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@]]_l_rom_t_r B[s_^ Hum[n Imit[ting

Ro\o Sol^i_r
Veeresh N.Huggi
VIII Semester Electronics and Communication, BVBCET, Hubballi

Wars have now become fiercer than ever before. Wars human soldier in the war field and thus abateabat the risk of war
are now fought on extreme battle fields. Ironically, the people casualties. The Artificial soldier should be equipped with a
who still battle in wars are the soldiers, very much vulnerable to camera capable of sending the video captured from the
death or fatal injuries. Very less has been done for safeguarding
remote place to the base station wirelessly. Thus the soldier
the invaluable lives of these brave men. Designing artifici artificial
at the base station will be able to see the war situations
soldiers, who will battle out in the war field, will definitely serve
as savior of thousands of life across globe annually. Objective
through the camera fitted over the artificial soldier. Based on
here is to replace a real human soldier with an Accelerometer these visuals the soldier will take respective actions like
Based Human Imitating RObo Soldier (ABHIROS ABHIROS)., which will walking ahead, shooting the gun, hiding against a cover etc,
battle out in fierce and extreme conditions of Warfield whereas and these movements will be tracked by the sensors like the
the soldier will control its actions residing in a safer hub, accelerometers placed over the body of the human soldier. soldi
hundreds or thousands of kilometers away from ground zero. The tracked data is transmitted to the artificial soldier which
ABHIROS will be in continuous communication with the soldier will imitate the action. For example, if human soldier lifts his
through Satellite communication.. It will transmit the real time
hands, the artificial will also lift its hands. Thus it is called as
situation of the battlefield,, in the form of video ((Video
Accelerometer Based Human Imitating RObo Soldier
transmission), along with the data of various sensors fitted on it.
The soldierr will analyze the incoming video feed and take
(ABHIROS). The block diagram of system is as given
according action like firing at the enemies, lodging teargas or below:
grenade etc. The actions thus taken is tracked by the sensors
like accelerometer and data output of the sensor is transmitted
wirelessly. The data is received by the ABHIROS and thus the
virtual action taken by the soldier ier will be imitated by the
ABHIROS in the battlefield. The system is easy to implement. It
will save the lives of many soldiers.

Keywords-- Accelerometer, Wireless Transmission

Transmission, Video


Soldiers are very vulnerable to casualties that occur

in wars. There are lots of factors abetting these casualties like
deficiency in devices which can be used during night or low
visibility, only bulletproof jackets to protect the chest of
soldiers, lack of on spot medical treatment fac facilities etc.
Efforts have been done to protect the lives of soldiers and
reduce war casualties by designing infrared cameras to view Fig 1. Block diagram
in low visibility conditions, spy robots to peek into enemy
field etc yet the danger to the soldiers’ life has not yet been
completely got rid off! An artificial soldier can replace a

In this section the brief explanation of each block shown in

Fig 1 is provided.

A. Accelerometer Data from human Body

An Accelerometer is a sensor that can

measure acceleration of the device over which it is
placed. It measures acceleration along X, Y and Z
axes and produces proportionate voltages
respectively. The accelerometer consists of a surface
micromachined capacitive sensing cell (g-cell). The
sensing element is sealed hermetically at the wafer
level using a bulk micromachined capacitor wafer.
The g-cell is a mechanical structure formed from
semiconductor materials (polysilicon) using
semiconductor processes (masking and etching). It
can be modeled as a set of beams attached to a
movable central mass that move between fixed
beams. The movable beams can be deflected from
their rest position by subjecting the system to
acceleration. As the beams attached to the central
mass move, the distance from them to the fixed .
beams on one side will increase by the same amount
that the distance to the fixed beams on the other side
decreases. The change in distance is a measure of
acceleration. The g-cell beams form two back-to-
back capacitors. As the center beam moves with
acceleration, the distance between the beams
changes and each capacitor's value will change, (C =
Aε/D). Where A is the area of the beam, ε is the
dielectric constant, and D is the distance between
the beams. Accelerometer measures keeping
gravitational force as reference. Obviously at
different positions the gravitational force that
Fig 2. Output of Accelerometer in different directions
anybody experiences is different. Accelerometer
measures the gravitational acceleration and gives
The output voltage thus obtained is used to map the
output voltage respectively as shown in figure:
movement of the body. At different actions,
accelerometer produces different voltage and hence
we can accurately determine the position of the
body.The key features of an accelerometer are as

 Small size.
 Low Current Consumption
 Sleep Mode
 Low Voltage Operation

These sensors are placed over the body of the

soldier, such that various degrees of freedom of to complete calls (i.e. need to have a clear view of
human body are tracked. For example, if hand of a the sky). Therefore, a traditional satellite phone
soldier is considered then sensors have to be placed cannot be used indoors. However, some satellite
around shoulder, elbow, wrist etc so as to phones will work indoors in cellular mode when the
completely map the hand movement. user is within a cellular-service area.

B. Wireless Transmission (Data) C. Action taken by ABHIROS

The data obtained from the accelerometer has ABHIROS receives the data of the
to be transmitted to the ABHIROS which will be at a accelerometer. An algorithm is written to decode the
remote destination. Hence we adopt wireless output of the accelerometer into respective action of
transmission as the mode of communication. As the the ABHIROS. The controller in ABHIROS takes
communication has to be set in extreme regions with the data received and applies the algorithm over it
very less or no terrestrial form of communication, we and hence produces control outputs through which
choose Satellite Communication. It has following the ABHIROS makes respective move. Algorithm is
advantages: quite straight forward: the data from accelerometer
is read and depending over the voltage levels the
 Highly survivable (physical survivability and actuator (usually a motor), present in the ABHIROS,
robustness). is actuated. Consider an example of hand: There are
 Independent of terrestrial infrastructure. 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) present in human hand
 Able to provide the load sharing and surge as shown in the figure below.
capacity solution for larger sites.
 Best for redundancy: They add a layer of path
diversity and link availability.
 Ubiquitous Coverage: A group of satellites can
cover virtually the Earth’s entire surface.
 Temporary Network Solutions: For
applications such as news gathering, homeland
security, or military activities, satellite can often
provide the only practical, short-term solution for
getting necessary information in and out.
 Satellite communications can interconnect with
any other communications solution (i.e. LMR,
Cellular, Wi-Fi, etc.) via generic crossbanding

Satellite phones are used for this kind of

communication. Satellite phones offer many of the
same characteristics as cellular phones including a
similar user interface and design. Satellite phones
are slightly larger in size than cellular phones Fig 3. Structure of human arm depicting DOF
because the antenna required to communicate on the
satellite frequencies must be larger than a cellular There are three DOF at the shoulder, one each at
phone antenna. Another fundamental difference elbow and wrist (neglecting DOF due to radial/ulnar
between traditional wireless phones and satellite and flection/extension). Three accelerometers will
phones is that when the phone is in satellite mode, it suffice to track the movement of a hand. As 5 DOF
must be within line-of-sight of the satellite in order are present, as much actuators are needed. Thus 5
motors are used to actuate various motions of the the risks they face in dangerous situations and
hand i.e., one motor for one degree of freedom. For providing them with the situational awareness they
example, if the arm end after the elbow is moved up need to assess the situation and respond accordingly.
then the acceleration is varied with respect to Z axis. 2) Quicker response to incidents: Security personnel
The voltage corresponding to Z axis varies, it is are alerted instantly when a possible security breach
decoded and transmitted. The ABHIROS decodes as occurred, providing quicker response and the
this information and actuates the motor at the elbow ability to prepare a plan of action. Advance
joint of the robot to move up. information in the field. As the response scenario
unfolds, continual relevant updates can give
D. Visuals Captured by the ABHIROS and Wireless personnel in the field a unique advantage they’ve
Transmission (Video) never had before, including the ability to monitor
and control cameras and recording systems from any
A video camera is placed over ABHIROS, the point on the network or remote location.
video camera acts like an eye to the ABHIROS. It
captures all the activities taking place around it. The E. Action Taken by the Human Soldier
video data is encoded and transmitted wirelessly.
The soldier at the base station will be
watching the live situation of the battle field from
the eyes (video camera) of ABHIROS. The soldier
will take action as he would take if he was in the
battle field like:
• He will shoot if enemy is seen
• He will take cover sighting a grenade etc…
The actions taken by the soldier is mapped by the
accelerometer placed at different places in his body.
Accelerometer measures the acceleration by which
the body moves over which it is placed and gives the
output in terms of voltages. For example: in case of
Fig 4. Wireless Video Transmission hand the accelerometer is placed around the
shoulder, arm and wrist to map all the DOF [C] of
Wireless networked capabilities provide an efficient the hand. The process repeats as shown the block
and cost-effective video communications solution to diagram (Fig 1).
communities. Advanced mobile video technologies
make it possible to remotely view live or recorded
images and observe real-time security video streams III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
from different locations while mobile. This allows
being aware of potential hazards, evaluating critical As seen earlier ABHIROS acts a very good alter ego for a
situations, plan the appropriate course of action soldier in the battle field. Real (human) soldier will take
before any emergency scene, and reduce the respective action depending on the situation of the battle
potential harm. Video feeds can be accessed from field. The action is tracked by the accelerometer and data
any place in the network. from accelerometer is transmitted wirelessly to the
Advantages of wireless video transmission: ABHIROS in the battle field. Satellite communication is used
1) Reduced danger to enforcement soldier: The for achieving distant communication. ABHIROS encodes the
ability to view and review an event from any place
in the network as it happens provides invaluable
intelligence to the responding personnel, reducing
data and reflects it in its action as shown in the fig below.  This system will take the wars to all new level and
more importantly it will lead to less bloodshed.

Future Developments:

 The system can be extended beyond just using for

 In its advanced stages this principle with a little
modification can be used as artificial limbs and arms
for the disabled.
Fig 5 Example of working of the system
The video camera acts as pair of eyes of ABHIROS. It
 The system has high initial installation cost.
captures the visuals of the battle field and transmits
 The ABHIROS has high maintenance requirement.
wirelessly to the base station. The soldier at the base station
watches the visuals and takes respective action, which in turn
is imitated by the ABHIROS. This cycle continues.

[1] “Datasheet of MMA7260QT” Accelerometer from
Freescale Semiconductors.
This system can well replace a real human soldier in any [2] A paper on “The Design of humanoid Robot Arm based
battle field. It not only will save thousands of life but also on Morphological and Neurological Analysis of Human
will strengthen the armoury of any army. In future this will Arm.”
play a major role in revolutionary development of Futuristic [3] “First responder’s guide to satellite communications” by
Wars with less bloodshed. Satellite Industry Association.
[4] Images from iStockphoto.
Advantages: [5] “Cisco Outdoor Wireless Solutions for Mobile and
Wireless Video Communications” from CISCO.
 Simple principle and thus easy to implement. [6]
 Construction of this system is very simple. [7] A paper on “Development of a Microcontroller Based
Robotic Arm.”
 This system will save thousands of lives of brave [8] A paper on “Robotic Limb Calibration:
soldiers. Accelerometer Based Discovery of Kinematic Constants.”
 No special training required to use this system. [9] – “Transmission of video: how
 The sensors, actuators and other devices used are to choose among the options”
easily available.