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P P r r e e d d i i c c t t i
P P r r e e d d i i c c t t i

PPrreeddiiccttiivvee MMaaiinntteennaannccee OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn --

i i c c t t i i v v e e M M a a

DDeevveellooppiinngg AAnn EEffffeeccttiivvee MMaacchhiinneerryy MMaannaaggeemmeenntt PPrrooggrraammmmee

v v e e M M a a c c h h i i n n

EEmmeerrssoonnss Emerson’s AAsssseett Asset OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn Optimization

MMiissssiioonn Mission

Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative Technologies to Increase the Availability and Performance of Production Assets for Improved Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).

for Improved Bottom Line Results (operational excellence). M M e e c c h h a
for Improved Bottom Line Results (operational excellence). M M e e c c h h a

MMeecchhaanniiccaall

EElleeccttrriiccaall

PPrroocceessss

IInnssttrruummeennttss && VVaallvveess

EEqquuiippmmeenntt

EEqquuiippmmeenntt

EEqquuiippmmeenntt

2

s E E q q u u i i p p m m e e n

MMMaaaccchhhiiinnneeerrryyy HHHeeeaaalllttthhh MMMaaannnaaagggeeemmmeeennnttt

 

Increases Increases Availability Availability and and Performance Performance of of

MMeecchhaanniiccaall Mechanical EEqquuiippmmeenntt Equipment

 
   
     
     
 

MMoottoorrss

PPuummppss

GGeeaarrbbooxxeess

TTuurrbbiinneess

Balance technology, expertise, and work processes for maximum availability at best cost.

3

r b b i i n n e e s s Balance technology , expertise ,
VViibbrraattiioonn AAnnaallyyssiiss PPoorrttaabbllee && WWiirreelleessss UUllttrraassoonniiccss
VViibbrraattiioonn
AAnnaallyyssiiss
PPoorrttaabbllee &&
WWiirreelleessss
UUllttrraassoonniiccss
OOnn--LLiinnee
RRBBMM vviieeww
CCoonnddiittiioonn
LLaasseerr
MMoonniittoorriinngg
AAlliiggnnmmeenntt
OODDBBCC
MMoottoorr
DDiiaaggnnoossttiiccss
CCMMMMSS
MMIIMMOOSSAA
BBaallaanncciinngg
IInnffrraarreedd
TThheerrmmooggrraapphhyy
TTrriibboollooggyy
4

AAsssseett Asset OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn Optimization SSeerrvviicceess Services

MMeecchhaanniiccaall EEqquuiippmmeenntt

Mechanical Equipment

Vibration analysis – portable, online, and wireless

Motor analysis

Laser alignment and balancing

Oil analysis

Trivector Laboratory: industrial lubrication problem detection and detailed analysis

On-site Analysis Equipment

Sonic and ultrasonic analysis

Infrared thermography

and detailed analysis – On-site Analysis Equipment Sonic and ultrasonic analysis Infrared thermography 5
and detailed analysis – On-site Analysis Equipment Sonic and ultrasonic analysis Infrared thermography 5
5
5
Vibration Analysis – Identification of misalignment, imbalance, bearing defects, structural foundation issues and

Vibration Analysis

Identification of misalignment, imbalance, bearing defects, structural foundation issues and electrical related problems

TTrriibboollooggyy

Tribology/Oil Analysis

Identification of wear particles, chemical changes and contaminants; “clean, dry and fit for use”

May also be used as an acceptance determination for the incoming oils from the Lubrication Supplier

fit for use” – May also be used as an acceptance determination for the incoming oils

6

Ultrasonics/Sonics Survey UUllttrraassoonniiccss – Air, steam trap, valve & vacuum leak detection – Bearing
Ultrasonics/Sonics Survey
UUllttrraassoonniiccss
– Air, steam trap, valve & vacuum leak detection
– Bearing lubrication effectiveness
IInnffrraarreedd
TThheerrmmooggrraapphhyy
Infrared Thermography Survey
– Detection of proper electrical connections; switchgear
– Detection of proper insulation from heat sources
AMS Machinery Health Manager
Integration of multiple CM technologies
7
V V i i b b r r a a t t i i o
V V i i b b r r a a t t i i o

VViibbrraattiioonn AAnnaallyyssiiss

V V i i b b r r a a t t i i o o
V V i i b b r r a a t t i i o o

PROBABILITY OF FAILURE

UUnnddeerrssttaannddiinngg HHooww MMaacchhiinneess FFaaiill

INFANT RANDOM FAILURE WEAR-OUT MORTALITY ZONE ZONE STARTUP FAILURE RANDOM / OPERATIONAL FAULTS WEAR OUT
INFANT
RANDOM FAILURE
WEAR-OUT
MORTALITY
ZONE
ZONE
STARTUP FAILURE
RANDOM / OPERATIONAL FAULTS
WEAR OUT
ACCEPTANCE
PREDICTIVE
STANDARDS
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
PRECISION CORRECTIONS
MAINTENANCE
COMMISSIONING
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
ROOT CAUSE

OPERATING AGE

MAINTENANCE PRECISION CORRECTIONS MAINTENANCE COMMISSIONING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ROOT CAUSE OPERATING AGE
PPPrrriiinnnccciiipppllleee ###111 ooofff VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss Mechanical faults
PPPrrriiinnnccciiipppllleee ###111 ooofff VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss
Mechanical faults generate
unique vibration
Mechanical Defects detected
with vibration analysis
– Geometry of the machine
diameter of the shaft,
number of bearing
elements, etc.
Belt drive faults
Imbalance
Misalignment
Bent shaft
Looseness
Machine resonance
– Turning speed (e.g. RPM)
Cavitation
Shaft Rub
Bearing Defects including:
ocage defect
oouter race defect
oinner race defect
orolling element defect
Gear defects
Electrical faults
10
V V V i i i b b b r r r a a a
V V V i i i b b b r r r a a a

VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn fffrrrooommm MMMeeeccchhhaaannniiicccaaalll FFFaaauuullltttsss

+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time
+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time

+

0

-

+

0

-

+

0

-

+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time
+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time

Time

+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time
+ 0 - + 0 - + 0 - Time Time Time

Time

Time

i i i c c c a a a l l l F F F a

11

i i i c c c a a a l l l F F F a

UUUnnndddeeerrrssstttaaannndddiiinnnggg ttthhheee VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn SSSpppeeeccctttrrruuummm

Transducer Overall Energy
Transducer
Overall
Energy

12

Amplitude Amplitude Waveform Time FFT Spectrum Frequency
Amplitude
Amplitude
Waveform
Time
FFT
Spectrum
Frequency
F F F F F F T T T S S S i i i

FFFFFFTTT SSSiiigggnnnaaalll PPPrrroooccceeessssssiiinnnggg

Time Time Amplitude Amplitude Frequency Amplitude
Time
Time
Amplitude
Amplitude
Frequency
Amplitude

13

l l P P P r r r o o o c c c e e
A A A T T T y y y p p p i i i

AAA TTTyyypppiiicccaaalll FFFFFFTTT SSSpppeeeccctttrrruuummm

Specific peaks typically correlate to Specific machine faults Related to machine speed
Specific peaks typically correlate to
Specific machine faults
Related to machine speed

Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter

machine faults Related to machine speed Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter

14

FFrreeqquueennccyy Frequency BBaannddss Bands iinn in aaddddiittiioonn addition ttoo to SSppeeccttrruumm Spectrum
FFrreeqquueennccyy Frequency BBaannddss Bands iinn in aaddddiittiioonn addition ttoo to
SSppeeccttrruumm
Spectrum
Divide spectrum in frequency bands based on the
types of mechanical faults that might appear on the machine
1X
Imbalance
Misalignment
2X
3X- 6X
Loosen
ess
BEARING BAND 1
Bearing Band 1
BEARING BAND 2
Bearing Band 2
9-30X RPM
30-50X RPM

15

2X 3X- 6X Loosen ess BEARING BAND 1 Bearing Band 1 BEARING BAND 2 Bearing Band
D D D i i i a a a g g g n n n

DDDiiiaaagggnnnooossseee NNNaaatttuuurrreee ooofff FFFaaauuulllttt

u u r r r e e e o o o f f f F F

Imbalance typically appears at the turning speed of the machine

Imbalance

Imbalance
e o o o f f f F F F a a a u u u

16

D D D i i i a a a g g g n n n

DDDiiiaaagggnnnooossseee NNNaaatttuuurrreee ooofff FFFaaauuulllttt

u u r r r e e e o o o f f f F F

Misalignment typically shows up at either 1 or 2 x turning speed

Misalignment

Misalignment
o o f f f F F F a a a u u u l l

17

D D D i i i a a a g g g n n n

DDDiiiaaagggnnnooossseee NNNaaatttuuurrreee ooofff FFFaaauuulllttt

Looseness shows up as multiples of turning speed
Looseness shows up as
multiples of turning speed

Looseness

Looseness
Looseness
u u r r r e e e o o o f f f F F

18

D D D i i i a a a g g g n n n

DDDiiiaaagggnnnooossseee NNNaaatttuuurrreee ooofff FFFaaauuulllttt

Bearing wear shows up related to the geometry at specific peaks of the bearing
Bearing wear shows up
related to the geometry
at specific peaks
of the bearing

Bearing Wear

Bearing Wear
Bearing Wear
a a a u u u l l l t t t Bearing wear shows up

19

RRRooolllllleeerrr BBBeeeaaarrriiinnnggg VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn FFFaaauuullltttsss Four different bearing
RRRooolllllleeerrr BBBeeeaaarrriiinnnggg VVViiibbbrrraaatttiiiooonnn FFFaaauuullltttsss
Four different bearing frequencies
Ball Spin Frequency
(BSF)
Fundamental Train
Frequency
(FTF)
Ball Pass Frequency
Inner Race
(BPFI)
Ball Pass Frequency
Outer Race
(BPFO)

20

Fundamental Train Frequency (FTF) Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race (BPFI) Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race (BPFO)
HHooww How BBeeaarriinngg Bearing FFaauullttss Faults GGeenneerraattee Generate VViibbrraattiioonn Vibration Outer Race
HHooww How BBeeaarriinngg Bearing FFaauullttss Faults GGeenneerraattee Generate
VViibbrraattiioonn Vibration
Outer Race
Impacting
Inner Race
Impacting

21

Faults GGeenneerraattee Generate VViibbrraattiioonn Vibration Outer Race Impacting Inner Race Impacting 21
M M M o o o t t t o o o r r r

MMMoootttooorrr CCCuuurrrrrreeennnttt AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss

Easy to add to Vibration program

l l y y y s s s i i i s s s Easy to

Rotor / Stator defects

Difficult to detect in Vibration signature

Use current analysis instead, but opening MCC is risky

Use magnetic flux analysis for safety/convenience

– Use current analysis instead, but opening MCC is risky – Use magnetic flux analysis for

22

D D D y y y n n n a a a m m m

DDDyyynnnaaammmiiiccc SSStttrrruuuccctttuuurrraaalll DDDiiisssppplllaaayyy

r r r a a a l l l D D D i i i s

ODS & Modal Analysis

r r a a a l l l D D D i i i s s

ODS = Operational Deflection Shape

23

IIImmmpppllleeemmmeeennntttaaatttiiiooonnn

Periodic basis using portable data collection equipment

Continuous basis using a dedicated, permanently installed monitoring system

high implementation cost in terms

capital acquisition

disruption to production during installation

Current trend toward ‘right-sizing’

forced to examine techniques to reduce or eliminate manpower for data collection and analysis

‘right-sizing’ – forced to examine techniques to reduce or eliminate manpower for data collection and analysis

24

T T h h e e r r m m o o g g r
T T h h e e r r m m o o g g r

TThheerrmmooggrraapphhyy

T T h h e e r r m m o o g g r r
T T h h e e r r m m o o g g r r
T T h h e e r r m m o o g g r r
W W W h h h a a a t t t i i i

WWWhhhaaattt iiisss iiinnnfffrrraaarrreeeddd ttthhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy???

A non-intrusive technology that allows you to “see” your equipment’s health. Therm - a form of the Greek word for heat

Graph - a writing or representation

Thermography - a representation of heat

26

H H o o w w How d d o o e e s s

HHooww How ddooeess does iinnffrraarreedd infrared tthheerrmmooggrraapphhyy thermography

wwoorrkk?? work?

Thermography is a visual representation of temperature.

Infrared imagers detect heat given off a surface & convert it into electronic signals.

Different temperatures correspond to different energy levels seen by different colors.

it into electronic signals. Different temperatures correspond to different energy levels seen by different colors. 27

27

WWWhhhyyy uuussseee ttthhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy??? Safe - Non-intrusive, non- contact, and non- destructive
WWWhhhyyy uuussseee ttthhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy???
Safe - Non-intrusive, non-
contact, and non-
destructive
Fast - Quick, easy data
collection
Real time analysis -
transient data can be
captured and analyzed
Cost effective - new, low-
cost imagers provide very
quick ROI

28

- transient data can be captured and analyzed Cost effective - new, low- cost imagers provide
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss Process – Extrusion – Pipe insulation breakdown – Refractory breakdown
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss
Process
– Extrusion
– Pipe insulation breakdown
– Refractory breakdown
– Fluid storage tank level
– Food industry
– Rolling kiln
– Injection molding

29

– Refractory breakdown – Fluid storage tank level – Food industry – Rolling kiln – Injection
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss Electrical Inspections – Unbalanced loads, – Eddy current heating, –
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss
Electrical Inspections
– Unbalanced loads,
– Eddy current heating,
– Improperly sized fittings,
– Broken strands
Electrical equipment
– Bad connections, breakers,
fuses
– Overloaded conditions
– Motor Control Center
components
– Distribution lines
– Cable trays/conduits

30

– Overloaded conditions – Motor Control Center components – Distribution lines – Cable trays/conduits 30
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss Mechanical inspections – Bearings – Steam traps – Gears – Belts –
AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss
Mechanical inspections
– Bearings
– Steam traps
– Gears
– Belts
– Couplings
– Motor insulation breakdown

31

inspections – Bearings – Steam traps – Gears – Belts – Couplings – Motor insulation breakdown
A A A p p p p p p l l l i i i

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsss

A A A p p p p p p l l l i i i c
A A A p p p p p p l l l i i i c

Leakage from a steam trap.

A A A p p p p p p l l l i i i c

32

T T T h h h e e e r r r m m m

TTThhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy bbbeeennneeefffiiitttsss

Infrared inspection verifies machinery temperature & locates potential electrical problems.

Regular checkups assist in extending equipment life & delaying capital expenditures for equipment replacement.

Management knows what problems exist, severity & specifics about the problem.

Maintenance priorities set according to the problem severity level

exist, severity & specifics about the problem. Maintenance priorities set according to the problem severity level

33

IR Thermography shows the heat & the problem
IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
problem
IR Thermography shows the heat & the problem S S S e e e e e

SSSeeeeee TTThhheee HHHeeeaaattt,,, SSSeeeeee TTThhheee PPPrrrooobbbllleeemmm

Problem?
Problem?

34

“A picture is worth a thousand words. You can scan a room very quickly, and
“A picture is worth a thousand words. You can scan a room
very quickly, and the infrared images are powerful and very
easy to explain. Other technologies can take days to find
the problem, figure it out, and report to management.”
Senior Reliability Engineer
Problem?
IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
problem

SSSeeeeee TTThhheee HHHeeeaaattt,,, SSSeeeeee TTThhheee PPPrrrooobbbllleeemmm

35

h e e e H H H e e e a a a t t t

TTThhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy EEExxxaaammmpppllleee

 

Voltage

Delta T(C)

% Load

Emissivity

Reference T

Background T

480

25

100

0.85

160ºC

80ºF

 
 
     
 

Explanation: The connection end of the incoming wiring for phase B to plant breaker 7 is warmer (+25C) than the other wiring for the same circuit. This indicates a poor connection or failing breaker. Recommended actions based on delta T and voltage are to inspect and repair/replace BEFORE THE NEXT SCHEDULED OUTAGE (Within 3 Months).

 

36

TTThhheeerrrmmmooogggrrraaappphhhyyy EEExxxaaammmpppllleee (((RRReeepppaaaiiirrreeeddd)))

( ( ( R R R e e e p p p a a a i

Explanation: Following the repairs on 10/15, the hot connection has been fixed.

p a a a i i i r r r e e e d d d
p a a a i i i r r r e e e d d d

37

S S o o n n i i c c s s / / U
S S o o n n i i c c s s / / U

SSoonniiccss // UUllttrraassoonniiccss

S S o o n n i i c c s s / / U U
S S o o n n i i c c s s / / U U
W W h h a a t t What a a r r e e

WWhhaatt What aarree are UUllttrraassoonniicc Ultrasonic ssiiggnnaallss:: signals:

FFrreeqquueennccyy GGrreeaatteerr TThhaann 2200,,000000 HHzz

Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz

0 , , 0 0 0 0 0 0 H H z z Frequency Greater Than

Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic)

Greater Than 20,000 Hz Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic) Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random) ‘A’ above

Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ (440 Hz) Steam trap (40,000 Hz) Sub- Sonic Ultrasonic UUllttrraassoonniicc Ultrasonic
‘A’ above middle ‘C’
(440 Hz)
Steam trap
(40,000 Hz)
Sub-
Sonic
Ultrasonic
UUllttrraassoonniicc
Ultrasonic Range
sonic
20,000 Hz
39
S S o o u u n n d d Sound A A n n

SSoouunndd Sound AAnnaallyyssiiss Analysis CCoonnvveerrttss Converts IInnaauuddiibbllee Inaudible

SSiiggnnaallss iinnttoo AAuuddiibbllee OOnneess

Signals into Audible Ones

d i i b b l l e e O O n n e e s

Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic)

Signals into Audible Ones Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic) Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random) ‘A’ above

Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ (440 Hz) Steam trap (40,000 Hz) Sub- Sonic Ultrasonic UUllttrraassoonniicc Ultrasonic
‘A’ above middle ‘C’
(440 Hz)
Steam trap
(40,000 Hz)
Sub-
Sonic
Ultrasonic
UUllttrraassoonniicc
Ultrasonic Range
sonic
20,000 Hz
40
WWWhhheeerrreee CCCaaannn YYYooouuu AAApppppplllyyy UUUllltttrrraaasssooonnniiicccsss??? Steam Traps Valves and
WWWhhheeerrreee CCCaaannn YYYooouuu AAApppppplllyyy UUUllltttrrraaasssooonnniiicccsss???
Steam
Traps
Valves
and
Piping
Compressed
Air
Grease
Control
Lubrication
Valves
Control
Motor/
Transmission
Pump
and
Distribution
Boiler
Bearings
Tubes
and
Gearboxes
Pneumatic
Controls
41
TTTyyypppiiicccaaalll SSSooouuunnnddd AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss TTToooooolllsss 1) Airborne Probe 3) Magnet Mount Probe
TTTyyypppiiicccaaalll SSSooouuunnnddd AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss TTToooooolllsss
1) Airborne Probe
3) Magnet Mount Probe

2) Contact Probe

42

SSSooouuunnnddd AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss TTToooooolllsss 1) Airborne Probe 3) Magnet Mount Probe 2) Contact Probe 42
W W W h h h y y y U U U s s s

WWWhhhyyy UUUssseee SSSooouuunnnddd AAAnnnaaalllyyysssiiisss???

Primary Health Monitoring technique for:

Valves, steam traps, grease lubrication

Simple to use and understand

Very high return on investment

Excellent ‘second opinion’ for:

Machinery Health Monitoring

Electrical equipment scanning

on investment Excellent ‘second opinion’ for: – Machinery Health Monitoring – Electrical equipment scanning 43

43

Bearing fault (4 KHz)
Bearing fault
(4 KHz)

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: BBBeeeaaarrriiinnnggg DDDeeefffeeeccctttsss

Quick, easy test

Establish baseline

“Clicking” sound indicates bearing damage Trend sound level to track developing faults

Note: Trending only possible if using a calibrated ultrasonic device)

Trend sound level to track developing faults Note: Trending only possible if using a calibrated ultrasonic

44

A A p p p p l l i i c c a a t

AApppplliiccaattiioonn:: Application:

LLuubbrriiccaattiioonn MMoonniittoorriinngg

Lubrication Monitoring

75% of bearing failure is lubrication related* Damage occurs from both:

Under-lubrication (Premature bearing failure, contamination, etc.)

and

Over-lubrication (Ball skidding, grease overflow, seal damage, etc.)

etc.) and – Over-lubrication ( Ball skidding, grease overflow, seal damage, etc.) *Source SKF bearings 45

*Source SKF bearings

45

Defective Valve (40 KHz)
Defective Valve
(40 KHz)

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: DDDeeettteeeccctttiiinnnggg VVVaaalllvvveee FFFaaaiiillluuurrreee

Failure Modes:

Partially open or leaking

– Partially open or leaking

Sounds like rushing water

– Sounds like rushing water

Failure can result in:

Contamination

Loss of product

Damage to valves and downstream equipment

water Failure can result in: – Contamination – Loss of product – Damage to valves and

46

Monitoring boiler spray valves
Monitoring boiler spray valves

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: MMMooonnniiitttooorrriiinnnggg CCCooonnntttrrrooolll VVVaaalllvvveeesss

Contact measurement to monitor flow rate Airborne measurement to monitor stem packing leaks

70 Defective Valve 60 50 40 30 20 (average level) 10 0 1 2 3
70
Defective Valve
60
50
40
30
20
(average level)
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Control Valve #
Average dB
leaks 70 Defective Valve 60 50 40 30 20 (average level) 10 0 1 2 3

47

Outlet Inlet Under lubricated bearing (40 KHz)
Outlet
Inlet
Under lubricated bearing
(40 KHz)

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: SSSttteeeaaammm TTTrrraaapppsss

Sound created from turbulent

fluid flow and valve/float impact

fluid flow and valve/float impact

Failed trap leads to significant

losses in steam systems

losses in steam systems

A blowing trap (1/4” orifice, 125 lb. steam) results in steam loss of $6,300 per year

A blowing trap (1/4” orifice, 125 lb. steam) results in steam loss of $6,300 per year

Confirm fault with Thermography

48

A blowing trap (1/4” orifice, 125 lb. steam) results in steam loss of $6,300 per year
Air Leak (40 KHz)
Air Leak
(40 KHz)

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: AAAiiirrr LLLeeeaaakkksss

Primary loss of energy in plants today.

Primary loss of energy in plants today.

Generates airborne

Generates airborne

turbulence in the 40 kHz frequency range. A 1/8” air leak in a 100 psi system results in a yearly loss of $2,100

.005” orifice, 5 psi leak

frequency range. A 1/8” air leak in a 100 psi system results in a yearly loss

49

Natural Gas Leak (40 KHz)
Natural Gas Leak
(40 KHz)

AAAppppppllliiicccaaatttiiiooonnn::: GGGaaasss LLLeeeaaakkksss

Natural gas leak

Safety hazard

83 dB amplitude, approx. $28,000 per year

G G a a a s s s L L L e e e a a

50

Corona from Faulty Connection (>40 KHz) High Voltage High Voltage High Voltage
Corona from Faulty Connection
(>40 KHz)
High Voltage
High Voltage
High Voltage

EEEllleeeccctttrrriiicccaaalll CCCooorrrooonnnaaa aaannnddd DDDiiisssccchhhaaarrrgggeee

Corona caused by:

Insulation breakdown

– Insulation breakdown