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Appendix F

Miscellaneous Data

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


F-2 FAN ENGINEERING

Table F.1 Standard Twist-Drill Sizes

Drill Diam. Area Drill Diam. Area Drill Diam. Area


Size in. in.2 Size in. in.2 Size in. in.2
1/2 .5000 .1964 3 .213 .03563 3/32 .0938 .00690
31/64 .4844 .1843 4 .209 .03431 42 .0935 .00687
15/32 .4688 .1726 5 .2055 .03317 43 .0890 .00622
29/64 .4531 .1613 6 .204 .03269 44 .0860 .00581
7/16 .4375 .1503 13/64 .2031 .03241 45 .0820 .00528
27/64 .4219 .1398 7 .201 .03173 46 .0810 .00515
Z .413 .1340 8 .199 .03110 47 .0785 .00484
13/32 .4062 .1296 9 .196 .03017 5/64 .0781 .00479
Y .404 .1282 10 .1935 .02940 48 .0760 .00454
X .397 .1238 11 .191 .02865 49 .0730 .00419
25/64 .3906 .1198 12 .189 .02806 50 .0700 .00385
W .386 .1170 3/16 .1875 .02761 51 .0670 .00353
V .377 .1116 13 .185 .02688 52 .0635 .00317
3/8 .375 .1104 14 .182 .02602 1/16 0625 .00307
U .368 .1064 15 .1800 .02545 53 .0595 .00278
23/64 .3594 .1014 16 .1770 .02461 54 .0550 .00238
T .358 .1007 17 .1730 .02351 55 .0520 .00212
S .348 .09511 11/64 .1719 .023203 3/64 .0469 .00173
11/32 .3438 .09281 18 .1695 .02256 56 .0465 .001698
R .339 .09026 19 .1660 .02164 57 .0430 .001452
Q .332 .08657 20 .1610 .02036 58 .0420 .001385
21/64 .3281 .08456 21 .1590 .01986 59 .0410 .001320
P .323 .08194 22 .1570 .01936 60 .0400 .001257
O .316 .07843 5/32 .1562 .01917 61 .039 .001195
5/16 .3125 .07670 23 .1540 .01863 62 .038 .001134
N .302 .07163 24 .1520 .01815 63 .037 .001075
19/64 .2969 .06922 25 .1495 .01755 64 .036 .001018
M .295 .06835 26 .1470 .01697 65 .035 .009620
L .29 .06605 27 .1440 .01629 66 .033 .000855
9/32 .2812 .06213 9/64 .1406 .01553 67 .032 .000804
K .281 .06202 28 .1405 .01550 1/32 .0312 .000767
J .277 .06026 29 .1360 .01453 68 .031 .000755
I .272 .05811 30 .1285 .01296 69 .0292 .000670
H .266 .05557 1/8 .1250 .01227 70 .028 .000616
17/64 .2656 .05542 31 .1200 .01131 71 .026 .000531
G .261 .05350 32 .1160 .01057 72 .025 .000491
F .257 .05187 33 .1130 .01003 73 .024 .000452
E 1/4 .2500 .04909 34 .1110 .00968 74 .0225 .000398
D .246 .04753 35 .1100 .00950 75 .021 .000346
C .242 .04600 7/64 .1094 .00940 76 .020 .000314
B .238 .04449 36 .1065 .00891 77 .018 .000254
15/64 .2344 .04314 37 .1040 .00849 78 .016 .000201
A .234 .04301 38 .1015 .00809 1/64 .0156 .000191
1 .228 .04083 39 .0995 .00778 79 .0145 .000165
2 .221 .03836 40 .0980 .00754 80 .0135 .000143
7/32 .2188 .03758 41 .0960 .00724
Metric sizes available in the same range.

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


APPENDIX F - MISCELLANEOUS DATA F-3

Table F.2 Areas and Circumferences of Circies

Diam. Area Circumference Diam. Area Circumference


in. in.2 ft2 in. ft in. in.2 ft2 in. ft
1/16 .00307 .00002 .1963 .01636 7-3/4 47.17 .3276 24.35 2.029
1/8 .01227 .00008 .3927 .03272 8 50.27 .3491 25.13 2.094
3/16 .02761 .00019 .5890 .04908 8-1/4 53.46 .3713 25.92 2.160
1/4 .04909 .00034 .7854 .06545 8-1/2 56.75 .3942 26.70 2.225
5/16 .07670 .00053 .9817 .08180 8-3/4 60.13 .4175 27.49 2.291
3/8 .1104 .00077 1.178 .09816 9 63.62 .4418 28.27 2.356
7/16 .1503 .00104 1.374 .1145 9-1/4 67.20 .4668 29.06 2.422
1/2 .1963 .00136 1.571 .1309 9-1/2 70.88 .4923 29.85 2.488
9/16 .2485 .00173 1.767 .1472 9-3/4 74.66 .5185 30.63 2.553
5/8 .3068 .00213 1.964 .1636 10 78.54 .5454 31.42 2.618
11/16 .3712 .00258 2.160 .1800 10-1/4 .82.52 .5731 32.20 2.683
3/4 .4418 .00307 2.356 .1964 10-1/2 86.59 .6010 32.99 2.750
13/16 .5185 .00360 2.553 .2128 10-3/4 90.76 .6303 33.77 2.814
7/8 .6013 .00418 2.749 .2290 11 95.03 .6600 34.56 2.880
15/16 .6903 .00479 2.945 .2454 11-1/4 99.40 .6903 35.34 2.945
1 .7854 .00545 3.142 .2618 11-1/2 103.9 .7215 36.13 3.011
1-1/8 .9940 .00690 3.534 .2945 11-3/4 108.4 .7528 36.91 3.076
1-1/4 1.227 .00852 3.927 .3273 12 113.1 .7854 37.70 3.142
1-3/8 1.485 .0103 4.320 .3600 12-1/4 117.9 .8188 38.48 3.207
1-1/2 1.767 .0123 4.712 .3927 12-1/2 122.7 .8520 39.27 3.273
1-5/8 2.074 .0144 5.105 .4254 12-3/4 127.7 .8868 40.06 3.338
1-3/4 2.405 .0167 5.498 .4582 13 132.7 .9218 40.84 3.403
1-7/8 2.761 .0192 5.890 .4908 13-1/4 137.9 .9577 41.63 3.469
2 3.142 .0218 6.283 .5236 13-1/2 143.1 .9937 42.41 3.535
2-1/8 3.547 .0246 6.676 .5563 13-3/4 148.5 1.031 43.20 3.600
2-1/4 3.976 .0276 7.069 .5891 14 153.9 1.069 43.98 3.665
2-3/8 4.430 .0308 7.461 .6217 14-1/4 159.5 1.108 44.77 3.731
2-1/2 4.909 .0341 7.854 .6546 14-1/2 165.1 1.146 45.55 3.796
2-5/8 5.412 .0376 8.247 .6872 14-3/4 170.9 1.187 46.34 2.862
2-3/4 5.939 .0412 8.639 .7200 15 176.7 1.227 47.12 3.927
2-7/8 6.492 .0451 9.032 .7527 15-1/2 188.7 1.310 48.69 4.058
3 7.069 .0491 9.425 .7854 16 201.1 1.396 50.27 4.189
3-1/4 8.296 .0576 10.21 .8510 16-1/2 213.8 1.485 51.84 4.321
3-1/2 9.621 .0668 10.99 .9160 17 226.9 1.576 53.41 4.451
3-3/4 11.04 .0767 11.78 .9818 17-1/2 240.5 1.670 54.98 4.582
4 12.57 .0873 12.57 1.047 18 254.5 1.767 56.55 4.712
4-1/4 14.19 .0986 13.35 1.113 18-l/2 268.8 1.867 58.12 4.845
4-1/2 15.90 .1104 14.14 1.178 19 283.5 1.969 59.69 4.974
4-3/4 17.72 .1231 14.92 1.243 19-1/2 298.6 2.074 61.26 5.105
5 19.64 .1364 15.71 1.309 20 314.2 2.182 62.83 5.236
5-1/4 21.65 .1504 16.49 1.374 20-1/2 330.1 2.293 64.40 5.367
5-1/2 23.76 .1650 17.28 1.440 21 346.4 2.405 65.97 5.498
5-3/4 25.97 .1840 18.06 1.505 21-1/2 361.1 2.508 67.54 5.629
6 28.27 .1964 18.85 1.571 22 380.1 2.640 69.12 5.760
6-1/4 30.68 .2131 19.64 1.637 22-1/2 397.6 2.761 70.69 5.891
6-1/2 33.18 .2304 20.42 1.702 23 415.5 2.885 72.26 6.021
6-3/4 35.79 .2486 21.21 1.768 23-1/2 433.7 3.012 73.83 6.153
7 38.49 .2673 21.99 1.833 24 452.4 3.142 75.40 6.283
7-1/4 41.28 .2867 22.78 1.899 24-1/2 471.4 3.274 76.97 6.415
7-1/2 44.18 .3068 23.56 1.964 25 490.9 3.409 78.54 6.545
See the previous page for areas corresponding to drill sizes.

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


F-4 FAN ENGINEERING

Table F.2 (Cont.) Areas and Circumferences of Circles

Diam. Area Circumference Diam. Area Circumference.


in. in. ft2 in. ft in. in.2 ft2 in. ft
25-1/2 510.7 3.547 80.11 6.676 51 2043 14.19 160.2 13.35
26 530.9 3.687 81.68 6.807 52 2124 14.75 163.4 13.61
26-1/2 551.6 3.832 83.25 6.938 53 2206 15.32 166.5 13.88
27 572.6 3.976 84.82 7.069 54 2290 15.90 169.6 14.14
27-1/2 593.9 4.125 86.39 7.199 55 2376 16.50 172.8 14.40
28 615.8 4.276 87.97 7.330 56 2463 17.10 175.9 14.66
28-1/2 637.9 4.430 89.54 7.462 57 2552 17.72 179.1 14.92
29 660.5 4.587 91.11 7.592 58 2642 18.35 182.2 15.18
29-1/2 683.5 4.747 92.63 7.725 59 2734 18.99 185.4 15.45
30 706.8 4.909 94.25 7.854 60 2827 19.63 188.5 15.71
30-1/2 730.6 5.074 95.82 7.985 61 2922 20.29 191.6 15.97
31 754.8 5.241 97.39 8.116 62 3019 20.97 194.8 16.23
31-1/2 779.3 5.412 98.96 8.247 63 3117 21.65 197.9 16.49
32 804.3 5.585 100.5 8.378 64 3217 22.34 201.1 16.76
32-1/2 829.6 5.761 102.1 8.508 65 3318 23.04 204.2 17.02
33 855.3 5.940 103.7 8.639 66 3421 23.76 207.3 17.28
33-1/2 881.4 6.121 105.2 8.767 67 3526 24.48 210.5 17.54
34 907.9 6.305 106.8 8.901 68 3632 25.22 213.6 17.80
34-1/2 934.8 6.492 108.4 9.033 69 3739 25.97 216.8 18.06
35 962.1 6.881 109.9 9.163 70 3848 26.73 219.9 18.33
35-1/2 989.8 6.874 111.5 9.294 71 3959 27.49 223.1 18.59
36 1018 7.069 113.1 9.425 72 4072 28.27 226.2 18.85
36-1/2 1046 7.264 114.7 9.555 73 4185 29.07 229.3 19.11
37 1075 7.467 116.2 9.686 74 4301 29.87 232.5 19.37
37-1/2 1104 7.667 117.8 9.817 75 4418 30.68 235.6 19.63
38 1134 7.876 119.4 9.948 76 4536 31.50 238.8 19.90
38-1/2 1164 8.084 120.9 10.08 77 4657 32.34 241.9 20.16
39 1195 8.296 122.5 10.21 78 4778 33.18 245.0 20.42
39-1/2 1225 8.507 124.1 10.34 79 4902 34.04 248.2 20.68
40 1256 8.727 125.6 10.47 80 5027 34.91 251.3 20.94
40-1/2 1288 8.945 127.2 10.60 81 5153 35.78 254.5 21.21
41 1320 9.168 128.8 10.73 82 5281 36.67 257.6 21.47
41-1/2 1353 9.396 130.4 10.86 83 5411 37.57 260.8 21.73
42 1385 9.621 131.9 10.99 84 5542 38.48 263.9 21.99
42-1/2 1419 9.854 133.5 11.13 85 5675 39.41 267.0 22.25
43 1452 10.08 135.1 11.26 86 5809 40.34 270.2 22.51
43-1/2 1486 10.32 136.7 11.39 87 5945 41.28 273.3 22.78
44 1521 10.56 138.2 11.52 88 6082 42.24 276.5 23.04
44-1/2 1555 10.80 139.8 11.65 89 6221 43.20 279.6 23.30
45 1590 11.04 141.4 11.78 90 6362 44.18 282.7 23.56
45-1/2 1626 11.29 142.9 11.91 91 6504 45.17 285.9 23.82
46 1662 11.54 144.5 12.04 92 6648 46.16 289.0 24.09
46-1/2 1698 11.79 146.1 12.17 93 6793 47.17 292.2 24.35
47 1735 12.05 147.7 12.30 94 6940 48.19 295.3 24.61
47-1/2 1772 12.31 149.2 12.43 95 7088 49.22 298.4 24.87
48 1810 12.57 150.8 12.57 96 7238 50.27 301.6 25.13
48-1/2 1847 12.83 152.4 12.70 97 7390 51.32 304.7 25.39
49 1886 13.09 153.9 12.83 98 7543 52.38 307.9 25.66
49-1/2 1924 13.36 155.5 12.96 99 7698 53.46 311.0 25.92
50 1963 13.64 157.1 13.09 100 7854 54.54 314.2 26.18

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


APPENDIX F - MISCELLANEOUS DATA F-5

Table F.3 Mathematical Data

Geometry
Plane Figures
Circle Circumference = 2π r=πd
Area = π r = π d 4
2 2

Chord = 2 r sin φ 2 1 6
Ellipse Approximate circumference = 2π 2a
2
1 7
+ a22 2
Area = π a1 a2
Sector Area = 2π r φ 3607 = s r 2
2

Area = 2π r φ 3607 − 2r sin1φ 6 27


2 2
Segment

Area = r 1θ − sin θ 6 2
2

Rhomboid Area = b h
Area = 1b + b 6h 2
1

Trapezoid 1 2

Triangle Area = b1 h 2
Solid Figures
Volume = π r
2
Cone h 3
Lateral area = 2 π r k 2
Volume = π r h
2
Cylinder
Lateral area = 2 π r h
Volume = 4 π r 3 = π d 6
3 3
Sphere
Area = 4 π r = π d
2 2

Pyramid 1
Volume = base area h 3 6
1
Lateral area = base perimeter k 2 6
Analytical Geometry
Circle (origin at center) x2 + y2 = r 2
Ellipse (origin at center) x 2 a12 + y 2 a22 = 1
Hyperbola (origin at center) x 2 a12 − y 2 a22 = 1
Parabola (origin at vertex) y 2 = 4 a1 x
Straight line (slope form) y = mx + b
Straight line (intercept form) x a + y /b =1
Spiral of Archimedes r = cθ 2 π
Logarithmic spiral r = ac mθ
Nomenclature
a = x intercept e = 2.7193 x = coordinate
a1 = semiaxis h = height y = coordinate
b = y intercept k = slant height φ #= angle in degrees
b1 = base length m = slope θ #= angle in radians
c = coil spread r = radius S#= 3.1416
d = diameter s = length of arc

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


F-6 FAN ENGINEERING

Table F.3 (Cont.) Mathematical Data

Exponents
axay = ax+y a-x = 1/ax a1/x = xth root(a)
x y x-y x y xy
a /a = a (a ) = a axbx = (ab)x
Logarithms
log(10x) = x (common, denary, or Briggsian logarithm)
x
log(e ) = x (natural or Naperian logarithm)
ln(a) = 2.3026log(a) (conversion formula)
log(ab) = log(a)+log(b) ln(0) = log(0) = -’
log(a/b) = log(a)-log(b) ln(l) = log(l) = 0
x
log(a ) = x log(a) ln(e) = log(10) = 1
log(l/a )= -log(a) ln(’) = log(’) = ’
Trigonometric Functions
sin(a) = opposite side/hypotenuse (sine)
cos(a) = adjacent side/hypotenuse (cosine)
tan(a) = opposite side/adjacent side (tangent)
cot(a) = 1/tan(a) (cotangent)
sec(a) = 1/cos(a) (secant)
csc(a) =1/sin(a) (cosecant)
sin-1(x) = angle whose sine is (x) (inverse sine)
cos-1(x) = angle whose cosine is (x) (inverse cosine)
tan-1(x) = angle whose tangent is (x) (inverse tangent)
arcsin(x) = sin-1(x) (arcsine, etc.)
vers(a) = 1-cos(a) (versed sine)
covers(a) = 1-sin(a) (coversed sine)
exsec(a) = sec(a)-1 (exterior secant)
sin(a+b) = sin(a)cos(b)+cos(a)sin(b) (sine addition)
cos(a+b) = cos(a)cos(b)-sin(a)sin(b) (cosine addition)
sin2(a)+cos2(a) = 1 (identity)
2 2
1+tan (a) = sec (a) (identity)
sin(2a) = 2sin(a)cos(a) (sine twice angle)
cos(2a) = cos2(a)-sin2(a) (cosine twice angle)
tan(2a) = 2tan(a)/(l-tan2(a)) (tangent twice angle)
Miscellaneous Algebra
(a+b)/2, (a+b+c)/3, etc. (arithmetical mean)
sq rt(ab),cube rt(abc), etc. (geometric mean)
x = (-b± b 2 − 4ac )/2a (quadratic roots)
n! = 1–5–6–...n (n factorial)
e = 2.7183=1+1/1!+1/2!+1/3!+... (base e)
i = −1 (imaginary root)
sin(a) = (eia-e-ia)/2i (sine)
cos(a) = (eia+e-ia)/2 (cosine)
sinh(a) = (ea-e-a)/2 (hyperbolic sine)
cosh(a) = (ea+e-a)/2 (hyperbolic cosine)

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


APPENDIX F - MISCELLANEOUS DATA F-7

Table F.3 (Cont.) Mathematical Data

I
Derivatives and Integrals
d0
=0 0dx = C

I
dx
da
=0 adx = ax + C
dx
dx
dx
=1 I xdx =
x2
2
+C

dx −1
dx
= − x −2 I 1
x
dx = ln x + C

dx n
dx
= nx n −1 I x dx =
n x n +1
n +1
+C

da x
dx
= a x ln a I a x dx =
ax
ln a
+C

de x
= ex I e x dx = e x + C

I
dx
d ln x 1
= ln xdx = x ln x + C

I
dx x
d sin x
= cos x sin xdx = − cos x + C

I
dx
d cos x
= − sin x cos xdx = sin x + C

I
dx
d tan x 1
= tan xdx = − ln cos x + C
dx cos2 x
d sin −1 x
dx
=
1
1− x2
I sin −1 xdx = x sin −1 x + 1 − x 2 + C

d cos−1 x
dx
=
−1
1− x2
I cos−1 dx = x cos−1 x − 1 − x 2 + C

d tan −1 x
=
1
1+ x2 I tan −1 xdx = x tan −1 x − 1 + x 2 + C

I
dx
d sinh x
= cosh x sinh xdx = cosh x + C
dx
d sinh −1 x
dx
=
1
x2 + 1
I sinh −1 xdx = x sinh −1 x − x 2 + 1 + C

1 6
d u+v
=
du dv
+ I1 6 I I
u + v dx = udx + vdx + C
dx dx dx
1 6
d uv du
= v +u
dv
I I
udv = uv − vdu
dx dx dx
a, n, and C are constants. u and v are functions of x.

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


F-8 FAN ENGINEERING

Table F.3 (Cont.) Mathematical Data

Vector Analysis
G G G G
r = rx i + ry j + rz k resolution
G G
a ⋅ b = ab cos ω dot product, result is a scalar
G G G G G G
If ω = 90° , a ⋅ b = 0 and i ⋅ j = j ⋅ k = k ⋅ i = 0
G G G
a × b = ab sin ωn cross product, result is a vector
G G G G G G G G G G G G
If ω = 90° , a × b = abn and i × j = k , j × k = i , k × i = j
∂f G ∂f G ∂f G
∇f = i+ j+ k cartesion gradient
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂V ∂Vy ∂Vz
∇ ⋅V = x + + cartesian divergence
∂x ∂y ∂z
G ∂
i Vx
∂x
G ∂
∇ ×V = j Vy cartesian curl
∂y
G ∂
k Vz
∂z
∂2 f ∂2 f ∂2 f
∇ f = 2 + 2 + 2
2
cartesian Laplacian
∂x ∂y ∂z

Nomenclature
rx , ry ,rz are components of r.
G G G
i , j , k are unit vectors
G G
a , b are scalar quantities, a , b are vector quantities
ω is the angle between 2 vectors
n is the unit vector perpendicular to the plane of the 2 vectors
f is a scalar function
V is a vector function

Permutations and Combinations


n!
nPr =
1 6
n−r !
permutations of n items taken r at a time

n!
nCr =
1 6
r! n − r !
combinations of n items taken r at a time

Permutations are in a particular order, combinations are not.

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


APPENDIX F - MISCELLANEOUS DATA F-9

Table F.4 Miscellaneous Equations

Mechanics
Mass Mass Moment of Inertia
m = (W/g)gc Im = mr2
Force Torque
F = ma/g c= wa/g τ = Im α /gc=Fr
Momentum Angular Momentum
M = mv/gc µ = Im ω /gc
Mt = M0+Ft µ t = µ 0+ τ t
Work, Power, Energy Work, Power, Energy
W = Fs W = τθ
P = Fv = W/t P = τω = W/t
E p= wh
Ek = mv2/2gc Ek= Im ω 2/2g,
Uniform Motion Uniform Motion
a=0 α =0
v = constant ω = constant
st = s0+v0t θ t = θ 0.+ ω t
Uniformly Accelerated Motion Uniformly Accelerated Motion
a = constant α = constant
vt = v0+at ω t = ω 0+ α t
st= s0+v0t+at2/2 θ t= θ 0+ ω 0t+ α t2/2
Simple Harmonic Vibration Simple Harmonic Vibration
s = Acos( ω t) f = ω /2 π
vt = -A ω sin( ω t) T = 2 π / ω (o
at = -A ω 2cos( ω t) ω = 2π f
Nomenclature
A = peak amplitude P = power
s = displacement r = radius of gyration
Ek = energy, kinetic T = period
Ep = energy, potential t = time
F = force v = velocity
f = frequency W = work
g = acceleration of gravity w = weight
gc = conversion factor α = angularacceleration
h = height θ = angular displacement
Im = mass moment of inertia µ = angular momentum
M = momentum τ =torque
m = mass ω = angular velocity
Subscript 0 = at time 0 Subscript t = at time t

Electricity
Ohm'sLaw
I = E/R E = IR R = E/I
Power
P = EI (d-c) P = EIcos θ (a-c, 1 phase) P = 3 EIcos θ (a-c, 3 phase)
Nomenclature
E = emf R = resistance
I = current cos θ = power factor
P = power

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.


F-10 FAN ENGINEERING

Table F.5 Miscellaneous Data

Greek Alphabet
Alpha Αα Eta Ηη Nu Νν Tau Ττ
Beta Ββ Theta Θθ Xi Ξξ Upsilon υ
Gamma Γγ Iota Ιι Omicron Ο ο Phi Φφϕ
Delta ∆δ∂ Kappa Κκ Pi Ππ Chi Χχ
Epsilon Εε Lambda Λλ Rho Ρρ Psi Ψψ
Zeta Ζζ Mu Μµ Sigma Σ σ Omega Ω ω
Chemical Prefixes
hemi 1/2 tri 3 hepta 7 eicosa 20
mono 1 tetra 4 octa 8 tri conta 30
sesqui 1-1/2 penta 5 nona 9 tetra conta 40
di or bi 2 hexa 6 deca 10 penta conta 60
Metric Prefixes
atto a 10-18 micro µ 10-6 deca da 10 giga G 109
femto f 10-15 milli m 10-3 hecto h 102 tera T 1012
-12 -2 3
pico p 10 centi c 10 kilo k 10 femta F 1015
nano n 10-9 deci d 10-1 mega M 106 atta A 1018
Large Numbers
9
U.S. & France: billion 10 trillion 1012 quadrillion 1015
G.B .& Germany: billion 1012 trillion 1018 quadrillion 1024
Approximate Weight of United States Coins
1 cent piece................................... 3.1 grams ....................................... 50 grains
5 cent piece................................... 5.0 grams ....................................... 80 grains
10 cent piece................................. 2.5 grams ....................................... 40 grains
25 cent piece................................ 6.25 grams .................................... 100 grains
50 cent piece................................ 12.5 grams .................................... 200 grains
Approximate Determination of Temperature by Color
Red visible in dark ....................................................................................800°'F
Red visible in daylight .............................................................................. 900°F
Dull red.................................................................................................... 1000°F
Dark cherry.............................................................................................. 1200°F
Cherry red................................................................................................ 1400°F
Bright cherry red ..................................................................................... 1600°F
Light orange ............................................................................................ 1800°F
Yellow-white........................................................................................... 2000°F
White....................................................................................................... 2400°F
Some Approximate Dimensions
Diameter of human hair .................................................................... 50-200 µm
Limit of visibility ................................................................................ 10-40 µm
Wave length of red light...........................................................................0.7 µm
Wave length of violet light.......................................................................0.4 µm
Mean free path of air molecules...............................................................0.1 µm
Diameter of large molecules ....................................................................... 50 Å

‹#1999 Howden Buffalo, Inc.