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2554

Response Spectrum Analysis of Electronic Steel Cabinet

Olaree Nawikkawanit 1*, Chayanon Hansapinyo2 and Sasikorn Leungvichcharoen3


1
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), olareen@hotmail.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Chiang Mai University, chayanon@eng.cmu.ac.th
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Naresaun University, sasikorn@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a response spectrum analysis of electronic cabinet designed for use in
seismic area. First, vibration tests for frequency response function (FRF) to determine natural
frequencies of the cabinet were performed. Then, three dimensional finite element analyses
were adopted for determining comparative natural frequencies and to study dynamic
responses of the cabinet under standard specified response spectrum for seismic zone 4,
according to UBC standard. From the frequencies studies, the first three modes are 9.2 Hz,
19.2 Hz, and 23.6 Hz with slightly different from 10.9 Hz, 23.8 Hz and 32.9 Hz of the FEM
analysis. The response spectrum analysis results show that the top of the cabinet was
laterally deformed about 8.24 mm. and maximum stress was about 109 MPa which is lower
than the yield value of 294.7 MPa.

Keywords: Electronic cabinet, Natural frequencies, Response spectrum analysis, Finite


element, Earthquake

1. Introduction
Earthquakes produce catastrophic hazards including ground shaking, landslide or ground
surface rupture. A strong earthquake may cause building damages leading to collapse and
loss of life. However, a moderate earthquake occurring more often can bring suffering
conditions which in turns affect daily service functions. Computer network, telecommunication
and database requisitioning systems are the examples of electrical equipments sensitively
affected by the moderate ground shaking. To accomplish such the task of service protection,
a host computer will be firmly installed on metal shelves called “Cabinet for Electronic
Equipment”. As the collapse of the system will lead to a drastic loss, the reliable shelve
structure is demanded in which the safety of the installed system can be insured. For this
reason, cabinets for seismic site must be guaranteed for their capability to withstand
*
Corresponding author
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earthquakes by evaluate the dynamics response of cabinet under seismic ground motion in
design process and compared the results to standards.
A study of computer simulation of the seismic test and experimental modal, impact
hammer test to qualify simulation results has been done by Serban (2007). Lee et al (2007)
also studied on dynamic characteristics of the cabinet for reactor protection system using the
finite element method compared with measured data form resonance search test. Evaluation
on the safety of cabinet under seismic load using response spectrum analysis was then
made. Both of the mentioned researchers have shown that the finite-element model coupled
with experimental modal streamline the development process of cabinet and proposed finite-
element for the dynamic analysis of cabinet may be efficiently applied to reduce time and cost
in design process.
Berak (2005) adopted static pull test method to simplify the test for seismic evaluation
of cabinet frame. The study showed that the static pull test method is a conservative one
when the applied load at the top of frame equals to maximum weight of fully configured
cabinet. The static test can also be utilized on investigating the change of stiffness which is
the important characteristic of frame for design optimization process. Herda and Daggs (2000)
presented the modeling technique and demonstrated the strengths and shortcomings of the
simulation techniques employed. In the study, simple thin-walled structures were used to
simulate cabinet components. Shell elements were used to model all sheet metal parts, no
solid elements were used. Bolts and fasteners in the cabinets were included in the model
using beam elements. The main welds were modeled using beam elements. Some welded
and riveted pieces were simulated using shell elements with variable thickness, this technique
is time saving but sometimes results in a liberally stiff structure. By using the analytical model,
natural frequencies and mode shapes can be accurately predicted within 6%.
Regvard and Vedris (1993) adopted computer analysis for investigation of battery
rack behavior under seismic loading. The results of the study led to a graphical survey of rack
vibration modes for a particular Design Response Spectrum. The analysis was based on the
Finite Element Method using a simplified geometrical model by placing joints (or nodal points)
on the structure. The simplified geometrical model was completed by connecting joints with
structural elements using beam or plate elements. Graphical results of the analysis showed
that natural frequencies are typically greater than dominant frequencies of earthquake and
without resonance of telecom battery rack. The results concluded that the Finite Element
Method can be used as a tool for better understanding on behavior of the rack due to
earthquake.
การประชุมวิชาการวิศวกรรมโยธาแห่งชาติครัง้ ที ่ 16 มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล 18 – 20 พฤษภาคม พ.ศ. 2554

This paper presents a response spectrum analysis of electronic cabinet designed for
use in seismic area. First, vibration tests for frequency response function (FRF) to determine
natural frequencies of the cabinet were performed. Then, three dimensional finite element
analyses were adopted for determining comparative natural frequencies. In addition, to
examine earthquake safety level, analysis of the cabinet under standard specified response
spectrum with intensity of 5g according to “Telcordia GR-63-CORE Network Equipment
Building System- NEBSTM Requirements: Physical Protection” (Telcodia, 2002) were
performed.

2. Seismic cabinet
Standard 19-inch (482.6 mm.) bared cabinet frame was used in this study, as shown in Fig.1.
The geometrical dimensions are approximately 0.5 m. by 0.7 m. with 2 m. in height. The total
structural weight is about 136 kg. The structural system is steel rigid frame consisted of two
single-bay main frames, i.e. left frame and right frame. The two columns of each frame are
connected together by top, bottom and intermediate beams. To generate rigid diaphragm at
the top and bottom levels, lateral beam bracings are provided to connect the two frames. All
the structural members are irregular section made by cold forming process of thin steel sheet.
Almost structural members have a steel thickness of 2 mm. except 4 mm. for the elements at
bottom base. Rigid beam-column connections are provided by welding. The cabinet frame
column cross section is about 0.04 m. by 0.15 m. for the front column and 0.04 m. by 0.22 m.
for the rear column.

(a) (b) (c)


Fig.1. Tested bare cabinet frame: (a) isotropic view (b) Side view (c) Front view.
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3. Methods
3.1 Vibration Test
Experimental vibration test was undertaken to obtain natural frequencies and vibration modes
of the cabinet. The cabinet base was installed on two steel beams, further attached to strong
concrete floor, with M12 high strength bolts at each column corner. Impact load was applied
in each two perpendicular directions to the cabinet by rubber hammer inducing transient
vibration. The accelerometer was placed at difference locations of the cabinet frame both
along and perpendicular to the directions of excitation, i.e. x axis-direction z axis-direction. As
seen in Fig. 2, the test installation locations are at “a”, “d”, “e”, and “h” for the x axis-direction
test and locations of “b”, “c”, “f” and “g” are for the z axis-direction test.
These vibration response measurements were recorded by the vibration analyzer
(Type 2515). The recorded vibration responses in time domain were transformed to frequency
domain, known as Frequency Response Function (FRF). Peak of amplitude of the FRF
defines resonance frequency which is used for identifying natural frequency of the cabinet.

x-direction measurements
z-direction measurements

Fig.2 Locations of accelerometer


3.2 Finite Element Model
In finite element model, 8-node shell element is employed for thin steel sheet considering
mid-plane of each cabinet part. Each node contains 6 degrees of freedom: three translations
and three rotations. The element can be used to simulate material plasticity, stress stiffening,
large deflection, and large strain capabilities. Continuous joint applying kinematics constraints
of degrees of freedom between nodes are used representing rigid connection of welded joints.
The finite element model of the cabinet contains 57,020 nodes and 17,819 elements.
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Material properties are based on results from tensile test of sampled steels, using
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): E8 for standard testing. Modulus of
elasticity is 140.2 GPa and yield stress is 274.0 MPa. For bottom base, modulus of elasticity
is 185.9 GPa and yield stress is 294.7 MPa. Poisson’s ratio and density are 0.3 and 7,860
kg/m3, respectively.

3.3 Response spectrum analyses


To evaluate seismic safety of the cabinet, response spectrum analyses in x, y and z direction
were performed under simulate earthquake excitation to the cabinet model. First, eigenvalue
analysis was performed for natural frequencies and modes. Then, the analysis for response
spectrum was made using Telcordia NEBS GR-63 zone 4 response spectrum shown in Fig.3.
10
3 4
Acceleration (g)

2
5 6
1

1
0.1
0.1 1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)

Fig.3. Telcordia NEBS GR-63 zone 4 response spectrum

4. Results
4.1 Vibration Tests
The results of the tests are show in form of FRFs, as seen in Fig.4 and listed in Table 1. The
fundamental natural frequency of the cabinet can be found at peak 1 which is about 9.2 Hz.
regardless of location, amplitude and direction of excitation. The second and third modes are
about 19.2 and 23.6 Hz, respectively.

Table 1. Natural frequencies from vibration tests in x- and z- directions


x- direction z- direction
Peak no.
At “a” (Hz) At “h” (Hz) At “b” (Hz) At “g” (Hz)
1 9.2 9.2 - 9.2
2 19.2 19.2 19.2 19.2
3 23.6 - 23.6 23.6
4 45.2 45.2 - -
5 48.4 48.4 - -
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(a) x-x direction: (a) at location “a” (b) x-x direction: at location “h”

(c) z-z direction: (a) at location “b” (d) z-z direction: at location “g”
Fig.4 Frequency Response Function (FRF) from the vibration test

4.2 Modal Analysis


Modal analysis showed the first four natural frequencies of the cabinet are between 10.9 Hz
to 35.3 Hz i.e., first mode: 10.9 Hz in x-direction, second mode: 23.8 Hz in z-direction, third
mode: 32.9 Hz in y-axis torsion and forth mode: 35.3 Hz in locally vertical y-axis. The mode
shapes and natural frequencies of the first four modes are shown in Fig.5.

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Fig.5 Mode Shapes: (a) First Mode, 10.9 Hz in x-direction (b) Second Mode, 23.8 Hz in z-
direction (c) Third Mode, 32.9 Hz in y-axis torsion (d) Forth Mode 35.3 Hz in y-axis
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4.3 Response Spectrum Analyses


Table 2 shows the result of response spectrum analyses. In the x-direction, weak direction,
the maximum displacement of the cabinet occurred at the top of the cabinet was about 8.24
mm and the maximum Von Mises stress was about 109 MPa occurred at the base of cabinet
where were attached to screwed base, as seen in Fig.6.

Table 2. Stress and deformations under response spectrum analysis


Direction x y z
Maximum deformation (mm) 8.24 0.55 0.54
Max Von Mises stress (mm) 109.0 5.65 55.7

8.24 mm. 8.24 mm.

109 MPa

(a) Deformation from response spectrum analysis (b) Max. Von Mises stress distribution
Fig.6 Response spectrum analysis results

5. Conclusions
This paper presents a study of dynamic behaviour and structural safety of steel cabinet
through vibration test and finite element analysis and the following conclusions can be drawn.
1) From the vibration test, the natural frequencies are 9.2 Hz, 19.2 Hz and 23.6 Hz. The finite
element analysis indicates the natural frequencies of the first three modes are 10.9 Hz, 23.8
Hz and 32.9 Hz. The discrepancies of natural frequencies of the two results are 12.9%, 6.4%
and 5.9%, respectively, in which the finite element gives higher values. From the results, the
cabinet can be used in a seismicity area in which the fundamental natural frequency is higher
than the minimum required frequency of 6 Hz.
2) The response spectrum analysis results show that the top cabinet laterally deformed at
about 8.24 mm and the maximum Von Mises stress at the cabinet support of 109 MPa under
x-direction excitation which is lower than 294.7 MPa of the material yield strength.
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3) From the vibration study and the response spectrum analysis, it can be said that, the
studied cabinet can be used in a seismicity area in which the fundamental natural frequency
is higher than the required standard minimum frequency of 6 Hz and the material responses
in elastic range under the standard response spectrum.

6. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Thai Research Funds (TRF) and AegisTek Corporation
Ltd. for their supports under 2009 TRF-MAG-W1 project.

7. References
Berak, E.G., 2005. Modal Testing and Finite Element Analysis of a Battery Rack for Seismic
Applications, Journal of the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 48,
94-102.
Herda, A. N., and Daggs, A. D., 2000. Seismic Simulation of the Motorola SCTM 4812ET RF
and Power Cabinets Using Pro/Engineer and Ansys, Proceeding on ANSYS
Conference and Exhibition, Texas, USA.
Lee, B.Y., Kim, W.J., Shon, J.Y., Shin, H.M., Won, S.K., Kim, S.H., and Lee, S.B., 2007.
Dynamic analysis of a cabinet of a reactor protection system, Proceedings on the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering
Science, 221, 1047-1056.
Regvard, B., and Vedris, D., 1993. Computer Analysis of Telecom Battery Rack Resistant to
Earthquakes, Proceedings on Telecommunications Energy Conference, INTELEC '93.
15th International, 1, 455-459.
Serban, B., 2007. Earthquake Test Simulation and Experimental Model for Telecom Power
System Design, Emerson Network Power Proceedings of Telecommunications Energy
Conference, 450-456.
Telcordia Technologies., 2002. NEBSTM Requirements: Physical Protection. New Jersey, USA:
Telcordia Technologies, Inc.