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Format Rules

 Place the reference list at the end of the paper.


 Center the title, "References" one inch from the top of the page.
 Double space between the title and the first entry.
 Double space both within and between entries.
 Begin each entry flush with the left margin.
 Indent subsequent lines one-half inch (five spaces).
 Alphabetize by the author's (or editor's) last name.
 Entries without an author are alphabetized by title.

Authors
Use these formats when citing authors in a reference list. Surnames are listed first, followed by a
comma and the author’s initials.

Single Author

Schwartz, J.
Two to Seven Authors

List all authors and separate with a comma. Include an ampersand (&) before the last author.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A.


Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M.

More Than Seven Authors

List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points and add the last author.

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . .
Botros, N.

Books
Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Place of

publication: Publisher.

Note: The title of the book is italicized.

Basic Examples

Adams, F. L., Cantor, P., Hoctor, C., Johnson, P. A., Mulroy, S. A., & Peters, M. T. (2001). Raising

large families in the 21st century. Burlington, VT: Pages Press.

Glister, P. (1993). The internet navigator. New York: Wiley.

Wallach, M. A., & Wallach, L. (1983). Psychology’s sanction for selfishness: The error of egoism

in theory and therapy. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Books that are Edited

Hollin, C. (Ed.). (1995). Contemporary psychology: An introduction. London: Taylor & Francis.
 

Books by a Group (or Corporate) Author

American Medical Association. (1989). The American Medical Association encyclopedia of

medicine. New York: Random House.

Books with No Author or Editor

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Chowning, J. (1999). Perceptual fusion and auditory perspective. In P. R. Cook (Ed.),. Music,

cognition, and computerized sound: An introduction to psychoacoustics (pp. 261-275).

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Entry in a Reference Book (signed entry)

Bergman, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Entry in a Reference Book (unsigned entry)

Relativity. (1995). In The Penguin dictionary of psychology (2nd. Ed., p. 658). New York: Penguin

Books.

Journal, Magazine, Newspaper Articles - Print Versions


Basic Format
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume

number(Issue number), page range.

Note: The title of the periodical and the volume number are italicized.

Article in a Journal

Kralj, M. M. (1994). Getting out of the box. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and

Research, 46(2), 27-28.

Note: if page numbers are continuous throughout a volume, the issue number is not necessary.

Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

Article in a Magazine

Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.

Article in a Newspaper (signed)

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post,

pp. A1, A4.

Article in a Newspaper (unsigned)

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington

Post, p. A12.

Journal, Magazine, Newspaper Articles - From Library


Databases
Articles found in library databases are referenced in the same way as print articles. If the article
is easily located, you do not need to include database information or a URL. Database
information may be included if the article is difficult to find, but is not mandatory.

Basic Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume

number(Issue number), page range.

Note: The title of the periodical and the volume number are italicized.

Article in a Library Database (same as a print article)

Gielen, Anne C., Kerkhofs, M., & Van Ours, J. (2010). How performance related pay affects

productivity and employment. Journal of Population Economics, 23(1), 291-301.

Journal, Magazine, Newspaper Articles - Online Versions


Articles from online sources (such as a newspaper web site or online journal not accessed
through a library database) are referenced in the same way as print articles, but references should
include the Document Object Identifier (DOI) number if one has been assigned to the article. If a
DOI isn’t available, include the URL of the journal, magazine, or newspaper home page.

Basic Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume

number(Issue number), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note: The title of the periodical and the volume number are italicized.

Article in a Newspaper

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times.

Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


 

Journal Article with a DOI Assigned

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times

of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article without a DOI Assigned

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between

perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48.

Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Web Pages
Elements

 Author: Usually found at the top or bottom of the web page. Look for: Author,
Compiler/Compiled by, Maintainer/Maintained by. If author is not available, begin your
citation with the web page title.
 Publication Date: Usually found at the end of the document. Use the last update if
available. Use the copyright date if available. If the month and day are given, include
them. If a publication date is not available, use n.d. (no date).
 Web Page Title: Give the title of the web page here. If you are citing a specific article
within a larger web site, give the title of the article and the name of the larger web site.
 URL: "Uniform Resource Locator" is the web address of your document. It is found at
the top right corner of your printout or in the "Location" bar on your web browser. Take
care in transcribing the URL. Copying and pasting is recommended. Whenever possible,
the URL should take the reader directly to the document you are citing. If this is not
possible, the URL should take the reader as close to the document as possible.

Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of Page/Document. Retrieved from URL

Note: The title of the page/document is italicized.


Note: n.d. indicates that no publication date is available.

 
Web page without an author

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/users_surveys/survey-1997-10/

Web page authored by an organization

Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent

Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved from

http://www.familymealtime.org

Citing web pages in text

 Citation includes author's name, year of publication, then page numbers if available.
 If your source lacks an author, cite the first one or two words of the title.
 If no date is given, place "n.d." after the author’s name.
 note on page numbers: Web documents often don't have page numbers. When a web
page lacks numbering, omit page numbers from your parenthetical references. Do not use
page numbers generated on a print-out of the web document. PDF files found on the web
will have page numbers however that can be used in a citation.

Parenthetical Citations in Text


Basic Formats

If the author's name is not included in the narrative:


     (Author's Last Name, Year of publication)

If the author's name is not included in the narrative and a direct quote is used:
     (Author's Last Name, Year of publication, Page number)

If the author's name is included in the narrative:


     (Year, page range)

If the author's name is included in the narrative and a direct quote is used, the page number may
appear after the quote:
     (Page number)

 
Work by One Author

In a recent study of reaction times, Rogers (1994) described the method...

Work by One Author, specific page cited

This is the definition of the eyewitness (Bekerian, 1993, p. 575)

Work by Two Authors

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Work by Three to Five Authors (first reference in text - all authors included)

"The most effective way of teaching Spanish…is not by rote" (Valdés, Lozano, García-Moya,
1982).

Work by Three to Five Authors (subsequent references in text - one author et al.)

...others have made this point well (Valdés et al., 1981).

Work by Six of More Authors

...a recent study confirms this (Jones et al., 1988).

Work with No Author (Newspaper article)


("New Drug," 1993, p. C3).

References
References
American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed). Washington, DC: Author.

For more information and examples, please consult the APA manual, available in Ely Library’s
reference collection (REF BF76.7 P83 2010).