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The PMI Project

Management
Fact Book

Second Edition
The PMI Project
Management
Fact Book

Second Edition

Project Management Institute


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The PMI project management fact book.-- 2nd ed.


p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN: 1-880410-73-7 (alk. paper)
1. Project management. I. Project Management Institute.

2001041676
CIP

ISBN: 1-880410-73-7

Published by: Project Management Institute, Inc.


Four Campus Boulevard
Newtown Square, Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA
Phone +610-356-4600 or visit our website: www.pmi.org

0 2 0 0 1 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.


"PMI" and the PMI logo are service and trademarks registered in the United States and other
nations; "PMP" and the PMP logo are certification marks registered in the United States and other
nations; "PMBOK", "PM Network", and "PMI Today" are trademarks registered in the United States
and other nations; and "Project Management Journal" and "Building professionalismin project
management." are trademarks of Project Management Institute, Inc.

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please write to the Publisher, PMI, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299
USA. Or contact your local bookstore.

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Information Standards Organization (239.48-1984).
Exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii
..
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ..
Section On-The Profession .......................................... 3
Definition of Project Management ........................................... 3
Project Management Knowledge Areas ....................................... 4
Project Management Process Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
History and Evolution of the Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Hallmarks of a Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .0
Size of the Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
.1
.
Awareness and Recognition of the Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 .2
Project Management and Other Professions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2
Future of the Profession ................................................. 14
SectionTwo-Theproject ............................................17
Definition of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7
Definition of Program ................................................... 1 8
Definition of Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 9
Total Spent on Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.9
CostofaProject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Geographic Scope of Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ProjectTypes ........................................................ 2 1
ProjectPerformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Project Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Project Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Section Thre-Individuals Working in Project Management .................31
- * Project Management Practit~onerProfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 1
* Professional Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3
* Number of Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3
kJobi7tle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3
JobFunctiorVRole ..................................................... 3 3
Careerpath ......................................................... 34
.-- +Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5
. e+EmploymentStatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.7
Scope of Responsibiliv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.7
-%Project Management Experience and Work History .............................. 39
Typical Work Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9
-. \-Level of Education ..................................................... 40
c Professional Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
, .*tCompensation and Benefits .............................................. 4 1

The PMI Project Management Fact Book v


Section Four-The Environment of Project Management ..................... 45
,+ Globalization of Project Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
+Adoption of Project Management by Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Project Management Responsibility in Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 .
- M a t i o of Project Management Personnel to Total Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Support for Professional Affiliations ......................................... 5 1
SupportforCertification ................................................. 52
4d;lobal Acceptance of PMP Certification ...................................... 52
+Project Management Academic Degrees and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
=#Project Management Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
q. Worldwide Cooperating Organ~zations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 .
-9 Research on the Project Management Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Section Fve-The Project Management lntiiute .......................... 57
Governance ......................................................... 58
Board of Directors ..................................................... 59
StmtegicAdvisoryGroups ................................................ 59
Implementation of Ends Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 ..
Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1
Volunteerism ......................................................... 6 4
GlobalOutreach ...................................................... 66
Components ......................................................... 67
Corporate Involvement and Participation ..................................... 70
Financial Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Standards .......................................................... 78
Publishing ........................................................... 79
KnowledgeandWisdomCenter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Annual Seminars &Symposium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1
Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1
w . p mi.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 .
PMI Educational Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
AppendixA.-P MIEndsPolicies ....................................... 87
Introduction .........................................................87
PMIEndsPolicies ..................................................... 88
Appendix 6-PMI Ethical Standards .................................... 93
Member Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
.
Member Standards of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4
Member Ethics Case Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6
AppendixWMIComponents .......................................109
PMIChapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
PMI Specific Interest Groups ............................................. 115
PMICollege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Appendix D-PMI Professional Awards .................................117
PMI Project of the Year Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
PMI Professional Awards Program Recognition 1974-2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
PMI Educational Foundation Award and Scholarship Recognition 1979-2000 .......... 122
Appendix E-+MI Registered Education Providers ........................127
PMICharterProviders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
PMI Global Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
PMI Basic and Corporate Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 1
PMI Association Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
PMI Comoonent Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

vi The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix F-PMP Code of Professional Conduct ......................... 139
1. Responsibilitiesto the Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
II. Responsibilitiesto Customers and the Public ............................... 140
Appendix W r o j e c t Management Degree Programs ......................143
Bachelor's Degree Programs ............................................. 143
Master's Degree Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Doctoral Degree Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Appendii H-PMI Annual Seminars & Symposium Sies and Dates 1969-2000 . . 147
........... 149
Appendix 1 . 4 ountries with PMI Members as of 3 1 December 2000
Glossary ........................................................ 1 5 1
Acronyms .......................................................... 1 5 1
Definitions .........................................................1 5 1
Bibliography ..................................................... 157
Accessible Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Internal PMI Documents and Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

The PMI Project Management Fact Book vii


Exhibits
Figure 1 Links Among Process Groups in a Phase
Figure 2 Relationship of Project Management to Other Management Disciplines
Figure 3 Geographic Scope of Projects Engaged In
Figure 4 Project Success Rates and Costs, 1994 Versus 1998
Figure 5 Relation of Organizational Structure to Project Success
Figure 6 Project Management Practitioner Profiles
Figure 7 Years of Project Management Experience, by Geographic Area
Figure 8 Global Average Total Compensation, by Scope
Figure 9 Global Average Total Compensation, by Position
Figure 1 0 PMI Membership Growth, by Geographic Area
Figure 11 Ratio of Project Management Personnel t o Total Employees
Figure 12 Representative Countries with Significant PMP Growth
Figure 13 Process Used to Develop PMI Annual Program Plan and Budget
Figure 14 Industries Represented in PMI Membership
Figure 15 PMI Component Facts
Figure 16 PMP Certification Facts

viii The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Introduction
The Project Management Institute (PMIB)is pleased to publish The
PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edition.
PMI is the world's leading project management association, now
with more than 70,000 members in more than 120 countries. Indi-
vidual practitioners, along with businesses, industries, and organi-
zations, count on the project management profession and PMI to
help them succeed in the global marketplace, accomplishing their
strategic objectives through the practice of project management. PMI
is committed to delivering products and services that set the industry
standard, advance the project management knowledge base, and
meet the needs of our members and other stakeholders.
This new book is an enlarged and updated version of the ground-
breaking The PMI Project Management Fact Book published in 1999.
Its five principal sections are structured to serve as a comprehensive
compilation of information and data about:
1. The Profession of project management.
2. The Project, including typical costs, scope, dimension, and
challenges associated with projects.
3. Individuals Working in Project Management, including
a profile of their qualifications, responsibilities, compensation,
etc.
4. The Environment of Project Management activities,
within the global context of organizational structure and
practice.
5. The Project Management Institute itself, including its
structure, membership, activities, and services.
The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edition will be wel-
comed as a benchmark resource by the project management com-
munity and those with an interest in learning more about the
profession.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 1


Section One

The Profession

Project management has become a top career choice for many tal-
ented and knowledgeable individuals. The project management
community continues to gain recognition globally through the
advancement of project management and the promotion of excel-
lence in project management throughout the world. Individuals
working in project management turn to the Project Management
Institute (PMIB)-the world's largest professional association
serving the project management profession-for up-to-date infor-
mation, networking, training, certification, and the knowledge
that they need to successfully manage projects and deliver the
expected results. The profession values the Institute as the asso-
ciation of choice for individuals across all industries and organi-
zations in the global marketplace.

Definition of Project Management


According to A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOP Guide) - 2000 Edition, "Project management is the
application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirements. Project management is
accomplished through the use of the processes such as: initiating,
planning, executing, controlling, and closing" (2000, 6).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 3


Section One - The Profession

Project Management Knowledge Areas


The PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition defmes nine Project Management
Knowledge Areas. These describe "project management knowledge
and practices in terms of their component processes" (PMBOP
Guide 2000, 7).

Project Integration Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the various elements of
the project are properly coordinated. It consists of:
R Project plan development-integratingand coordinating all
project plans to create a consistent, coherent document.
m Project plan execution-carrying out the project plan by
performing the activities included therein.
m Integrated change control-coordinating changes across
the entire project.

Project Scope Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the project includes all
the work required, and only the work required, to com-
plete the project successfully. It consists of:
ia Initiation-authorizing the project or phase.
Scope planning-developing a written scope statement
as the basis for future project decisions.
r Scope definition-subdividing the major project deliver-
ables into smaller, more manageable components.
r Scope verification-formalizing acceptance of the
project scope.
Scope change control-controlling changes to project
scope.

Project Time Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure timely completion of the
project. It consists of:
R Activity definition-identifying the specific activities
that must be performed to produce the various project
deliverables.
~rActivity sequencing-identifying and documenting
interactivity dependencies.

4 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One -The Profession

m Activity duration estimating-estimating the number of


work periods that will be needed to complete indi-
vidual activities.
r Schedule development-analyzing activity sequences,
activity durations, and resource requirements to create
the project schedule.
r Schedule control--controllingchanges to the project
schedule.

Project Cost Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the project is completed
within the approved budget. It consists of:
r Resource planning-determining what resources
(people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of
each should be used to perform project activities.
II Cost estimating-developing an approximation
(estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to com-
plete project activities.
r Cost budgeting-allocating the overall cost estimate to
individual work activities.
m Cost control--controlling changes to the project budget.

Project Quality Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy
the needs for which it was undertaken. It consists of:
r Quality planning-identifying which quality standards
are relevant to the project and determining how to
satisfy them.
r Quality assurance-evaluating overall project perfor-
mance on a regular basis to provide confidence that
the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
II Quality control-monitoring specific project results to
determine if they comply with relevant quality stan-
dards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of
unsatisfactory performance.

Project Human Resource Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to make the most effective use of the
people involved with the project. It consists of:

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 5


Section One - The Profession

8 Organizational planning-identifying, documenting,


and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and
reporting relationships.
8 Staff acquisition-getting the needed human resources
assigned to and working on the project.
I Team development-developing individual and group
skills to enhance project performance.

Project Communications Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure timely and appropriate gen-
eration, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate
disposition of project information. It consists of:
R Communications planning-determining the infor-
mation and communications needs of the stakeholders:
who needs what information, when they will need it,
and how it will be given to them.
8 Information distribution-making needed information
available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
s Performance reporting-collecting and disseminating
performance information. This includes status
reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting.
B Administrative closure-generating, gathering, and dis-
seminating information to formalize phase or project
completion.

Project Risk Management


Risk management is the systematic process of identifymg,
analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes max-
imizing the probability and consequences of positive
events and minimizing the probability and consequences
of adverse events to project objectives. It includes:
Risk management planning-deciding how to approach
and plan the risk management activities for a project.
B Risk identiflcation-determining which risks might
affect the project and documenting their characteristics.
8 Qualitative risk analysis-performing a qualitative
analysis of risks and conditions to prioritize their
effects on project objectives.
m Quantitative risk analysis-measuring the probability
and consequences of risks and estimating their implica-
tions for project objectives.

6 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One -The Profession

Risk response planning-developing procedures and


techniques to enhance opportunities and reduce
threats from risk to the project's objectives.
Risk monitoring and control-monitoring residual risks,
identifying new risks, executing risk reduction plans,
and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the
project life cycle.

Project Procurement Management


A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to acquire goods and services to attain
project scope from outside the performing organization. It
consists of:
Procurement planning-determining what to procure
and when.
Solicitation planning-documenting product require-
ments and identlfylng potential sources.
m Solicitation-obtainingquotations, bids, offers, or pro-
posals, as appropriate.
Source selection--choosingfrom among potential sellers.
Contract administration-managing the relationship
with the seller.
Contract closeout--completion and settlement of the
contract, including resolution of any open items.
(PMBOP Guide 2000, 189-91)

Project Management Process Groups


As indicated in the PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition, "Project man-
agement processes can be organized into five groups of one or
more processes each":

Initiating processes-authorizing the project or phase.


EN Planningprocesses-defining and refining objectives
and selecting the best of the alternative courses of
action to attain the objectives that the project was
undertaken to address.
Executing processes-coordinating people and other
resources to carry out the plan.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One -The Profession

(Arrows represent flow


of information)

Figure 1
Links Among Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOP Guide 2000, Figure 3.1, 31)

B Controlling processes-ensuring that project objec-


tives are met by monitoring and measuring progress
regularly to identify variances from plan so that cor-
rective action can be taken when necessary.
s Closing processes-formalizingacceptance of the
project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end.

The process groups are linked by the results they


produce-the result or outcome of one becomes an input to
another. Among the central process groups, the links are
iterated-planning provides executing with a documented
project plan early on, and then provides documented
updates to the plan as the project progresses. ... In addition,
the project management process groups are not discrete,
one-time events; they are overlapping activities which occur
at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the
project.
(PMBOP Guide 2000, 30)

8 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One -The Profession

History and Evolution of the Profession


Projects have been done since the dawn of time, and history is
rich with magnificent examples of projects, including the con-
struction of pyramids, arenas, bridges, and canals; the estab-
lishment of travel on, above, and below the surface of the earth;
the development of electronic communications and computation
systems; and major advances in medicine and biotechnology. As
one PMI publication puts it:

Whenever and wherever civilizations took root, there


were projects to manage: buildings to erect, roads to pave,
laws to write. Without the advanced tools, techniques and
methodologies we have today, people created project
timelines, located materials and resources, and weighed
the risks involved.
Over time, people realized that the techniques for cost
control, timeline development, resource procurement, and
risk management were applicable to a wide range of
projects, whether erecting bridges, rotating crops, or
deciding how to govern themselves. These early ideas
were the precursors to a set of management techniques
we now know as "modern project management."
(Project Management: A Proven Process for Success 2000, 2 )

The origins of modern project management can be pinpointed


to the 1950s, when the first papers on project management tech-
niques began to be published. One author suggests that 1958
"was the beginning of the age of the giant project: that point
where the size, complexity, time span, resource requirements and
cost of project demanded more than the Gantt chart" (Snyder
1987, 28-29). In particular, the author highlights breakthrough
thinking in computer-related development projects, as well as the
introduction of the Program Evaluation Review Technique
(PERT) in the field of military electronics. By the early 1960s,
articles were appearing on subjects like project planning and
scheduling and critical path techniques, and the United States
(U.S.) Department of Defense directed some of its services to test
the PERT concept to control costs. An abundance of papers were
published throughout the 1960s focusing on emerging project
management techniques in relation to the rapid development of

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 9


Section One -The Profession

computer technology. The 1970s became a turning point in


project management, as more and more organizations had real
experience in applying these new techniques in actual project
conditions. As the article's author states, "Experience was
beginning to replace ideas. Results were starting to reinforce con-
cepts" (Snyder 1987, 28-29). More and more research papers
were published during and following this period, chronicling
project management as a new management style and, ultimately,
as a new profession in itself.
In 1969, a small group of individuals recognized the potential
for a community of interest in the area of project management
and created the Project Management Institute. Prior to the for-
mation of PMI, project management had not really been regarded
as a profession. Since its creation, PMI has assisted in the evo-
lution of the profession through the following contributions:
The identification of the knowledge domain associated with
project management
The initial creation of the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOKm)
The establishment of a code of ethics for practitioners
The implementation of accreditation for academic programs
in project management
The establishment of the Project Management Professional
(PMPa) certification credential
The creation of practice standards in project management.
(30 Years of Project Management Excellence 1999)

Hallmarks of a Profession
A profession can be defined in its simplest terms as a "an occu-
pation requiring considerable training and specialized study."
Building and expanding upon the academic discipline or disci-
plines, to which it relates, a profession is distinguished by its
special features and characteristics. In most cases, the hallmarks
of a profession include, among other things:
r Ethical behavior and integrity
Discreet body of knowledge
Theoretical base for its knowledge

10 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One - h e Profession

ar Roles and responsibilities


m Professional standards
rr Professional certification
ar Educational discipline
ilr Academic accreditation
rr Professional development
rr Responsibility to the public interests of society
~rEfforts to improve and expand all of its distinguishing char-
acteristics.
(The Future of Project Management 1999,7, 8; 105-11)

Size of the Profession


PMI estimates that as many as four and a half million people in the
U.S.--representing about 3.3 percent of the employed U.S. work-
force-may regard project management as their profession of
choice. This number is likely to grow significantly as more
advanced degrees and undergraduate majors are offered in the
discipline of project management, as more emphasis is placed on
research into the theory and practice of the profession, and as the
profession gains wider recognition (U.S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics 2000; PMI Research Department 2001).
PMI estimates that the size of the profession in the rest of the
world may be more than 12 million. Therefore, the total number
of people around the world who view, or might view, project
management as a profession of choice currently exceeds 16.5
million. Given the incomplete nature of available labor force
information from many countries, this figure may actually under-
state the worldwide size of the profession.
It is important to note that the assessment presented here of the
size of the project management profession takes into account that
many-perhaps most-people undertake projects and engage in
project management on a daily basis, but do not view themselves
as members or potential members of the profession. Even if
projects and project management became ubiquitous in society
throughout the world, PMI considers only those who may regard
themselves as being directly involved in project management in
arriving at its estimates. Others may have an interest in the

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 11


Section One - The Profession

products and services offered by the project management pro-


fession and by PMI, but would never consider it to be their primary
profession or focus in life (Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate
of Intelligence 2000; PMI Research Department 2001).

Awareness and Recognition of the Profession


There are many ways to measure the success of project man-
agement as a profession. One is to measure the increased
awareness and recognition of project management as docu-
mented in the number of people exposed to news about the pro-
fession and PMI. In 2000, Project Management Institute Chair
Hugh Woodward, PMF and PMI member Daniel Cozad, PMF
appeared in the role of invited subject-matter experts on two
episodes of The Next Wave, airing as paid programming on CNBC
television, hosted by Leonard Nimoy The PMI experts explained
the general aspects of project management and its role in the new
economy.
PMI also recorded more than 140 million electronic public
relations exposures in 2000. Coupled with nearly 28 million
exposures documented in print communications, the project
management profession and PMI experienced a 645 percent
increase in total media exposure in 2000, compared to 1999.
A key global source of information on project management is
PMI's web page, www.pmi.org, where a total of 2,621,092 hits
were recorded in 2000, a 64 percent increase over the previous
year (2000 in Review 2001, 4).

Project Management and Other Professions


According to the PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition, "much of the
knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to project man-
agement (e.g., critical path analysis and work breakdown struc-
tures). However, the PMBOKa does overlap other management
disciplines" (PMBOP Guide 2000), as illustrated in Figure 2.

12 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One - The Profession

The Project

Body of Knowledge

Generally Accepted
Project Management
Knowledge and Practice

This figure is a conceptual view of these relationships.


The overlaps shown are not proportional.

Figure 2
Relationship of Project Management to Other Management Disciplines
(PMBOP Guide 2000, Figure 1.2, 9)

The P M B O P Guide - 2000 Edition further explains the related


elements of General Management and Application Areas:

General management encompasses planning, organizing,


staffing, executing, and controlling the operations of an
ongoing enterprise. General management also includes
supporting disciplines such as law, strategic planning,
logistics, and human resource management. The PMBOKe
overlaps or modifies general management in many areas-
organizationalbehavior, financial forecasting, and planning
techniques, to name just a few.
Application areas are categories of projects that have
common elements significant in such projects but not
needed or present in all projects. Application areas are
usually defined in terms of:

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 13


Section One -The Profession

Functional departments and supporting disciplines,


such as legal, production and inventory management,
marketing, logistics, and personnel.
Technical elements, such as software development,
pharmaceuticals, water and sanitation engineering, or
construction engineering.
a Management specializations, such as government con-
tracting, community development, or new product
development.
a Industry groups, such as automotive, chemicals, agri-
culture, or financial services.
( P M B O P Guide 2000, 9)

Future of the Profession


PMI reports that project management will become more
important both to practitioners personally and to their organiza-
tions in the next five years. Seventy percent of PMI members,
who are also PMPs, expect project management to increase in
importance to them personally. Members in financial services (84
percent) and information technology (83 percent) are more likely
to expect project management to increase in importance to their
organizations.
PMI research also indicates that the five "greatest challenges"
to the future of project management are as follows:
1. Public perceptionlacceptance
2. Acceptance by top management
3. Success/showing value
4. Methods/applyingfunderstanding/consistency
5. Becoming a profession/establishing standards.
Furthermore, in the coming years the following capabilities
will be most critical to people in the profession of project man-
agement:
Leadership skills/vision and motivating others
rr People skills/getting along with others
rxr Management skills/directing and managing others.
(PMI 2000 Needs Assessment 2000,27-28)

14 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section One- The Profession

Considering the observable signs of a maturing profession-


increasing numbers of individuals associating themselves with
project management; heightened public exposure of project man-
agement issues and concepts; and continued refinement of pro-
fessional standards, to name a few-the future of project
management as a profession looks very bright, challenging, and
rewarding.

The PMt Project Management Fact Book 15


Section nYo
I

The Project

The profession of project management is built around a central


concept known as the project. This concept is the foundation upon
which the profession builds its body of knowledge, conducts
research, establishes standards, administers certification, and pro-
vides professional development and academic accreditation. It is
the concept of the project that inspires practitioners to achieve the
innovative breakthroughs that continually move the profession
forward. In many situations, projects have become integral to the
execution of an organization's strategic plan. Without projects,
new products do not reach the consumer, people do not walk on
the moon, and the Internet does not unify the continents and cul-
tures of the world, or transform the global economy

Definition of Project
According to the PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition:

Organizations perform work. Work generally involves


either operations or projects, although the two may
overlap. Operations and projects share many character-
istics; for example, they are:
a Performed by people.
tz Constrained by limited resources.
B Planned, executed, and controlled.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 17


Section Two -The Project

Projects are often implemented as a means of achieving


an organization's strategic plan. Operations and projects
differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and repet-
itive while projects are temporary and unique. A project
can thus be defined in terms of its distinctive character-
istics-a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product or service.

Definition of Program
The P M B O P Guide - 2000 Edition defines and explains the
concept of a "program" as follows:

A program is a group of projects managed in a coordi-


nated way to obtain benefits not available from managing
them individually Many programs also include elements
of ongoing operations. For example:
I The 'XYZairplane program" includes both the project
or projects to design and develop the aircraft as well as
the ongoing manufacturing and support of that craft in
the field.
IB Many electronics firms have "program managers" who
are responsible for both individual product releases
(projects) and the coordination of multiple releases
over time (an ongoing operation).
Programs may also involve a series of repetitive or
cyclical undertakings, for example:
I Utilities often speak of an annual "construction
program," a regular, ongoing operation which involves
many projects.
IB Many non-profit organizations have a "fundraising
program," an ongoing effort to obtain financial support
that often involves a series of discrete projects such as
a membership drive or an auction.
IB Publishing a newspaper or magazine is also a
program-the periodical itself is an ongoing effort, but
each individual issue is a project.

18 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Two -The Project

In some application areas, program management and


project management are treated as synonyms; in others,
project management is a subset of program management.
This diversity of meaning makes it imperative that any ,
discussion of program management versus project man- ~
agement be preceded by agreement on a clear and con- 1
sistent definition of each term. 1
( P M B O P Guide 2000, 10).

Definition of PortFolio
According to the PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition, "Project portfolio
management refers to the selection and support of projects or
program investments. These investments in projects and pro-
grams are guided by the organization's strategic plan and
available resources" (2000, 10).

Total Spent on Projects


On the basis of data released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis
of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Project Management
Institute (PMI3 estimates that the U.S. public and private sectors
spend some $2.3 trillion (US) on projects every year, an amount
equivalent to one-quarter of the nation's gross domestic product.
Extrapolating U.S. data, PMI estimates that the world as a whole
spends nearly $10 trillion (US) of the world's $40.7 trillion (US)
gross product on projects of all kinds (Lum and Moyer 2000;
Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate of Intelligence 2000; PMI
Research Department 2001).
These projects occur in all industries, all countries, and all
sectors of public and private endeavor. They run the gamut from
new product development and overall research and development,
through residential and commercial construction, into devel-
opment of software and information systems, to reengineering
and other forms of organizational change. This expenditure is
comprised of projects that vary in cost, requirements, staffing,
risk, quality duration, and complexity among other factors.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 19


Section Two -The Project

Unlike activities to improve manufacturing operations, man-


ufacturing itself usually is not viewed as a project-based oper-
ation because of the concept of mass and repetitive production.
However, many manufacturing operations can be viewed as
projects and, indeed, are projects. Examples of such projects
could include a short-duration special production run (e.g., of a
special grade of paper) or the production of one large item (e.g.,
a customized airplane). Consequently, some data associated with
projects may be included in multiple data sets.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 1998 U.S. businesses
alone invested $973.6 billion in capital goods-structures and
equipment-an increase of 11.7 percent from 1997. Much of this
expenditure takes place in the context of fulfilling the require-
ments of major projects (U.S. Census Bureau 2000).

Cost of a Project
The median budget size for projects engaged in or managed by
those working in project management is just under $2 million
(US), while the mean (average) project budget size is $55 million
(US). The extreme difference between the two figures is accounted
for by a relatively small number of very large projects represented
in the survey sample, which had the effect of skewing the mean
upward. Projects varied in average value from under $100,000 to
$10 million (US) (Nellenbach 2001, 40).

Geographic Scope of Projects


Individuals working in project management report working on
projects that vary in geographic scope from local to global (see
Figure 3).
Percentages shown in Figure 3 add up to more than 100 because
respondents were allowed to select more than one descriptor to
accurately reflect multiple projects of varying scope (PMI Project
Management Salary Survey 2000,80).

20 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Two -The Project

Project Scope Percent Reporting


Local 33 percent
StateIProvince 20 percent
Multi-State/Province 28 percent
Within One Countty 28 percent
Multiple Countries 21 percent
Multiple Continents 15 percent

Figure 3
Geographic Scope of Projects Engaged In
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 80)

Project Types
As "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product
or service," projects are involved in all aspects of business, gov-
ernment, academia, and society. The broad array of work areas,
jobs, roles, and geographic location of PMI members demon-
strates the extreme breadth of application of projects and project
management.
As stated in the PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition:

Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization.


They may involve a single person or many thousands. Their
duration ranges from a few weeks to more than five years.
Projects may involve a single unit of one organization or
may cross organizational boundaries, as in joint ventures
and partnering. Projects are critical to the realization of the
performing organization's business strategy because projects
are the means by which strategy is implemented. Examples
of projects include:
B Developing a new product or service.
m Effecting a change in structure, s t f i g , or style of an
organization.
Designing a new transportation vehicle.
Developing or acquiring a new or modified information
system.
rrt Constructing a building or facility.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 21


Section Two - The Project

m Building a water system for a community in a developing


country
ar Running a campaign for political office.
ar Implementing a new business procedure or process.

Individuals working in project management are working on an


average of three or more projects at any given time. Because
projects are, by definition, aimed at creating a "unique product or
service," each project itself is unique (PMI Project Management
Salary Survey 2000, 17, 91).
The P M B O P Guide - 2000 Edition speaks to this issue of the
uniqueness of projects:

A product or service may be unique even if the cat-


egory to which it belongs is large. For example, many
thousands of office buildings have been developed, but
each individual facility is unique - different owner, dif-
ferent design, different location, different contractors, and
so on. The presence of repetitive elements does not
change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work.
For example:
A project to develop a new commercial airliner may
require multiple prototypes.
A project to bring a new drug to market may require
thousands of doses of the drug to support clinical trials.
A real estate development project may include hun-
dreds of individual units.
A development project (e.g., water and sanitation) may
be implemented in five geographic areas.

No generally accepted classification system exists for projects.


As stated in one PMI publication, "a taxonomy helps clarify our
thinking by classifying things neatly into groups and subgroups
based on their similarities and relationships"(Knutson 1997, 13).
A project taxonomy could assist people in the profession and
their employers with regard to subjects such as the following:
MI Work area assignments
Project leadership assignments

22 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


I Section Two - The Project

Company Success Rate, Success Rate, Project Cost, Project Cost,


Size 1994 1998 1994 1998
Large 9% 24% $2.3 million $1.2million
(more than
$500 million
in revenue)

Medium 16% 28% $1.3 million $1.1million


($200 million to
$500 million
in revenue)
Small 28% 32% $0.4 million $0.6million
($100 million to
$200 mill~on
in revenue)

Figure 4
Project Success Rates and Costs, 1994 Versus 1998
(1998 Chaos Report)

B Project team assignments and overall staffing


B Professional development
B Career path
m Mobility.
A taxonomy would also be beneficial in identifying the trans-
ferability among projects of lessons learned, such as documents,
experiences, and templates.

Project Performance
According to the 1998 Chaos Report, compiled by The Standish
Group International, project success rates rose and costs fell between
1994 and 1998. (All amounts in Figure 4 are in U.S. dollars.)
The three biggest contributors to project success are:
~ r t User involvement
Executive support
rr Clear statement of the business objectives of the project.
These three factors account for 50 percent of a project's chance
for success, according to the Chaos report. Adding an experienced
project manager brings the project's chances for success to 65
percent (The Standish Group International, Inc. 1998).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 23


Section Two - The Project

Balanced Matrix 55.9%

Figure 5
Relation of Organizational Structure to Project Success (Baker 2000,ig)

Another way of looking at what impacts project success is to


analyze an organization's structure, in terms of the role of project
management. A landmark study by Gobeli and Larson in this issue
examined more than 1,400 projects and correlated each organi-
zation's project structure with the degree to which the project met
its objectives in the areas of cost, schedule, and technical perfor-
mance. The conclusions showed that adopting either a project-
dominated matrix or full project structure (see Section Four) more
than doubles the likelihood of project success (see Figure 5).

Project Dimensions
As the project management profession gains in recognition and
size, organizations-and civilization itself-will become more
projectized. This projectization will become more clearly under-
stood as data on spending and other dimensions of projects
become more widely known in the global marketplace. Providing
some sample dimensions of the world of projects will contribute
to elevating and clarifying the general consciousness on the
subject of projects, worldwide.
Most economic activities in the world are projectized to some
degree. The construction industry, for example, carries out a
project every time it erects a building and the motion picture
industry, every time it makes a movie. On the other hand, only
some of what the trucking or retail trade industries do involves
such a "temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique
product or service." Somewhere between these extremes lie the

24 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Two -The Project

motor vehicle manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, and fabri-


cated metal products industries, among others. Assessing how
much is expended on projects, therefore, helps in determining
how much of the output of each of these and other industries is
project-driven.

Y2K
The event known as "Y2K" captured the attention and imagi-
nation of business, governments, and society for several years and
especially toward the end, as the world prepared for the arrival
of 2000.
The Gartner Group estimates $300 billion (US) will have been
spent worldwide on projects surrounding the Y2K issue. Some put
the figure as high as $600 billion (US). The United States Office
of Management and Budget estimates that the U.S. government
spent $8.34 billion (US) on Y2K efforts. Businesses in the U.S. are
estimated to have spent up to $50 billion (US) (Young 2000,38).
Y2K, while dismissed by some as a non-event, has been
described as a classic example of good project management
averting a potential disaster. "It was the ultimate cross-functional,
do-more-with-less, immovable deadline project" (Young 2000,
3741). In the face of a fixed deadline, late starts, limited
budgets, and creeping project scope, the following benefits were
realized by a large percentage of organizations who participated
in this effort:
ilr Virtually no lawsuits
fa Few lost clients
ra Little disruption of service
BI No degradation of company good will
a; Quick return to business at hand
+ Better change and configuration management processes
II Better help desk procedures
m Better communications, internal and external
m Better testing platforms
B Better documentation of applications and systems
II Improved client relations
B Better project management discipline.

(Young 2000,37-41)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 25


Section Two -The Project

Project Dimensions Across the PMBOKBKnowledge Areas


Other data of interest on the dimensions of major projects include
the following:
m In the Netherlands, the Delesto 2 cogeneration electrical
power plant--one of the largest of its kind in Europe-
operated at 97.2 percent availability during the first year of
its operation, with only one forced outage (Smith 2000, 6).
The Sydney Organizing Committee, in Sydney, Australia,
successfully met the human resources challenges of putting
on the 2000 Olympic Games, which involved hiring,
retaining, training, and managing 2,400 employees and
50,000 volunteers for temporary assignments ranging up to
six years (Sunoo 2000, 70-76).
The small Canadian municipality of Parry Sound, Ontario,
Canada, planned and initiated forty-four new economic devel-
opment and growth projects in a one-year span, ranging in
scope from one person to the construction of an $8.37 million
(US) performing arts center. They were able to coordinate
these successfully through the application of project portfolio
management methods (Mens and Nelson 2000,3536).
The PMI 2000 International Project of the Year-The Trojan
Reactor Vessel and Internals Removal Project-succeeded in
removing, transporting, and disposing of a full-sized com-
mercial nuclear reactor, in a three and a half-year project
involving dozens of Portland General Electric (Oregon USA)
employees and more than ten subcontractor firms. The
project cost $21.9 million (US), $4.2 million (US) under
budget (Holtzman 2001,28-29).
The Big Dig in Boston, Massachusetts USA--considered by
many to be the world's biggest project4esigned to replace
the elevated Central Artery with an 8-10-lane underground
expressway, was projected in 1982 to cost $2.2 billion (US). As
of January 2001, the project is targeted for completion in 2004
and is expected to cost $14.1 billion (US) (Levinson 2000).
The entire 2001 Mars Odyssey project ended up costing
$305 million (US), up from the original budget of $282
million (US), excluding the launch (Associated Press Inter-
national 2001).

26 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Two -The Project

m The Walt Disney Company created three new major expan-


sions to the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California USA,
including a 750-room hotel, a 55-acre theme park, and
300,000 square foot entertainment, dining, and shopping
complex. Total project costs are estimated at $1.4 billion
(US) (Stephan 2001, 12-15).
As the data included here demonstrates, the dimensions of
major projects can touch upon every aspect of the global
economy. Further analysis of existing data and collection of new
data on project expenditures, timelines, resources, etc., will con-
tribute additional insights that will enhance the practice of
project management in the new millennium.

Project Challenges
All projects are not created equal, and the challenges of managing
projects can be as varied as the undertakings themselves. The
leading challenge of a project may derive from its complexity of
scope; its involvement of multiple companies, governments, and
cultures; its physical demands; and human planning errors,
among other factors. Furthermore, in the era of cyber-business,
new types of challenges have emerged, such as creating the best
way to manage the implementation of an e-commerce strategy,
or mastering virtual project management-at long distance, with
heavy dependence on technology tools. Following are a few inter-
esting examples of special challenges in project management.
Economic development in an area of extreme poverty
poses a range of challenges to the governments of Chad and
Cameroon, which are collaboratingon the $3.7 billion (US) Chad-
Cameroon Petroleum Project. To assist with implementation of the
project-the primary purpose of which is to reduce poverty in
Chad-the World Bank has appointed an International Advisory
Group to oversee the operations and to identify potential problems
in a number of categories. These include: the use of public rev-
enues; the adequacy of civil society participation; and progress in
building institutional capacity, governance, environmental man-
agement, and social impact (Africa News Service 2001).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 27


Section Two -The Project

Repeated project failures can make it extremely difficult


for an organization to continue getting the funding and support
needed to accomplish its goals. The National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA) announced in March 2001 that the
problem-plagued X-33 spaceplane project, a venture that aimed
to create a single-stage-to-orbit spaceliner, had been scrapped. In
addition, the American space agency announced that another
reusable rocket, the X-34, was being axed. In total, these NASA
resolutions add up to over $1 billion (US) worth of canceled
projects (David 2001).
Implementation of appropriate systems to track
financial data and property management information has proven
to be a troublesome project for the U.S. Government's Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA). According to an internal audit
memorandum, the FAA's inability to implement an integrated
property management system in time to produce fiscal-year 2000
financial statements resulted in a number of serious errors,
including the following:
r An unresolved budget discrepancy of $479 million (US)
r An unexplained increase in the number of reported real
property items from 14,000 to 18,000 and an increase in
real property net book value of $158 million (US)
The incorrect categorization of a fifty-eight year-old fully
depreciated air-traffic control tower as a new structure with
a value of $18.9 million (US) (Mead 2001).
Unrealistic and over-ambitious scheduling is the main
challenge being faced by developers of the Diplomat Resort just
north of Miami, Florida USA. The $600 million (US) project has
seen slipping schedules and creeping costs. It is now more than a
year behind schedule, plagued with clashing opinions and a mul-
titude of unforeseen technical and legal issues (Engineering News-
Record 2001, 56).
Project planning complexityis the overriding challenge of
a project aimed at closing the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky
Flats Site, a manufacturing facility using a variety of radioactive
and hazardous materials. The site, on 385 acres of land, includes
more than 700 facilities and structures containing nineteen metric
tons of uranium and plutonium requiring rigorous safety proce-
dures. To meet the planning needs of this project, the site manager

28 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Two - The Project

and integration contractor integrated a money-critical path


planning technique and a production-oriented line-of-balance
planning technique with a typical state-of-the-art project planning
system (Burdge 2001).
A complex, dangerous project-in a remote area with no
infrastructure and virtually no available labor force-was the
construction of the Qatargas Liquified Natural Gas Plant (in
Qatar)-the PMI 1999 International Project of the Year. Never-
theless, the $2.3 billion (US) project, awarded to the Chiyoda
Corporation, based in Yokahama, Japan, was completed within
budget and eight months ahead of schedule. Furthermore, lost
time injury/illness hours were one-half the industry average, and
the lost time incident rate was zero, against an industry average
of 1.5 (Ishikura and Kadoyama 2000, 35).
A cross cultural project involving the Iranian government,
working with Russian contractors, has experienced delays in com-
pleting a nuclear power plant in the Gulf port of Bushehr. The
$800 million (US) project was supposed to have been completed
in 2002, but after seven years of construction, is only half-finished
and may be up to two years late (Reuters News Service 2001).
Technology a d v a n c e s create scheduling and cost chal-
lenges. The National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory, a U.S. government project intended to result
in the development of the world's most powerful laser and the
achievement of atomic fusion, is expected to cost $4 billion (US)
versus the $2 billion (US) originally estimated. It will be four to
six years behind schedule. The extra costs include $50 million
(US) for additional project management (Hotz 2000,29A).
Information systems (IS) organizations often experience
project delays and cost overruns, due to competitive pressures
and rapid technological changes, among other factors. Some
experts believe IS organizations need to build more project man-
agement capability in order to get a better handle on their
capacity and use resources more effectively in meeting strategic
and tactical goals. Challenges identified include gaining enough
project management knowledge to use the discipline in the work
of the organization and obtaining sufficient organizational
support for the effective implementation of projects (Bradley
2000, 92-95).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 29


Section Two - The Project

The British construction industry, according to some


experts, continues to be faced with what they describe as "the
adversarial relations associated with the traditional contacting
system," in spite of new developments in project management and
related technologies, which are impacting needed skills and
industry employment conditions (Miozzo and Ivory 2000,513-31).
Pharmaceutical research and development organiza-
tions, where the most fundamental project is the development of
new drugs and their introduction to the market, are facing shrinking
operating margins and heightened competitive pressures. In order
to reduce product development time from its current six- to seven-
year cycle to something approaching three years or less, experts
believe companies will have to take a radical approach to managing
people, organizations, and process. A centerpiece of this shift in
approach will need to be a strong centralized project management
capability "with world-class competency, managing schedules that
measure slippage in hours" (Gugliotti 2001, 14-17).
These challenges and the increasingly complex dimensions of
projects in every industry and around the globe demonstrate the
value and potential benefits of the expert utilization of project
management knowledge and practices in support of an organi-
zation's strategic and business objectives.

30 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three

Individuals Working in Project


Management

The project management profession has witnessed explosive


growth over the past five years, as evidenced by the unprece-
dented growth of membership in the Project Management
Institute (PMIm) to more than 70,000 members. In addition, more
than 27,000 individuals are now certified as Project Management
Professionals (PMPm). These statistics demonstrate the continu-
ously evolving project management profession and the leading
role of PMI in the global marketplace. PMI's understanding of the
marketplace and the expectations of its membership are con-
stantly growing through the gathering of data and extensive
research studies that have contributed to a detailed profile of the
men and women working in project management.

Project Management Practitioner Profile


Based on PMI member demographics, the profile of those indi-
viduals working in the project management profession is as follows:
is Seventy-five percent are male; 25 percent are female.
I Eighty-nine percent have college degrees.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 31


Section Three -Individuals Working in Project Management

++

25% 75% ll%Without 89% With


Female Male College Degrees College Degrees

64% 36%
Without PMP@ With PMP@
Certi cation

Figure 6
Project Management Practitioner Profiles

im Eighteen percent are between twenty-five and thirty-four


years of age; 74 percent are between thirty-five and fifty-
four; 8 percent are fifty-five or above.
RS Thirty-six percent have earned their PMP" certification cre-
dential.
Individuals are found working in project management in all
industries. According to PMI data, they are most likely to be found
in the following industries:
I Information Technology
E Consulting
rsr Computers/Software/Data Processing
B Telecommunications
s Engineering
~rE-business
IB CommerciaVHeavy Industrial Construction
KI Web Technology.
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 180,228-29)

32 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

Professional Ethics
Both PMI members and PMPs subscribe to and conduct business
according to codes of conduct (www.pmi.org). (See Appendix B
and Appendix E)

Number of Projects
Recent figures show that the majority (52 percent) of project
management practitioners are engaged in or managing three or
fewer projects at any given time. The remaining 48 percent are
engaged in or managing four or more projects simultaneously
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 17, 91).

Job Title
The primary job title in the profession has been identified as project
manager (40 percent), followed by program manager (12
percent). Other ways to identify roles through job titles include
director of project/program management, project management
consultant/advisor, project team leader, project engineer, and
project coordinator. Some of those working in the profession use
titles other than the ones mentioned here (PMIProject Management
Salary Survey 2000, 176).

Job Function/Role
More than three out of five of those working in project man-
agement describe their function or role within the organization
as project or program management. Other frequently mentioned
roles include the following:
s Consulting, 16 percent
m Information/Computers, 16 percent
s Time Management/Scheduling/Planning, 15 percent.
(PMIProject Management Salary Survey 2000, 182)

I
The PMI Project Management Fact Book 33
Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

Career Path
In the early days of project management, there was no real career
path specifically for those practicing this discipline; their careers
were defined by what was regarded as their chosen professions-
engineering, chemistry, product development, etc. Initially,
project management evolved largely as an assigned profession, as
people in various positions were assigned to work on projects in
addition to their other duties.
The rapidly increasing options in continuing education and
graduate degree programs are evidence that project management
has moved from being an assigned profession to being a pro-
fession of choice. While there is a need for extensive research on
career paths in the profession, there already exists a logical pro-
gression of skills and responsibilities, advancing naturally from
low-cost, low-risk projects into higher-cost, higher-risk projects,
and then into management of a portfolio of projects or a
program. A next step would be a director or vice-president level
with broad oversight of an array of project managers and their
projects. As organizations become mature and projectized, the
position of Chief Project Officer (CPO) may evolve. In this role,
a CPO would be charged with ensuring that the planning and
implementation of projects were inseparable from the
advancement and fulfillment of corporate strategy. Ultimately,
successful executive performance in this position could lead to
opportunities at the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) level (PMI
Research Department 2001).
Sixty-eight percent of the project management personnel
report that there is either a written or an informal career path for
those engaged in project management in their organizations.
Eighty-five percent say the project management career path is
connected to roles in upper management, though only 24 percent
say this is clearly defined and in writing. Seventy-two percent say
their organization has defined-either in writing or informally-
the skill sets for those working in project management (PMI
Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 225).

34 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

'professional Development

Professional Development Needs


Recent PMI research has identified the following prominent pro-
fessional development needs in project management:
tr The two greatest training needs among both project managers
and project team members are understanding of project man-
agement tools, skills, and methods and scheduling/planning.
m The greatest deficiency among stakeholders, other than
project managers and project team members, is in under-
standing project management theory and the role of the
project manager.
(PMI 2000 Needs Assessment 2000,25-26)

Key General Management Skills for Practitioners


General management skills provide the foundation for building
project management expertise and are often essential to the
professional development of the project manager. Skill in any
number of general-management areas may be required on any
given project.
As set forth in the A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowkdge (PMBOP Guide) - 2000 Edition, topics in broad subject
areas dealing with general management include:

Finance and accounting, sales and marketing, research


and development, and manufacturing and distribution.
I Strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational
I
planning.
I Organizational structures, organizational behavior,
I
personnel administration, compensation, benefits, and
career paths.
Managing work relationships through motivation, dele-
gation, supervision, team building, conflict man-
agement, and other techniques.
Managing oneself through personal time management,
stress management, and other techniques.
(FMBOP Guide 2000,21)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 35


Section Three- Individuals Working in Project Management

Also, as outlined in the P M B O P Guide - 2000 Edition, the fol-


lowing general management skills are highly likely to affect most
projects:

Leading involves:
rs Establishing direction-developing both a vision of the
future and strategies for producing the changes needed
to achieve that vision.
r Aligning people-communicating the vision by words
and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be
needed to achieve the vision.
~rMotivating and inspiring-helping people energize
themselves to overcome political, bureaucratic, and
resource barriers to change. ...
Communicating involves the exchange of information.
The sender is responsible for making the information clear,
unambiguous, and complete so that the receiver can receive
it correctly The receiver is responsible for making sure that
the information is received in its entirety and understood
correctly ... Project Communications Management is the
application of these broad concepts to the specific needs of
a project-for example, deciding how, when, in what form,
and to whom to report project performance.
Negotiating involves conferring with others to come to
terms with them or reach an agreement. Agreements may
be negotiated directly or with assistance; mediation and
arbitration are two types of assisted negotiation. Negotia-
tions occur around many issues, at many times, and at
many levels of the project. ...
Problem solving involves a combination of problem def-
inition and decision-making.
Problem definition requires distinguishing between
causes and symptoms. Problems may be internal (a key
employee is reassigned to another project) or external (a
permit required to begin work is delayed). Problems may
be technical (differences of opinion about the best way to
design a product), managerial (a functional group is not
producing according to plan), or interpersonal (person-
ality or style clashes).
Decision-making includes analyzing the problem to
identify viable solutions, and then making a choice from
among them. Decisions can be made or obtained (from

36 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

the customer, from the team, or from a functional


manager). Once made, decisions must be implemented.
Decisions also have a time element to them-the "right"
decision may not be the "best" decision if it is made too
early or too late.
Influencing the organization involves the ability to "get
things done." It requires an understanding of both the
formal and informal structures of all the organizations
involved-the performing organization, customer,
partners, contractors, and numerous others, as appro-
priate. Influencing the organization also requires an
understanding of the mechanics of power and politics.
(PMBOP Guide 2000, 24-25)

Employment Status
Project management personnel indicate overwhelmingly that
they work full time, with 92 percent working for an employer,
and 7 percent being self-employed (1 percent, no answer). It may
be assumed that a large number of those who are self-employed
work in a consulting or advisory capacity on projects being
managed for client organizations (PIW Project Management Salary
Survey 2000,173).

Scope of Responsibility
According to the PMI Project Management Salary Survey - 2000
Edition, on a worldwide basis, nearly half of project management
personnel describe their scope of responsibilities as follows:

Responsible for directing large projects or a multitude


of smaller projects. Manage all aspects of project, from
beginning to end, with direct accountabilityfor project exe-
cution while leading a team, or teams, to accomplish specific
objectives in a given time frame and with limited resources.

All others in project management report a wide range of types


of responsibility.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 37


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

Below are detailed descriptions of the various levels within


project management and the percentages of individuals identi-
fying themselves with each, as presented in the PMI Project Man-
agement Salary Survey - 2000 Edition:

Level 1: Accountable for the strategy and performance of


the overall organization or division (10 percent).
Level 2: Direct responsibility of total program execution.
The program typically requires accountability for
a related series of projects, executed over a
broad period of time, which is designed to
accomplish broad goals of the program to which
these individual projects contribute (13 percent).
Level 3: Responsible for directing large projects or a
multitude of smaller projects. Manage all
aspects of the project, from beginning to end,
with direct accountability for project execution
while leading a team or teams, to accomplish
specific objectives in a given time frame and
with limited resources (45 percent).
Level 4: Work within or outside of a project or program
office providing support, training, and consultation
to project managers and the organization. Provide
support to the project or program office and facil-
itate process implementation (12 percent).
Level 5: Combine technical expertise essential to project
execution, with management of project task(s)
implementation while leading task specialists
(8 percent).
Level 6: mically report to Project Manager and run
certain segments or critical work packages of
the project. Exceptional technical capabilities
and leadership role for three-to four-person
teams (2 percent).
Level 7: Responsible for coordinating technical activities
associated with the assigned project. Usually a
technical specialist residing within the organi-
zation who is not normally held accountable for
the project (1 percent).

38 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


1 Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

Level 8: Administer or supervise support services for


project. Develop, implement, and maintain
project management information system that
provides adequate information with which to
manage the project (2 percent).
Level 9: Track, coordinate, and publish detailed planning
and scheduling for the project (2 percent).
Level 10: Team member from a functional department or
project office with recognized specialty or
"expert" status within the respective organi-
zation. Function as an individual contributor or
serve as an interface with other specialists in
respective departments (3 percent).
Level 11: None of the above applies.
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 11, 184-85)

'project Management Experience and Work History


The typical individual working in project management has been
in the profession for eight years. Three out of ten have worked in
project management for five or fewer years, while 21 percent had
worked in this field for at least fifteen years (see Figure 7).
The typical worker had been with his current employer for five
and one-half years, and had changed employers at least once in
the past five years. Three out of ten (31 percent) had relocated
with the same employer in the past five years (PMI Project Man-
agement Salary Survey 2000,212,218).

+-Typical Work Week


'

Three out of four individuals working in project management (75


percent) worked more than forty hours per week. Fifty-six percent
worked forty-one to fifty hours per week. Individuals in the United
States, the Middle East, and Europe were more likely to work
more than forty hours per week than those from other geographic
areas (PMIProjectManagement Salary Survey 2000,175).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 39


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

w;

Geographic Estimated Median Number of Years


Area Worked in Project Management
Asia 8 years
AustraliaINew Zealand 10 years
Canada 7 years
Europe 10 years
Latin America 11years
Middle East 13 years
United States 8 years
Total Global Sample 8 years

Figure 7
Years of Project Management Experience, by Geographic Area
(PMIProject Management Salary Survey 2000, 228)

G
Level of Education
Forty-six percent of those working in project management have
undergraduate college degrees, while 43 percent have either
master's or doctoral degrees (PMI Project Management Salary
Suwey 2000,228).

4
Professional Credentials
-
The PMI Project Management Professional Certification Program
continues to gain in momentum and strength as global recog-
nition of the credential dramatically increases each year. The PMP
credential is the world's most recognized credential of choice for
the project management profession. The PMI Certification
Program continues to play a role in promoting a discipline that is
consistently evolving and growing. According to PMI's 2000 in
Review, there are 27,053 individuals who have acquired the PMP
credential (2000 in Review 2001, 5).

40 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

1 Compensation and Benefits


Individuals working in project management had an annual
median total compensation of $75,000 (US) and an annual
average total compensation of $82,389 (US). Total compensation
is defined as annual salary, annual bonus/overtime, annual
deferred compensation, and other annual compensation. The
highest average total compensation by geographic area was in
Asia, with $111,883 (US), followed by the United States at
$87,809 (US) and Latin America at $79,157 (US). Average
earnings for those fifty-five to sixty-four years of age were the
highest, at $102,975 (US), compared to $62,493 (US) for the 25
to 34 age group, $79,471 (US) for the 35 to 44 age group, and
$92,152 (US) for the 45 to 54 age group. Other global statistics
on compensation and benefits for individuals working in project
management include:
I Eighty-four percent of project management personnel have a
retirement plan, and 76 percent receive contributions into a
retirement plan from their employer.
~rr Ninety-two percent receive healthcare insurance; 76 percent
receive life insurance; and 79 percent receive long-term dis-
1I ability insurance.
m Project management personnel receive an average of
nineteen vacation days annually
ar Forty-seven percent receive performance incentives.
r Three out of ten receive stock options.
Smaller percentages receive other types of benefits:
rr Relocatiordtravel bonus, 20 percent
ria Club memberships, 18 percent
rr Free participation in stock purchases, 17 percent
a Vehicle, 15 percent
R Tickets to events, 14 percent.

(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 18, 28, 43, 132)

The average total compensation for each of the levels of respon-


sibility for project management personnel in an organizational
environment is described in Figure 8 (see Scope of Responsibility,
earlier in this Section).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 41


Section Three -Individuals Working in Project Management

Figure 8
Global Average Total Compensation, by Scope (US dollars)
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 59, 64, 74)

The average total compensation by position or title is illus-


trated in Figure 9.
Industries with the highest mean total compensation for those
working in project management areas are as follows (US dollars):
ElectricaVElectronic $111,802
International Development $104,967
Web Technology $103,733
Chemical $101,290
Utilities $101,192.
Industries with the lowest mean total compensation are as
follows (US dollars):
Automation Services $66,373
m Academia $67,318
rr Health/Human/Social Services $68,512
Other Business Activities $69,646
Public Administration/Government $70,360.
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 59,64,74)

42 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Three - Individuals Working in Project Management

Figure 9
Global Average Total Compensation, by Position (US dollars)
(PMI Pmject Management Salary Survey 2000, 59, 64, 74)
Section Four

The Environment of Project


Management

The environment in which project management is practiced has


been rapidly evolving, just as the nature of business and tech-
nology is evolving. The globalization of business has resulted in
greater interest worldwide in the concepts of project man-
agement. More and more organizations are adopting project
management as a critical element in the fulfillment of their long-
term strategy, and many organizations, having practiced project
management over time, have altered their structure to facilitate
more effective cross-functional, project-oriented, approaches to
getting business done. Not surprisingly, the growing acceptance
of project management has been evidenced in increased organi-
zational support for certification of Project Management Profes-
sionals (PMP?, the availability of academic degrees and
programs in project management, and a surge of interest in the
Project Management Institute (PMF) and its publications.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 45


Section Four -The Environment of Project Management

Globalization of Project Management


Nowhere is the globalization of project management more evident
than in the growth of PMI's own membership across all geogra-
phies. In fact, the 1999-2000 membership growth rate was slightly
higher among members outside of the United States and Canada
(see Figure 10).
Dramatic examples of the globalization of project management
appear frequently in the news and in industry publications. The
April 2001 issue of PM NetworkB featured an article on a project
at IBM involving a team of experts in multiple locations in the
United States, Australia, and Scotland. The experts were able to
capture their collective experience and create a knowledge man-
agement tool to meet customer needs through devising a twenty-
four-hour project clock that leveraged the difference in time zones,
allowing a virtually non-stop electronic dialogue and review and
revision process (Singer 2001, 36). Another example, profiled in
the same issue, involved the United Nations and more than a
dozen other international organizations working together on
Internet Project Kosovo, to "address the urgent communication
needs of the international humanitarian community in Kosovo and
to provide free Internet access to local educational, media, health,
and community organizations" (Fleischer 2001, 32).

Adoption of Project Management by Organizations


One in four individuals working in project management believes
that his organization has "completely" accepted project man-
agement as the way of doing business, and a strong majority (75
percent) expects project management to become more important
to its organizations in the next five years (PMI 2000 Needs
Assessment 2000, iv).
One way to measure the extent to which the project man-
agement approach to business has penetrated an organization is
by looking at the number of individuals within an organization
who are members of PMI. The resulting benchmark of high-level
adoption of project management is PMI's list of organizations
with more than 100 PMI members.

46 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four -The Environment of Project Management

1999 2000 Percent Member Growth


Non-U.S./Canada 7,755 9,899 27.65%
United States 41,142 52,467 27.53%
Canada 6,101 7.669 25.70%

Figure 10
PMI Membership Growth, by Geographic Area (PMI Fact Sheet 1999.2000)

Companies and Organizations with over 100 PMI Members


(as of 31 December 2000)
s ALLTEL Corporation
r American Express Company
E Arneritech Corporation
r Andersen Consulting LLP
r AT&T Corporation
s Bank One Corporation
m Bechtel Group, Incorporated
s BCI Telecom Holding, Incorporated
r BellSouth Corporation
s Blue Cross Blue Shield Association
Boeing Company
s Cambridge Technology Partners Massachusetts, Incorporated
r Cap Gemini Ernst & Young U.S. LLC
s Cargill, Incorporated
m CBS Corporation
~rCGI Group, Incorporated
r Cisco Systems, Incorporated
E Compaq Computer Corporation
s Complete Business Solutions, Incorporated
~rComputer Sciences Corporation
Compuware Corporation
E CSC Consulting, Incorporated
s CTG Resources, Incorporated
m Decision Consultants, Incorporated
E Deloitte & Touche LLP
m DMR Group, Incorporated
s EDS

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 47


Section Four - The Environment of Project Management

m Ericsson Business Networks AB


w FedEx Corporation
~rFluor Enterprises, Incorporated
United States General Services Administration
r Hewlett Packard Company
hi Honeywell International, Incorporated
I E ~ IBM
m Johnson Controls Incorporated
r Keane, Incorporated
KPMG Consulting, Incorporated
rrr Lockheed Martin Corporation
a Lucent Technologies, Incorporated
rr marchFIRST, Incorporated
nr Motorola, Incorporated
II NCR Corporation
m NEC Corporation
II Nortel Networks Corporation
~ l lPfizer, Incorporated
s PricewaterhouseCoopers
r Qwest Communications International, Incorporated
r Raytheon Company
a Robbins-Gioia LLC
Sabre Holdings Corporation
II Science Applications International, Incorporated
rm Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
w Sprint Corporation
m State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company
I Syntel, Incorporated
m Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated
w Telus Corporation
m Unisys Corporation
II United States Department of the Army
IR USAA Capital Corporation
w Verizon Communications, Incorporated
m Worldcom, Incorporated
r Xerox Corporation.
(PMIFact Sheet 2000; PMI Membership Services Department 2001)

48 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four T h e Environment of Project Management

Organizational Structure and Maturity


Another indication of the degree to which an organization is com-
mitted to the practice of project management is the effect this
commitment has on its structure. The structure of an organization
can have a direct influence on the successful delivery of project
results (see "Project Performance Measures" in Section Two). The
availability and control of resources can be an asset or an imped-
iment to the management of a project. There is a continuum of
organizational structure from the highly hierarchical classicfinc-
tional organization to the fully project-based or projectized orga-
nization. While projects can be conducted successfully within any
type of organizational structure, the broadest array of projects
can be conducted most successfully within an organizational
structure that has adopted management by projects. On the other
hand, a strict functional organization generally can conduct
projects successfully only within the confines of a specific
function. Unless additional temporary or permanent modifica-
tions to the structure are implemented, conflicts tend to arise
between functional units. These structural modifications can
involve any point along the organization structure continuum,
and the result is referred to as a matrix organization. The balance
of functionalism and projectization will be different within each
matrix organization (A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOP Guide) .2000, 18-20).
In addition to organizational structure, the degree to which
project management practice has permeated an organization
increases the potential for project success. As is becoming more
apparent through application and the literature, projects provide
a very effective approach for the attainment of corporate strategy.
Consequently project management has a broader impact than that
confined within the scope of each individual project. Both the way
in which projects are aligned to corporate strategy and the orga-
nizational infrastructure for conducting projects impact the suc-
cessful delivery of results. Enhancing the project management
maturity of an organization involves the development and
improvement of an array of capabilities (Schlichter 2000,1,5).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four - The Environment of Project Management

Project Management Responsibility in Organizations


Seventy percent of project management practitioners fall into one
of three levels of project management responsibility within an
organizational structure.
Forty-five percent are responsible for directing large projects
or many smaller projects. They manage-and have direct respon-
sibility for-all aspects of the project, from beginning to end,
while leading a team or teams to accomplish specific objectives.
These objectives are accomplished in a specified time frame,
using limited resources.
Twenty-five percent have responsibilities defined as one of the
following:
n "Direct responsibility of total program execution. The
program typically requires accountabilityfor a related series
of projects, executed over a broad period of time, which is
designed to accomplish broad goals of the program to which
these individual projects contribute."
'Work within or outside of a project or program office pro-
viding support, training, and consultation to project man-
agers and the organization. Provide support to the project or
program office and facilitate process implementation."
(PMI Project Management Salary Survey 2000, 11, 185)

A complete listing of project management levels and their


respective responsibilities can be found in Section Three, under
Scope of Responsibility.

Ratio of Project Management Personnel to Total


Employees
The estimated number of project management personnel
employed per organization (by geographic area), the estimated
total number of employees in the organization, and the resulting
ratios, are shown in Figure 11.

50 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four - The Environment of Project Management

Geographic Area

Support for Professional Affiliations


Sixty-eight percent of PMI members report that their employers
pay their PMI membership dues. Thirty-nine percent of project
management personnel say they belong to professional associa-
tions in addition to PMI. Cross membership is most likely in the
following organizations:
m AACE International, 1nc.-Association for the Advancement
of Cost Engineering
m APICS-The Educational Society for Resource Management
m ASCE-American Society of Civil Engineers
m ASME International-The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers
ASQ-American Society for Quality
s IEEE-Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
(PMI 2000 Needs Assessment 2000, ii, 11)

m e PMI Project Management Fact Book 51


--

Section Four -The Environment of Project Management

Representative Countries with Significant PMP Growth


(PMI Certification Department 2001)

Support for Certification


Most individuals working in project management receive organi-
zational support to pursue PMP certification. Sixty-five percent of
employers pay for meetings and training; 68 percent of employers
cover the examination application fee; 57 percent of employers rec-
ommend striving for PMP certification. Approximately 60 percent
of employers support maintaining PMP certification and pay for
any meetings and training required (PMI Project Management
Salary Survey 2000, 172).

Global Acceptance of PMP Certification


The acceptance of the PMP certification designation on a
worldwide basis is documented in the data showing the growth
of the numbers of PMPs in countries around the globe. Figure 12
shows countries with significant growth. In addition to those
shown, there are PMPs in about thirty other countries where none
existed in 1997.

52 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four - The Environment of Project Management

Project Management Academic Degrees and Programs


As the project management profession has evolved, there has
been an increase in the number and array of academic institu-
tions offering degrees in project management. There are at least
eight universities offering a doctoral program in project manage-
ment, and there are almost fifty (including the eight in Figure 12)
offering a master's program, and at least five offering under-
graduate degrees. Furthermore, a growing number of academic
institutions offer graduate degrees in a range of fields with spe-
cialties, majors, and/or theses in project management. In
response to the demand for all forms of professional development
in project management, a large number of academic institutions,
training companies, businesses, and government agencies offer
curriculum-based, multi-course certificates in project manage-
ment (PMI Research Department 2001).
Some institutions offering academic degrees and programs in
project management can be found in Appendix G.

Project Management Literature


The literature for and about the knowledge, practices, and appli-
cation of the project management profession continues to
expand. Over 500 books have been written about project man-
agement. In addition, several thousand books have been written
about fields and disciplines closely aligned with project man-
agement. PMI, the largest publisher of project management
books, offers over 1,000 books through its online bookstore (The
Library of Congress Online Database 2001; www.pmi.org). -
In support of the numerous books published about project
management and aligned fields, an extensive amount of project
management research has been conducted and reported in the
last forty years. In research repor?ed in the English language
alone, there are over 3,500 records of published research articles
relating to project management (Kloppenborg 2000, 52).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 53


Section Four -The Environment of Project Management

Worldwide Cooperating Organizations


As of the end of December 2000, PMI had cooperative relation-
ships with the following organizations:
E AACE International
r Associacion Espanola del Ingenieria de Proyectos (AEIPRO)
r Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM)
r Construction and Economy Research Institute of Korea
(CERIK)
m Defense Systems Management College Alumni Association
(D SMCAA)
r Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA)
s Institute of Project Management (IPM - Ireland)
ra International Project Management Association (IPMA)
Korean Institute of Project Management and Technology
(PROMAT)
r National Contract Management Association (NCMA)
r The NORDNET National Associations (Denmark, Finland,
Iceland, Norway and Sweden)
Project Management Associates (PMA-India)
ra Project Management Institute South Africa
Projekt Management Austria
Russian Project Management Association (SOVNET)
r Ukrainian Project Management Association
rt Project Management Association of Slovakia (SPRR)
m Slovenia Project Management Association (ZPM)
E Software Program Managers Network
r US Army Corps of Engineers
r US Department of Energy.
(2000 in Review 2001, 14)

Research on the Project Management Environment


Much of the discussion about the environment for project man-
agement focuses on the challenge of gaining its acceptance as a
priority at the top-management levels of an organization-making
a compelling, strategic business case for project management
practices.

54 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Four - The Environment of Project Management

This is a prime area for potential research. One research team


has indicated that "although senior executives were interested in
services that were aligned to their strategic business and personal
goals, they did not consider project management capable of ful-
filling these goals." Furthermore, the team stated: "Project man-
agement is not typically considered a concern of senior executives
... until some crisis awakens their interest." The team concluded
from this initial research that there were two key things that
those interested in selling project management to executives
could do:
~rHone their marketing and communication skills, including
listening and effectively framing the problem in terms that
speak clearly to executives' key issues
Provide anecdotal information as "proof" of the value of
project management as an effective and efficient strategy in
achievement of business objectives (Thomas et al. 2001, 59,
61-62).
Fxtensive interest has evolved in regard to the concept of the
project management office. Currently according to the PMBOP
Guide - 2000 Edition, "there is a range of uses for what constitutes
a project office. A project office may operate on a continuum from
providing support functions to project managers in the form of
training, software, templates, etc., to actually being responsible
for the results of the project" (2000, 21). Whatever the project
office's scope, the central challenge remains to "demonstrate that
the project office is helping to improve the company's bottom
line" (Young 2001, 32).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 55


Section Five

The Project Management Institute

The extraordinary growth of project management and the


number of practitioners around the world is due in great part to
the world's largest not-for-profit association serving the project
management profession-the Project Management Institute
(PMF). Since its founding in 1969, PMI has become the organi-
zation of choice for individuals around the globe who work or are
interested in project management. PMI represents members
worldwide actively advancing the project management pro-
fession. Membership in PMI and earning the Project Management
Professional (PMPm)certification credential helps individuals
demonstrate their value to any organization competing in today's
fast-paced global marketplace.
The Institute establishes project management standards,
advances the body of project management knowledge, and offers
world-renown, best-of-class seminars and educational programs.
In addition, the PMP certification is the world's most recognized
and globally accepted credential in the project management pro-
fession and one that more and more organizations desire for their
project leaders and their teams. PMI is indeed the premier orga-
nization serving those working in project management in all
industries including engineering, aerospace, utility financial ser-
vices, telecommunications, construction, pharmaceutical, auto-
motive, and information technology.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 57


Section Five-The Project Management Institute

Governance
The leadership of PMI is the responsibility of its member-elected
Board of Directors, whose members volunteer their time and
expertise to help advance the profession and make PMI the global
leader in the profession. The Ends Policies established by the
Board reinforce the vision of the organization and establishes the
association's strategic direction.
The 2000 in Review details some of the Board's critical activity:

During 2000 the PMI Board of Directors continued


implementing Policy Governance", and devoted consid-
erable time to refining the Ends Policies of the Institute.
These policies dictate what benefits are to be created for
which groups of people or needs and at what cost/value.
The resulting Ends Policies serve to guide and direct the
activities of the global organization. An abbreviated
extract of the Ends Policies developed in 2000 for imple-
mentation in 2001 and beyond, are as follows:
Overarching Ends Statement (Why PMI Exists)
Professionalism in project management for the global
community through practices that address appropriate
local, national and global requirements.
Supporting Ends Statements (Results to be Achieved)
m Project management is a profession.
s Project management contributes to social good and
achievement.
a Professionals in project management are knowl-
edgeable and skilled.
m Project management benefits from a supportive com-
munity.
ra PMI's strategic objectives are assertively pursued
globally for the profession and PMI members.
PMI programs, products and services are available for
appropriate members of the project management com-
munity at a reasonable cost.
a Project management is globally recognized and valued.
(2000 in Review 2001, 6)

The complete text of PMI's Ends Policies can be found in


Appendix A.

58 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


--

Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Board of Directors
According to PMI's Bylaws, "The Institute shall be governed by an
elected PMI Board of Directors (PMI Board). It is the duty of the
PMI Board to carry out the purposes and objectives of the non-
profit corporation." And, further on in the Bylaws: 'Rccountable
to the PMI membership, the PMI Board shall be solely responsible
and accountable for strategic planning and the establishment of
policy with respect to activities of the Institute" (www.pmi.org).

Strategic Advisory Groups


The Board appoints a range of Strategic Advisory Groups to take
advantage of the specific expertise of PMI's members. These
groups of volunteers in 2000 included:
ra Certification Board Center (CBC)
a r ~ Ethics Conduct Center
M Global Council
cia Global Project Action Team (GPN)

EB Governance Performance Committee


m Joint Advisory Council (JAC)
Nominating Committee
ar Technical Activities Center (TAC).
(2000 in Review 2001, 7)

Implementation of Ends Policies


The PMI Headquarters Executive Director and management staff
are charged with the responsibility to define programs, products,
and services that will help implement the Board's Ends Policies.
An enhanced planning process is used to reflect the origins of all
Institute activities, starting with the Board's Ends Statements.
The flow chart in Figure 13 illustrates the process used to develop
the annual program plan and budget. According to PMI's 2000 in
Review:

This process has provided management with a five-year


operational vision, aligned with the Board's Ends Policies,
which will be continually refined and used to direct the

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 59


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

planned development of new programs, products and ser-


vices as well as enhancements to existing programs over
the next two years (2000 in Review 2001, 7).

History
The Project Management Institute (PMF) was founded in 1969
by a group of five volunteers. The Commonwealth of Pennsyl-
vania USA issued Articles of Incorporation for PMI that signified
the official inception of the organization. During that same year,
the first PMI Seminars & Symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia
USA, and eighty-three people attended.
The 1970s brought the first issue of Project Management Quar-
terly (PMQ); the Annual Symposium was first held outside of the
USA; the first PMI Chapter was chartered; and the PMI Awards
Program was established. By the end of the decade PMI mem-
bership totaled over 2,000 individuals worldwide.
During the 1980s, PMI's membership, programs, and services
continued to grow. Perhaps most significantly, the first PMI
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOKQ)was pub-
lished; a Code of Ethics was adopted for the profession; and the
first PMP Certification Examination was administered. The PMI
journal was renamed Project Management JournalB. PMI's pub-
lishing products and services grew rapidly during this decade.

60 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

The first PMI book was co-published, and PM Network@,PMI's


monthly magazine, was born. Due to this growth, the PMI Pub-
lishing Division was established in North Carolina USA.
By 1990, PMI's membership totaled over 8,500, and by 1993
the annual membership growth rate had risen to over 20 percent
per year. During the 1990s, Specific Interest Groups (SIGs) were
formed, and Seminars USA (later renamed SeminarsWorldm)ini-
tiated a series of educational programs on project management.
PMI also established a presence on the World Wide Web and pub-
lished A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOP Guide). PMI Today, PMI's monthly newsletter, was
printed for the first time, and the Professional Development
Program (PDP) was established as the means for PMPs to keep
their PMP credentials current.
By the beginning of 2000, PMI was serving over 50,000
members, had cer ed over 10,000 PMPs, and had over 270,000
copies of the PMBOP Guide in circulation.
As of the beginning of 2001, PMI had more than 70,000
members on its roster in nearly 120 countries worldwide. PMI
members include those who are practicing, teaching, consulting,
studying, or otherwise involved in project management, and they
come from a wide range of industry areas including aerospace,
automotive, business management, construction, engineering,
financial services, information technology, pharmaceuticals, and
telecommunications.
Over time, PMI has become, and continues to be, the world's
leading professional association in project management. Members
and other project management stakeholders can take advantage
of the extensive products and services offered through PMI. These
products and services are described and explained in detail
throughout the PMI web site, www.pmi.org.

Membership

Members
Throughout its history, PMI has experienced tremendous worldwide
membership growth. tifiNet membership growth has exceeded over 30
percent annually since 1995. What began as an organization of

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 61


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

seventy-one individuals in 1969 grew to an individual membership


association with over 70,000 members worldwide in December
2000. PMI now has members in nearly 120 countries. In 1984,
there were 4,905 members with 11 percent annual growth; 1989,
7,356 members with 12 percent growth; 1994, 12,067 members
with 23.1 percent growth; 1996, 25,004 members with 46.6
percent annual growth; 1998,43,101 members with 37.6 percent
annual growth; and 2000,70,035 members with 27 percent annual
growth (2000 in Review 2001, 5).

Geography
The current majority of PMI members are from the United States
(U.S.) (52,467 members or 74.92 percent); 7,669 members or
10.95 percent are in Canada; and 9,899 or 14.13 percent are
outside of the U.S. and Canada. The segment of PMI membership
outside the U.S. and Canada is the fastest-growing segment of the
membership.

Industry
The top five industry areas represented by the membership are
computers/sofnvare/data processing; information technology;
telecommunications; business management services; and financial
services. The full listing of industries represented by PMI's mem-
bership gives a comprehensive view of the importance of project
management in virtually all forms of business endeavor (see
Figure 14).

Number of Countries
PMI members are from nearly 120 countries throughout the
world. A complete listing of countries represented by PMI
members can be found in Appendix I.

Ethical Standards
The PMI Board of Directors approved Member Ethical Standards
in March 2000. These Standards consist of the Member Code of
Ethics, Standards of Conduct, and Ethics Case Procedures. PMI
views ethical standards as an essential part of a profession. In
order to establish project management as a recognized pro-

62 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Construction Other Buslness Activities


m CommerciallHeavy Industrial m Academia
Residential m Aerospace
ArchitectureDesign
Resources R Arts/Entertainment/Broadcasting
a Agriculture Automation Systems
a Coal/Gas/Oil r Business Management
m Ferrous Mining ServicedManagement Consulting
r Forestry City Management
m Non-Ferrous Mining Computers/Software/DP
Consulting
Manufacturing a Defense
r Automotive E-business
m Chemical m Economics/Finance
~r Concrete/Clay/Glass/Stone m Education/Tmining
II Electrical/Electronic m EnvironmentalWaste/Sewage
Food Engineering
m Machinery/Metals m Financial Services
R Paper Health/Human/Social Services
II Petroleum m Information Technology
Pharmaceutical InternationalDevelopment
a Plastics m Legal
a TextiledFabrics m PrintingIPublishing
m Wood m Public Administration/Govemment
Real Estate/lnsurance
m Recreation
R Supply Chain
m Systems Security
m Telecommunications
m Transportation
Urban Development
m Utilities
R Web Technology

Figure 14
Industries Represented in PMI Membership
(Source: www.prni.org)

fession, it is necessary to have a code of ethics and standards of


conduct. These Member Ethical Standards have now become an
inseparable obligation of individuals joining the Institute.

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Member Code of Ethics: The Project Management


Institute (PMI) is a professional organization dedicated to
the development and promotion of the field of project
management. The purpose of the PMI Member Code of
Ethics is to define and clarify the ethical responsibilities
for present and future PMI members.
Preamble: In the pursuit of the project management
profession, it is vital that PMI members conduct their
work in an ethical manner in order to earn and maintain
the confidence of team members, colleagues, employees,
employers, customers/clients, the public, and the global
community.
Member Code of Ethics: As a professional in the field of
project management, PMI members pledge to uphold and
abide by the following:
I will maintain high standards of integrity and profes-
sional conduct
II I will accept responsibility for my actions
II I will continually seek to enhance my professional
capabilities
E I will practice with fairness and honesty
I will encourage others in the profession to act in an
ethical and professional manner.

The complete text of the Member Ethical Standards can be


found in Appendix B.

Volunteerism
Volunteerism is one of the organization's critical factors in
achieving its objectives. Whether one is a PMP participating in an
item-writing session for the PMP Certification Examination, serving
on a project team, or sitting on a program area Member Advisory
Group, the individual and collective support, knowledge, experi-
ences, and professionalism received from PMI volunteers con-
tributes to the advancement of the profession and to the Institute's
continued unprecedented growth (2000 in Review 2001,2).

64 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Volunteerism is the backbone of any professional association,


as well as any other not-for-profit organization. The volunteers at
PMI provide the leadership of the association and the knowledge
expertise about the practice of the profession. As stated in one
PMI publication, "The vision supplied by volunteer leaders has
led to the vital, versatile, and varied organization PMI is today"
(Carter 2000b, 2).
Since its founding by five volunteers in 1969, the PMI volun-
teers have created all the major programs of the association-
both those that are the hallmark of any profession and those that
are the basis for the operation of the association. At any given
time, over 3,000 PMI members serve as volunteers.
rrr PMI volunteers created the PMI Member Ethical Standards.
~cl PMI volunteers defined the PMBOKBand wrote the P M B O P
Guide.
B PMI volunteers defined the requirements for PMP recertifi-
cation.
s PMI volunteers established the criteria for accreditation of
academic and educational programs.
B PMI volunteers constitute the association's Board of
Directors, and in that role provide the strategic direction for
the Institute.
~rPMI volunteers create each PMI component organization
(chapters, specific interest groups, colleges), and provide the
leadership and management of each one.
rrr PMI volunteers generate a list of potential candidates for all
PMI-elected leadership positions.
m PMI volunteers provide advice about PMI programs.
~s?l PMI volunteers provide the knowledge content for PMI
research programs.
s PMI volunteers write the content of PMI Standards.
PMI volunteers write articles for PMI publications.
B PMI volunteers develop and present training courses at PMI
Component meetings.
PMI volunteers support the PMI Certification Program.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 65


Section Five -The Project Management institute

The Institute's Executive Director succinctly described the


value of volunteerism in PMI as follows:

Being involved as a PMI (volunteer) leader has many


benefits. Not only does one have a chance to expand and
. enhance one's important leadership knowledge and skill,
leadership activities help to direct and focus the Institute
as a global organization and the project management pro-
fession worldwide. Best of all, PMI (volunteer) leadership
experience transfers directly to one's workplace, helping
to support career advancement.
(Carter 2000a, 4)

Global Outreach
The global dimensions of PMI's outreach are documented in 2000
in Review:

The PMI Board of Directors expanded its own cornmu-


nications and outreach initiatives in 2000. Global meetings
and networking opportunities were conducted and
members of the Board represented the Institute and the
project management profession at approximately thirty
engagements held at various locations around the world,
including: Ausma, Canada, China, France, Ireland, Israel,
Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Russia,
United Kingdom and the United States.
As evidenced by shifting trends in PMI's membership
and in the Institute's outreach and presence in markets and
economies around the world, globalization has emerged as
a major thrust of importance to the organization. The
Institute received its direction from the Board of Directors
in June 2000, when the Board adopted an Ends Policy for
the organization, stating that PMPs strategic objectives will
be assertively pursued globally for the profession and its
members.
Outreach also became a major initiative for many PMI
Components. In 2000, eleven Chapters around the globe
established formal advisory and networking groups. PMI
Chapters in Europe and Latin America sponsored joint

66 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

regional conferences. The Information Systems, E-Business,


Design-Procurement-Construction and Automotive Specific
Interest Groups also organized training conferences and
seminars for their members while the Financial Services
and Global Technologies SIGs turned to conferencing
technology to offer member educational programs. The
College of Performance Management held two successful
conferences. PMI Chapters in Germany and Austria formed
a partnership to provide services and programs for their
members in their native language. Plus, some SIGs and
Chapters linked efforts to initiate jointly sponsored events
to facilitate networking among Chapter and SIG members
within a specific industry and a specific geographic area.
The PMI Global Assembly was unveiled at PMI 2000 in
Houston, Texas USA. The theme of the inaugural event
was "Cultural Competencies in Project Management." The
program was designed to enhance the awareness and
understanding of attendees about the effect culture has on
professional and personal interactions.
PMI reached into various markets by supporting key
trade shows. The shows included Project World-Anaheim,
California, USA, the International Project Leadership Con-
ference in Paris, France and the ABT Project Leadership
Conference in San Francisco, California USA. PM17s overall
trade-show program supported twenty-two Headquarters
and component events.
(2000 in Review 2001, 5, 13,151

Components
According to PMI's Bylaws, "The primary purposes of Components
shall be to advance the general and specific purposes of PMI"
(www.pmi.org).
PMI's components are comprised of Chapters, Specific Interest
Groups, and Colleges.

Chapters
Definition of Chapter: 'Rgroup of Institute members within a dis-
tinct and definable geographical area" (www.pmi.org).

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

PMI Component Facts (2000in Review 2001,5)

Number in Program: As of 31 December 2000, there were 168


PMI Chapters throughout the world, with membership in
Chapters over 60,000, a 29 percent increase from 1999 to 2000.
A complete list of Chapters is found in Appendix C.
The first PMI Chapter was chartered in Houston, Texas USA in
1974. Chapters in Northern and Southern California immediately
followed (PMI Fact Sheet 2000; 30 Years of Project Management
Excellence 1999, 6).

Specific Interest Groups


Definition of SIG: 'X group of Institute members representing specific
interests, with no distinct and definable geographic location, and
where the actual or potential number of SIG members w i
ll create a
viable subsidiary organization of the Institute" (www.pmi.org).

68 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Industry-specificinterest in project management is a theme in


the developing environment of this profession. PMI has seen a
steady increase in forming and joining industry- and interest-
related SIGs. The concept of PMI SIGs was officially adopted at
the PMI Board of Directors meeting in 1992. SIG membership
gives PMI members the opportunity to network with peers with
similar interests. Since SIG membership has no geographical
boundaries, SIG members generally meet face to face once a year
at PMI's Annual Seminars & Symposium.
SIGs provide a forum for project management practitioners to
share experiences with others working on similar types of projects
and facing the same project management challenges and con-
cerns. SIGs participate in a wide range of activities, which include,
but are not limited to, quarterly newsletters, networking directory,
seminars, technical tracks at PMI Seminars & Symposium, tele-
conferences, interactive web sites, and publications, among other
benefits (www.pmi.org).
Number in Program: As of 31 December 2000, the Project Man-
agement Institute has twenty-five chartered SIGs and ten potential
SIGs, with a total membership in all SIGs reaching 37,867. Five new
SIGs received charters between 1999 and 2000. The Institute's SIGs
operate in a global environment (2000 in Review 2001, 5; PMI
Worldwide Component Affairs Department 2001).
A complete list of SIGs can be found in Appendix C.

College
Definition of a College: 'Rgroup of PMI members with no distinct
and geographical location that have developed some formal
approach to one or more of the knowledge areas ofA Guide to the
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOKm Guide), which it
continuously develops and makes available to the profession"
(www.pmi.org).
The first College was founded in 1999 (30 Years of Project Man-
agement Excellence 1999, 16).
Number in Program: PMI College membership has grown to
1,024, an 82 percent increase from 1999 to 2000 (2000 in Review
2001, 5).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 69


Section Five - The Project Management Institute

Corporate Involvement and Participation

Corporate Council Program


PMI introduced its new global Corporate Council Program in 2000,
targeted to senior corporate executives and intended to support
companies' strategic project management needs. The first Exec-
utive Forum was held in November of that year in Phoenix, Arizona
USA, focusing on the role that knowledge management plays in
organizational cultures worldwide (2000 in Review 2001,4-5).
The Executive Forum was held as a key element of the PMI
Corporate Council, providing participants with new perspectives
and understanding of issues important to the global marketplace.
At the same time, PMI obtained a better understanding of the
needs and challenges these leading companies are experiencing
and will continue to experience in the coming years. Armed with
that knowledge, PMI can more effectively develop products, pro-
grams, and services to meet the needs of global corporations and
to prepare our membership to face the challenges that lie ahead
(www.pmi.org).
PMI Corporate Council participants, as of 31 December 2000,
include:
a Boston University Corporate Education Center
B Honeywell International
BI PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Booz-Allen& Hamilton
la Prudential Insurance
m Wells Fargo Services Company
rrr. Washington Government Group.
(www.pmi.org)

Certification Program Alliances


Relationships are continually sought with PMI's Certification
Program. Alliances have been built through Memorandums of
Understanding with organizations and companies that have agreed
to incorporate the PMP Credential into their business operations
through use by the organization's practitioners. These alliances
include numerous Fortune 500 companies as well as Singapore
Computer Society, State of Oregon, State of North Dakota, U.S.

70 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Department of Energy and the Training Center Administration for


Foreign Experts Affairs, Government of the People's Republic of
China (2000 in Review 2001,14).

Career Headquarters
PMI's Career Headquarters is the premier web-based employment
resource for those working in project management and for the
employers who need them. The services include project man-
agement job postings and the CareerLink Directory of PMI member
rCsumCs, as well as career and professional development resources.
Employers can post project management positions on the PMI
web site, where professionals in project management search for
career advancement opportunities. Job opportunities and
payment submitted online, via a secure site, is fully searchable on
the web site within twenty-four hours of submission.
Recruiters can search the CareerLink Directory of r6umCs for
PMI members seeking employment opportunities. Advanced
search capabilities allow effective navigation through the rbum6
listings. Enhanced technology permits responding to job seekers
immediately, online.
Job seekers are able to search the database of project man-
agement job postings online at no charge. Advanced search capa-
bilities permit specifying job criteria for more effective searches.
Users can answer job advertisements immediately by sending a
r6sumC to employers, online.
Current PMI members can post rCsumCs, at no charge, in the
CareerLink Directory where employers look to fill their project
management positions. Members also can create a r6sumC online
and choose whether to make it public or keep the listing confi-
dential (www.pmi.org) .

Group Billing
Almost 400 organizations participate in PMI's Group Billing Plan,
and more than sixty companies have more than 100 PMI
members among their employees. The list of companies with
more than 100 PMI members can be found in Section Four under
'Rdoption of Project Management by Organizations."

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 71


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Financial Stability
Sound fiscal policy and planning are fundamental to ensuring
PMI's viability as one of the world's leading professional associ-
ations for project management. During 2000, the Institute imple-
mented a program plan and budgeting process that aligned the
organization's resources and activities with the association's Ends
Policies.
The PMI Board of Directors approved the 2001-2002 Program
Plan and Budget, citing a $25 million operating budget for 2001
( 2 0 0 0 in Review 2001, 17).
In PMI Today, the Institute's Executive Director summarized
the organization's financial position:

Our (PMI) financial performance (for year 2000) has


also kept pace with our membership and component
advancement. We will end 2000 considerably ahead of
budget-a trend hard to maintain but one we're committed
to achieving. Our year-end numbers will be available when
our annual audit is completed next year (during 2001); we
expect not only to be ahead of budget but also to meet
existing policy and achieve a fully funded reserve fund, for
perhaps the first time in PMI history That's also a historic
achievement and another sign of organizationalstrength
and maturity

(Carter 2000b, 1,4)

Certification
The PMI Project Management Professional (PMP) Program supports
the global community of PMPs and is designed to objectively assess
and measure professional knowledge. PMP Program requirements
and eligibility standards are applied fairly, impartially, and consis-
tently with applicable laws (PMI Certification Handbook 2001).
Today, the PMP certification is recognized worldwide as the
credential of choice for individuals who practice project man-
agement. It is the stated mission of the PMI Certification Program
to deliver world-class project management products and services
to support reliance on PMP certification globally in both the
private and public sectors.

72 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Program Inception
The Institute began certifying Project Management Professionals in
1984. In 1999, there were 10,427 certification applicants and 7,960
certified. Participation increased in 2000, when there were 12,815
certified applicants, a 2,388 increase over 1999; 8,937 were certified,
a 977 increase over 1999. The certification program has grown
steadily over the past sixteen years, culminating in over 27,000 PMPs
certified at the end of 2000 (PMI Certification Department 2001).

Project Management Professional Growth Worldwide


The total number of PMPs as of 31 December 2000 was 27,055. The
total number of PMPs certified in 2000 was 8,937, representing
an increase of 12 percent over 1999 when 7,960 professionals
were certified. The Project Management Professional Certification
Program has continued to gain momentum and strength. Global
recognition and acceptance of the program has increased dramat-
ically (see Figure 16).
To achieve PMP certification, each candidate must satisfy all
educational and experiential requirements established by PMI
and must demonstrate an acceptable and valid level of under-
standing and knowledge about project management that is tested
by the Project Management Professional Certification Exami-
nation. In addition, those who have been granted the PMP cre-
dential (certificants) must demonstrate ongoing professional
commitment to the field of project management by satisfying Pro-
fessional Development Program requirements.
Enrolling in PMI's Project Management Professional Certifi-
cation Program offers individuals a wide range of important ben-
efits. The PMP certification following one's name demonstrates to
current and potential employers that an individual possesses a
solid foundation of experience and education in project man-
agement that can have a positive impact on bottom-line results.
The PMP credential symbolizes knowledge and accomplishment
and is highly regarded by colleagues and employers. A certified
PMP will proudly join a successful group of professionals who are
enriching and advancing their careers and the project management
profession (www.pmi.org) .

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Section IWe -The Project Management Institute

To maintain the value of the certification in the global market-


place, PMI supports the ongoing evolution of the PMP Certification
Examination by conducting item-development meetings and item-
validation meetings throughout the year, involving PMPs from
around the world. These and other certification-related activities
are part of what has earned PMI the IS0 9001 Certification status
and recognition for its quality management systems. The most
sought-after and recognized project management credential
remains the PMP (2000 in Review 2001, 10).
During 2000 PMI deployed its first Certificate of Added Qual-
ification (CAQ"). Ten PMPs were awarded this credential in Auto-
motive Product Development. The development of additional
CAQs in Information Technology-Systems, Information Tech-
nology-Networking, and Project Management Office (PMO)
have been approved by the PMI Certification Board Center.

Project Management Professional Certification Examination


Requirements to attain PMP certification consist of four areas: 1)
education, 2) experience, 3) adherence to the PMP Code of Pro-
fessional Conduct, and 4) passing the certification examination.
The education requirement for candidates is either a college degree
or global equivalent, or a high school diploma or global equivalent.
Candidates must document hours of experience over a three-year
period in the project management process groups-initiating,
planning, executing, controlling, and closing projects-but are not
required to have experience in all five areas to satisfy this
requirement. After attaining the PMP credential, a PMP must
satisfya professional development requirement. Every three years,
a PMP must submit proof of earning sixty Professional Devel-
opment Units (PDUs) to maintain his or her credential.

Countries and Test Sites


The PMP examination is administered at more than 1,700 locations
in over 100 countries around the world. At many sites, it is offered
in a computer-based format (PMI Certification Department 2001).

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Total PMPs 27,053


Total Certified in 2000 8,934
Total Certified in 1999 7,952
Increase 982
Increase % 12%
2000 Certification Applicants 14,435
1999 Certification Applicants 9,079
Increase 5,356
Increase % 59%

Figure 16
PMP Certification Facts (2000in Review 2001,5)

Languages
In addition to English, the PMP Certification Examination is available
in Brazilian-Portuguese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean,
Mandarin, and Spanish.

Examination Content
The PMP exam consists of 200 multiple-choice questions in five cat-
egories: 1) initiating processes, 4 percent (eight questions); 2)
planning processes, 37 percent (seventy-four questions); 3) exe-
cuting processes, 24 percent (forty-eight questions); 4) controlling
processes, 28 percent (fifty-six questions); and 5) closing processes,
7 percent (fourteen questions) [www.pmi.org].

Education
The PMI membership consistently lists access to education and
information as one of its top reasons for joining PMI. The Institute
strives to respond to members' needs through a variety of programs
and services, including degree accreditation, forums, educational
aids, seminars, and the Professional Development Program.

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Accreditation
PMI, working with the Accreditation Member Advisory Group,
completed work on the new accreditation policy for degree pro-
grams in 2000. The new policy allows accreditation of degree pro-
grams emphasizing project management as well as approval of
comprehensive certificate programs that can meet the same core
outcomes as required for accreditation of degrees. Individuals suc-
cessfully completing an accredited degree or approved curriculum
will be credited with 1,500 hours of project management expe-
rience for the purpose of qualifying to take the PMI certification
examinations. Interest in degree programs continues to grow.
Finally, in order to address the emergent number of non-degree
programs awarding project management certificates or similar
credentials, PMI will also be implementing the PMI Approval
Program for evaluation of programs of this nature.

IACET Approval
One of the significant achievements in 2000 was the renewal of
PMI as an authorized provider of Continuing Education Units
(CEU) by the International Association for Continuing Education
and Training (IACET). An authorized CEU provider since 1995,
PMI's programs and processes were reviewed in accordance with
IACET's five-year approval cycle. IACET unconditionallyapproved
PMI to continue issuing CEU credits for seminars offered through
December 2004.

Since 1995, PMI has offered high-quality interactive seminars on


current project management topics at convenient locations
around the U.S., now offered around the world. In 1995, eleven
seminar topics were offered in two cities. PMI's seminars in 2000
continued to be extremely well attended and highly rated. Sem-
inarsWorldTM offered ninety-eight seminars in nineteen cities
throughout the world, including PMI's first seminars in France,
Mexico, and Singapore.

76 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Registered Education Provider Program


PMI's Registered Education Provider (R.E.E) program is another
area of partnership with the training and education community as
well as with PMI components, corporations, and other profes-
sional associations. The R.E.I? program finished its first full year of
operation with the participation of 102 PMI Components, 220
learning vendors, twenty-eight internal corporate training centers,
and two cooperating associations. A significant milestone was the
first R.E.P Forum held in 2000 in Chicago, Illinois USA.
Alist of Registered Education Providers is provided in Appendix E.

Professional Development Program Administration


PMI maintains responsibility for the reporting of learning and
professional activities by PMPs for renewal of their certification.
In 2000 nearly 3,000 PMPs reported over 160,000 PDUs toward
renewal of certification, representing an increase of nearly 1,000
percent over 1999 (PMI Education Department 2001).

Research
PMI continues to advance and expand knowledge for and about
the project management profession, its members, and their
practice of the profession. In 2000 the association built on its her-
itage of defining and advancing the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOKm).The Institute's showcase research event
for the year was PMI Research Conference 2000, a groundbreaking
global research conference. Under the theme of "Project Man-
agement Research at the Turn of the Millennium," 150 academics,
researchers, and practitioners gathered in Paris, France, in June
to share papers, ideas, and experiences. The conference pro-
ceedings were published. The PMI research conference is set to
be a biennial event, with the next one scheduled for 2002.
The Research Program conducted an Open Working Session at
PMI 2000 to facilitate additional exchange of needs and solutions
among interested professionals. Another session will be con-
ducted at PMI 2001 and, for the first time, a track of research
papers will occur during the symposium.

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Two external research projects are under way as a result of


PMPs initiation and partial financial sponsorship. Selling of Project
Management to Senior Executives - What's the Hook? and Quan-
tifyrng Project Management's Value will report their findings when
completed. Four additional external research investigations are
being initiated in 2001.
Additional projects to advance the knowledge and practices of
the profession are under way (PMI Research Department 2001).

Standards
As stated in the P M B O P Guide - 2000 Edition: 'Rstandard is a
document approved by a recognized body, that provides, for
common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for
products, processes or services with which compliance is not
mandatory" (2000, 26).
PMI provides global leadership in the development of stan-
dards for the practice of the project management profession
throughout the world. PMI's premier standards document, A
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOP
Guide) - 2000 Edition, is the de facto global standard for man-
aging projects in today's marketplace. The publication of the
PMBOP Guide - 2000 Edition was a major highlight of the year,
the result of the project team's review of over 1,700 comments
from members and stakeholders in the project management com-
munity on the Exposure Draft. The book's predecessor, P M B O P
Guide - 1996 Edition, remained an American National Standard
approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
until the 2000 Edition became the new standard. In addition, the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated,
recognized the PMBOP Guide as an IEEE Standard. Furthermore,
it is used as an underlying reference in an International Organi-
zation for Standardization (ISO) Technical Report, IS0 TR 16543
- SofnYare Project Management Guide according to 12207.
PMI is committed to the continuous improvement and
expansion of the PMBOP Guide, and has several other Standards
in various stages of development (2000 in Review 2001, 9; PMI
Standards Depamnent 2001).

78 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five - The Project Management Institute

Publishing
PMI is the world's leading publisher of project management
books, training tools, and learning products, serving the project
management profession, the PMI membership, the PMI volunteer
leadership, and society as a whole. In the early 1980s, the
Institute's publishing operations thrived under the efforts of a
small group of business professors at Western Carolina University
in Cullowhee, North Carolina USA. By the early 1990s, PM17s pub-
lishing products had grown in scope and relocated off campus to
expanded facilities. In 1995, the publishing operation moved its
offices to Sylva, North Carolina. The publishing activity of the
organization is now located at PMI Headquarters in Newtown
Square, Pennsylvania USA.

Periodical Publishing
PMI produces three periodical publications for people in project
management. PM Network is a monthly professional magazine
that, among other features, covers industry applications and pre-
sents details on how projects were managed and lessons learned
from project team experience in the field. Project Management
Journal is a peer-reviewed quarterly professional journal, pub-
lishing significant articles dealing largely with research, tech-
nique, theory, and practice. PMI Today is the monthly newsletter
of PMI.

Book Publishing
PMI's book program is the world's largest project management-
focused publishing program. An impressive list of titles was added
in 2000 to the world's largest collection of project management
publications. In 2000, PMI published the following books:
B PMBOP Guide Exposure Draft - 2000 Edition
EI A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOP Guide) - 2000 Edition
Proceedings of PMI's Annual Seminars & Symposium
E Teaming for Quality: The Right Way for the Right Reasons by
H. David Shuster
E Don't Park Your Brain Outside: A Practical Guide to Improving
Shareholder Value with SMART Management by Francis T.
Hartman

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

ia The Project Sponsor Guide by Neil Love and Joan Brant-Love


ra Project Management Experience and Knowledge SelJAssessment
Manual
PM 101 According to the Olde Curmudgeon: A n Introduction
to the Basic Concepts of Modem Project Management by
Francis M. Webster Jr.
rr Earned Value Project Management, Second Edition by Quentin
W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman
Project Management Institute Practice Standard for Work
Breakdown Structures Exposure Drafi
la Project Management Professional Role Delineation Study
rrt? PMI Project Management Salary Survey - 2000 Edition
ol Proceedings of PMI Research Conference 2000.
(2000 in Review 2001,ll-12)

Online Bookstore
Opened in 1998, the PMI Online Bookstore offers the world's
leading collection of project management-related books. It fea-
tures books and products published by PMI, as well as over one
thousand titles selected from other business and management
publishers (www.pmibookstore.org).

Knowledge and Wisdom Center


The Project Management Institute has established an information
center, the James R. Snyder Center for Knowledge &Wisdom.The
Center's vision is to be the primary worldwide source for relevant,
reliable, and timely information that relates to project man-
agement. It is destined to become a center for knowledge man-
agement, through which the knowledge, wisdom, and intellectual
capital of the organization and the profession are captured.
Accessible resources include the PMI collection of books and
periodicals, online search services, the Internet, and document
delivery services (2000 in Review, 2001, 12; PMI Knowledge and
Wisdom Center 2001).

80 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

Annual Seminars & Symposium


The Project Management Institute's Annual Seminars & Symposium
is the world's premier project management event, offering a wide
range of subjects and tracks and access to keynote speakers and
other experts-all in support of enhancing participants' learning
experience. It offers access to the largest exhibit space, which
attracts project management-related vendors from around the
world. The 2000 PMI Annual Seminars & Symposium, "PMI Con-
nections 2000," was held in Houston, Texas USA. It hosted more
than 3,600 attendees, who chose from twenty-three tracks and 180
papers, and interacted with more than 130 exhibitors. Attendees
regularly cite the three most important reasons those in the pro-
fession attend the event are the paper presentations, networking
opportunities, and the keynote speakers (2000 in Review 2001,ll;
PMI Meetings and Conventions Department 2001).
A listing of the sites and dates of past PMI Annual Seminars
& Symposiums can be found in Appendix H.

Awards
At PMI 2000, PMI's Annual Seminars & Symposium, the associ-
ation recognized significant achievements in project management
and in PMI. Recipients of 2000 PMI International Professional
Awards given were:
~rPMI International Project of the Year Award: Trojan Reactor
Vessel and Internals Removal Project; Portland General
Electric Company, Submitted by the PMI Portland Chapter
~r;PMI Distinguished Contribution Award: William A. Moylan,

PMP
~r;PMI Educational Foundation International Student Paper of

the Year Award (undergraduate): Wendy E. Stewart; "Bal-


anced Scorecard on Projects"
r PMI Educational Foundation International Student Paper of
the Year Award (graduate): Valerie Lynn Herzog, 'Trust
Building on Corporate Collaborate Project Teams" (2000 in
Review 2001, 11).
A complete list of PMI awards given in past years can be found
in Appendix D.

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Section Five -The Project Management Institute

The most popular address in project management is www.prni.org.


The PMI web site recorded a total of 2,621,092 hits in 2000, a 64
percent increase over the previous year.
Each week, the site records more than 50,000 visits by project
management personnel, and more than 8,000 visits occur each
weekday The Institute's most visited sites include the PMI Online
Bookstore, Career Headquarten, Certification, Education, Chapters,
Standards, Membership, Publications, and the PMI Educational
Foundation.
PMI's web site plays a critical role in the association's ability to
reach out to its target markets. PMI introduced many new
enhancements to its members' setion on the PMI web site in 2000.
Individuals can now join PMI and PMI Components, and change
their address records online. Since these new features became
available, almost 10,000 online membership applications have
been received in addition to over 11,000 members who have made
changes to their records online (2000 in Review 2001,4,15).

PMI Educational Foundation


The Project Management Institute Educational Foundation is an
autonomous, not-for-profit organization established under
Section 501 (C)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Service by
PMI for the purpose of charitable, educational, and scientific
endeavors. Its vision is to be the organization of choice for dona-
tions and contributions supporting cutting-edge research and
education programs in project and program management for the
benefit of society at large.
The Foundation is empowered to solicit, receive, and expend
gifts, legacies, and grants; provide scholarships and fellowships;
endow and establish professorships; assist in establishing degree
programs; and administer and support student organizations.
The Foundation also may assist in educational and research
projects; grant and confer awards, citations, or medals; prepare
and disseminate educational information; and perform other
related activities.

82 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

History
Founded 14 August 1990, the PMI Educational Foundation is a
non-political, tax-exempt organization.

Governance
The PMI Educational Foundation is led by a Board of Directors
whose members are either appointed by the PMI Board of Directors
or elected by the Foundation Board. The current Foundation Board
structure is composed of four members appointed by PMI and
three elected by the Foundation. All board members serve as vol-
unteers. Other volunteers support the activities of the Foundation
through participation on committees and projects.

Grants
Grants are given for both solicited and unsolicited requests
related to education and/or research in project-management
related fields. The PMI Educational Foundation acts as a proactive
catalyst through the funding of initiatives that:
m Raise the awareness of project management in global and
local communities
Introduce and promote the use of project management con-
cepts as a life skill
m Recognize leadership in project management
a Support academic excellence in project management
a Encourage new ventures related to project management
m Advance the understanding of project management.

Awards
The PMI Educational Foundation presents two awards annually-
the Donald S. Barrie Award and the International Student Paper
of the Year Award.
The Donald S. Barrie Award was conceived and supported by
the PMI Design-Procurement-Construction Specific Interest
Group. It was established in 1998 in memory of Barrie, who con-
tributed in many ways to the project management profession and
the construction industry. A panel of knowledgeable individuals,
representing academia and industry, evaluates the eligible papers
and selects the best one, based on originality and innovation
without being inconsistent with the PMBOP Guide. Papers focus

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 83


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

on engineering and construction means and methods; project


organizations and delivery systems; engineering and construction
performance; or cost, schedule, and progress controls.
The PMI Educational Foundation International Student Paper of
the Year Award is aimed at creating interest in project man-
agement among undergraduate and graduate students. It
annually honors a student for research and creative efforts
directed toward advancing the concepts, tools, and techniques of
managing project-oriented tasks. Recipients of this award, and
their sponsoring faculty members, receive a $500 (US) hono-
rarium and are provided funds for travel to and attendance at
PMI's Annual Symposium. The recipient also has an opportunity
to present the paper and have it published. The selection of the
winning paper(s) is made by a panel of three experts in project
management. These experts place emphasis on the originality of
presented concepts, applicability to the field of project man-
agement, practical application of the concept, and suitability for
presentation to PMI Symposium participants.

Academic Scholarships
The academic scholarship program is designed to assist qualified
applicants in obtaining degrees from accredited academic institu-
tions of higher learning in the field of project management. The
program is open to any student preparing to enter or already
attending an accredited degree-granting college or university and
pursuing a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree. The scholarships
are awarded based on merit, as measured by academic performance
and extracurricular activities. The PMI Educational Foundation cur-
rently awards annually four competitive scholarships:
1. The Robert J. Yourzak Scholarship, which provides a $2,000
(US) scholarship to a student enrolled in any degree-
granting program of higher education in the field of project
management or other related field.
2. The Gaylord (Gary) E. Christle Scholarship, which provides a
$2,000 (US) scholarship to a student enrolled in an
accredited college or university pursuing a bachelor's,
master's, or doctoral degree in acquisition management
and/or project management.

84 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Section Five -The Project Management Institute

3. The Matthew H. Parry Memorial Scholarship, which provides


a $2,000 (US) scholarship to an undergraduate student
enrolled in a degree-granting program of higher education
and showing an interest in project management as a
potential career.
4. The Wilson-Zells Academic Grant, which provides a $2,000
(US) scholarship to a student enrolled in a degree-granting
program of higher education in information systems, infor-
mation technology, and/or project management.
(PMI Educational Foundation 2001)

A complete listing of PMI Educational Foundation Award and


Scholarship recipients can be found in Appendix D.

I
The PMI Project Management Fact Book 85
Appendix A

PMI Ends Policies

Introduction
Policies in this section are those referred to in the Policy Gover-
nance@model as "ends." Ends is a term intended to combine
determinations about results, recipients of the results, and the
cost of those results. They are the Board's dictates about what
benefits are to be created for which group of people or needs at
what cost. The broadest statement of this section is the overall
purpose. At a next-lower level are policies in which the Board
further defines these concepts. As is set forth in the Board-Exec-
utive-Director Relationship policies, the Chair and the Executive
Director are allowed to use "any reasonable interpretation" of
these words. Consequently, the Board goes into whatever level of
specification will allow it to be comfortable with this amount of
interpretative latitude.
In the long run, this section is the most important area of
Board policymaking. It is where the Board's greatest gift is given,
inasmuch as the long-term "ends" are where the Board exercises
its most important strategic leadership. Concretely, the Board's
critical contribution to long-term planning is to be found in these
policies. Instead of putting its time into a plan document (which
can be tedious and even trivial), the Board merely states-and

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 87


Appendix A- PMI Ends Policies

next year restates-its ends policies with a long-term perspective.


The entire Board year is built around reexamination of these
policies, gathering input and member consensus on them, and
projecting the Board's broad vision into the future.

PMI Ends Policies


(Effective 1 January 2001)
POLICY CATEGORY ENDS
POLICY TITLE: 1.0 General Ends Statement
Professionalism in project management for the global community
through practices that address appropriate local, national and
global requirements.
POLICY CATEGORY ENDS
POLICY TITLE: 1.1 Project management is a
profession
Project management is recognized as a profession for project
management practitioners at a reasonable investment.
1.1.1 A universally accepted body of knowledge of project
management exists for the project management pro-
fession.
1.1.1.1 The expansion of the body of knowledge of
project management is dynamic and deliberate
for the project management profession.
1.1.1.2 The expansion of the body of knowledge of
project management addresses industry, general,
national and global considerations for the
project management profession.
1.1.1.3 The content of the body of knowledge of
project management is codified and accepted
for the project management profession.
1.1.2 Generally accepted standards exist for the project man-
agement profession.
1.1.3 Accredited formal degree programs in project manage-
ment exist for the project management profession.
1.1.4 Project management is practiced ethically by business,
government and society-at-large.

88 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix A - PMI Ends Policies

1.1.4.1 Generally accepted project management stan-


dards of conduct exist for the members of the
project management profession.
1.1.5 Credentialing and licensing programs exist for the
project management.
1.1-5.1 Universally recognized and accepted creden-
tialing programs exist for the project man-
agement profession.
1.1.5.2 Licensing programs exist through government
or appropriate government-sponsoredagencies
for the project management profession.

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.2 Project management contributes
to social good and achievement
Project management contributes to social good and achievement
for business, industry, governments, academia and society-at-
large through economical and planned use of resources.
1.2.1 Established relationships with other entities achieve
timely response to disasters, emergencies or threats for
communities through voluntary actions of individuals.
1.2.2 Community and social goals are advanced for global
communities through volunteer services of project man-
agement individuals.

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.3 Professionals in project manage-
ment are knowledgeable and
skilled
Professionals in project management are knowledgeable and
skilled for a reasonable investment.
1.3.1 Professionals in project management are knowledgeable
in the body of knowledge of project management.
1.3.2 Professionals in project management are skilled in the
application of the body of knowledge of project man-
agement.

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Appendix A -PMI Ends Policies

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.4 Project management community
People in project management who participate in or use PMI
offerings enjoy a supportive community.
1.4.1 Enhanced professionalism and opportunities for net-
working and professional development are available for
project management practitioners through a variety of
means, including PMI components that address appro-
priate geographical, industry, discipline, and interest areas.
1.4.2 PMI supports, where appropriate to PMI's annual
program and budget planning, joint participation in
research and product development that advance the
state-of-the-art.
1.4.3 PMI provides an environment that fosters contributions
to the profession by PMI members and non-members
willing to participate and contribute.
1.4.4 PMI provides an environment that fosters leadership par-
ticipation and development of PMI willing to participate
in the organization.

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.5 PMI as a global organization
PMI's Ends are assertively pursued globally for the profession and
PMI members by volunteer leadership through policy, and by HQ
staff through their planned and deliberate commitment of head-
quarter resources.

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.6 PMI programs, products and ser-
vices
PMI programs, products and services are available for appropriate
members of the project management community at reasonable
costs.

90 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix A - PMI Ends Policies

1.6.1 Professional global standards are advanced and main-


tained for appropriate members of the project man-
agement community for an investment based on the
value to the profession.
1.6.1.1 New or improved programs, products and ser-
vices advance the state-of-the-artfor the members
of the project management community through
the balanced use of resources.
1.6.2 Programs, products and services are developed effec-
tively for PMI members and customers.
1.6.3 Public, private and not-for-profit organizations cooperate
for mutually beneficial products for the project man-
agement community through in-kind resources and seed
money.

POLICY CATEGORY ENDS


POLICY TITLE: 1.7 Project management is globally
recognized and valued
Project management is globally recognized and valued for a rea-
sonable investment.
1.7.1 Project management is recognized and valued by
business, industry, academia and government.
1.7.2 Society-at-large is aware of, recognizes and values project
management for current and future members of the
project management profession.
1.7.3 The education community recognizes and promotes
project management as a career.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 91


Appendix B

PMI Ethical Standards

Member Code of Ethics


The Project Management Institute (PMF) is a professional orga-
nization dedicated to the development and promotion of the field
of project management. The purpose of the PMI Member Code of
Ethics is to define and clarify the ethical responsibilities for present
and future PMI members.
Preamble:
In the pursuit of the project management profession, it is vital
that PMI members conduct their work in an ethical manner in
order to earn and maintain the confidence of team members, col-
leagues, employees, employers, customers/clients, the public,
and the global community.
Member Code of Ethics:
As a professional in the field of project management, PMI members
pledge to uphold and abide by the following:
m I will maintain high standards of integrity and professional
conduct
m I will accept responsibility for my actions
ES I will continually seek to enhance my professional capabilities
~tI will practice with fairness and honesty
B I will encourage others in the profession to act in an ethical
and professional manner.

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Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

Member Standards of Conduct


The following PMI Member Standards of Conduct describes the
obligations and expectations associated with membership in the
Project Management Institute. All PMI Members must conduct
their activities consistent with the Member Standards of Conduct.

I. Professional Obligations.
A. Professional Behavior.
1. PMI Members will fully and accurately disclose any
professional or business-related conflicts or potential
conflicts of interest in a timely manner.
2. PMI Members will refrain from offering or accepting
payments, or other forms of compensation or
tangible benefits, which: (a) do not conform with
applicable laws; and (b) may provide unfair
advantage for themselves, their business or others
they may represent.
3. PMI Members who conduct research or similar
professional activities will do so in a manner that is
fair, honest, accurate, unbiased, and otherwise
appropriate, and will maintain appropriate,
accurate, and complete records with respect to such
research and professional activities.
4. PMI Members will respect and protect the
intellectual property rights of others, and will
properly disclose and recognize the professional,
intellectual, and research contributions of others.
5. PMI Members will strive to enhance their
professional capabilities, skills and knowledge; and
will accurately and truthfully represent and advertise
their professional services and qualifications.
B. Relationship With Customers, Clients, and Employers.
1. PMI Members will provide customers, clients, and
employers with fair, honest, complete and accurate
information concerning: (a) their qualifications; (b)
their professional services; and (c) the preparation
of estimates concerning costs, services, and expected
results.

94 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

2. PMI Members will honor and maintain the


confidentiality and privacy of customer, client,
employer, and similar work information, including
the confidentiality of customer or client identities,
assignments undertaken, and other information
obtained throughout the course of a professional
relationship, unless: (a) granted permission by the
customer, client, or employer; or (b) the
maintenance of the confidentiality is otherwise
unethical or unlawful.
3. PMI Members will not take personal, business, or
financial advantage of confidential or private
information acquired during the course of their
professional relationships, nor will they provide such
information to others.
C. Relationship With the Public and the Global Community.
1. PMI Members will honor and meet all applicable
legal and ethical obligations, including the laws,
rules, and customs of the community and nation in
which they function, work, or conduct professional
activities.
2. PMI Members will perform their work consistent and
in conformance with professional standards to
ensure thar the public is protected from harm.

II. Obligations to PMI.


A. Responsibilities of PMI Membership.
1. PMI Members will abide by the bylaws, policies,
rules, requirements, and procedures of the Project
Management Institute, and will not knowingly
engage or assist in any activities intended to
compromise the integrity, reputation, property,
and/or legal rights of the Institute.
2. PMI Members will abide by the laws, regulations,
and other requirements of their respective
communities and nations, and will not knowingly
engage in, or assist in, any activities intended to
have negative implications, including criminal
conduct, professional misconduct, or malfeasance.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 95


I Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

3. PMI Members will cooperate with the Institute


concerning the review of possible ethics violations,
and other PMI matters, completely, consistent with
applicable policies and requirements.
4. PMI Members will accurately, completely, and
truthfully represent information to PMI.

Member Ethics Case Procedures


The following ethics case procedures are the only rules for pro-
cessing possible violations of these ethical standards. These pro-
cedures are applicable to members of the Project Management
Institute (hereinafter referred to as PMI or the Institute), and
those who are seeking Institute membership. PMI members and
individuals seeking PMI membership understand and agree that
these procedures are a fair process for resolving all ethics matters
duly adopted by PMI; and they will be bound by decisions made,
and requirements issued, pursuant to these procedures.

A. General Provisions
1. Nature of the Process. PMI has the only authority to resolve
and end any ethics matter, regardless of circumstances. By
applying for membership in the Institute, PMI members and
applicants agree that they will accept the authority of the
Institute to apply the Member Code of Ethics, Member Stan-
dards of Conduct, and the Member Ethics Case Procedures,
and other relevant policies to resolve ethics matters.
These ethics procedures are not a formal legal process;
therefore, many legal rules and practices are not observed,
and the procedures are designed to operate without the assis-
tance of attorneys. Any party, of course, may be represented
by an attorney with respect to an ethics matter. If a party has
retained an attorney, that attorney may be directed to com-
municate with the Institute through the PMI Legal Counsel.
The parties are encouraged to communicate directly with the
Institute. The Institute may use the services of PMI Legal
Counsel without limitation.

96 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

2. Participants. Ethics cases may be decided by the PMI Ethics


Review Committee, the Ethics Appeals Committee, and/or
any authorized designee. A PMI member or applicant who is
the subject of an ethics complaint or investigation will be
identified as the Respondent. The person(s) initiating an
ethics complaint will be identified as the Complainant(s).
3. Time Requirements. The Institute will make every reasonable
effort to follow the time requirements noted in these proce-
dures. However, the Institute's failure to meet a time
requirement will not prohibit the final resolution of any
ethics matter, or otherwise prevent PMI from acting under
these procedures. Complainants and Respondents are
required to comply with all time requirements specified in
these procedures. Time extensions or postponements may be
granted by the Institute if a timely written request explains a
reasonable cause.
4. Relaxation of Requirements/Global Accommodations. In light of
the global nature of the international project management
community, including differences related to the language,
custom, geographic location, and other characteristics of PMI
members and applicants, the Institute recognizes that PMI
members and applicants may have difficulty meeting certain
time or other requirements in these procedures. Accordingly, a
PMI member or applicant may submit to the Executive
Director a written request for an extension of one or more of
the time requirements; or, a reasonable accommodation
related to matters of language, custom, geographic location, or
the like. The Executive Director will forward such requests to
the Chair of the Ethics Review Committee or the Chair of the
Ethics Appeal Committee, as applicable. Generally, requests for
such time extensions that seek to increase a deadline and other
reasonable accommodations will be granted.
5. Litigationlother Proceedings. The Institute may accept and
resolve ethics complaints when civil or criminal litigation, or
other proceedings related to the complaint, are also before a
court, regulatory agency or professional body The Institute
may also continue or delay the resolution of any ethics com-
plaints in such cases.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 97


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

6. Improper Disclosure. The Institute may issue any appropriate


directive(s) and requirement(s) where a PMI member or
applicant provides a misleading disclosure, or fails to dis-
close requested information related to: PMI membership; an
ethics complaint; an ethics case; or similar matter. Where a
discipline, order, directive, or other requirement is issued by
the Institute under this Section, the member or applicant
involved may seek review and appeal pursuant to these pro-
cedures.
7. Confidentiality. In order to protect the privacy of the parties
involved in an ethics case, all material prepared by, or sub-
mitted to, the Institute will be confidential, unless otherwise
authorized by these procedures. Among other information,
the Institute will not consider the following materials to be
confidential: materials which are disclosed as the result of a
legal requirement; materials which are disclosed upon the
written request of the member or applicant who is the
subject of an ethics complaint or investigation, any infor-
mation relating to the member or applicant which he/she
would like released to other professional organizations or
third parties, and which is not otherwise confidential; and,
all final published rulings, decisions, requirements, orders,
and/or reports of the Ethics Review Committee or the Ethics
Appeals Committee.
8. Failure to Cooperate. If any party refuses to fully cooperate
with the Institute concerning matters arising under these pro-
cedures without good cause, the Institute may: terminate the
ethics complaint of an uncooperative Complainant; or, impose
any sanction or requirement included within these rules if a
Respondent is uncooperative. Where a discipline, order,
requirement, or other directive is issued by the Institute under
this Section, the member or applicant involved may seek
review and appeal pursuant to these procedures.
9. Resignationfrom the Institute. Should a Respondent attempt
to relinquish PMI membership or withdraw an application
during the course of any ethics case, the Institute reserves
the right to continue the matter to a final and binding reso-
lution according to these procedures.

98 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

B. Submission of Ethics Complaints/Acceptance or


Rejection.
1. Executive Director. Any person, group, organization, or, in
appropriate cases, the Institute (Complainant) may initiate
an ethics complaint. Each Complainant must submit to the
Executive Director a detailed written description of the
factual allegations supporting the ethics complaint, including
the specific provisions of the Member Code of Ethics or
Member Standards of Conduct relevant to the allegations set
forth in the complaint. The Executive Director will forward
the complaint to the Ethics Review Committee Chair for
review, consideration, and assignment.
2. Ethics Review Committee. The Ethics Review Committee will
be responsible for the investigation and resolution of each
ethics complaint. Upon receipt of a complaint, the Review
Committee will determine whether sufficient detail is pre-
sented to constitute a formal ethics complaint, based upon
the specific Member Code of Ethics or Member Standards of
Conduct provisions identified by the complaint, and to permit
the Review Committee to conduct an appropriate review.
3. Complaint Acceptance/Rejection Criteria. In order to
determine if an ethics complaint is accepted or rejected, the
Ethics Review Committee will consider whether: a proven
complaint would constitute a violation of the specific
Member Code of Ethics or Member Standards of Conduct pro-
visions identified by the Complainant in the original sub-
mission; the passage of time since the alleged violation
requires that the complaint be rejected; relevant, reliable
information or proof concerning the charge is available; the
Complainant is willing to provide testimony or other evi-
dence concerning the complaint; and, there is reasonable
cause to believe that the charge appears to be justified, con-
sidering the proof available.
3.a. Complaint Acceptance. Upon a determination that an
ethics complaint is appropriate, the Ethics Review Com-
mittee will issue a formal Ethics Complaint Notice iden-
tifying each Member Code of Ethics and Member
Standards of Conduct violation alleged, and the sup-
porting factual basis for each complaint. This Notice will

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 99


Appendix B -PMI Ethical Standards

be delivered to the Respondent, and will be marked Con-


fidential. The Review Committee may request additional
information to supplement or explain an allegation.
3.b. Complaint Rejection. If the Ethics Review Committee
determines that an allegation or complaint change
should not be a formal ethics complaint, the Review
Committee will return all information submitted and
notify Complainant of the rejection and its basis by cor-
respondence.
3.b.l. Appeal of Complaint Rejection Determination.
Within forty-five (45) days of the mailing date of
complaint rejection correspondence, the Com-
plainant may appeal to the Ethics Appeals Com-
mittee by stating in writing the procedural errors
he/she believes were made by the Ethics Review
Committee with respect to the charge rejection, if
any; the specific provisions of the Member Code of
Ethics and Member Standards of Conduct believed
violated; and, the specific information he/she
believes supports the acceptance of a complaint.
The Ethics Appeals Committee will review the
Complainant's appeal and issue a decision based
upon the record. The Appeals Committee may
accept the Review Committee decision and reject
the complaint, or any part thereof; or, reverse the
Review Committee decision and direct that a
complaint be issued and the case resolved under
these procedures.
4. Ethics Complaint Response. Within forty-five (45) days of the
mailing date of an Ethics Complaint Notice, the Respondent
must submit a response to the Ethics Review Committee.
The Ethics Complaint Response must include a full response
to each complaint, and a copy of each document relevant to
the resolution of the ethics complaint. The Review Com-
mittee may request additional information to supplement a
response.
5. Complaint ReferraL If the Ethics Review Committee deter-
mines that the factual allegations presented by a Com-
plainant, or the information revealed by an investigation,

100 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B -PMI Ethical Standards

may constitute a violation of Member Code of Ethics or


Member Standards of Conduct provisions not directly related
to those presented by the Complainant, the Review Com-
mittee may take any of the following actions: notify the
Respondent of possible, unrelated Code or Standards viola-
tions, and any recommended corrective actions; refer the
matter to the Complainant for review and possible re-sub-
mission of a revised or new complaint; refer the matter to
other Institute, government, or professional bodies for
review; or, other appropriate actions/referrals.

C. Preliminary Actions and Orders.


Preliminary and Temporary Orders. The Ethics Review Committee,
or the Ethics Appeals Committee, may require the Respondent to
do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts by Preliminary and Tem-
porary Order reasonably related to the complaint under consid-
eration pending the final resolution of the case or investigation.
Such orders may include, but are not limited to, a requirement
that the Respondent voluntarily and immediately cease from rep-
resenting himself or herself as a PMI member or applicant, or as
otherwise associated with the Institute until further notice; or, a
restriction that the Respondent may not pursue a PMI position or
office pending the final resolution of the ethics matter under
review. The Ethics Review Committee or the Ethics Appeals Com-
mittee may discipline a Respondent who fails to comply with a
Temporary or Preliminary Order. Preliminary and Temporary
Orders are not subject to appeal, but may be reconsidered by the
Committees upon written request of the Respondent presenting
substantial reasons that the order is no longer necessary.

D. Ethics Review Committee Hearings.


1. Ethics Review Committee. The PMI Board of Directors will
appoint at least seven (7) PMI members to serve as the Ethics
Review Committee to investigate and resolve ethics com-
plaint matters. The PMI Chair, with Board of Directors
approval, will appoint a Committee Chair from the seven
members, who will supervise the work of the Committee. The
Chair may appoint one or more Vice-Chairs to assist him/her,
and to also preside over each Ethics Hearing. As directed by

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 101


Appendix B -PMI Ethical Standards

the Committee Chair, three (3) disinterested members of the


Ethics Review Committee will be assigned to each case, and
will conduct an informal Ethics Hearing designed to collect
and weigh all of the available information and proof, and will
have full authority to convene, preside over, continue, decide,
and conclude an Ethics Hearing.
2. Hearing Schedule, Notice, and Attendance. The hearing date,
time, and location for each ethics case will be scheduled by
the Ethics Review Committee in consultation with the
parties, and both parties will be notified in writing. Each
party may attend the hearing in person or via telephone con-
ference, where all participants will be able to communicate
with each other.
3. Participation of Legal Representatives/Conduct of the Hearing.
Upon request by the Ethics Review Committee, the PMI
Chair, or the PMI Board of Directors, the PMI Legal Counsel
shall be available to assist the Committee at an Ethics
Hearing, with privilege of the floor, and may conduct the
hearing in consultation with the Ethics Review Committee.
Legal or other representatives of the parties do not have
such privilege and are bound by the determinations and
rulings of the Ethics Review Committee and PMI Legal
Counsel. No formal legal rules of evidence, cross-exami-
nation, oath, and other procedures will apply to hearings.
The PMI member or applicant, or a legal representative, will
be permitted to ask questions of witnesses at the discretion
of the Ethics Review Committee. Objections relating to rele-
vance of information and other procedural issues will be
decided by the Ethics Review Committee and these decisions
are not subject to appeal.
4. Hearing Record. A taped, written, or other record of the Ethics
Hearing will be made by the Ethics Review Committee,
another PMI representative, or a stenographer/recorder, as
determined by the Review Committee.
5. Hearing Expenses. Parties will be responsible for their
expenses associated with an ethics investigation or case,
including the costs associated with any witnesses or legal

102 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

counsel. The Institute will bear other general costs of con-


ducting the Ethics Hearing, including costs associated with
the activities of PMI representatives.
6. Closing of the Hearing Record. Any Ethics Hearing may
proceed to a conclusion and decision, whether or not the
parties are present, based on the appropriate written record,
as determined by the Ethics Review Committee. The Review
Committee will review the hearing record, as well as any
submissions presented by the parties and other relevant
information, and thereafter, will determine the outcome of
the ethics case by majority vote in a closed session. The
hearing record will be closed following the conclusion of the
hearing, unless otherwise directed by the Ethics Review
Committee Chair or a Vice-Chair.
7. Ethics Review Committee Decision and Ordet: A Decision and
Order will be prepared by the Ethics Review Committee after
the closing of the record, which will include a summary of
the case, including the positions of the parties; a summary of
relevant factual findings based on the record of the hearing;
a final ruling on the Member Code of Ethics and Member
Standards of Conduct violations charged; and, a statement of
any corrective or disciplinary action(s), and other directives
issued by the Review Committee. Copies of the Ethics
Review Committee Decision and Order shall be sent to the
parties. The parties will also be notified that the final
decision may be published consistent with the requirements
of these procedures.
8. Disciplinary Actions Available. When a Respondent is found
to have violated one or more provisions of the Member Code
of Ethics or Member Standards of Conduct, the Institute may
issue and order one or more of the following disciplinary or
remedial actions:
8.a. The denial and rejection of any PMI membership appli-
cation;
8.b. Private reprimand and censure, including any appro-
priate conditions or directives;
8.c. Public reprimand and censure, including any appro-
priate conditions or directives;

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Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

8.d. Membership probation for any period up to three (3)


years, including any appropriate restrictions or condi-
tions concerning membership rights and any other con-
ditions or directives;
8.e. Suspension of membership status for a period of no less
than six (6) months and no more than three (3) years,
including any appropriate conditions or directives;
8.f. Termination of membership and expulsion from the
Institute.

E. Ethics Appeals Committee/Appeals.


1. Time Period for Submitting Appeal. Within forty-five (45)
days of the mailing date of an adverse Ethics Review Com-
mittee Decision and Order, the Respondent or the Com-
plainant may submit to the PMI Executive Director a written
appeal of all or a portion of the Decision and Order con-
sistent with the requirements of these procedures. The Exec-
utive Director will forward the appeal to the Ethics Appeals
Committee Chair for review, consideration, and assignment.
2. Groundsfor Appeal An adverse Ethics Review Committee
Decision and Order may be reversed or otherwise modified by
the Ethics Appeals Committee. However, the grounds for appeal
of an adverse decision are strictly limited to the following:
2.a. Procedural Error. The Ethics Review Committee misap-
plied a procedure contained in these rules, and the mis-
application prejudiced the appealing party.
2.b. New or Previously Undiscovered Information. Following
the closing of the Hearing Record, the appealing party
has located relevant proof that was not previously in
hisher possession; was not reasonably available prior
to closure of the record; and, could have affected the
Ethics Review Committee decision.
2.c. Misapplication of the Code ofEthics or Standards of
Conduct. The Ethics Review Committee misapplied the
provisions of the Member Code of Ethics or Member
Standards of Conduct, and the misapplication preju-
diced the appealing party.

104 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

2.d. Contrary to the Information Presented. The Ethics Review


Committee decision is contrary to the most substantial
information provided in the record.
2.e. With respect to Subsections 2.a. and 2.c. above, the
Ethics Appeals Committee will consider only arguments
that were presented to the Ethics Review Committee
prior to the closing of the Hearing Record.
3. Contents of Appeal Letter. The appealing party must submit to
the PMI Executive Director a letter or other written doc-
ument directed to the Ethics Appeals Committee and to the
other party, which contains the following information and
material: the ethics case name; the docket number and date
of the Ethics Review Committee Decision; a statement and
complete explanation of the reasons for the appeal under
Section E.2, including an explanation and basis for any
request concerning a reduction in the discipline issued by
the Ethics Review Committee; and, copies of any material
supporting the appeal.

F. Ethics Appeals CommitteeIAppeal Hearings.


1. Ethics Appeals Committee. The PMI Board of Directors will
appoint at least seven (7) PMI members to serve as the
Ethics Appeals Committee to resolve ethics appeals. The PMI
Chair, with Board of Directors approval, will appoint a Com-
mittee Chair from the seven members, who will supervise
the work of the Appeals Committee. The Chair may appoint
one or more Vice-Chairs to assist him/her, and to also
preside over each Appeal Hearing. As directed by the Com-
mittee Chair, three (3) disinterested members of the Appeals
Committee will be assigned to each case, and will have full
authority to convene, preside over, continue, decide, and
conclude an ethics appeal.
2. Appeal Hearings. Following receipt of a complete and proper
written appeal, the Ethics Appeals Committee will schedule a
date on which to conduct an Appeal Hearing, and the parties
will be notified in writing at least forty-five (45) days in
advance of the scheduled date. The Appeals Committee will
review the hearing record, as well as any appeal submissions

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 105


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

presented by the parties and other relevant information, and


thereafter will determine and resolve the appeal by majority
vote in a closed session.
3. Request to Appear Before Ethics Appeals Committee. Either
party may request the opportunity to appear before the
Ethics Appeals Committee in writing at least forty-five (45)
days prior to the date scheduled for the Appeal Hearing. In
the event that a request to appear before the Ethics Appeals
Committee is approved, the Appeals Committee may limit
the appearance in any manner. Denials of requests to appear
before the Appeals Committee are not subject to appeal.
4. Ethics Appeals Committee Decision and Order. Following the
conclusion of an Appeal Hearing, the Ethics Appeals Com-
mittee will issue an Appeal Decision and Order stating: the
outcome and resolution of the appeal, including a summary of
relevant portions of the Ethics Review Committee Decision
and Order; a summary of any relevant procedural or factual
findings made by the Appeals Committee; the Ethics Appeals
Committee's ruling(s) and decision(s) with respect to the
matters under appeal; and, the Appeals Committee's final
Decision and Order accepting, affirming, reversing, amending,
or otherwise modifying any portion of the Ethics Review Com-
mittee Decision and Order, including any final disciplinary
action or sanction issued by the Appeals Committee. Copies of
the Ethics Appeals Committee Decision and Order shall be
sent to the parties. The parties will also be notified that the
final decision may be published, consistent with the require-
ments of these procedures.

G. Finalizing Ethics Cases.


1. Events Which Will Cause Closure of an Ethics Case. An ethics
case will be closed when any of the following occur: the ethics
complaint has been rejected pursuant to these procedures; a
final decision has been issued by the Ethics Review Committee
without appeal pursuant to these procedures; a final decision
has been issued by the Ethics Appeals Committee pursuant to
these procedures; or, an ethics complaint has been terminated
or withdrawn by the Complainant(s).

106 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix B - PMI Ethical Standards

2. Events Which Will Cause an Ethics Case Decision and Order to


Become Final. The Ethics Case Decision and Order issued by
the Ethics Review Committee that is not appealed within the
prescribed time requirements will be considered final. The
Ethics Case Decision and Order issued by the Ethics Appeals
Committee will be considered final.
3. Referral and NotiBcation Actions. PMI may notify appropriate
governmental, professional, or similar bodies of any actions
taken concerning a Respondent by sending a copy of the
final Ethics Case Decision and Order issued by the Ethics
Review Committee and/or the Ethics Appeals Committee, or
by sending another appropriate notice. This notification may
be done at any point after the time period for the
Respondent to appeal an adverse decision has elapsed.
During the appeal period, the Institute may respond to
inquiries regarding the existence of ethics cases and indicate
the existence of such proceedings.
4. Publication of Final Disciplinary Action. PMI may publish a
notification of a final Ethics Case Decision and Order fol-
lowing the issuance of an Ethics Review Committee or Ethics
Appeals Committee decision or ruling. This notification may
be published following the conclusion of any appeals
available to the Respondent. Any party may request publi-
cation of any final decision.

H. Probation and Suspension OrdersIReinstatement


Procedures.
1. Probation Orders/Reinstatement or Referral. Following the
expiration of a final decision/order which includes a pro-
bation requirement under these procedures, the Ethics
Review Committee will determine whether the Respondent
has satisfied the terms of the probation order, and will do
the following: if the Respondent has satisfied the terms of
probation in full, the Review Committee will immediately
verify that the probation has been completed and reinstate
the individual to full membership status following the accep-
tance of a complete membership application and full
payment of all membership dues; or, if the Respondent has

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 107


Appendix B -PMI Ethical Standards

not satisfied the terms of probation in full, the Review Com-


mittee will issue any appropriate action consistent with these
procedures, including, but not limited to, the imposition of
an additional probation term(s).
2. Suspension Orders/Reinstatement Requests. After the expi-
ration of a final decisiodorder which includes a suspension
requirement issued under these procedures, a Respondent
may submit to the Ethics Review Committee a request for
membership reinstatement, which will consist of a written
statement including: the relevant ethics case name, docket
number, and the date that the final Ethics Decision and
Order was issued; a statement of the reasons that support or
justify the acceptance of the reinstatement request; and,
copies of any relevant documentary or other material sup-
porting the request.
3. Ethics Review Committee Reinstatement Request Decisions. Fol-
lowing the submission of a complete membership rein-
statement request, the Ethics Review Committee will
schedule and conduct a hearing to review and rule on the
request. During these deliberations, the Review Committee
will review the information presented by the Respondent
and any other relevant information, and prepare and issue a
final Decision and Order stating whether: the request is
granted, denied, or continued to a later date; and, if appro-
priate, any conditions of membership. Copies of the Review
Committee Decision and Order will be sent to the parties.
While no appeal of the Decision and Order is permitted, the
Respondent may submit a new request pursuant to this
Section, one (1)year or more after the issuance of the
Review Committee Decision and Order rejecting the request.

,108 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C

PMI Components

PMI Chapters

PMI Chapters as of 3 1 December 2000, Non-United States

Potential chapters are indicated by (P), student chapters by (S).


ss Argentina-Buenos Aires
~ra Australia-Melbourne
ss Australia-Sydney
Austria-Styria (P)
iara
bm Austria-West Austria/Lake Constance (P)
~ra Austria-Vienna
~ra Bahamas (P)
m Barbados-Bridgetown (P)
s Belgium-Benelux
rr Bermuda-Hamilton (P)
s Brazil-Brasilia (P)
rr Brazil-Distrito Fedora1 (P)
m Brazil-Minas Gerais
~sr Brazil-Parana (P)
ss Brazil-Rio de Janeiro (P)
BE Brazil-Rio Grande do Sul (P)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 109


Appendix C - PMI Components

R Brazil-Sao Paulo
at Canada-Canada's Technology Triangle (P)
r Canada-Centennial College Student (E S)
R Canada-Durham Highlands (P)
Canada-Fort McMurray, AB
R Canada-Lakeshore, ON (P)
R Canada-Levis, PQ
m Canada-Manitoba
m Canada-Montreal, PQ
PA Canada-New Brunswick
m Canada-Newfoundland & Labrador (P)
r Canada-Northern Alberta
m Canada-Northern Saskatchewan
ra Canada-Nova Scotia
Canada-Ottawa Valley Outaouais, ON
m Canada-Regina/S. Saskatchewan
s Canada-Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., ON (S)
I Canada-Southem Alberta
s Canada-Southem Ontario
r Canada-Thames Valley District, ON
m Canada-Vancouver Island, BC
m Canada-West Coast, BC
s Chile-Santiago
m China-Beijing (P)
r China-East China
a China-Guangzhou (P)
ra China-Hong Kong, SAR
IColombia-Santafe de Bogota
r Costa Rica-Costa Rica (P)
s Croatia-Croatia (Hrvatska) (P)
m Czech Republic (P)
s Denmark-Copenhagen
s Ecuador-Quito (P)
Egypt-MENA (Middle East and North Africa)
s France
m France-Hauts-de-France
s France-France-Sud
PA Germany-Frankfurt
m Germany-Munich

110 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C- PMI Components

r GreeceAthens (P)
m Guatemala-Guatemala (P)
r India-Bangalore (P)
m India-New Delhi (P)
r India-Westem India (P)
r Indonesia-Gadjah Mada University (Ij S)
r Indonesia-Jakarta
r Indonesia-Riau (P)
BI Ireland-Lambay
r Israel
BI Italy-Northern Italy
r Italy-Rome
BI Jamaica-Doctor Bird
r Japan-Tokyo
m Jordan-Jordan (P)
r Kuwait (P)
m Malaysia
r Mexico
m Mexico-Guadalajara (P)
r Mexico-Monterrey
m Mexico-Monterrey @ S)
r Mexico-Puebla (P)
New Zealand
r Norway-Oslo
r Pakistan (P)
Panama-Panama City (P)
a Peru-Lima
a Philippines-Manila
r Portugal-Portugal (P)
m Romania-Romania (P)
r Russia-Moscow
Russia-St. Petersburg
B Saudi Arabia-Arabian Gulf
m Singapore
B Spain-Madrid (P)
m South Africa
B Sweden-Central Sweden
r Switzerland-Switzerland (P)
r Taiwan

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C- PMI Components

r Thailand-Bangkok (P)
lar Trinidad-Southem Caribbean
s Turkey-Ankara
m Turkey-Istanbul (P)
ss Ukraine-Kyiv (P)
rs United Kingdom
BB Uruguay-Montevideo (P)
m Venezuela
m Venezuela-UCAB CIED (Ij S)
r Venezuela-IESA (F: S)
BB Zimbabwe (P)

PMI Chapters as of 3 1 December 2000, United States

Potential chapters are indicated by (P), student chapters by (S).


m AI-Central Alabama
ss &Greater Mobile (P)
&# AI-Tennessee Valley
r AK-Alaska
at AR-Arkansas
AR-Central Arkansas
at AZ-Arizona
s AZ-Phoenix
sls AZ-Thunderbird International (S)
ss AZ-Tucson
I CA-California State University/San Marcos (S)
@ CA- Los Angeles
CA-Los Padres
a CA-Monterey Bay
~sr %Orange County
a CA-Sacramento
rar CA-San Diego
srr CA-San Francisco Bay Area
ti CA-Silicon Valley
I CA- Wine Country
irs~ CO-Mile-Hi
isr CO-Pikes Peak Regional
ss CT-Southern New England
I DC-George Washington University (S)

112 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C -PMI Components

a DC-Washington, DC
FL-Central Florida
lli FL-Northeast Florida
r FGSouth Florida
lli FL-Suncoast
r FGTampa Bay
I GA-Coastal Empire
r GA-Columbus
r GA-Georgia
a GA-Georgia/South Carolina-Savannah River
III HI-Honolulu
m ID-Eastern Idaho
lli ID-Westem Idaho
I IL-Central Illinois
m IL-Illinois/Wisconsin-Midwest
a IN-Calumet
r IN-Central Indiana
I IN-Northeast Indiana
r IN-Southwest Indiana
r IA-Central Iowa
r IA-Eastern Iowa
r KS- KC Mid-America
r KS-Wichita
r KY-Kentuckians
a KY-Kentucky Bluegrass
lli LA-Baton Rouge
LA-Greater New Orleans
s LA-Northwest Louisiana
a LA-Louisiana~Texas-Southwest Louisiana/Southeast Texas
r ME-Maine
a MD-Baltimore
r MD-Southern Maryland
I MA-Central Massachusetts (P)
is MA- Mass Bay
r MI-Great Lakes
is MI-Lawrence Technical University (I! S)
EI MI-Michigan Capital Area
m MI-Michigan Thumb
MI-Westem Michigan

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 113


Appendix C -PMI Components

m MN-Augsburg (S)
r MN-Minnesota
MS-South Mississippi (P)
MO-KC Mid-America
m MO-Metro/St. Louis
r MO-Mid-Missouri
r NE-Heartland
NE-Mid-Nebraska (P)
NE-Southern Nevada
m NH-New Hampshire (P)
r NJ-New Jersey
r NN-Otowi Bridge
NM-Pecos Valley
II NM- Rio Grande
NV-Nevada
r NY-Binghamton
r NY-Buffalo
NY-Hudson Valley
NY-Long Island
NY-New York City
NY-Rochester
m NY-Rochester (S)
II NY-Syracuse
m NY-Upstate New York
B NC-Metrolina
r NC-North Carolina Piedmont Triad
B NC-North Carolina
m NC-Western Carolina University (S)
r ND-North Dakota University (S)
r OH-DaytodMiami Valley
m OH-Central Ohio
m OH-Northeast Ohio
OH-Northwest Ohio
r OH-Southwest Ohio
r OK-Green Country Regional
r OK- Red Earth
OR-Portland
I OR-Willamette Valley
m PA-Delaware Valley

114 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C -PMI Components

s PA-Keystone
IB PA-Pittsburgh
m PR-San Juan
a RI-Ocean State
m SC-Charleston
s SC-Clemson University (S)
m SC-Palmetto
s SC-South Carolina Midlands
rr! TN-East Tennessee
TN-Memphis
rr! TN-Nashville
rr TX-Alamo
ill TX-Amarillo
I TX-Austin
ill TX-Clearlake/Galveston (P)
I TX-Coastal Bend (P)
r r ~ TX-Dallas
m TX-Fort Worth
s TX-Houston
m UT-Northern Utah
s VT-Champlain Valley
VA-Central Virginia
IB VA-Hampton Roads
rr! WA-Inland Northwest (P)
rr WA-Puget Sound
ill WA-Tri-Cities/Columbia Basin
WV-Tri-State
ill WI-Madison/South Central Wisconsin
rr WI-Milwaukee/SE WI

PMI Specific Interest Groups


Potential SIGs are indicated by (P).
@ PMI Aerospace & Defense SIG
E PMI Automation Systems SIG (P)
@ PMI Automotive SIG
E PMI Configuration Management SIG
IB PMI Consulting SIG (P)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix C - PMI Components

B PMI Design/Procurement/Construction SIG


R PMI Dispute Management SIG (P)
PMI Diversity SIG
R PMI E-business SIG
R PMI Education & Training SIG
B PMI Environmental Management SIG
B PMI Financial Services SIG
R PMI Global Communications Technologies SIG
R PMI Government SIG
R PMI Hospitality Management SIG (P)
R PMI Information Systems SIG
PMI International Development SIG (P)
PMI Manufacturing SIG
m PMI Marketing & Sales SIG
fl PMI Metrics SIG
PMI New Product Development SIG
R PMI Oil, Gas, Petrochemical SIG
PMI Pharmaceutical SIG
R PMI Program Management Office (PMO) SIG (P)
PMI Quality in Project Management SIG
R PMI Real Estate Development SIG (P)
B PMI Retail SIG
R PMI Risk Management SIG
a PMI Service & Outsourcing SIG
B PMI Students of Project Management SIG
m PMI Troubled Projects SIG (P)
PMI Urban Development SIG (P)
PMI Utility Industry SIG
B PMI Women in Project Management SIG
R PMI Web SIG (P)

I
PMI College
College of ~erforhanceManagement
(PMI Worldwide Component Affairs Depamnent 2001)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix D

PMI Professional Awards

PMI Project of the Year Award

Award Recipients 1989-2000

1989 Project Title: DELTA AIRLINES TERMINAL 5 EXPANSION AT LAX


Submitted by: Daniel, Man, Johnson & Mendenhall
1990 Project Title: LIMERICK GENERATING STATION UNIT 2
Submitted by: Philadelphia Electric Company
1991 Project Title:NEW PROPYLENWPOLYPROPYLENEFACTORY FOR
SASAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (PTY) LTD.
Submitted by: Sastech
1992 Project Title: ATIGUN MAINLINE REROUTE PROJECT
Submitted by: Alaska Pipeline Service Company
1993 Project Title: METRO RED LINE SEGMENT 1PROJECT
Submitted by: Rail Construction Corporation
1994 Project Title: LOGAN EXPANSION PROJECT
Submitted by: Fluor Daniel, Inc.
1995 Project Title: BENFIELD COLUMN REPAIR PROJECT
Submitted by: Sastech Engineering Services
1996 Project Title: 1B PROCESSOR STORY
Submitted by: Lucent Technologies

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 117


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards 1

1997 Project Title: ADVAN~IX,ADVANCED PHOTO SYSTEM


Submitted by: Eastman Kodak Company
1998 Project Title: MARS
Submitted by: Jet Pro
1999 Project Title: QATAR~AS LNG PLANT
Submitted by: chiyodd Corporation
I
2000 Project Title:T R O J A ~REACTOR VESSEL AND INTERNALS REMOVAL
PROJECT
Submitted by: Portland General Electric Company

PMI Professional wards Program Recognition


1974-2000 I

PMI Honorary Life &ember Award


Year ~ecipidnt
1974 Major General John G. Albert
1975 Gerald A. Williams
1976 Steven V. White
1978 James R. Snyder, PMI Founder, PMI Fellow
1979 Matthew H. Parry, PMF: PMI Fellow
1981 Dr. John W. Fondahl, PMI Fellow
1982 Dr. John R. Adams, PMF: PMI Fellow
1983 William H. Robinson
1984 Eric Jenett, PMF: PMI Founder, PMI Fellow
1985 Earl W. Feight, PMI Fellow
1999 Brian Fletcher, PMI Fellow

PMI Fellow Award


Year Recipient
1982 Dr. John W. Fondahl
Eric Jenett, PMF: PMI Founder
Matthew H. Parry, PMP
James R. Snyder, PMI Founder
1983 Dr. J. Gordon Davis, PMI Founder
David H. Morton
Dr. John R. Adams, PMP
Robert B. Gillis
1984 Regula A. Brunies

118 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

1986 Earl W. Feight


Kenneth 0.Hartley, PMP
Dr. Linn C. Stuckenbruck
Robert G. Staples
1987 Dr. David L. Cleland
Henry F. Padgham, PMP
1988 Brian Fletcher
1989 Russell D. Archibald, PMP
Dr. Lewis R. Ireland, PMP
Charles Y Lopinsky, PMP
James O'Brien, PMP
R. Max Wideman
1990 Dr. Martin Dean Martin
1991 Douglas S. Egan, Jr.
Dr. Francis M. Webster, Jr., PMP
1992 J. D. "Kaay" Koch, PMP
1994 Fred Arnold, SE
Paul Dinsmore, PMP
Elvin lsgrig
Mary Devon O'Brien, PMP
Robert Yourzak, PMP
1996 Bryan R. A. McConachy, PEng., PMP
1997 Jenny Strbiak
Dick Balfour
1998 Harvey Levine
David H. Curling
Dr. Roger B. Glaser
1999 David L. Pells, PMP
Ronald PC. Waller, PMR CEM
Robert L. Kimmons, PE, PMP

PMI Linn Stuckenbruck Person of the Year

Year Recipient
1976 Dr. David C. Murphy
1978 James R. Snyder, PMI Founder, PMI Fellow
1979 lvars Avots
1980 Dr. J. Gordon Davis, PMI Founder, PMI Fellow

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 119


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

David Morton
Regula A. Brunies
Carl W. Strohl
Dr. Lewis R. Ireland, PMP
Kenneth 0.Hartley, PMF: PMI Fellow
R. Max Wideman, PMI Fellow
Douglas S. Egan, Jr., PMI Fellow
Dr. Francis M. Webster, Jr., PMF: PMI Fellow
Brian Fletcher, PMI Fellow
Rodney J. Dawson
Dr. J. Davidson Frame, Jr., PMP
William S. Ruggles, PMP
David Pells, PMF: PMI Fellow

PMI Distinguished Contribution Award


Year Recipient
1980 Dr. Linn C. Stuckenbruck, PMI Fellow
1982 Albert A. Badger, PMP
Charles Y Lopinsky, PMF: PMI Fellow
1983 Dr. Desmond L. Cook
Trent 0. Meacham
Brian Fletcher, PMI Fellow
Dr. David I. Cleland, PMI Fellow
James O'Brien, PMF: PMI Fellow
1984 Warren E. Allen, PMP
Dr. Terry L. Kinnear
Kenneth J. Romano
Allan J. Smith, Jr., PMP
1985 Walter Wawruck, PMP
Janet R. Steelman
Dr. Lewis R. Ireland, PMR PMI Fellow
R. Max Wideman, PMI Fellow
Dr. Martin Dean Martin, PMI Fellow
1986 Paul C. Dinsmore, PMF: PMI Fellow
Brian R. McConachy, REng., PMF: PMI Fellow
Dr. Boyd C. Paulson, Jr.
Dr. Mark A. Smith, PMP
James H. Witter
1987 Boyd Henderson
Frank Jenes

120 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

Vim Kochar
Christine A. Trautwein
Dr. Francis M. Webster, Jr., PMP PMI Fellow

Dr. Roger Glaser, PMI Fellow


Dr. Stephen D. Owens

Randall L. Bakel, PMP


Harvey A. Levine, PMI Fellow
Patrice L. Murphy
Ozro West, PMP
A.C. "Fred" Baker
Dr. J. Gordon Davis, PMI Founder, PMI Fellow
Don Barrie
Ashok 'A.K." Kothari
Neville Long

Richard W. Kimball
Ronald KC. Waller, PMF: CEM, PMI Fellow
Rushton M. Williamson, Jr., PMP
Frederick A. Arnold, SE, PMI Fellow
Dr. David I. Cleland, PMI Fellow
Dr. J. Davidson Frame, Jr., PMP
Elvin D. Isgrig, PMI Fellow
Joel Koppelman
Pierre M. Menard, Eng, MBA, PMP
Wayne L. Muzzy, PMP
Dan Ono, PMP
James M. Gallagher, PMP
Lee R. Lambert, PMP
Lyle W. Lockwood, PMP
Wally Merrin
Chris Quaife, PMP
William Duncan, PMP
James D. Klanke, PMP
Saralee Newell, PMP
William S. Ruggles, PMP
Ahmet Taspinar, PMP

1997 Kenneth 0. Hartley, PMR PMI Fellow


Paul D. Lustig, PMP
Dr. Jeffery K. Pinto

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 121


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

Dr. Hans J. Thamhain, PMP


Adesh Jain, PMP
Karen R. White, PMP
1998 David C. Blackburn, PMP
Gerald W. Ostrander, PMP
Beth Partleton, PMP
Hiroshi Tanaka, PMP
1999 MaryGrace T. Allenchy, PMP
Sharon Sikes
Wayne Abba
Gregory G. Stine, PMP
Vijay Verma
2000 William A. Moylan, PMP

PMI David I. Cleland Project Management Literature Award


Year Recipient
1999 Vijay Verma

PMI Eric Jenett Project Management Excellence Award


Year Recipient
1998 Kenneth 0. Hartley, PMR PMI Fellow

PMI Educational Foundation Award and Scholarship


Recognition 1979-2000

Donald S. Barrie Award Recipients


1999 John L. Homer, BMW Constructors, Inc. for his paper,
"Project Triage, Giving Emergency Help to an Out-of-
Control Project"
2000 Vikas Joshi and Thomas Cook, Bechtel Corporation and
Richard Bonner, Eastman Chemical Company, for their
paper, "Project Management Approach for Small Capital
Projects"

PMI Educational Foundation International Student Paper of


the Year Award Recipients

1979* Jonas Ulenas, Polytechnic Institute of New York

122 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

"Project Effectiveness: A Simulation Study of Some


Causes of Time and Cost Overruns"
Sponsor: Prof. I. Wirth
Robert N. Harvey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
"Project Management in the Design Firm: The
Development of a Diagnostic Model"
Sponsor: Hans Bjoinsson
Paul Hart De Leon, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
"Expanding Non-Specialist Participation in Development
Project Management"
Jill Anne Green, Memphis State University, Memphis, TN
"Management for Research Projects: A Synergistic
Model"
Sponsor: Dr. Fred Swift
Michael D. Stall, University of Texas, Austin, TX
'Analyzing and Improving Productivity with
Computerized Questionnaires and Delay Surveys"
Sponsor: Colin Popescu, Ph.D.
Capt. John Ward, Air Staff, Washington, DC
"Project Management Cost Estimate: A Case Study
in Electronic Warfare System Flight Tests Costs"
Sponsor: Dr. Panna Nagarsenker, Air Force lnsitutute
of Technology
Nelson E. King, Anaconda Minerals Company
'A Decision Support System for Mine Evaluations"
Sponsor: Bob Miller, Anaconda Minerals Co.
Suresh K. Tadisina, University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH
"Support System for the Termination Decision in R&D
Management"
Sponsor: Samuel J. Mantel, Jr.
1987 Glen Jansma, Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin, TX
"The Relationship between Project Manning Levels and
Craft Productivity for Nuclear Power Construction"
Sponsor: John Borcherding
1988 Richard Desbiens, M.SC.; Rejean Houde, M.SC.;
Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Quebec, CANADA

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 123


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

'Archipel Feasibility Study: A Questionable Consensus


Approach"
Sponsor: Pierre Normandeau, Ph.D.
Sherri L. Sweetman, George Washington University,
Washington, DC
"Utilizing Expert Systems to Improve the Configuration
Management Process"
Sponsor: Dr. Richard G. Donnelly
Bryce G. Schroder, Portland State University, Portland, OR
"Estimation Issues in Software Project Management"
Sponsor: Dr. Dundar E Kocaoglu
Capt. Korina L. Kobylarz, Air Force Institute of
Technology (AFIT), Wright-Patterson AFB,OH
"Establishing a Department of Defense Project
Management Body of Knowledge"
Chotchai Charoenngam, University of Texas at Austin
"Utilization of Influence Diagram for the Design and
Integration of the Construction and Measurement
Control Environment"
Sponsor: Dr. Calin Popescu
Guven lyigun, Portland State University, Portland, OR
'A Decision Support System for R&D Project Selection
and Resource Allocation under Uncertainty''
Sponsor: Dr. Dundar E Kocaoglu
Pasit Lorterapong, Concordia University, Montreal,
Quebec, CANADA
'A Fuzzy Heuristic Method for Resource-Constrained
Project Scheduling"
Sponsor: Osama Moselhi, Ph.D., PE
James G. Casler, Fargo, ND
"Management of Research and Development Project in
Small Technical Services Companies""
Sponsor: John R. Cook, Ph.D.
Connie L. Guss, Vancouver, BC, CANADA
"Virtual Project Management: Tools and the Trade"
Sponsor: Francis Hartman, Ph.D., PEng.

124 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix D - PMI Professional Awards

lnes Siqueira, Westmount, Quebec, CANADA


'Automated Cost Estimating System Using Neural
Networks"
Sponsor: Osama Moselhi, Ph.D., PE
Diane S Hayes, Nova Southeastern University, Ft.
Lauderdale, FL
"Evaluation and Application of a Project Charter
Template to Improve the Project Planning Process"
Sponsor: Susan Fife Edorchak, Ph.D.
Valerie Lynne Herzog, University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, CANADA
"Trust Building on Corporate Collaboration"
Sponsor: Dr. George Jergeas
Wendy E. Stewart, Algonquin College of Applied Arts and
Technology, Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA
"Balanced Scorecard for Project"
Sponsor: Prof. Anthony Tsoukanas
*First Award for this Program

PMI Educational Foundation Robert J. Yourzak Scholarship


Recipients
1999-2000 Jiwan Giri, Master of Science Candidate, Project
Management Program, School of Business and Public
Management
The George Washington University, Washington, DC
2000-2001 Sunil K. Dewan, Masters Candidate, Project
Management Program, School of Business and Public
Management
The George Washington University, Washington, DC

PMI Educational Foundation Wilson-Zells Academic Grant


Recipients
1999-2000 Connie L. Delisle, Ph.D. Candidate, Project
Management Program
The University of Calgary, Alberta, CANADA
2000-2001 Jiwan Giri, Ph.D. Candidate, lnformation Technology
School of lnformation Technology and Engineering
George Mason University, Fairfax, VA
(The PMI Project Management Fact Book 1999; www.pmi.org)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 125


Appendix E

PMI Registered Education


Providers

PMI Charter Providers


Advanced Management Services, Inc.
Asean Project Manager's Cntr. of Exc.
Atlantic Management Center, Inc.
Baker Barnes Associates, Inc.
Bates Project Management, Inc. (BPMI)
Bay 3000 Consulting
Boston University Corporate Ed. Cntr.
CADENCE Management Corporation
H Capitol View Consulting, Inc.
Center for Project Excellence
CITI Limited
Corporate Project Management Group
Davis & Dean, Inc.
Delta Integracion Corporativa, S.A. de C.K
H Dexheimer, Hillyard, and Associates, LLC
e-Training at ESI International
m EDS/Center for Industry Learning (CIL)
EpicEdge

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

B! ESI International
188 EXP Consulting, Limited
B EI.Group, Inc.
B! Fissure Corporation
I Franklin-Covey Company
m Global Project Management Group
I IBM Learning Services
a INFINITA S.C.
%aInnovators International, Inc.
a International Institute for Learning, Inc.
B! Interpro ADF Corporation
kaa ISIM University
B! J.J. Glatt & Associates
a Keane, Inc.
I Kimmons-Asaro Group Ltd., Inc.
aw Lawrence Technological University CEPD
m Management Concepts, Inc.
B Management Worlds, Inc.
B MartinTate
sr NETg
m Paradigm Learning, Inc.
r Paradigm Management Incorporated
rn PC1 Global, Inc.
Pittsburgh Project Management Cntr.
a PM Advisors, Inc.
a PM Solutions, Proj. Mgt. College
kaa PMCC, Inc.
m PrimeLearning.com
kaa Project Management Group, Inc.
a Project Management Leadership Group
aw Project Management Prof. Learning, Ltd.
a Project Management Services, Inc.
aw Project Mentors, Inc.
B! PSM Consulting Services
ti% Ruggles & Associates, Inc.
ta Schulich School of Business, York University Div. of
Executive Development
sls Skillsoft, Inc.
r SmartForce, Ltd.

128 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

n SPMgroup, Ltd.
Strategic Management Group, Inc.
r Systemation
r University of California, Irvine Ext.
a University of Wisconsin-Madison
n Westney Project Services, Inc.

PMI Global Providers


r AB&Partners
r Action for Results, Inc.
m AlphaNet Solutions, Inc.
m American Graduate University
m Artemis Management Systems
r Bellevue University
r Business Management Consultants
n CDI Corporate Education Services
m Centre for Project Management, University of Limerick
Center for Project Management
m Center for Systems Management
r Cheetah Learning LLC
n City University
r College of Southern MD, La Plata Campus
r Colorado State University Denver Center
Compliance Automation, Inc.
m Element K
m Enterprise Project Management, Ltd.
n Ericsson Project Management Institute
Emoteam SPA.
r Future Engineering
a Georgia Institute of Technology-College of Computing-
Continuing Education
r Global Knowledge (UK), Ltd.
n Hampton Group, Inc.
r Holland & Davis, Inc.
r Humphreys & Associates, Inc.
n Infotech Management
r Integrated Management Systems
r Integrated Strategies, Incorporated

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 129


Appendix E -PMI Registered Education Providers

m Istud SPA
r Kepner-Tregoe, Inc.
ra Key Skills, Limited
rr Learning Tree International
~rMbpNet
r Moore, Couture, & Associates, Inc.
~rPanurgem PTY LTD.
r PDI International, Inc.
s Perot Systems Corporation
r Pinnacleone
r PM Concepts, Inc.
r Polar Bear Software Corporation
r Praxis Management International, LLC
r Priority Management
Procept Associates, Ltd.
RI Productivity Partners, Inc.
Project Management Resources
RI Project Management Technologies, Inc.
r Project Masters, Inc.
RI PVI
m QA Training
R3D Information and Technology. Inc.
RMC Project Management
r Robbins-Gioia, Inc.
ra Siemens Business Services (SBS) Management Consulting
and Training
r Skills for You, Inc.
rr SKOPE, S.A. De C.V
r Soft Tech Development, Inc.
r SOMOS Consulting Group, Ltd.
III S.P Jain Institute of Management & Research
r STI, Skills Transfer International
III Stonebridge Technologies, Inc.
rr Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey-CSIM
ra TECHNOLOGIA
r Technology Management Associates
r TeraQuest Metrics, Inc.
m Tercon, Inc.
m The CBT Workshop

130 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

The Federal Marketing Group, Ltd.


The Gannt Group
The Projects Group, PLC
RI The University of Texas at Dallas, Executive Education
Program
Tiba Managementberatung GmbH
Twin Star Consulting Co.
University of CA, Berkeley Extension- Dept. of Business &
Management
m University of Management and Technology
University of Maryland, A.J. Clark School of Engineering
n University of NE Partnerships Pty Ltd.
Zervigon International, Ltd.

PMI Basic and Corporate Providers


r ABB Support AB
ACM-Administrative Controls, Management, Inc.
Alpha Consultoria De Proyectos, S.A. De C.V
m Analytic Project Management
And Proje Yonetime, Iieltisim Hizmetleri Ve Ticaret A.S.
Art of Consulting, Inc.
r AT&T
r Babcock Borsig AG
rr Baldwin-Wallace College, Center for Professional
Management
Bank of Montreal, Institute for Learning
m Beijing Modem Management Technology Exchange
Bentley College
Blakemore Consulting
m Bryant College, Executive Development Center
Cabinet Conseil Developpement (CCDI), Inc.
RI Canadian Institute of Computer Technology
Child Care Council of Greater Houston, Inc.
III Compaq Computer Corporation
is Computer Sciences Corporation
RI Computer Systems Professionals
u Coretech Consulting Group, Inc.
m Dale L. Stewart, PMP

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 131


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

rn David Francis
~i Dinamo, Consultoria em Qualidade, Gestao e Technologias
de Informacao, S.A.
a Dinsmore Associates
B DM Consulting Group, LLC
a DMR Consulting Group, Inc.
a Durham College & University Centre
QI E3 Project Management
QI Egyptian Project Management Consultancy (EPM)
B Escala, PM, Systems and Training
ac Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.
PA Ethier Associates
a Federal Publications Seminars, LLC
ws Fleet CCS
481 Grupo A&C
481 Gulfstream Organizational Learning & Development
na Heron Bay Group
B Huson Bay Consulting
a Individual Software, Inc.
rn INTouch International
a Institute for International Research
a Instituto de Direccion de Proyectos
m Interconnection of Somerset, Inc.
~rs! IQPC
ws JFGP
J. Ray McDermott Middle East, Inc. (JRMMEI)
ea Lee & Mac Consulting
481 Lucent Technologies Lng. & Perf. Cntr.
iak! Management Solutions
m Management Solutions Group, Inc.
B Management Training & Development Center
a Maxwell & Associates
481 McGill International Executive Institute
iak! MCrWorldCom Global Implementation Project Management
(GIPM)
sn MDS SCIEX
481 Mornigton Consulting Partners
rn Mount Royal College, Faculty of Cont. Education &
Extension

132 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

B Mutual of Omaha
B National Center for Continuing Education
B National University
& NCR Italy
Nelson Consulting Associates (NCA, Inc.)
Niagara College of Applied Arts & Technology
Oak Associates, Inc.
r Omega Management Education Group
a Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
r Patrick Engineering
B Performance Knowledge, LLC
B Performance Management Associates, Inc.
B Perryman Group, Inc.
Pfizer, Inc.
& PGCC Technologie/Q-LABS FRANCE
Phillips Petroleum Company
& PILAT Technologies International, Ltd.
PlanTech, Inc.
PM Preview Corporation
B PMSOFT Korea, Ltd.
r Poliedra-Politecnico di Milano/Emoteam
a Pritchard Management Associates
B Procurement Division, Dept. of General Services, State of
California
Project Assistants, Inc.
Project Management Associates, Inc.
Project Solutions of Rochester, Inc.
& Prosys Bangun Nusantara, PT
a Prosys Bangun Persada
& RCC Consultants
Renaissance Worldwide, Inc.
r Roadway Express, Inc.
r Sabcons Project Management Consultants
a San Jose State University Professional Development
r Software Quality Institute, University of Texas at Austin
B Solutions Network, Inc.
B State of Oregon Technical Education Program
Syntel, Inc.
Technicalprojects.com

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 133


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

m TechLink Training, Inc.


R Telcordia Technologies
The Consulting Alliance Group, LLC.
R The Dayton Group, Inc. (TDG)
m The Institute for Professional Education
B TrainersDirect
m U.S. West Center for Program Mgt.
m UCSD Extension
R University Extension, University of CA-Davis
m URS Corporation
R Vencor, Inc.
Wang Global-Wang Government Services
B Watermark Technical Services, Inc.
B Winning Ways Management, Inc.
@ Xerox Connect, Inc.

PMI Association Providers


m The Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA)
Korean Institute of Project Management & Technology
(PROW

PMI Component Providers


B PMI Alamo Chapter
111 PMI Austin Chapter
rrt PMI Automotive SIG
PMI Baltimore Chapter
B PMI Baton Rouge Chapter
m PMI Brasilia (Potential) Chapter
R PMI Central Alabama Chapter
R PMI Central Indiana Chapter
m PMI Central Illinois Chapter
R PMI Central Iowa Chapter
m PMI Central Ohio Chapter
PMI Central Virginia Chapter
rr PMI Champlain Valley Chapter
111 PMI College of Performance Management (CPM)

134 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


'
Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

D PMI Copenhagen, Denmark Chapter


r PMI Dallas Chapter
B PMI DaytodMiami Valley Chapter
r PMI Delaware Valley Chapter
D PMI Design-Procurement-Construction SIG
r PMI Doctor Bird Chapter
r PMI E-Business SIG
D PMI East Tennessee Chapter
u PMI Eastern Iowa Chapter
PMI Education & Training SIG
u PMI Environmental Management SIG
PMI Fort Worth Chapter
H PMI Frankfurt Chapter
PMI Georgia Chapter
PMI Global Communications Technology SIG
u PMI Great Lakes Chapter
D PMI Greater New Orleans Chapter
u PMI Heartland Chapter
PMI Honolulu Chapter
PMI Houston Chapter
u PMI Hudson Valley Chapter
PMI Information Systems SIG
PMI Istanbul Chapter
PMI KC Mid America Chapter
PMI Keystone Chapter
PMI Levis, PQ Chapter
PMI Los Angeles Chapter
PMI Malaysia Chapter
u PMI Marketing & Sales SIG
PMI Mass Bay Chapter
PMI Melbourne Chapter
m PMI Metro/ St. Louis Chapter
rn PMI Mexico Chapter
PMI Michigan Thumb Chapter
B PMI Mid-Missouri Chapter
rt PMI Midwest Chapter
m PMI Mile Hi Chapter
rt PMI Minas Gerais Chapter
PMI Minnesota Chapter

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 135


Appendix E - PMI Registered Education Providers

r PMI Montreal Chapter


m PMI Moscow Chapter
r PMI Munich Chapter
r PMI New Jersey Chapter
m PMI New York City Chapter
PMI New Zealand Chapter
a PMI North Carolina Chapter
r PMI Northeast Florida Chapter
a PMI Northeast Indiana Chapter
r PMI Northern Utah Chapter
PMI Northwest Ohio Chapter
PMI Nova Scotia Chapter
R PMI Orange County Chapter
r PMI Ottawa Valley Outaouais, ON Chapter
mi PMI Palmetto Chapter
s PMI Pharmaceutical SIG
~rPMI Pikes Peak Regional Chapter
m PMI Pittsburgh Chapter
H PMI Marketing & Sales SIG
r PMI Portland Chapter
PMI Program Management Office (PMO) SIG
m PMI Puget Sound Chapter
r PMI Red Earth Chapter
PMI Regina/S. Saskatchewan Chapter
PMI Retail SIG
la PMI Rio Grande Chapter
R PMI Risk Management SIG
R PMI Sacramento Chapter
R PMI San Diego Chapter
R PMI San Francisco Bay Area Chapter
s PMI Santiago Chapter
rr PMI Savannah River Chapter
PMI Silicon Valley Chapter
~rPMI South Florida Chapter
R PMI Southern Ontario Chapter
PMI Southwest Ohio Chapter
PMI Suncoast Chapter
r PMI Tampa Bay Chapter
PMI Tokyo, Japan

136 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix E -PMI Registered Education Providers

a PMI United Kingdom Chapter


II PMI Upstate New York Chapter
a PMI Venezuela Chapter
ar PMI Washington, DC Chapter
ar PMI West Coast, BC Chapter
lar PMI Western Idaho Chapter
rar PMI Western Michigan Chapter
M PMI Wichita Chapter
II PMI Williamette Valley Chapter

(PMI Education Department 2001)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 137


Appendix F

PMP Code of Professional Conduct

As a PMI" Project Management Professional (PMP"), I agree to


support and adhere to the responsibilities described in the PMP
Code of Conduct.

I. Responsibilities to the Profession


A. Compliance with all Organizational Rules and Policies
1. Responsibility to provide accurate and truthful
representations concerning all information directly or
indirectly related to all aspects of the PMI Certification
Program, including and not limited to the following:
examination applications, test item banks, examinations,
answer sheets, candidate information, and professional
development program reporting forms.
2. Upon a reasonable and clear factual basis, responsibility to
report possible violations of the PMP Code of Professional
Conduct by individuals in the field of project management.
3. Responsibility to cooperate with PMI concerning ethics
violations and the collection of related information.
4. Responsibility to disclose to clients, customers, owners, or
contractors, significant circumstances that could be
construed as a conflict of interest, or an appearance of
impropriety.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 139


Appendix F -PMP Code of Professional Conduct

B. CandidatelcertificantProfessional Practice
1. Responsibility to provide accurate, truthful advertising and
representations concerning qualifications, experience, and
performance of services.
2. Responsibility to comply with laws, regulations, and ethical
standards governing professional practice in the
state/province and/or country when providing project
management services.
C. Advancement of the Profession
1. Responsibility to recognize and respect intellectual property
developed or owned by others, and to otherwise act in an
accurate, truthful, and complete manner, including all
activities related to professional work and research.
2. Responsibility to support and disseminate the PMP Code of
Professional Conduct to other PMI certificants.

II. Responsibilities to Customers and the Public


A. Qualifications, Experience, and Performance of Professional
Services
1. Responsibility to provide accurate and truthful
representations to the public in advertising, public
statements, and in the preparation of estimates concerning
costs, services, and expected results.
2. Responsibility to maintain and satisfy the scope and
objectives of professional services, unless otherwise directed
by the customer.
3. Responsibility to maintain and respect the confidentiality of
sensitive information obtained in the course of professional
activities or otherwise where a clear obligation exists.
B. Conflict of Interest Situations and Other Prohibited
Professional Conduct
1. Responsibility to ensure that a conflict of interest does not
compromise legitimate interests of a client or customer, or
influence/interfere with professional judgments.

140 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix F- PMP Code of Professional Conduct

2. Responsibility to refrain from offering or accepting


inappropriate payments, gifts, or other forms of
compensation for personal gain, unless in conformity with
applicable laws or customs of the country where project
management services are being provided.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 141


Appendix G

Project Management Degree


Programs

Following is a listing representative of many of the institutions of


higher learning that offer undergraduate and graduate degree
programs in project management. It may not be comprehensive,
nor is this list in any way an endorsement or recommendation
of any particular school or degree program.

Bachelor's Degree Programs


li Leeds Metropolitan University
~sr University of Northumbria at Newcastle I

B University of Phoenix ~
m University of Sydney, Department of Civil Engineering
University of Western Sydney, Nepean School of
Management

Master's Degree Programs


American Graduate University
m Bournemouth University
City University

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 1 143


Appendix G - Project Management Degree Programs

Colorado Technical University


n Curtin University of Technology School of Architecture,
Construction and Planning
s Denver Technical College
rn George Washington University School of Business and Public
Management, The
ar Golden Gate University
ra Henley Management College
ra ISGI - Lille Graduate School of Management
IM Keller Graduate School of Management
rn YUniversitC des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Les
Instituts #Administration des Entreprises
s Lancaster University Department of Engineering: Electronic
& Mechanical Engineering, Fac of Apl Sci.
rn Leeds Metropolitan University
I Montana State University
n Montana Tech of The University of Montana
Northwestern University - Robert R. McCormick School of
Engineering & Applied Science
n Regis University - School of Professional Studies
la Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University (RMIT)
arr South Bank University
n Stevens Institute of Technology- Wesley J. Howe School of
Technology Management
ra Texas A&M University
ar Unitec Institute of Technology
rs UniversitC du QuCbec A Chicoutimi
ar UniversitC du Quebec A Hull - International Business Project
Management
n Universite du QuCbec A MontrCal - Ecole des Sciences de la
Gestion
s UniversitC du QuCbec A Rimouski
UniversitC du QuCbec A Trois-Rivieres
IM UniversitC du QuCbec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue
rn University of Aberdeen
ra University of Bradford Faculty of Social Sciences and
Humainites Development & Project Planning
la University of Calgary Department of Civil Engineering
a University of Derby, Derbyshire Business School

144 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix G - Project Management Degree Programs

HI University of Limerick College of Business


ar University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
(UMIST)
ta University of Maryland, A.J. Clark School of Engineering
E University of Northumbria at Newcastle
ra University of Portsmouth Centre of Project and Quality
Management
I University of Reading
rs! University of San Diego
&4 University of South Australia
University of Sunderland School of Computing, Engineering
and Technology
sr University of Sydney Department of Civil Engineering
s University of Texas at Austin
ss University of Ulster
r University of Western Sydney, Nepean School of
Management
sr University of Wisconsin - Platteville
ast Victoria University Faculty of Engineering & Science
sl Western Carolina University

Doctoral Degree Programs


ast Stevens Institute of Technology - Wesley J. Howe School of
Technology Management
rn University of Aberdeen
ata University of Calgary Department of Civil Engineering
r University of Maryland, A.J. Clark School of Engineering
ar University of Portsmouth Centre of Project and Quality
Management
a University of Sydney Department of Civil Engineering
aa University of Texas at Austin
a! University of Western Sydney, Nepean School of Management
(PMI Research Department, May 2001)

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 145


Appendix H

PMI Annual Seminars &


Symposium Sites and Dates
1969-2000

Atlanta, Georgia 9-10 October


St. Louis, Missouri 22-24 October
Houston, Texas 14-16 October
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 18-21 October
Toronto, Ontario (Canada) 22-24 October
Washington, DC 18- 21 September
San Francisco, California 19-22 October
Montreal, Quebec (Canada) 6-8 October
Chicago, Illinois 23-26 October
Los Angeles, California 8- 11 October
Atlanta, Georgia 17-20 October
Phoenix, Arizona 27-29 October
Boston, Massachusetts 28-30 September
Toronto, Ontario (Canada) 4-6 October
Houston, Texas 17-19 October
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 6-10 October
Denver, Colorado 7-9 October
Montreal, Quebec (Canada) 19-24 September
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 2-7 October
San Francisco, California 17- 21 September
Atlanta, Georgia 7-11 October

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 147


Appendix H - PMI Annual Seminars &SymposiumSites and Dates 1969-2000

Calgary, AB (Canada) 13-17 October


Dallas, Texas 28 September-2 October
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 17-24 September
San Diego, California 1-6 October
Vancouver, BC (Canada) 14-20 October
New Orleans, Louisiana 13-19 October
Boston, Massachusetts 4-10 October
Chicago, Illinois 2 6 September-:! October
Long Beach, California 9-15 October
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 10-16 October
Houston, Texas 7-16 September
(The PMIProject Management Fact Book 1999; 2000 in Review 2001,ll)

148 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix I

Countries with PMI Members


as of 3 1 December 2000

r Algeria R Chile
@ Anguilla H China
I Argentina H Colombia
Aruba H Costa Rica
Australia Cote D'iviore
Austria H Croatia
Azerbaijan Cuba
m Bahamas H Cyprus
@ Bahrain R Czech Republic
r Barbados R Denmark
B Belarus m Dominican Republic
s Belgium Ecuador
~rBermuda Egypt
s Bolivia I El Salvador
B Botswana England
s Brazil r Estonia
sl Brunei Darussalam I Ethiopia
Bulgaria I Finland
l e ~ Canada m France
rr Cayman Islands ill Gambia
rr Channel Islands r Germany

The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Appendix I -Countries with PMI Members as of 3 1 December 2 0 0 0

w Ghana w Poland
w Greece w Portugal
w Guyana w Qatar
w Hong Kong w Romania
w Hungary w Russia
w Iceland w Saint Lucia
w India w Saudi Arabia
w Indonesia Scotland
Iran w Singapore
Ireland w Slovak Republic
Israel w Slovenia
Italy w South Africa
w Jamaica w South Korea
Japan w Spain
w Jordan Sri Lanka
w Kenya H Suriname
w Korea Sweden
Kuwait w Switzerland
w Latvia Taiwan
w Lebanon Thailand
Lithuania w Trinidad And Tobago
Luxemborg 'Ibrkey
Malaysia w U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
m Malta w Uganda
Mauritius w Ukraine
m Mexico m United Arab Emirates
Netherlands w Uruguay
w Netherlands Antilles United States of America
w New Zealand Venezuela
a Nicaragua w Virgin Islands (U.S.)
w Nigeria w Wales
w Northern Ireland w West Indies
w Norway w Yugoslavia
Oman Zambia
w Pakistan Zimbabwe
w Panama
w Papua New Guinea (PMI Membership Services Department
2001)
w Peru
w Philippines

150 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Glossary

This glossary contains some of the acronyms and definitions that


are most commonly used in project management. A more complete
list of both can be found in A Guide to the Project Management Body
of Knowledge (PMBOKm Guide) - 2000 Edition. This glossary also
contains most of the acronyms used in the text of this publication.

Acronyms
CAQ" Certificate of Added Qualification
EV Eamed Value
EVM Eamed Value Management
OBS Organizational Breakdown Structure
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PM Project Management or Project Manager
PMBOR Project Management Body of Knowledge
PMI" Project Management Institute
PMP Project Management Professional
QA Quality Assurance
QC Quality Control
R.E.P. Registered Education Provider
RFP Request for Proposal
SOW Statement of Work
TQM Total Quality Management
WBS Work Breakdown Structure

Definitions
These definitions were selected fromA Guide to the R o j e c t Management
Body of Knowledge (PMBOP Guide) - 2000 Edition.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 151


Activity. An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity
normally has an expected duration, an expected cost, and expected resource
requirements. Activities can be subdivided into tasks.
Application Area. A category of projects that have common elements not present
in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the
product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry sectors) or the
type of customer (e.g., internal versus external, government versus com-
mercial). Application areas often overlap.
Bar Chart. A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart,
activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart,
dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-
placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.
Baseline. The original approved plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity),
plus or minus approved scope changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost
baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).
Brainstorming. A general creativity technique that can be used to identify risks using
a group of team members or subject-matter experts. Typically, a brainstorming
session is structured so that each participant's ideas are recorded for later
analysis. A tool of the risk identification process.
Charter. See project charter.
Contract. A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to
provide the specified product and obligates the buyer to pay for it. Contracts gen-
erally fall into one of three broad categories: fixed-price or lump-sum contracts,
cost-reimbursable contracts or time and material contracts.
Critical Path. The series of activities that determines the duration of the project. In
a deterministic model, the critical path is usually defined as those activities with
float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. It is the longest path
through the project. See critical path method.
Critical Path Method (CPM). A network analysis technique used to predict project
duration by analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least
amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are cal-
culated by means of a forward pass, using a specified start date. Late dates are
calculated by means of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion
date (usually the forward pass' calculated project early finish date).
Decision tree analysis. The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under
consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available
alternatives. It incorporates probabilities or risks and the costs or rewards of each
logical path of events and future decisions.
Deliverable. Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must
be produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly
in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to
approval by the project sponsor or customer.
Earned Value (EV).The physical work accomplished plus the authorized budget for
this work. The sum of the approved cost estimates (may include overhead allo-
cation) for activities (or portions of activities) completed during a given period
(usually project-to-date). Previously called the budgeted cost of work performed
(BCWP) for an activity or group of activities.
Earned Value Management (EVM). A method for integrating scope, schedule, and
resources, and for measuring project performance. It compares the amount of
work that was planned with what was actually eamed with what was actually
spent to determine if cost and schedule performance are as planned.

152 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Glossary

Estimate. An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project


costs and durations and should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g.,
?x percent). Usually used with a modifier (e.g., preliminary, conceptual, feasi-
bility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular
accuracy ranges (e.g., order-of-magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and defin-
itive estimate in engineering and construction projects).
Fast Racking. Compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would
normally be done in sequence, such as design and construction.
Finish Date. A point in time associated with an activity's completion. Usually qualified
by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late,
baseline, target, or current.
Float. The amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without
delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation, and can
change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also
called slack, total float, and path float.
Functional Manager. A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department
or function (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, marketing).
Functional Organization. An organization structure in which staff are grouped hier-
archically by specialty (e.g., production, marketing, engineering, and accounting
at the top level; with engineering, further divided into mechanical, electrical, and
others).
Gantt Chart. See bar chart.
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT). A network analysis technique
that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical relationships (i.e.,
some activities may not be performed).
Initiation. Authorizingthe project or phase.
Integrated Change Control. Coordinating changes across the entire project.
Lessons Learned. The learning gained from the process of performing the project.
Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record.
Life-Cycle Costing. The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs
when evaluating various alternatives.
Line Manager. 1)The manager of any group that actually makes a product or per-
forms a service. 2) A functional manager.
Master Schedule. A summary-level schedule that identifies the major activities and
key milestones. See also milestone schedule.
Mathematical Analysis. See network analysis.
Matrix Organization. Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares
responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for
directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.
Milestone. A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable.
Milestone Schedule. A summary-level schedule that identifies the major milestones.
See also master schedule.
Monitoring. The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as
compared to plan.
Monte Carlo Analysis. A technique that performs a project simulation many times
to calculate a distribution of likely results.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 153


Glossary

Network Analysis. The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for
the uncompleted portions of project activities. See also critical path method,
program evaluation and review technique, and graphical evaluation and review
technique.
Order-of-Magnitude Estimate. See estimate.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS). A depiction of the project organization
arranged so as to relate work packages to organizational units.
Pareto Diagram. A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how
many results were generated by each identified cause.
Percent Complete (PC). An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work
that has been completed on an activity or a group of activities.
Performance Measurement Baseline. An approved plan against which deviations
are compared for management control.
PERT Chart. The term is commonly used to refer to a project network diagram. See
program evaluation and review technique for the traditional definition of PERT.
Phase. See project phase.
Product Scope. The features and functions that characterize a product or service.
Program. A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. Programs usually
include an element of ongoing work.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). An event-oriented network
analysis technique used to estimate program duration when there is uncertainty
in the individual activity duration estimates. PERT applies the critical path method
using durations that are computed by a weighted average of optimistic, pes-
simistic, and most likely duration estimates. PERT computes the standard devi-
ation of the completion date from those of the path's activity durations. Also
known as the Method of Moments Analysis.
Project. A temporaly endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or
result.
Project Charter. A document issued by senior management that formally authorizes
the existence of a project. And it provides the project manager with the authority
to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Communications Management. A subset of project management that
includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, col-
lection and dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project infor-
mation. It consists of communications planning, information distribution,
performance reporting, and administrative closure.
Project Cost Management. A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved
budget. It consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and
cost control.
Project Human Resource Management. A subset of project management that
includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people
involved with the project. It consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition,
and team development.
Project IntegrationManagement. A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly
coordinated. It consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and
integrated change control.

154 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


Project Life Cycle. A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name
and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organi-
zations involved in the project.
Project Management (PM). The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and tech-
niques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOKm).An inclusive term that
describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As
with other professions--such as law, medicine, and accounting-the body of
knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it.
The PMBOKmincludesproven, traditional practices that are widely applied, as well
as innovative and advanced ones that have seen more limited use.
Project Management Professional (PMP"). An individual certified as such by the
Project Management Institute (PMI).
Project Management Software. A class of computer applications specifically
designed to aid with planning and controlling project costs and schedules.
Project Management Team. The members of the project team who are directly
involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project
management team may include virtually all of the project team members.
Project Manager (PM). The individual responsible for managing a project.
Project Network Diagram. Any schematic display of the logical relationships of
project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project chronology.
Often referred to as a PERT chart.
Project Phase. A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating
in the completion of a major deliverable.
Project Plan. A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and
project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning
assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among stakeholders, and
document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may
be summarized or detailed.
Project Procurement Management. A subset of project management that includes
the processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from
outside the performing organization. It consists of procurement planning, solici-
tation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and con-
tract c~oseout.~
Project QualityManagement. A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it
was undertaken. It consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality
control.
Project Risk Management. Risk management is the systematic process of identi-
fying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizingthe prob-
ability and consequences of positive events and minimizingthe probability and
consequences of events adverse to project objectives. It includes the processes
of risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quan-
titative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control.
Project Schedule. The planned dates for performing activities and the planned dates
for meeting milestones.
Project Scope. The work that must be done to deliver a product with the specified
features and functions.

The PMI Project Management Fact Book 155


Glossary

Project Scope Management. A subset of project management that includes the


processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required,
and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of ini-
tiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change
control.
Project Team Members. The people who report either directly or indirectly to the
project manager.
Project Time Management. A subset of project management that includes the
processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of
activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule
development, and schedule control.
Projectized Organization. Any organizational structure in which the project manager
has full authority to assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned
to the project.
QualityAssurance (QA). 1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on
a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will sat~sfythe relevant
quality standards. 2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for
quality assurance.
Quality Control (QC). 1) The process of monitoring specific project results to
determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to
eliminate causes of unsatisfactolyperformance. 2) The organizational unit that
is assigned responsibility for quality control.
Request for Proposal (RFP). A type of bid document used to solicit proposals from
prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have
a narrower or more specific meaning.
Schedule Control. Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Scope. The sum of the products and setvices to be provided as a project. See project
scope and product scope.
Scope Change Control. Controlling changes to project scope.
Stakeholder. Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project,
or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project
execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the project
and its results.
Statement of Work (SOW). A narrative description of products or services to be sup-
plied under contract.
Task. A generic term for work that is not included in the work breakdown structure, but
potentially could be a further decomposition of work by the individuals respon-
sible for that work. Also, lowest level of effort on a project.
Team Members. See project team members.
Total Quality Management (TQM). A common approach to implementing a quality
improvement program within an organization.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A deliverable-oriented grouping of project ele-
ments that organizes and defines the total work scope of the project. Each
descendinglevel represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
Work Package. A deliverable at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure,
when that deliverable may be assigned to another project manager to plan and
execute. This may be accomplished through the use of a subproject where the
work package may be further decomposed into activities.

156 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


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160 The PMI Project Management Fact Book


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other relevant parameters. The PMZ Project Man-
copies in circulation worldwide. This new edition
agement Salary Survey - 2000 Edition is a vital
incorporates numerous recommendations and
new research tool for managers and HR profes-
changes to the 1996 edition, including: progressive
sionals looking to retain or recruit employees,
elaboration is given more emphasii; the role of the
current members of the profession or those inter-
project office is acknowledged; the treatment of
ested in joining it, researchers, and academics.
earned value is expanded in three chapters; the
I d a g e between organizational strategy and project ISBN: 1-880410-26-5 (paperback)
management is strengthened throughout; and the
chapter on risk management has been rewritten
with six processes instead of four. Newly added Project Management for the
processes, tools, and techniquesare aligned with the Technical Professional
five project management processes and nine Michael Singer Dobson
knowledge areas. For example, reserve time, Dobson, project management expert, popular
variance analysis, and activity attributes are added seminar leader, and personality theorist, under-
to Chapter 6 (Project T i e Management); esti- stands "promotion grief." He counsels those who
mating publicationsand earned value measurement prefer logical relationships to people skills and
are added to Chapter 7 (Project Cost Man- shows technical professionals how to successfully
agement); and project reports, project presenta- make the transition into management. This is a
tions, and project closure are added to Chapter 10 witty, supportive management primer for any
(Project Communications Management). This is "techie" invited to hop on the first rung of the
one publication you'll want to have for quick ref- corporate ladder. It includes self-assessment exer-
erence both at work and at home. cises; a skillful translation of general management
ISBN: 1-880410-23-0 (paperback) theory and practice into tools, techniques, and
ISBN: 1-880410-22-2 (hardcover) systems that technical professionals will under-
ISBN: 1-880410-25-7 (CD-ROM) stand and accept; helpful "how to do it" sidebars;
and action plans. It's also an insightful guide for
PMI Project Management Salary those who manage technical professionals.
-
Survey 2000 Edition "The exercises and case studies featured here,
This 2000 Edition updates information first pub- along with the hands-on advice, hammer home
lished in 1996 and expands coverage to over forty fundamental principles. An intriguing com-
industry affiliations in nearly fifty countries in plement to more traditional IT management
seven major geographic regions around the guides, this is suitable for all libraries."-Library
world. Its purpose is to establish normative com- Journal
pensation and benefits data for the project man- ISBN: 1-880410-76-1 (paperback)
The Project Surgeon: A Project Management Experience and
Troubleshooter's Guide to Business Knowledge Self-Assessment Manual
Crisis Management In 1999, PMIW completed a role delineation
Boris Hornjak study for the Project Management Professional
A veteran of business recovery, project turn- (PMP") Cemfication Examination. A role delin-
arounds and crisis prevention, Hornjak shares his eation study identifies a profession's major per-
"lessons learned" in this best practice primer for formance domains (e.g., initiating the project or
operational managers. He writes with a dual planning the project). It describes the tasks that
purposefirst for the practical manager thrust are performed in each domain, and identifies the
into a crisis situation with a mission to turn things knowledge and skills that are required to com-
around, make tough decisions under fire, address plete the task. The role delineation task state-
problems when they occur, and prevent them ments are presented in this manual in a format
from happening again. Then his emphasis turns to that enables you to assess how your project man-
crisis prevention, so you can free your best and agement experiences and trainingleducation
brightest to focus on opportunities, instead of on knowledge levels prepare you to complete each
troubleshooting problems, and ultimately break of the task statements. Individuals may use all of
the failure/recovery cycle. these tools to enhance understanding and appli-
cation of PM knowledge to satisfy personal and
ISBN: 1-880410-75-3 (paperback)
professional career objectives. The self-
Risk and Decision Analysis in assessment rating should not be used to predict,
Projects guarantee, or infer success or failure by indi-
viduals in their project management career,
Second Edition
examinations, or related activities.
John R. Schuyler ISBN: 1-880410-24-9 (papehack)
Schuyler, a consultant in project risk and economic
decision analysis, helps project management pro- Project Management Professional
fessionals improve their decision-makingskills and (PMP) Role Delineation Study
integrate them into daily problem solving. In this In 1999, PMI" completed a role delineation
heavily illustrated second edition, he explains and study for the Project Management Professional
demysti6e.s key concepts and techniques, including (PMP") Certification Examination. In addition
expected value, optimal decision policy, decision to being used to establish the test specifications
trees, the value of information, Monte Carlo sim- for the examination, the study describes the
ulation, p.robabilistic techniques, modeling tech- tasks (competencies) PMPs perform and the
niques, judgments and biases, utility and project management knowledge and skills PMPs
multi-criteria decisions, and stochastic variance. use to complete each task. Each of the study's
ISBN: 1-880410-28-1 (paperback) tasks is linked to a performance domain (e.g.,
planning the project). Each task has three com-
Earned Value Project Management ponents to it: what the task is, why the task is
Second Edition performed, and how the task is completed. The
Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman Role Delineation Study is an excellent resource
Now a classic treatment of the subject, this second for educators, trainers, administrators, practi-
edition updates this straightforward presentation tioners, and individuals interested in pursuing
of earned value as a useful method to measure PMP certification.
actual project performance against planned costs ISBN: 1-880410-29-X (paperback)
and schedules throughout a project's life cycle.
The authors describe the earned value concept in PM 101 According to the Olde
a simple manner so that it can be applied to any Curmudgeon
project, of any size, and in any industry. Earned Francis M. Webster Jr.
Value Project Management, Second Edition may Former editor-in-chief for PMI", Francis M.
be the best-written, most easily understood Webster Jr. refers to himself as "the olde cur-
project management book on the market today. mudgeon." The author, who has spent thirty
Project managers will welcome this fresh trans- years practicing, consultingon, writing about, and
lation of jargon into ordinary English. The teaching project management, dispenses insider
authors have mastered a unique "early-warning" information to novice project managers with a
signal of impending cost problems in time for the friendly, arm-around-the-shoulder approach.
project manager to react. He provides a history and description of all the
ISBN: 1880410-27-3 (paperback) components of modern project management;
discusses the technical, administrative, and lead- takes advantage of the strengths of the functional
ership skills needed by project managers; and organization, projectized organization, and
details the basic knowledge and processes of matrix organization, whlle reducing or elimi-
project management, from scope management to nating their weaknesses. The book collects the
work breakdown structure to project network experiences and wisdom of thousands of people
diagrams. An excellent introduction for those and hundreds of projects, and reduces lessons
interested in the profession themselves or in learned to a simple format that can be applied
training others who are. immediately to your projects.
ISBN: 1-880410-55-9 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-79-6 (paperback)

I The Project Sponsor Guide


Neil Love and Joan Brant-Love
Teaming for Quality
H. David Shuster
This to-the-point and quick reading for today's Shuster believes most attempts at corporate cul-
busy executives and managers is a one-of-a-kind tural change die because people fail to realize
source that describes the unique and challenging how addicted they are to the way things are, the
support that executives and managers must root causes of their resistance to change, and the
provide to be effective sponsors of project degree to which their willingness to change
teams. The Project Sponsor Guide is intended for depends on the moral philosophy of man-
executives and middle managers who will be, or agement. His new book offers a stimulating syn-
are, sponsors of a project, particularly cross- thesis of classical philosophy, metaphysics,
functional projects. It is also helpful reading for behavioral science, management theory and
facilitators and project leaders. processes, and two decades of personal teaming
ISBN: 1-880410-15-X (paperback) experience to explain how individuals can
choose change for themselves. Its philosophy-
1 Don't Park Your Brain Outside: A to-practice approach will help people team in
Practical Guide to Improving ways that promote exceptionally high levels of
Shareholder Value with SMART bonding, individual creative expression (inno-
Management vation), and collective agreement (consensus).
Francis T. Hartrnan Shuster shows how personal work fulfillment
and corporate goals can work in alignment.
Don't Park Your Brain Outside is the thinking
person's guide to extraordinary project perfor- ISBN: 1-880410-63-X (paperback)
mance. Hartman has assembled a cohesive and
balanced approach to highly effective project
Project Management Software
management. It is deceptively simple. Called Survey
SMART", this new approach is Strategically The PMI" Project Management Software Suwey
Managed, Aligned, Regenerative, and Transi- offers an efficient way to compare and contrast
tional. It is based on research and best practices, the capabilities of a wide variety of project man-
tempered by hard-won experience. SMART has agement tools. More than two hundred software
saved significant time and money on the hundreds tools are listed with comprehensive information
of large and small, simple and complex projects on systems features; how they perform time
on which it has been tested. Are your projects analysis, resource analysis, cost analysis, perfor-
SMART? Find out by reading this people-ori- mance analysis, and cost reporting; and how
ented project management book with an attitude! they handle multiple projects, project tracking,
ISBN: 1-880410-48-6 (hardcover) charting, and much more. The survey is a
valuable tool to help narrow the field when
The Enterprize Organization: selecting the best project management tools.
Organizing Software Projects for ISBN: 1-880410-52-4 (paperback)
Accountability and Success ISBN: 1-880410-59-1(CD-ROM)
Neal Whitten
The Juggler's Guide to Managing
Neal Whitten is a twenty-three-year veteran of
Multiple Projects
IBM and now president of his own consulting
firm. Here he provides a practical guide to Michael S. Dobson
addressing a serious problem that has plagued This comprehensive book introduces and
the software industry since its beginning: how to explains task-oriented, independent, and inter-
effectively organize software projects to signifi- dependent levels of project portfolios. It says
cantly increase their success rate. He proposes that you must first have a strong foundation in
the "Enterprize Organization" as a model that time management and priority setting, then
introduces the concept of Portfolio Man- Tools and Tips for Today's Project
agement to timeline multiple projects, Manager
determine their resource requirements, and
Ralph L. Kliem and Irwin S. Ludin
handle emergencies, putting you in charge for
possibly the first time in your life! This guidebook is valuable for understanding
project management and performing to quality
ISBN: 1-880410-65-6 (paperback)
standards. Includes project management con-
Recipes for Project Success cepts and terms-old and new-that are not
only defined but also are explained in much
Al DeLucia and Jackie DeLucia greater detail than you would find in a typical
This book is destined to become "the" reference glossary. Also included are tips on handling such
book for beginning project managers, particu- seemingly simple everyday tasks as how to say
larly those who like to cook! Practical, logically "No" and how to avoid telephone tag. It's a ref-
developed project management concepts are erence you'll want to keep close at hand.
offered in easily understood terms in a light- ISBN: 1-880410-61-3 (paperback)
hearted manner. They are applied to the
everyday task of cooking-from simple, single The Future of Project Management
dishes, such as homemade tomato sauce for Developed by the 1998 PMI" Research Program
pasta, made from the bottom up, to increasingly Team and the futurist consultant firm of Coates
complex dishes or meals for groups that in turn and Jarratt, Inc., this guide to the future describes
require an understanding of more complex one hundred national and global trends and their
project management terms and techniques. The implications for project management, both as a
transition between cooking and project man- recognized profession and as a general man-
agement discussions is smooth, and tidbits of agement tool. It covers everything from
information provided with the recipes are inter- knowbots, nanotechnology, and disintermedi-
esting and humorous. ation to changing demography, information tech-
ISBN: 1-880410-58-3(paperback) nology, social values, design, and markets.
ISBN: 1-880410-71-0(paperback)

A Guide to the Project Management Certification Examination through 2001, after


Body of Knowledge (PMBOK" Guide) which the 2000 Edition will be used.
-1996 Edition ISBN: 1-880410-12-5 (paperback)
The basic reference for everyone who works in ISBN: 1-880410-13-3 (hardcover)
project management. Serves as a tool for
learning about the generally accepted PMBOK Q&A
knowledge and practices of the profession. As Use this handy pocket-sized, question-and-
"management by projects" becomes more and answer study guide to learn more about the key
more a recommended business practice themes and concepts presented in PMI's inter-
worldwide, the PMBOK" Guide becomes an national standard, PMBOK" Guide. More than
essential source of information that should be 160 multiple-choice questions with answers
on every manager's bookshelf. The P M B O P (referenced to the PMBOKa Guide-1996
Guide is an official standards document of the Edition) help you with the breadth of
Project Management Institute and will continue knowledge needed to understand key project
to serve as one of the reference documents for management concepts.
the Project Management Professional (PMP") ISBN: 1-880410-21-4(paperback)

Visit PMl's website at www.pmi.org


or Shop at Our Online Bookstore at
www.pmibookstore. org
New Resources for PMP@Candidates
The following publications are resources that certification candidates can use to gain infor-
mation on project management theory, principles, techniques, and procedures.
PMP Resource Package
Doing Business Internationally: The Guide to Cross-Cultural Success
by Terence Brake, Danielle Walker, and Thomas Walker
Earned Value Project Management, Second Edition
by Quentin X ' Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman
Effective Project Management: How to Plan, Manage, and
Deliver Projects on Time and Within Budget
by Robert K. Wysocki, et al.
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOKe Guide) - 2000 Edition
by the Project Management Institute
Global Literacies: Lessons on Business Leadership and National Cultures
by Robert Rosen (Editor),Patricia Digh, and Carl Phillips
Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager
by Vijay K. Verma
The New Project Management
by J. Davidson Frame
Principles of Project Management
by John Adams, et al.
Project 6Program Risk Management
by R. Max W~deman,Editor
Project Management Experience and Knowledge Self-Assessment Manual
by Project Management Institute
Project Management: A Managerial Approach, Fourth Edition
by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr.
Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning,
Scheduling, and Controlling, Seventh Edition
by Harold Kerzner

Also Available from PMI


Project Management for Managers How to Turn Computer Problems into
Mihaly Gorog, Nigel J. Smith Cornpetitwe Advantage
ISBN: 1-880410-54-0 (paperback) Tom lngram
Project Leadership: From Theory to Practice ISBN: 1-880410-08-7 (paperback)
Jeffery K. Pinto, Peg Thorns, Jeffrey Trailer, Todd Palmer, Achieving the Promise of Information Technolorn
Michele Govekar Ralph B. Sackman
ISBN: 1-880410-10-9 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-03-6 (paperback)
Annotated Bibliography of Project and Team Leadership Skills for Project Managem
Management Editors' Choice Series
David I. Cleland. Gary Rafe, Jeffrey Mosher Edited by Jeffrey K. Pinto, Jeffrey W. Trailer
ISBN: 1-880410-47-8 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-49-4 (paperback)
ISBN: 1-880410-57-5 (CD-ROM) The Wltual Edge
Margery Mayer
ISBN: 1-880410-16-8 (paperback)
The ABCs of DPC The World's Greatest Project
Edited by PMl's Design-Procurement-Construction Russell W. Darnall
Specific Interest Group ISBN: 1-880410-46-X (paperback)
ISBN: 1-880410-07-9(paperback) Power & Politics in Project Management
Project Management Casebook Jeffrey K. Pinto
Edited by David I. Cleland, Karen M. Bursic, Richard ISBN: 1-880410-43-5(paperback)
Puerzer, A. Yaroslav Vlasak Best Practices of Project Management Groups
ISBN: 1-880410-45-1 (paperback) in Large Functional Organizations
Project Management Casebook, Instructor's Frank Toney, Ray Powers
Manual ISBN: 1-880410-05-2 (paperback)
Edited by David I. Cleland. Karen M. Bursic, Richard Project Management in Russia
Puelzer, A. Yaroslav Vlasak Vlad~mirI. Voropajev
ISBN: 1-880410-18-4 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-02-8 (paperback)
The PMI Book of Project Management Forms A Framework for Project and Program
ISBN: 1-880410-31-1(paperback) Management Integration
ISBN: 1-880410-50-8(diskette) R. Max Wideman
Principles of Project Management ISBN: 1-880410-01-X(paperback)
John Adams et al. Quality Management for Projects & Programs
ISBN: 1-880410-30-3 (paperback) Lewls R, Ireland
Organizing Projects for Success ISBN: 1-880410-11-7 (paperback)
Human Aspects of Project Management Series, Volume One Project & Program Risk Management
Vijay K. Verrna Edited by R. Max Widernan
ISBN: 1-880410-40-0 (paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-06-0 (paperback)
Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager The PMI Project Management Fact Book
Human Aspects of Project Management Series, Volume Two ISBN: 1-880410-62-1(paperback)
Vijay K. Verma A Framework for Project Management
ISBN: 1-880410-41-9(paperback) ISBN: 1-880410-82-6, Facilitator's Manual Set
Managing the Project Team (3-ring binder)
Human Aspects of Project Management Series, Volume ISBN: 1-880410-80-X, Participants' Manual Set,
Three (paperback)
Vijay K. Verma
ISBN: 1-880410-42-7(paperback)
Value Management Practice
Michel Thiry
ISBN: 1-880410-14-1(paperback)

Order online at www.pmibookstore.org


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Phone: +412.741.6206
Fax: +412.741.0609
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