels is 5. The vehicle has a
mass of 3000 kg and its centre of gravity is 0.5 m above the road level. The wheel track is
1.5 m. îalculate the limiting speed of the vehicle around the curve for all four wheels to
maintain contact with the road surface.
V V  È
2  
Radius of curvature of path, R = 200 m.
Mass of each wheel, mW = 125 kg
Radius of gyration of wheel, kW = 0.32 m
2
2 2
> Mass moment of inertia of wheel, ×w = mW k = 125 ÿ (0.32) = 12.8 kg-m
W

Diameter of each wheel, D = 0.8 m


0.8
> Radius of each wheel, r = = 0.4 m
2
2
> Mass moment of inertia of engine, ×E = 10 kg-m
Gear ratio, G = 5
Mass of vehicle, M = 3000 kg
ëeight of î.G. above the road surface, h = 0.5 m
Wheel track, a = 1.5 m
    ÉV    VV
V
Ê 

‘ Weight of the vehicle is,


Mg = 3000 ÿ 9.81
or Mg = 29430 N
‘ Angular velocity of the wheels is,
V V
W = = = 2.5 V rad / s
r 0.4
c  
   #   

‘ Precessional angular velocity of the wheels is,
V V
p = = = 0.005 V rad / s
R 200
‘ îentrifugal force acting on vehicle is,
2 2
M V 3000 V
Fc = =
R 200

or   )" %
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is,
î = (4 ×w p G ×E) w p
> î = (4 ÿ 12.8 + 5 ÿ 10) 2.5 V ÿ 0.005 V

or î   )" %&.
   V VV V + Ë 
‘ Fig. 1.7.1 shows forces and couple acting on fours wheel and Fig. 1.7.2 shows loading
diagram of wheels.
‘ Taking moments about A and B,
a
± 2 Ri ÿ a + Mg ÿ ± Fc ÿ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a
> 2 Ri a = ± Fc ÿ h ± î
2
Mg Fc h î
> Ri = ± ±
2 2a 2a
2 2
29430 15 V ÿ 0.5 1.265 V
= ± ±
4 2 ÿ 1.5 2 ÿ 1.5

or    $ )$)( $" %
‘ Taking moments about î and D,
a
2 ÿ Ro ÿ a ± Mg ÿ ± Fc ÿ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a
> 2 Ro a = + Fc ÿ h + î
2
Mg Fc ÿ h î
> Ro = + +
4 2a 2a
2 2
29430 15 V ÿ 0.5 1.265 V
= ± ±
4 2 ÿ 1.5 2 ÿ 1.5

or   $ )$)  $" %
Ì Í Ï ÒÓ Ô
c       Î  ÐÑ   

 ?

º )º  
     º 23
 73 


º )6  "  º 23

 Õ      -
 
‘ For stability of vehicle
Ri a 0
2
7357.5 ± 2.92167 V a 0
2 Ö
> 2.92167 V 7357.5
Ö 7357.5
> V
2.92167
Ö
> V 50.182 m/s
Ö 50.182  3600
or V km/hr.
1000
> 7 à ,01!!,4 3 

×
x  Øu 
A four wheel car has a total mass of 3000 kg. ach wheel is of 450 mm radius. ©he center
distance between two wheels on an axle is 1.5 m and wheel base is 2.5 m. ©he height of î.G.
c  
   #!   

is 0.5 m above the road surface and located at 1 m from front axle. Each wheel has moment of
2
inertia of 32 kg-m . The engine axis is along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The engine
rotates 4 times the speed of wheels in clockwise direction when viewed from front. The mass
of rotating parts of engine is 70 kg having radius of gyration of 100 mm. ×f the car is taking a
left turn of 70 m radius at 50 km/hr, find the ground reaction on each wheel. #*  $
V V  Ù
2  Total mass of car, M = 3000 kg
  Radius of wheel, r = 450 mm = 0.45 m
Wheel track, a = 1.5 m
Wheel base, b = 2.5 m
ëeight of îG above the road surface, h = 0.5 m
Distance of î.G. from front axle,  = 1 m
2
Mass moment of inertia of each wheel, ×W = 32 kg-m
Gear ratio, G = 4
Mass of engine, mE = 70 kg
Radius of gyration of engine parts, kE = 100 mm = 0.1 m
2 2 2
> Mass moment of inertia of engine, ×E = mE ( kE ) = 70 ÿ (0.1) = 0.7 kg-m
Radius of curvature of path, R = 70 m
50 ÿ 1000
Speed of the vehicle, V = 50 km / hr = = 13.88 m/sec
3600
    ÚV    VV
V
Û 
‘ Weight of the vehicle is,
Mg = 3000 ÿ 9.81
> Mg = 29430 N
‘ Angular velocity of the wheels is,
V 13.88
W = = = 30.84 rad/s
r 0.45
‘ Precessional angular velocity of the vehicle is,
V 13.88
p = =
R 70
or p = 0.1982 rad/s
‘ îentrifugal force acting on vehicle is,
2 2
MV 3000 ÿ (13.88)
Fc = =
R 70
or  
)  %
c  
   ##   

‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels is,
î w = 4 ×w w p = 4 ÿ 32 ÿ 30.84 ÿ 0.1982
or î!  $
$ %&
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine is,
îE = ×E E p = ×E G E p

= 0.7 ÿ 4 ÿ 30.84 ÿ 0.1982


or î   $%&
‘ Since the position of engine axis and wheel axis are perpendicular to each other the
reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels and reactive gyroscopic couple due to
engine act perpendicular to each other, as shown in Fig. 1.8.1.

?
c  
   #$   

Ü
   V  V V  V  +  V )V   V      V
 - Ý

Fig. 1.8.2 shows the loading diagram considering reactive gyroscopic couple due to four
wheels (îW) and centrifugal force (Fc)

 
 6   î   
2  î

 î
  

‘ Taking moments about A and B,


± 2 Ri ÿ 1.5 ± Fc ÿ 0.5 ± îw = 0
> ± 2 Ri ÿ 1.5 ± 8256.61 ÿ 0.5 ± 782.73 = 0

>   ( %

‘ Taking moments about î and D,


2 Ro ÿ 1.5 ± Fc ÿ 0.5 ± îw = 0
2 Ro ÿ 1.5 ± 8256.61 ÿ 0.5 ± 782.73 = 0

>   $%
Þ
¦   V  V V  V  +  V )V   V  )V      V
 - ß

Fig. 1.8.3 shows the loading diagram considering reactive gyroscopic couple due to
engine (îE) and weight of vehicle (Mg).
à á ã æç è
c       â  äå   


‘ ©aking moments about A and î,

± 2 R R  2.5 + Mg  1 ± î = 0

± RR  2.5 + 29430  1 ± 17.11 = 0

>%% & !,,!)*

º ,6  "  


 %  #
  "   
2 3 73 

‘ ©aking moments about B and D,

2 RF  2.5 ± Mg  1.5 ± î = 0

2 RF  2.5 ± 29430  1.5 ± 17.11 = 0


>%º & ,,'*
ë
 é  é    ê   


From Fig 1.8.3 ;

‘ Resultant reaction of ground on wheel A is,

R A = R o + RF

= 1637.01 + 8832.42

or % & 0'1('* 


.
c  
   #)   

‘ Resultant reaction of ground on wheel B is,
RB = Ro + R R

= 1637.01 + 5882.57
or /  $))
% .
‘ Resultant reaction of ground on wheel î is,
Rî = Ri + R F
= ± 1636.99 + 8832.42
or î  $) % .
‘ Resultant reaction of ground on wheel D is,
R D = Ri + R R
= ± 1636.99 + 5882.57
or   ))
% .
îï îò ö ù ù ù
u ìu! í ðñ ñ ó óôõ   ÷øø  ø
ø÷ñú ûó ñüý ñü úôõ øþ
ïî ö î ï
ÿ ÷ ñ ÷ ð ü ñüý "

Fig. 1.26 shows a four-wheel vehicle moving along a curved path with banking and
taking a left-turn.
Let, M = total mass of the vehicle, kg
R = radius of curvature of curved path or track, m
r = radius of the wheels, m
h = height of î.G. of the vehicle above the road surface, m
a = width of track, m
2
×w = mass moment of inertia of each wheel, kg-m
2
×E = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engine, kg-m
V = linear velocity of the vehicle, m/s
w = angular velocity of the rotating parts of the engine, rad/s
V
p = precessional angular velocity of the wheel axis = , rad/s
R
E
G = gear ratio =
w
 = banking angle of the track
c  
   #*   


      î


"   î #


/  
c  
   $/   

    V VV V +V- 
When the vehicle is taking the turn, the following loads (forces and couple) are acting
on vehicle, as shown in Fig. 1.26.

  

 
 î
  
  
  î

 + V -   

The weight of vehicle m6 which acts vertically downwards through the î.G. of the
vehicle is resolved into two components :
(i)  ×n the plane parallel to the planes of rotation of wheels.
(ii)    ×n the plane perpendicular to the planes of rotation of wheels.
    V   

‘ Since the vehicle moves along a curved path having radius m6 while taking a turn, the
centrifugal force acts radially outward though the î2 of the vehicle. The effect of the
centrifugal force is to overturn the vehicle.
‘ The centrifugal force acting through the î2 of the vehicle is,
2
MV
Fc = M  p R = 2 R
R

"
or    ...(1.12)

‘ This centrifugal force is also resolved into two components :
(i)   ×n the plane parallel to the planes rotation of wheels.
(ii)  ×n the plane perpendicular to the planes of rotation of wheels.
¦    VV
V
  

‘ The precession of the spin axis is about the vertical axis m 6. ëowever, the angular
momentum vector m 6is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of wheels. ëence, only
the component of angular momentum vector perpendicular to the precession axis
(vector × cos ) is responsible for producing the reactive gyroscopic couple.
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple is,

î = ×  cos p

= (4 ×w w p ×E E) cos  p
  
c      
   


= (4 ×w w × G  ) cos  p

or  & '5- 5  - 


 ...(1.13)

        
    

Let, Ro = reaction of ground on each outer wheel, N


R i = reaction of ground on each inner wheel, N

º 1   


 º  
   Î


From Fig. 1.26 (b) ;

‘ ©aking moments about î and D,


a
2 Ro ’ a ± (Mg cos  + Fc sin ) ’ ± Fc cos  ’ h + Mg sin  ’ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a Fc a
2 Ro a = cos  + sin  + Fc h cos  ± M g h sin  + (4 ×w G × ) w p cos 
2 2
Mg a
2
MV a
2
MV h Mg h (4 ×w G × ) V V
> Ro = cos  + sin  + cos  ± sin  + cos 
4a R 4a R 2a 2a 2a r R

 7 3 '5- 5 7

 

<
3 7

 %  &  ; ;


 ' % %    < '% 
 ...(1.14)

‘ ©aking moments about A and B,


a
± 2 Ri ’ a + (Mg îos  + Fc sin ) ’ ± F c cos  ’ h + Mg sin  ’ h ± î = 0
2
Mg a Fc a
2 Ria = cos  + sin  ± Fc cos  + Mg h sin  ± (4 ×w G × ) w p cos 
2 2
c  
   $   

2 2
Mg a MV a MV h Mg h (4 ×w p G ×E) V V
> Ri = cos  + sin  ± cos  + sin  ± cos 
4a R 4a R 2a 2a 2a r R
  
 "  !p2 "

 
 "

or     ( (     ...(1.15)


        

 V  V V  . V V+-+  (  

‘ îonditions for the stability of vehicle are :

Ri a 0 ...(a)
and Ro a 0 ...(b)

a  V  V " a% 


2 2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

cos  ± 
Mg h M V

>  ± ± + sin  a 0
 4 2 Ra 2 R ra   2a 4R 
2 2 2
Mg h + M V
sin  a M V h + (4 ×w p G ×E)V ± Mg
cos 
 2a 4R   2Ra 2 R ra 4 
 
"  !p 2 " 

   (
    
or
a  «(1.16)
 "

  
   

a V V  V " Va% 


2 2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

cos  ± 
Mg h M V

 + + ± sin  a 0
 4 2 Ra 2 R ra   2a 4R 
2 2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

cos  a 
Mg h M V

 + + ± sin 
 4 2 Ra 2 R ra   2a 4R 

 "  !p 2 "


    
    
or
à  «(1.17)
 "

(
   

‘ ëence for avoiding the toppling of the vehicle,


  should be within the limits given
by Equation (1.16) and (1.17).
c  
   $   

x 
  
A four wheel automobile of mass 1500 Kg is traveling along a track of 100 m mean radius,
which is banked at 15÷. The center of gravity of automobile is 0.5 m above the road level. The
width of the track of the vehicle is 1.5 m. Each of the four wheels has a mass moment of
2
inertia of 2 kg-m and effective diameter of 0.6 m. The rotating parts of the engine have a mass
2
moment of inertia of 1.25 kg-m . The engine axis is parallel to the rear axle and the crank shaft
rotates in the same direction as the wheels. The gear ratio of engine to back axle is 3.
Determine the maximum and minimum limiting speeds of the automobile around the curve for
all four wheels to maintain contact with the road surface. #* $
V V  
2  Total mass of automobile, M = 1500 Kg
Mean radius of track, R = 100 m
Banking angle of track,  = 15÷
ëeight of î.G. above road level, h = 0.5 m
Width of track, a = 1.5 m
2
Mass moment of inertia of each wheel, ×w = 2 Kg-m
Radius of wheel, r = 0.6/2 = 0.3 m
Mass moment of inertia of engine rotating parts,
2
×E = 1.25 kg-m
Gear ratio, G = E / w = 3
    V    VV
V
 

‘ Weight of the automobile is,


Mg = 1500 ÿ 9.81 = 14715 N
‘ Angular velocity of wheels is,
V V
w = = = 3.33 V rad/s
r 0.3
‘ Precessional angular velocity of the vehicle is,
V V
p = = = 0.01 V, rad/s
R 100
‘ îentrifugal force acting on the vehicle is,
2 2
MV 1500 V
Fc = =
R 100

or   )" %
   ! "
c            


Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is,
î = ×  cos  p = (4 ×w w + ×  ) cos  p

= (4 ×w w + G× w ) cos  p

= (4 ×w + G× ) w p cos 

= ( 4  2 + 3  1.25)  3.33 V  0.01 V  cos 15÷



or  & 0),7 $*+


º (6  " 


º (  
 º  
  
c  
   $#   

   V VV V + # 
‘ Fig. 1.9.1 shows the loading diagram of wheels and Fig. 1.9.2 shows the components of
forces
‘ Taking moments about î and B,
a
2 Ro ÿ a ± (Mg cos  + Fc sin ) ± Fc cos  ÿ h + Mg sin  ÿ h ± î = 0
2
(Mg cos  + Fc sin ) (Fc cos  ± Mg sin ) h î
> Ro = + +
4 2a 2a
2 2 2
(14715 cos 15÷ + 15 V sin 15÷) (15 V cos 15÷ ± 14715 sin 15÷) ÿ 0.5 0.378 V
= + +
4 2 ÿ 1.5 2 ÿ 1.5
2 2 2
14213.6 + 3.88V (14.489 V ± 3808.52) 0.378 V
= + +
4 6 3
2 2 2
= 3553.4 + 0.97 V + 2.415 V ± 634.75 + 0.126 V

or   
 )  )" %
‘ Taking moments about A and B,
a
± 2 Ri ÿ a + (Mg cos  + F c sin ) ÿ ± Fc cos  ÿ h + Mg sin  ÿ h ± î = 0
2
Mg cos  + Fc sin  (Fc cos  ± Mg sin ) h î
> Ri = ± ±
4 2a 2a
2 2 2
(14715 cos 15÷ + 15 V sin 15÷) (15 V cos 15÷ ± 14715 sin 15÷) ÿ 0.5 0.378 V
= ± ±
4 2 ÿ 1.5 2 ÿ 1.5
2 2 2
(14213.6 + 3.88V ) (14.489 V ± 3808.52) 0.378 V
= ± ±
4 6 3
2 2 2
= 3553.4 + 0.97 V ± 2.415 V + 634.75 ± 0.126 V

or    

)()$" %
¦ V  V V . V- $ 

‘  

 
Ri a 0
2
> 4188.15 ± 1.571 V a 0
2
1.571 V à 4188.15
4188.15
> V à
1.571
c  
   $$   

V à 51.63 m/s
51.63 ÿ 3600
V à km / hr
1000

V à 185.876 km/hr
or "   
)
$    +.
‘ ' 
 
Ro a 0
2
> 2918.65 + 3.511 V a 0

or "      +.


x 
 %
The total mass of a four-wheel trolley car is 1800 kg. The car runs on rails of 1.6 m gauge and
round a curve of 24 m mean radius at 36 km/hr. The track is banked at 10÷. The diameter of
the wheels is 600 mm. Each pair of wheels with axle has a mass of 180 kg and radius of
gyration of 240 mm. The height of the î.G of car above the wheel base is 950 mm. Determine
the pressure on each rail.
V V  &

2  Mass of car, M = 1800 kg


Track width, a = 1.6 m
Mean radius of path, R = 24 m

Linear speed of car, V = 36 km/hr


36 ÿ 1000
= = 10 m/s
3600

Banking angle of track,  = 10÷

Radius of wheel r = 0.6/2 = 0.3 m


Mass moment of inertia of pair of wheels,
2 2 2
×w = mw kw = 180 ÿ (0.24) = 10.368 kg-m

ëeight of î.G. above road surface, h = 0.95 m


' ( * -. /
c       )  +,   

 ?

º 06  " 

º 0  
 º  
  
2
u 0,    1   3  4  0  4

‘ Weight of the car is,


Mg = 1800  9.81 = 17658 N
‘ Angular velocity of the wheels is,
V 10
w = = = 33.33 rad/s
r 0.3
‘ Precessional angular velocity of the vehicle is,
V 10
p = = = 0.4166 rad/s
R 24
‘ îentrifugal force acting on the vehicle is,
2 2
MV 1800  10
Fc = =
R 24

or º  & )!00*
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is,
c  
   $)   

î = ×  cos  p

> î = 2 ×w  w  p cos  [âââ mass of each pair of wheels is given]

> î = 2 ÿ 10.368 ÿ 33.33 ÿ 0.4166 cos 10

or î  
 %& «(c)
   V VV V + 5 
‘ Fig. 1.10.1 shows the loading diagram of wheels and Fig. 1.10.2 shows the components
of forces and couple.
‘ Taking moments about A and B,
a
2 Ro  a ± (Mg cos  + Fc sin ) ± Fc cos   h + Mg sin   h ± î = 0
2
(Mg cos  + Fc sin ) (Fc cos  ± Mg sin ) h î
> Ro = + +
4 2a 2a
(17658 cos 10÷ + 7500 sin 10÷) (7500 cos 10÷ ± 17658 sin 10÷) ÿ 0.95 283.62
= + +
4 2 ÿ 1.6 2 ÿ 1.6

= 4673.02 + 1282.43 + 88.63


or   
% +
‘ Taking moments about î and D,
a
± 2 Ri  a + (Mg cos  + Fc sin )  ± Fc cos   h + Mg sin   h ± î = 0
2
Mg cos  + Fc sin  (Fc cos  ± Mg sin  h) î
> Ri = ± ±
4 2a 2a
(17658 cos 10÷ + 7500 sin 10÷) (7500 cos 10÷ ± 17658 sin 10÷) ÿ 0.95 283.62
= ± ±
4 2 ÿ 1.6 2 ÿ 1.6

= 4673.02 ± 1282.43 ± 88.63


or     % +
c  
   $*   

89 8< 8> > A A A
u 6uu 7 :; ; =  = ?@@ @
@?;B C= ;DE ;D BFG @H
98
I ?

‘ îonsider a two wheel vehicle (e.g. motor cycle or scooter) taking a left turn, as shown in
Fig. 1.27.
Let, M = mass of the vehicle and rider, kg
2
×w = mass moment of inertia of each wheel, kg-m
2
×E = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engine, kg-m
r = radius of the wheels, m
R = radius of curvature of curved path or track, m
V = linear velocity of the vehicle, m/s
V
w = angular velocity of the wheels = , rad/s
r
E = angular velocity of engine, rad/s
V
p = precessional angular velocity of vehicle = , rad/s
R
E
G = gear ratio =
w
 = angle of inclination of vehicle with vertical in equilibrium condition.
‘ When the vehicle is taking a turn over the curved path it is observed that, the vehicle will
tilt inward and is inclined at an angle µ¶ with the vertical plane.
‘ This angle made by the plane of vehicle with the vertical plane, while moving along the
curved path, is known as  

.

 V  V
    V  'V + - V    
  
‘ When the vehicle is moving along the curved path, the following loads (forces and
couple) are acting on the vehicle :

  
 
 î
  
  
  î
 + V-a  J
The weight of vehicle with rider m6 acts vertically downwards through the î.G. of the
vehicle, as shown in Fig. 1.27.
c  
   &/   
 ?


 $ '
 
!"   î #

    KVa  L

‘ Since the vehicle moves along a curved path having radius m6 while taking a turn, the
centrifugal force will act radially outward through the î.G of the vehicle. The
centrifugal force tends to overturn the vehicle
‘ The centrifugal force acting on vehicle is,

"
 =  ...(1.18)

¦  VV
V
a M

‘ The precession of the spin axis is about the vertical axis m 6. ëowever, the angular
momentum vector m 6 is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of wheels. ëence, only
the component of angular momentum vector m 6 perpendicular to the precession axis
(vector × cos ) is responsible for producing the reactives gyroscopic couple.
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple due to two wheels is,
î w = 2 ×w w cos   p
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine is,
îE = ×E E cos   p
c  
   &   

‘ Total reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is,
î = îw p îE
= 2 ×w w cos   p p ×E E cos  p

= (2 ×w w p ×E E ) p cos 
= (2 ×w p ×E E ) p cos 

or î  !p2 ! ...(1.19)


‘ Positives sign is used when wheels and rotates in same direction and engine and negative
sign is used when wheels and engine rotates in opposite direction.

 V  V V . V'V+- V    


For stability of vehicle ;

G Moments about O = 0
Mg  h sin  ± Fc  h cos  ± î = 0

> Mg h sin  = Fc h cos  + î


2
MV
> Mg h sin  = h cos  + (2 ×w p G ×E ) E p  cos 
R
2
MV h V V
> Mg h sin  = cos  + (2 ×w p G ×E )  cos 
R r R
2 2
MV h V
> Mg h sin  = cos  + (2 ×w p G ×E ) cos 
R Rr
 (2 ×w p G ×E)
V2
> Mg h sin  = Mh + cos 
 r  R
 !p2 
"
>
     ...(1.20)
   
From Equation (1.20), the value of angle of heel µ¶ may be determined so that the
vehicle do not skid while taking the turn.
x 
 N
A motor cycle with rider has a mass of 250 kg. The centre of gravity of the motor cycle and
the rider falls 60 cm above the ground when running straight in vertical position. Each road
2
wheel diameter is 60 cm with mass moment of inertia of 1 kg-m . The engine rotates 6 times
faster than the wheel in the same direction and the rotating parts of the engine have a mass
2
moment of inertia of 0.175 kg-m . Determine the angle of inclination of the motor cycle or the
c  
   &   

angle of heel required, if it is speeding at 80 km/hr and rounding a curve of radius 50 m. Also
find the magnitude of gyroscopic couple.
V V  O

2   Mass of motor cycle with rider, M = 250 kg.

 ëeight of î.G. of motor cycle and rider above ground, h = 60 cm = 0.6 m


Diameter of wheel, D = 60 cm = 0.6 m
D 0.6
Radius of wheel, r = = = 0.3 m
2 2
2
Mass moment of inertia of wheel, ×w = 1 kg-m
E
Gear ratio, G = =6
w
2
Mass moment of inertia of engine, ×E = 0.175 kg-m
80 ÿ 1000
Speed of motor cycle, V = 80 km / hr = 22.22 m / s
3600

Radius of curvature, R = 50 m

?
c  
   &   


 
   V    VV
V
 P 
‘ Angular velocity of wheel is,
V 22.22
w = = = 74.074 rad / s
r 0.3
‘ Angular velocity of engine is,
E = G w = 6 ÿ 74.074

or E = 444.44 rad / s

‘ Precessional angular velocity is,


V 22.22
p = = = 0.4444 rad / s.
R 50

‘ Weight of vehicle is,

Mg = 250 ÿ 9.81
or   ))%

‘ îentrifugal force acting on vehicle is,


2 2
MV (250 ÿ 22.22)
Fc = =
R 50

or     %

‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is,


î = (2 ×w + G×E ) w p cos  « [+ ve is taken since
engine rotates in same direction as wheels]

= (2 ÿ 1 + 6 ÿ 0.175) ÿ 74.074 ÿ 0.444 cos 


or î  %&
Q
 V/ R

‘ Taking moments about O


Mgh sin  ± Fc h cos  ± î = 0
2452.5 ÿ 0.6 sin  ± 2469.13 ÿ 0.6 cos  ± 100.41 cos  = 0
1471.5 sin  = 1581.89 cos 
c  
   &!   

tan  = 1.075
±1
 = tan [1.075]
or   $$÷ .
¦   V   VV
V
 S 
‘ Magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is,

î = 100.41 cos 
= 100.41 cos (47.07)÷

or î 
 %& .
x 
 T
A two wheeler motor vehicle and its rider weigh 130 kg and their combined centre of gravity
is 750 mm above the ground level when the vehicle is upright. Each road wheel is 600 mm
2
diameter and has M.×. of 1.2 kg-m about its axis of rotation. The rotating parts of the engine
2
have M.×. of 0.4 kg-m . The engine rotates at 5 times the speed of the road wheels and in the
same sense. When the vehicle is rounding the curve of 130 m radius at a speed if 60 km/hr.
Determine :
(i) Magnitude of total gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle.
(ii) Angle of banking so that there will be no tendency of side slip.
#*  )
V V  U

2   Mass of motor cycle with rider, M = 130 kg.


 ëeight of î.G. of motor cycle and rider above ground, h = 750 mm = 0.75 m
Diameter of wheel, D = 600 mm = 0.6 m
D 0.6
Radius of wheel, r = = = 0.3 m
2 2
2
Mass moment of inertia of wheel, ×w = 1.2 kg-m
E
Gear ratio, G = =5
w
2
Mass moment of inertia of engine, ×E = 0.4 kg-m
60 ÿ 1000
Speed of motor cycle, V = 60 km / hr = 16.66 m / s
3600
Radius of curvature, R = 130 m
   V    VV
V
 V 

‘ Angular velocity of wheel is,


c  
   &#   

V 16.66
w = = = 55.53 rad / s
r 0.3
‘ Angular velocity of engine is,
E = G w = 5 ÿ 55.53
or E = 277.66 rad / s
‘ Precessional angular velocity is,
V 16.66
p = = = 0.1281 rad / s.
R 130
‘ Weight of vehicle is,
Mg = 130 ÿ 9.81
or   $) %
‘ îentrifugal force acting on vehicle is,
2 2
MV (130 ÿ 16.66)
Fc = =
R 130
or   $$))%
‘ Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is,
î = (2 ×w + G×E ) w p cos  « [+ ve is taken since
engine rotates in same direction as wheels]
= (2 ÿ 1.2 + 5 ÿ 0.4) ÿ 55.53 ÿ 0.1281 cos 
or î  %&
W
 V X (  Y

‘ Taking moments about O


Mg h sin  ± Fc h cos  ± î = 0
1275.3 ÿ 0.75 sin  ± 277.55 ÿ 0.75 cos  ± 31.29 cos  = 0
956.47 sin  = 239.41 cos 
tan  = 0.25
±1
 = tan [0.25]
or   )÷ .
¦   V   VV
V
 Z

‘ Magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is,


î = 31.29 cos 
= 31.29 cos (14.05)÷
c  
   &$   

or î   )%& .
[ \ ^ aa b
c       ]  _`   



u u
     
 

‘ ×n many applications rotating elements like : gears, pulleys, flywheels, couplings, etc,
are mounted on the shaft.
‘ While mounting, due to manufacturing and assembly errors, these elements may be
inclined to the axis of the shaft as shown in Fig. 1.25. ©his produces gyroscopic effect
and rotating disc applies reactive gyroscopic couple on the supporting frame.
‘ îonsider a disc of uniform thickness rigidly fixed to a rotating shaft such that the polar
axis of the disc makes an angle µ¶ with the shaft axis, as shown in Fig. 1.28.
‘ ©he disc rotates in an anticlockwise direction when viewed form the left side.

º ,   


   "
º Î  %  83

Let,
OX = shaft axis or axis of rotation
OP = polar axis of the disc
OD = diametral or equatorial axis of the disc
 = angle of inclination of the polar axis of disc with shaft axis
 = angular velocity of the shaft about axis OX, rad/s
m = mass of the disc, kg
r = radius of disc, m
b = width of the disc, m
2
×p = mass moment of inertia of the disc about the polar axis OP, kg-m
2
= mr /2
c  
   &)   

×D = mass moment of inertia of the disc about the diametral or equatorial
2
axis OD, kg-m
2 2
b r

= m + ,
12 4 
‘ The angular velocity µ ¶ of the disc is resolved into two components :

  
   

1.  
This is the component of the angular velocity vector along the polar axis of the disc.
ëence, this is the spin velocity of the disc about the polar axis (axis OP)
2.   
This is the component of the angular velocity vector along the diametral or equatorial
axis of the disc. ëence, this is the spin velocity of the disc about the diametral axis
(axis OD).
‘ The gyroscopic effect is determined separately due to

 î
 
m6 
     
 î
 
m 6 
 
   
  VV
x  VV
V  V
 -V 0 V1 c

‘ The rotation of the shaft about axis m 6 causes the polar axis m #6 to rotate with point
m#6 moving in such a way that m #6 generates !
m 6 
.
‘ ëence the precession motion is produced about the diametral axis m 6 and vector m 6
indicates the precerssion velocity vector.
‘ Angular velocity of spin of disc about OP =  cos , and Angular velocity of precession
of disc about diametral axis OD =  sin 
‘ ëence reactive gyroscopic couple is,
îp = ×p  cos    sin 
2
= ×p  sin    cos 

  
or î   ...(1.21)

‘ The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple µî¶ is determined as shown in Fig. 1.29.
‘ The reactive gyroscopic couple µî¶ acts in an anticlockwise direction when viewed
from the top, about perpendicular axis passing though .
d e g jk l
c       f  hi   

 ?




º (
  "    8 7 
6

 m  n x    o  n   n-  

‘ ©he rotation of the shaft about axis À 6 causes the diametral axis À"6 to rotate with
point "6 moving in such a way that À"6 generates a - 3À6
# Î.
‘ Hence the precession motion is produced about the polar axis À6 and vector À6
indicates the precession velocity vector.
‘ Angular velocity of spin of disc about diametral axis OD =  sin , and Angular velocity
of precession of disc about polar axis OP =  cos 
‘ Hence reactive gyroscopic couple is,

îD = ×D  sin  ’  cos 
2
= ×D  sin  ’ cos 

5" 

or " &  ...(1.22)


‘ ©he direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is determined as shown in Fig. 1.30.

‘ ©he reactive gyroscopic couple " 6 acts in clockwise direction when viewed from the
top, about perpendicular axis passing through O.
p q s vw x
c       r  tu   

 ?

º 0
  "    8 7  
6
z
 y y   {  |  }  | }

‘ ©he reactive gyroscopic couple "6 due to component of spin velocity 
6 is in
opposite direction to that of reactive gyroscopic couple  6 due to component of spin
velocity 
6.
‘ Hence, the resultant reactive gyroscopic couple is,
î = îp ± î D
2 2
×p  sin 2  ×D  sin 2 
= ±
2 2

 

or  & =5 <5">  ...(1.23)

2 2 2 2
mr  b r 
 sin 2 
=  ± m + 
 2 12 4  2
  
  

or  &  < 
 ...(1.24)
  ' 

2
‘ ×f µb¶ is small, µb ¶can be neglected. Hence
 
 
or  & 
 ...(1.25)
,
~
x  u u
A thin disc is fitted to a shaft in such a way that it makes an angle of one degree with a plane at
right angles to the axis of the shaft. ©he mass of disc is 30 kg and it has a diameter of 0.6 m. ×f
the shaft rotates at 1200 r.p.m. Find the gyroscopic couple acting on the bearings.
  

 # Angle of disc with axis of shaft,  = 1÷


  Mass of disc, m = 30 kg
c  
   )   

Diameter of disc, D = 0.6 m
D 0.6
> Radius of disc, r = = = 0.3 m
2 2
Speed of shaft or disc, N = 1200 r.p.m.
2  ÿ 1200
> Angular velocity of disc,  = = 125.66 rad/sec.
60
  V V2   €
‘ Mass moment of inertia of disc about polar axis is,
2 2
mr 30 ÿ (0.3) 2
×p = = = 1.35 kg-m
2 2
‘ Mass moment of inertia of disc about diametral axis is,
2
mr
×D = ...[Neglecting thickness of disc,
4
since it is not given]
2
30 ÿ (0.3) 2
> ×D = = 0.675 kg-m
4
    VV
V
 

‘ The reactive gyroscopic couple is,


î = îp ± îD
2
 sin 2 
= (×p ± ×D)
2
2 sin (2 ÿ 1)
= (1.35 ± 0.675) (125.66)
2

or î  
)
%& .
c  
   )   

x 
 ‚
A disc having thickness 30 mm is fitted to a shaft in such a way that it makes an angle of
1.5 degree with a plane at right angles to the axis of the shaft. The mass of disc is 25 kg and it
has a diameter of 800 mm. ×f the shaft rotates at 740 r.p.m. Determine the magnitude
gyroscopic couple acting on the bearings.
V V  ƒ

2  
Thickness of disc, b = 30 mm = 0.03m

Angle of disc with axis of shaft  = 1.5÷


Mass of disc, m = 25 kg

Diameter of disc, D = 800 mm = 0.8 m


D 0.8
Diameter of disc, r = = = 0.4 m
2 2

Speed of shaft or disc, N = 740 r.p.m.


2  ÿ 740
> Angular velocity of disc,  = = 77.49 rad/sec.
60
  V V2  „
‘ Mass moment of inertia of disc about polar axis is,
2 2
mr 25 ÿ (0.4) 2
×p = = = 2 kg-m
2 2
‘ Mass moment of inertia of disc about diametral axis is,
2 2
b r

×D = m  + [îonsidering thickness of disc]


12 4 
2 2
(0.03) (0.4)
2
> ×D = 25  + = 1 kg-m
 12 4 
    VV
V
 …
Reactive gyroscopic couple is
2
 sin 2 
î = îp ± îD = (×p ± ×D)
2
2 sin (2 ÿ 1.5)
= (2 ± 1) (77.49)
2

or î  )$ %& .


c  
   )   

‰ Ž
u †u  ‡ˆ   Š‹Œ
Š 

  VV
V

î = ×  p N-m
d
Where, X p = , rad/s
dt
V
X p = , rad/s
R
2 2
X × = m k , kg-m
   V
‘ 

   
   
î = ×  p, N-m

Where X p =  o cos o t, rad/s


2
X o = , rad/s
Tp

     
   

îmax = ×  p (max), N-m

Where, X p (max) =  o, rad/s

2
X o = , rad/s
TP

       


  
2 2
p (max) = ± o , rad / s

¦ V+- V    ’ 

  î
   
2
X Fc = m p R, N
2
mV
X Fc = ,N
R
V
Where, P = , rad/s
R
c  
   )!   


   
   

î = (4 ×w p G ×E) w p, N-m


E
Where, X G =
W
V
X P = , rad/s
R

   
 
2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V
X Ri = + + ,N
4 2Ra 2Rra
2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V
X Ro = + + ,N
4 2Ra 2Rra

  î

 
 

X Ri a 0
mg R a
X V à , m/s
 (4 ×w p G ×E)

2 mh +
 r 

 V+- V   '  “ (  

  î
   
2
X Fc = m  p R, N
2
mV
— — X— Fc = ,N
R
V
Where— X p = , rad/s
R

   
   

î = (4 ×w p 4 ×E) w p cos , N-m


E
Where, X G =
P
V
X P = , rad/s
R
c  
   )#   

   
 
2 2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

cos  + 
Mgh MV

Ri =  ± ± + sin , N
4   2a 4R 
X
2 Ra 2Rra
2 2 2
Mg MV h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

cos  ± 
Mgh MV

Ro =  + + + sin , N
4   2a 4R 
X
2Ra 2 R ra

  î

 
 

— X Ri a 0 or
2 2
 Mg M V h (4 ×w p G ×E)V

± + +
 4 2Ra 2 R ra 
— X tan  a 2
Mgh MV

 2a + 4 R
 

— X R o a 0 or
2
Mg M V h (4 ×w p G ×E)

 + +
 4 2Ra 2 R ra 
— X tan  à 2
Mgh MV

 2a ± 4 R
 

 'V+- V   ” 

  î
   
2
Fc = M p R, N
2
MV
— — — Fc = ,N
R

   
   
î = (2 ×w p G ×E) w p cos , N-m
E
Where, X î =
w
V
X p = , rad/s
R

  î

 
 
 (2 ×w p G ×E)
V2
tan  = Mh +
 r  Mg h R
c  
   )$   

 2  V   • 

î = (î p ± îD), N-m
2
×p  sin 2 
Where, X îp = , N-m
2
2
×D  sin 2 
X îD = , N-m
2
2
mr 2
X ×p = , kg-m
2
2 2
b r

×D = m  + kg-m
2
12 4 
X

2
mr 2
X ×D ® , kg-m
4

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î = ×  p

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